Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3934

Search results for: site characterization

3934 Radionuclides Transport Phenomena in Vadose Zone

Authors: R. Testoni, R. Levizzari, M. De Salve

Abstract:

Radioactive waste management is fundamental to safeguard population and environment by radiological risks. Environmental assessment of a site, where nuclear activities are located, allows understanding the hydro geological system and the radionuclides transport in groundwater and subsoil. Use of dedicated software is the basis of transport phenomena investigation and for dynamic scenarios prediction; this permits to understand the evolution of accidental contamination events, but at the same time the potentiality of the software itself can be verified. The aim of this paper is to perform a numerical analysis by means of HYDRUS 1D code, so as to evaluate radionuclides transport in a nuclear site in Piedmont region (Italy). In particular, the behaviour in vadose zone was investigated. An iterative assessment process was performed for risk assessment of radioactive contamination. The analysis therein developed considers the following aspects: i) hydro geological site characterization; ii) individuation of the main intrinsic and external site factors influencing water flow and radionuclides transport phenomena; iii) software potential for radionuclides leakage simulation purposes.

Keywords: HYDRUS 1D, radionuclides transport phenomena, site characterization, radiation protection

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3933 Seismic Microzonation of El-Fayoum New City, Egypt

Authors: Suzan Salem, Heba Moustafa, Abd El-Aziz Abd El-Aal

Abstract:

Seismic micro hazard zonation for urban areas is the first step towards a seismic risk analysis and mitigation strategy. Essential here is to obtain a proper understanding of the local subsurface conditions and to evaluate ground-shaking effects. In the present study, an attempt has been made to evaluate the seismic hazard considering local site effects by carrying out detailed geotechnical and geophysical site characterization in El-Fayoum New City. Seismic hazard analysis and microzonation of El-Fayoum New City are addressed in three parts: in the first part, estimation of seismic hazard is done using seismotectonic and geological information. The second part deals with site characterization using geotechnical and shallow geophysical techniques. In the last part, local site effects are assessed by carrying out one-dimensional (1-D) ground response analysis using the equivalent linear method by program SHAKE 2000. Finally, microzonation maps have been prepared. The detailed methodology, along with experimental details, collected data, results and maps are presented in this paper.

Keywords: El-Fayoum, microzonation, seismotectonic, Egypt

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3932 Investigating the Thermal Characteristics of Reclaimed Solid Waste from a Landfill Site Using Thermogravimetry

Authors: S. M. Al-Salem, G.A. Leeke, H. J. Karam, R. Al-Enzi, A. T. Al-Dhafeeri, J. Wang

Abstract:

Thermogravimetry has been popularized as a thermal characterization technique since the 1950s. It aims at investigating the weight loss against both reaction time and temperature, whilst being able to characterize the evolved gases from the volatile components of the organic material being tested using an appropriate hyphenated analytical technique. In an effort to characterize and identify the reclaimed waste from an unsanitary landfill site, this approach was initiated. Solid waste (SW) reclaimed from an active landfill site in the State of Kuwait was collected and prepared for characterization in accordance with international protocols. The SW was segregated and its major components were identified after washing and air drying. Shredding and cryomilling was conducted on the plastic solid waste (PSW) component to yield a material that is representative for further testing and characterization. The material was subjected to five heating rates (b) with minimal repeatable weight for high accuracy thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) following the recommendation of the International Confederation for Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry (ICTAC). The TGA yielded thermograms that showed an off-set from typical behavior of commercial grade resin which was attributed to contact of material with soil and thermal/photo-degradation.

Keywords: polymer, TGA, pollution, landfill, waste, plastic

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3931 Subsurface Elastic Properties Determination for Site Characterization Using Seismic Refraction Tomography at the Pwalugu Dam Area

Authors: Van-Dycke Sarpong Asare, Vincent Adongo

Abstract:

Field measurement of subsurface seismic p-wave velocities was undertaken through seismic refraction tomography. The aim of this work is to obtain a model of the shallow subsurface material elastic properties relevant for geotechnical site characterization. The survey area is at Pwalugu in Northern Ghana, where a multipurpose dam, for electricity generation, irrigation, and potable water delivery, is being planned. A 24-channel seismograph and 24, 10 Hz electromagnetic geophones, deployed 5 m apart constituted the acquisition hardware. Eleven (2-D) seismic refraction profiles, nine of which ran almost perpendicular and two parallel to the White Volta at Pwalugu, were acquired. The refraction tomograms of the thirteen profiles revealed a subsurface model consisting of one minor and one major acoustic impedance boundaries – the top dry/loose sand and the variably weathered sandstone contact, and the overburden-sandstones bedrock contact respectively. The p-wave velocities and by inference, with a priori values of poison ratios, the s-wave velocities, assisted in characterizing the geotechnical conditions of the proposed site and also in evaluating the dynamic properties such as the maximum shear modulus, the bulk modulus, and the Young modulus.

Keywords: tomography, characterization, consolidated, Pwalugu and seismograph

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3930 Combined Seismic Methods for Near-Surface Characterization

Authors: Irena Gjorgjeska, Vlatko Sheshov, Kemal Edip, Julijana Bojadjieva

Abstract:

Surface seismic methods are among the most popular, widely accepted geophysical methods for near-surface characterization. The most practical and effective ways to perform in-situ measurements and processing using different seismic methods such as seismic refraction, seismic reflection and Multichannel Analysis of Surface Waves (MASW) method are presented in this paper. Each of the methods has some advantages and limitations, but their application in an integrated approach provides higher accuracy in subsurface modeling. The results of the surveys performed at two characteristic locations in R. North Macedonia are presented to show the efficiency of the combined methods approach.

Keywords: geophysical survey, integrated approach, seismic methods, site characterization

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3929 The European Research and Development Project Improved Nuclear Site Characterization for Waste Minimization in Decommissioning under Constrained Environment: Focus on Performance Analysis and Overall Uncertainty

Authors: M. Crozet, D. Roudil, T. Branger, S. Boden, P. Peerani, B. Russell, M. Herranz, L. Aldave de la Heras

Abstract:

The EURATOM work program project INSIDER (Improved Nuclear Site Characterization for Waste minimization in Decommissioning under Constrained Environment) was launched in June 2017. This 4-year project has 18 partners and aims at improving the management of contaminated materials arising from decommissioning and dismantling (D&D) operations by proposing an integrated methodology of characterization. This methodology is based on advanced statistical processing and modelling, coupled with adapted and innovative analytical and measurement methods, with respect to sustainability and economic objectives. In order to achieve these objectives, the approaches will be then applied to common case studies in the form of Inter-laboratory comparisons on matrix representative reference samples and benchmarking. Work Package 6 (WP6) ‘Performance analysis and overall uncertainty’ is in charge of the analysis of the benchmarking on real samples, the organisation of inter-laboratory comparison on synthetic certified reference materials and the establishment of overall uncertainty budget. Assessment of the outcome will be used for providing recommendations and guidance resulting in pre-standardization tests.

Keywords: decommissioning, sampling strategy, research and development, characterization, European project

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3928 Weathering of a Calcarenite Stone in the Archaeological Site of Volubilis – Morocco

Authors: Issam Aalil, Kevin Beck, Khalid Cherkaoui, Xavier Brunetaud, Ali Chaaba, Muzahim Al-Mukhtar

Abstract:

Volubilis is the most important archaeological site in Morocco. It was founded in the 3rd century B.C about thirty kilometres north of Meknes and has been registered on the UNESCO World Heritage list since 1997. The site is located in a region where reigns the semi-arid continental climate, characterized by strong thermal amplitudes. A beige-yellowish calcarenite limestone is the most largely used on Volubilis site, representing about 60% of the total volume of building stones. This limestone is mainly affected by scaling and sanding according to field observations. In order to preserve monuments of this site, characterization of calcarenite weathering is essential. This work aims at investigating the nature of the dominant weathering. For this goal, mineralogical compositions of deteriorated and fresh samples are compared. Besides, the risk of damage by thermal stresses is estimated. The results of this study show that there is no major difference observed between the mineralogy of the fresh and weathered calcarenite samples. Otherwise, thermal stresses may have an important role in the weathering of calcarenite limestone by fatigue.

Keywords: characterisation, stone, thermal stresses, Volubilis, weathering

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3927 On-Site Management from Reactive to Proactive

Authors: Yu-Tzu Chen, Luh-Maan Chang

Abstract:

Construction is an inherently risky industry. The projects have been dominated by reactive actions owing to non-routine in nature. The on-site activities are especially crucial for successful project control. In order to alter actions from reactive to proactive, this paper presents an on-site data collection system utilizing advanced technology RFID and GPS in assisting on-site management with near real time progress monitoring.

Keywords: On-Site management, progress monitoring, RFID, GPS

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3926 A Comprehensive Comparative Study on Seasonal Variation of Parameters Involved in Site Characterization and Site Response Analysis by Using Microtremor Data

Authors: Yehya Rasool, Mohit Agrawal

Abstract:

The site characterization and site response analysis are the crucial steps for reliable seismic microzonation of an area. So, the basic parameters involved in these fundamental steps are required to be chosen properly in order to efficiently characterize the vulnerable sites of the study region. In this study, efforts are made to delineate the variations in the physical parameter of the soil for the summer and monsoon seasons of the year (2021) by using Horizontal-to-Vertical Spectral Ratios (HVSRs) recorded at five sites of the Indian Institute of Technology (Indian School of Mines), Dhanbad, Jharkhand, India. The data recording at each site was done in such a way that less amount of anthropogenic noise was recorded at each site. The analysis has been done for five seismic parameters like predominant frequency, H/V ratio, the phase velocity of Rayleigh waves, shear wave velocity (Vs), compressional wave velocity (Vp), and Poisson’s ratio for both the seasons of the year. From the results, it is observed that these parameters majorly vary drastically for the upper layers of soil, which in turn may affect the amplification ratios and probability of exceedance obtained from seismic hazard studies. The HVSR peak comes out to be higher in monsoon, with a shift in predominant frequency as compared to the summer season of the year 2021. Also, the drastic reduction in shear wave velocity (up to ~10 m) of approximately 7%-15% is also perceived during the monsoon period with a slight decrease in compressional wave velocity. Generally, the increase in the Poisson ratios is found to have higher values during monsoon in comparison to the summer period. Our study may be very beneficial to various agricultural and geotechnical engineering projects.

Keywords: HVSR, shear wave velocity profile, Poisson ratio, microtremor data

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3925 Oily Sludge Bioremediation Pilot Plant Project, Nigeria

Authors: Ime R. Udotong, Justina I. R. Udotong, Ofonime U. M. John

Abstract:

Brass terminal, one of the several crude oil and petroleum products storage/handling facilities in the Niger Delta was built in the 1980s. Activities at this site, over the years, released crude oil into this 3 m-deep, 1500 m-long canal lying adjacent to the terminal with oil floating on it and its sediment heavily polluted. To ensure effective clean-up, three major activities were planned: Site characterization, bioremediation pilot plant construction and testing and full-scale bioremediation of contaminated sediment/bank soil by land farming. The canal was delineated into 12 lots and each characterized, with reference to the floating oily phase, contaminated sediment and canal bank soil. As a result of site characterization, a pilot plant for on-site bioremediation was designed and a treatment basin constructed for carrying out pilot bioremediation test. Following a designed sampling protocol, samples from this pilot plant were collected for analysis at two laboratories as a quality assurance/quality control check. Results showed that Brass Canal upstream is contaminated with dark, thick and viscous oily film with characteristic hydrocarbon smell while downstream, thin oily film interspersed with water were observed. Sediments were observed to be dark with mixture of brownish sandy soil with TPH ranging from 17,800 mg/kg in Lot 1 to 88,500 mg/kg in Lot 12 samples. Brass Canal bank soil was observed to be sandy from ground surface to 3m, below ground surface (bgs) it was silty-sandy and brownish while subsurface soil (4-10m bgs) was sandy-clayey and whitish/grayish with typical hydrocarbon smell. Preliminary results obtained so far have been very promising but were proprietary. This project is considered, to the best of technical literature knowledge, the first large-scale on-site bioremediation project in the Niger Delta region, Nigeria.

Keywords: bioremediation, contaminated sediment, land farming, oily sludge, oil terminal

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3924 Uptake of Off-Site Construction: Benefit and Future Application

Authors: Faisal Alazzaz, Andrew Whyte

Abstract:

Off-site construction methods have played an important role in the construction sector in the past few decades. It is increasingly becoming a major alternative technique and strategic direction compared to traditional in-situ method. It produces a significant amount of value for the construction industry and the economy more generally. To date, an impressive number of studies have been lunched on the perceived perception of off-site construction. However, it seems that a quantifying benefit on the offsite construction area is lacking. Therefore, this paper examines the recent research literature on the benefits of off- site construction and provides future direction. In the beginning, this paper provides a brief history and current value of the off-site construction followed by a detailed discussion on the benefit of off-site construction. These benefits include but not limited to time saving, quality improvement, relieving skills shortages, cost reduction and productivity improvement. Toward this end, off-site construction should learn from other productive industry similar to services or manufacturing industry by applying operational management tools and techniques with extensive focus on employee empowerment will shed the light on future uptake of Off-site construction. This study is of value in providing scholars have a clear picture of perceived benefit of off-site construction research and give an opportunities for future uptake of off-site method.

Keywords: building projects, employer empowerment, off-site construction benefits, productivity

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3923 Dynamic Construction Site Layout Using Ant Colony Optimization

Authors: Yassir AbdelRazig

Abstract:

Evolutionary optimization methods such as genetic algorithms have been used extensively for the construction site layout problem. More recently, ant colony optimization algorithms, which are evolutionary methods based on the foraging behavior of ants, have been successfully applied to benchmark combinatorial optimization problems. This paper proposes a formulation of the site layout problem in terms of a sequencing problem that is suitable for solution using an ant colony optimization algorithm. In the construction industry, site layout is a very important planning problem. The objective of site layout is to position temporary facilities both geographically and at the correct time such that the construction work can be performed satisfactorily with minimal costs and improved safety and working environment. During the last decade, evolutionary methods such as genetic algorithms have been used extensively for the construction site layout problem. This paper proposes an ant colony optimization model for construction site layout. A simple case study for a highway project is utilized to illustrate the application of the model.

Keywords: ant colony, construction site layout, optimization, genetic algorithms

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3922 Application of Numerical Modeling and Field Investigations for Groundwater Recharge Characterization at Abydos Archeological Site, Sohag, Egypt

Authors: Sherif A. Abu El-Magd, Ahmed M. Sefelnasr, Ahmed M. Masoud

Abstract:

Groundwater modeling is the way and tool for assessing and managing groundwater resources efficiently. The present work was carried out in the ancient Egyptian archeological site (Abydos) fromDynastyIandII.Theareaislocated about 13km west of the River Nilecourse, Upper Egypt. The main problem in this context is that the ground water level rise threatens and damages fragile carvings and paintings of the ancient buildings. The main objective of the present work is to identify the sources of the groundwater recharge in the site, further more, equally important there is to control the ground water level rise. Numerical modeling combined with field water level measurements was implemented to understand the ground water recharge sources. However, building a conceptual model was an important step in the groundwater modeling to phase to satisfy the modeling objectives. Therefore, boreholes, crosssections, and a high-resolution digital elevation model were used to construct the conceptual model. To understand the hydrological system in the site, the model was run under both steady state and transient conditions. Then, the model was calibrated agains the observation of the water level measurements. Finally, the results based on the modeling indicated that the groundwater recharge is originating from an indirect flow path mainly from the southeast. Besides, there is a hydraulic connection between the surface water and groundwater in the study site. The decision-makers and archeologyists could consider the present work to understand the behavior of groundwater recharge and water table level rise.

Keywords: numerical modeling, archeological site, groundwater recharge, egypt

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3921 An Approach on the Design of a Solar Cell Characterization Device

Authors: Christoph Mayer, Dominik Holzmann

Abstract:

This paper presents the development of a compact, portable and easy to handle solar cell characterization device. The presented device reduces the effort and cost of single solar cell characterization to a minimum. It enables realistic characterization of cells under sunlight within minutes. In the field of photovoltaic research the common way to characterize a single solar cell or a module is, to measure the current voltage curve. With this characteristic the performance and the degradation rate can be defined which are important for the consumer or developer. The paper consists of the system design description, a summary of the measurement results and an outline for further developments.

Keywords: solar cell, photovoltaics, PV, characterization

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3920 Quantification of Site Nonlinearity Based on HHT Analysis of Seismic Recordings

Authors: Ruichong Zhang

Abstract:

This study proposes a recording-based approach to characterize and quantify earthquake-induced site nonlinearity, exemplified as soil nonlinearity and/or liquefaction. Alternative to Fourier spectral analysis (FSA), the paper introduces time-frequency analysis of earthquake ground motion recordings with the aid of so-called Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT), and offers justification for the HHT in addressing the nonlinear features shown in the recordings. With the use of the 2001 Nisqually earthquake recordings, this study shows that the proposed approach is effective in characterizing site nonlinearity and quantifying the influences in seismic ground responses.

Keywords: site nonlinearity, site amplification, site damping, Hilbert-Huang Transform (HHT), liquefaction, 2001 Nisqually Earthquake

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3919 Polyphosphate Kinase 1 Active Site Characterization for the Identification of Novel Antimicrobial Targets

Authors: Sanaa Bardaweel

Abstract:

Inorganic polyphosphate (poly P) is present in all living forms tested to date, from each of the three kingdoms of life. Studied mainly in prokaryotes, poly P and its associated enzymes are vital in diverse basic metabolism, in at least some structural functions and, notably, in stress responses. These plentiful and unrelated roles for poly P are probably the consequence of its presence in life-forms early in evolution. The genomes of many bacterial species, including pathogens, encode a homologue of a major poly P synthetic enzyme, poly P kinase 1 (PPK1). Genetic deletion of ppk1 results in reduced poly P levels and loss of pathogens virulence towards protozoa and animals. Thus far, no PPK1 homologue has been identified in higher-order eukaryotes and, therefore, PPK1 represents a novel target for chemotherapy. The idea of the current study is to purify the PPK1 from Escherichia coli to homogeneity in order to study the effect of active site point mutations on PPK1 catalysis via the application of site-directed mutagenesis strategy. The knowledge obtained about the active site of PPK1 will be utilized to characterize the catalytic and kinetic mechanism of PPK1 with model substrates. Comprehensive understanding of the enzyme kinetic mechanism and catalysis will be used to design and screen a library of synthetic compounds for potential discovery of selective PPK1-inhibitors.

Keywords: antimicobial, Escherichia coli, inorganic polyphosphate, PPK1-inhibitors

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3918 Temporal Variation of PM10-Bound Benzo(a)Pyrene Concentration in an Urban and a Rural Site of Northwestern Hungary

Authors: Zs. Csanádi, A. Szabó Nagy, J. Szabó, J. Erdős

Abstract:

The main objective of this study was to assess the annual concentration and seasonal variation of benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) associated with PM10 in an urban site of Győr and in a rural site of Sarród in the sampling period of 2008–2012. A total of 280 PM10 aerosol samples were collected in each sampling site and analyzed for BaP by gas chromatography method. The BaP concentrations ranged from undetected to 8 ng/m3 with the mean value of 1.01 ng/m3 in the sampling site of Győr, and from undetected to 4.07 ng/m3 with the mean value of 0.52 ng/m3 in the sampling site of Sarród, respectively. Relatively higher concentrations of BaP were detected in samples collected in both sampling sites in the heating seasons compared with non-heating periods. The annual mean BaP concentrations were comparable with the published data of different other Hungarian sites.

Keywords: air quality, benzo(a)pyrene, PAHs, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

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3917 Mechanical Properties and Characterization of Ti–6Al–4V Alloy Diffused by Molybdenum

Authors: Alaeddine Kaouka

Abstract:

The properties and characterization of Ti-6Al-4V alloys with different contents of Mo were investigated. Microstructure characterization and hardness are considered. The alloy structure was characterized by X-ray diffraction, SEM and optical microscopy. The results showed that the addition of Mo stabilized the β-phase in the treated solution condition. The Mo element added to titanium alloys changes the lattice parameters of phases. Microstructural observations indicate an obvious reduction in the prior grain size. The hardness has increased with the increase in β-phase stability, while Young’s modulus and ductility have decreased.

Keywords: characterization, mechanical properties, molybdenum, titanium alloy

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3916 Characterization of Emissions from the open burning of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) under Tropical Environment

Authors: Anju Elizbath Peter, S. M. Shiva Nagendra, Indumathi M.Nambi

Abstract:

The deliberate fires initiated by dump managers and human scavengers to reduce the volume of waste and recovery of valuable metals/materials are common at municipal solid waste (MSW) disposal sites in developed country. A large amount of toxic gases released due to this act is responsible for the deterioration of regional and local air quality, which causes visibility impairment and acute respiratory diseases. The present study was aimed at the characterization of MSW and emission characteristics of burning of MSW in the laboratory. MSW samples were collected directly from the one of the open dumpsite located in Chennai city. Solid waste sampling and laboratory analysis were carried out according to American Society of Testing and Materials (ASTM) standards. Results indicated the values of moisture content, volatile solids (VS) and calorific values of solid waste samples were 16.67%,8%,9.17MJ/kg, respectively. The elemental composition showed that the municipal solid waste contains 25.84% of carbon, 3.69% of hydrogen, 1.57% of nitrogen and 0.26% of sulphur. The calorific value of MSW was found to be 9.17 MJ/Kg which is sufficient to facilitate self-combustion of waste. The characterization of emissions from the burning of 1 kg of MSW in the test chamber showed a total of 90 mg/kg of PM10 and 243 mg/kg of PM2.5. The current research study results will be useful for municipal authorities to formulate guideline and policy structure regarding the MSW management to reduce the impact of air emissions at an open dump site.

Keywords: characterization, MSW, open burning, PM10, PM2.5

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3915 Characterization Microstructural Dual Phase Steel for Application In Civil Engineering

Authors: S. Habibi, T. E. Guarcia, A. Megueni, A. Ziadi, L. Aminallah, A. S. Bouchikhi

Abstract:

The characterization of the microstructure of Dual Phase steel in various low-carbon, with a yield stress between 400 and 900 MPa were conducted .In order to assess the mechanical properties of steel, we examined the influence of their chemical compositions interictal and heat treatments (austenite + ferrite area) on their micro structures. In this work, we have taken a number of commercial DP steels, micro structurally characterized and used the conventional tensile testing of these steels for mechanical characterization.

Keywords: characterization, construction in civil engineering, micro structure, tensile DP steel

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3914 Water Quality at a Ventilated Improved Pit Latrine Sludge Entrenchment Site

Authors: Babatunde Femi Bakare

Abstract:

Groundwater quality was evaluated at a site for three years after the site was used for entrenchment of Ventilated Improved Pit (VIP) latrine sludge. Analysis performed on the soil characteristics at the entrenchment site indicated that, the soils at the entrenchment site are predominantly sandy. Depth of the water table at the entrenchment site was found to be approximately five meters. Five monitoring boreholes were dug along the perimeter of the sludge trenches and water samples taken from these monitoring boreholes were analyzed for pH, conductivity, sodium ions, chloride ions, phosphate, nitrate, ammonia, and bacteriological analysis. The results obtained from the analysis conducted were compared with the South African Bureau of Standards for drinking water and it was found that the parameters analyzed falls below the specified range. The data obtained from this study indicate that, given the relatively high sludge loading rates, poor soil quality, and the duration of the groundwater quality monitoring, it is unlikely that contamination of groundwater at the entrenchment site will be a major concern. However, caution is advised in extrapolating these results to other locations.

Keywords: boreholes, contamination, entrenchment, groundwater quality, VIP latrines

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3913 Site Specific Ground Response Estimations for the Vulnerability Assessment of the Buildings of the Third Biggest Mosque in the World, Algeria’s Mosque

Authors: S. Mohamadi, T. Boudina, A. Rouabeh, A. Seridi

Abstract:

Equivalent linear and non-linear ground response analyses are conducted at many representative sites at the mosque of Algeria, to compare the free field acceleration spectra with local code of practice. Spectral Analysis of Surface Waves (SASW) technique was adopted to measure the in-situ shear wave velocity profile at the representative sites. The seismic movement imposed on the rock is the NS component of Keddara station recorded during the earthquake in Boumerdes 21 May 2003. The site-specific elastic design spectra for each site are determined to further obtain site specific non-linear acceleration spectra. As a case study, the results of site-specific evaluations are presented for two building sites (site of minaret and site of the prayer hall) to demonstrate the influence of local geological conditions on ground response at Algerian sites. A comparison of computed response with the standard code of practice being used currently in Algeria for the seismic zone of Algiers indicated that the design spectra is not able to capture site amplification due to local geological conditions.

Keywords: equivalent linear, non-linear, ground response analysis, design response spectrum

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3912 Characterization of a Novel Hemin-Binding Protein, HmuX, in Porphyromonas gingivalis W50

Authors: Kah Yan How, Peh Fern Ong, Keang Peng Song

Abstract:

Porphyromonas gingivalis is a black-pigmented, anaerobic Gram-negative bacterium that is important in the progression of chronic and severe periodontitis. This organism has an essential requirement for iron, which is usually obtained from hemin, using specific membrane receptors, proteases, and lipoproteins. In this study, we report the characterization of a novel 24 kDa hemin-binding protein, HmuX, in P. gingivalis W50. The hmuX gene is 651 bp long which encodes for a 217 amino acid protein. HmuX was found to be identical at the C-terminus to the previously reported HmuY protein, differing by an additional 74 amino acids at the N-terminus. Recombinant HmuX demonstrated hemin-binding ability by LDS- PAGE and TMBZ staining. Sequence analysis of HmuX revealed a putative lipoprotein attachment site, suggesting its possible role as a lipoprotein. HmuX was also localized to the outer cell surface by transmission electron microscopy. Northern analysis showed hmuX to be transcribed as a single gene and that hmuX mRNA was tightly regulated by the availability of extra-cellular hemin. P. gingivalis isogenic mutant deficient in hmuX gene exhibited significant growth retardation under hemin-limited conditions. Taken together, these results suggest that HmuX is a hemin-binding lipoprotein, important in hemin utilization for the growth of P. gingivalis.

Keywords: Porphyromonas gingivalis, periodontal diseases, HmuX, protein characterization

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3911 A Stochastic Model to Predict Earthquake Ground Motion Duration Recorded in Soft Soils Based on Nonlinear Regression

Authors: Issam Aouari, Abdelmalek Abdelhamid

Abstract:

For seismologists, the characterization of seismic demand should include the amplitude and duration of strong shaking in the system. The duration of ground shaking is one of the key parameters in earthquake resistant design of structures. This paper proposes a nonlinear statistical model to estimate earthquake ground motion duration in soft soils using multiple seismicity indicators. Three definitions of ground motion duration proposed by literature have been applied. With a comparative study, we select the most significant definition to use for predict the duration. A stochastic model is presented for the McCann and Shah Method using nonlinear regression analysis based on a data set for moment magnitude, source to site distance and site conditions. The data set applied is taken from PEER strong motion databank and contains shallow earthquakes from different regions in the world; America, Turkey, London, China, Italy, Chili, Mexico...etc. Main emphasis is placed on soft site condition. The predictive relationship has been developed based on 600 records and three input indicators. Results have been compared with others published models. It has been found that the proposed model can predict earthquake ground motion duration in soft soils for different regions and sites conditions.

Keywords: duration, earthquake, prediction, regression, soft soil

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3910 The Results of the Archaeological Excavations at the Site of Qurh in Al Ula Region

Authors: Ahmad Al Aboudi

Abstract:

The Department of Archaeology at King Saud University conduct a long Term excavations since 2004 at the archaeological site of (Qurh) in Al-Ula area. The history of the site goes back to the eighth century AD. The main aim of the excavations is the training of the students on the archaeological field work associated with the scientific skills of exploring, surveying, classifying, documentations and other necessary in the field archaeology. During the 12th Season of Excavations, an area of 20 × 40 m2 of the site was excavated. The depth of the excavating the site was reached to 2-3 m. Many of the architectural features of a residential area in the northern part of the site were excavated this season. Circular walls made of mud-brick and a brick column drums and tiles made of clay were revealed this season. Additionally, lots of findings such as Gemstones, jars, ceramic plates, metal, glass, and fabric, as well as some jewelers and coins were discovered. This paper will deal with the main results of this field project including the architectural features and phenomena and their interpretations, the classification of excavated material culture remains and stratigraphy.

Keywords: Islamic architecture, Islamic art, excavations, early Islamic city

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3909 Geotechnical Distress Evaluation of a Damaged Structure

Authors: Zulfiqar Ali, Umar Saleem, Muhammad Junaid, Rizwan Tahir

Abstract:

Gulzar Mahal is a heritage site located in the city of Bahawalpur, Pakistan. The site is under a process of degradation, as cracks are appearing on the walls, roofs, and floor around the building due to differential settlement. To preserve the integrity of the structure, a geotechnical distress evaluation was carried out to evaluate the causal factors and recommend remediation measures. The research involved the characterization of the problematic soil and analysis of the observed distress with respect to the geotechnical properties. Both conventional lab and field tests were used in conjunction with the unconventional techniques like; Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) and FEA. The temporal, geophysical and geotechnical evaluations have concluded that the foundation soil over the past was subjected to variations in the land use, poor drainage patterns, overloading and fluctuations in groundwater table all contributing to the differential settlements manifesting in the form of the visible shear crack across the length and breadth of the building.

Keywords: differential settlement, distress evaluation, finite element analysis, Gulzar Mahal

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3908 Phylogenetic Analyses of Newcastle Disease Virus Isolated from Unvaccinated Chicken Flocks in Kyrgyzstan from 2015 to 2016

Authors: Giang Tran Thi Huong, Hieu Dong Van, Tung Dao Duy, Saadanov Iskender, Isakeev Mairambek, Tsutomu Omatsu, Yukie Katayama, Tetsuya Mizutani, Yuki Ozeki, Yohei Takeda, Haruko Ogawa, Kunitoshi Imai

Abstract:

Newcastle disease virus (NDV) is a contagious viral disease of the poultry industry and other birds throughout the world. At present, very little is known about molecular epidemiological data regarding the causes of ND outbreak in commercial poultry farms in Kyrgyzstan. In the current study, the NDV isolated from the one out of three samples from the unvaccinated flock was confirmed as NDV. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that this NDV strain is clustered in the Class II subgenotype VIId, and closely related to the Chinese NDV isolate. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that the isolated NDV strain has an origin different from the 4 NDV strains previously identified in Kyrgyzstan. According to the mean death time (MDT: 61.1 h) and a multibasic amino acid (aa) sequence at the F0 proteolytic cleavage site (¹¹²R-R-Q-K-R-F¹¹⁷), the NDV isolate was determined as mesogenic strain. Several mutations in the neutralizing epitopes (notably, ³⁴⁷E→K) and the global head were observed in the hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) protein of the current isolate. The present study represents the molecular characterization of the coding gene region of NDV in Kyrgyzstan. Additionally, further study will be investigated on the antigenic characterization using monoclonal antibody.

Keywords: Kyrgyzstan, Newcastle disease, genotype, genome characterization

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3907 Recent Advancement in Dendrimer Based Nanotechnology for the Treatment of Brain Tumor

Authors: Nitin Dwivedi, Jigna Shah

Abstract:

Brain tumor is metastatic neoplasm of central nervous system, in most of cases it is life threatening disease with low survival rate. Despite of enormous efforts in the development of therapeutics and diagnostic tools, the treatment of brain tumors and gliomas remain a considerable challenge in the area of neuro-oncology. The most reason behind of this the presence of physiological barriers including blood brain barrier and blood brain tumor barrier, lead to insufficient reach ability of therapeutic agents at the site of tumor, result of inadequate destruction of gliomas. So there is an indeed need empowerment of brain tumor imaging for better characterization and delineation of tumors, visualization of malignant tissue during surgery, and tracking of response to chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Multifunctional different generations of dendrimer offer an improved effort for potentiate drug delivery at the site of brain tumor and gliomas. So this article emphasizes the innovative dendrimer approaches in tumor targeting, tumor imaging and delivery of therapeutic agent.

Keywords: blood brain barrier, dendrimer, gliomas, nanotechnology

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3906 Temporospatial Mediator: Site-Specific Theatre within Cultural Heritages

Authors: Ching-Pin Tseng

Abstract:

Cultural heritages are tangible and intangible catalysts for recollecting collective memories and cultural signification. Through visiting the heritage and with the aid of exhibition and visual indications, the visitor may visually and spatially grasp some fragments of the stories and occurrences of the site. However, there may be some discrepancies between the narration of historical happenings that occurred at the place and the spatial exhibition of the historic monument. Narratives of collective events may not be revealed merely by physical relics or objects. In order to build up a connection between the past and the present, the paper thus intends to discuss what means can engender vitalizations within cultural heritages. As the preservation of cultural heritages has been a universal consensus and common interests, its association with modern lives has also been an important issue. The paper will explore some site-specific theatres held in the art festivals in the south of Taiwan so as to examine the correlation between site-specific performances and the conservation of historic monuments. In the light of Victor Hugo’s argument that the place where events happened before can be silent characters for representing the reality of art and for impressing the spectator, this paper argues that site-specific theatres may bring vitality into tangible cultural heritages. At the end of this paper, the notion of localization will be utilized to examine the spatial setting and the materiality of scenic design in relation to the site-specific theatres within cultural heritages.

Keywords: site-specificity, cultural heritage, localization, materiality

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3905 Examining the Concept of Sustainability in the Scenery Architecture of Naqsh-e-Jahan Square

Authors: Mahmood Naghizadeh, Maryam Memarian, Hourshad Irvash

Abstract:

Following the rise in the world population and the upward growth of urbanization, the design, planning, and management of the site scenery for the purpose of presentation and expansion of sustainable site scenery has turned to be the greatest concern to experts. Since the fundamental principles of the site scenery change more and less haphazardly over time, sustainable site scenery can be viewed as an ideal goal because both sustainability and dynamism come into view in urban site scenery and it wouldn’t be designed according to a set of pre-determined principles. Sustainable site scenery, as the ongoing interaction between idealism and pragmatism with sustainability factors, is a dynamic phenomenon created by bringing cultural, historical, social and natural scenery together. Such an interaction is not to subdue other factors but to reinforce the aforementioned factors. The sustainable site scenery is a persistently occurring event not only has attenuated over time but has gained strength. The sustainability of a site scenery or an event over time depends on its site identity which grows out of its continuous association with the past. The sustainability of a site scene or an event in a time frame intertwined with the identity of the place from past to present. This past history supports the present and future of the scene. The result of such a supportive role is the sustainability of site scenery. Isfahan Naqsh-e-Jahan Square is one of the most outstanding squares in the world and the best embodiment of Iranian site scenery architecture. This square is an arena that brings people together and a dynamic city center comprising various urban and religious complexes, spaces and facilities and is considered as one of the most favorable traditional urban space of Iran. Such a place can illustrate many factors related to sustainable site scenery. One the other hand, there are still no specific principles concerning sustainability in the architecture of site scenery. Meanwhile, sustainability is recognized as a rather modern view in architecture. The purpose of this research is to identify factors involved in sustainability in general and to examine their effects on site scenery architecture in particular. Finally, these factors will be studied with taking Naqsh-e-Jahan Square into account. This research adopts an analytic-descriptive approach that has benefited from the review of literature available in library studies and the documents related to sustainability and site scenery architecture. The statistical population used for the purpose of this research includes square constructed during the Safavid dynasty and Naqsh-e-Jahan Square was picked out as the case study. The purpose of this paper is to come up with a rough definition of sustainable site scenery and demonstrate this concept by analyzing it and recognizing the social, economic and ecological aspects of this project.

Keywords: Naqsh-e-Jahan Square, site scenery architecture, sustainability, sustainable site scenery

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