Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1352

Search results for: loading and unloading

1352 Load-Deflecting Characteristics of a Fabricated Orthodontic Wire with 50.6Ni 49.4Ti Alloy Composition

Authors: Aphinan Phukaoluan, Surachai Dechkunakorn, Niwat Anuwongnukroh, Anak Khantachawana, Pongpan Kaewtathip, Julathep Kajornchaiyakul, Peerapong Tua-Ngam

Abstract:

Aims: The objectives of this study was to determine the load-deflecting characteristics of a fabricated orthodontic wire with alloy composition of 50.6% (atomic weight) Ni and 49.4% (atomic weight) Ti and to compare the results with Ormco, a commercially available pre-formed NiTi orthodontic archwire. Materials and Methods: The ingots alloys with atomic weight ratio 50.6 Ni: 49.4 Ti alloy were used in this study. Three specimens were cut to have wire dimensions of 0.016 inch x0.022 inch. For comparison, a commercially available pre-formed NiTi archwire, Ormco, with dimensions of 0.016 inch x 0.022 inch was used. Three-point bending tests were performed at the temperature 36+1 °C using a Universal Testing Machine on the newly fabricated and commercial archwires to assess the characteristics of the load-deflection curve with loading and unloading forces. The loading and unloading features at the deflection points 0.25, 0.50, 0.75. 1.0, 1.25, and 1.5 mm were compared. Descriptive statistics was used to evaluate each variables, and independent t-test at p < 0.05 was used to analyze the mean differences between the two groups. Results: The load-deflection curve of the 50.6Ni: 49.4Ti wires exhibited the characteristic features of superelasticity. The curves at the loading and unloading slope of Ormco NiTi archwire were more parallel than the newly fabricated NiTi wires. The average deflection force of the 50.6Ni: 49.4Ti wire was 304.98 g and 208.08 g for loading and unloading, respectively. Similarly, the values were 358.02 g loading and 253.98 g for unloading of Ormco NiTi archwire. The interval difference forces between each deflection points were in the range 20.40-121.38 g and 36.72-92.82 g for the loading and unloading curve of 50.6Ni: 49.4Ti wire, respectively, and 4.08-157.08 g and 14.28-90.78 g for the loading and unloading curve of commercial wire, respectively. The average deflection force of the 50.6Ni: 49.4Ti wire was less than that of Ormco NiTi archwire, which could have been due to variations in the wire dimensions. Although a greater force was required for each deflection point of loading and unloading for the 50.6Ni: 49.4Ti wire as compared to Ormco NiTi archwire, the values were still within the acceptable limits to be clinically used in orthodontic treatment. Conclusion: The 50.6Ni: 49.4Ti wires presented the characteristics of a superelastic orthodontic wire. The loading and unloading force were also suitable for orthodontic tooth movement. These results serve as a suitable foundation for further studies in the development of new orthodontic NiTi archwires.

Keywords: 50.6 ni 49.4 Ti alloy wire, load deflection curve, loading and unloading force, orthodontic

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1351 Loading and Unloading Scheduling Problem in a Multiple-Multiple Logistics Network: Modelling and Solving

Authors: Yasin Tadayonrad

Abstract:

Most of the supply chain networks have many nodes starting from the suppliers’ side up to the customers’ side that each node sends/receives the raw materials/products from/to the other nodes. One of the major concerns in this kind of supply chain network is finding the best schedule for loading /unloading the shipments through the whole network by which all the constraints in the source and destination nodes are met and all the shipments are delivered on time. One of the main constraints in this problem is loading/unloading capacity in each source/ destination node at each time slot (e.g., per week/day/hour). Because of the different characteristics of different products/groups of products, the capacity of each node might differ based on each group of products. In most supply chain networks (especially in the Fast-moving consumer goods industry), there are different planners/planning teams working separately in different nodes to determine the loading/unloading timeslots in source/destination nodes to send/receive the shipments. In this paper, a mathematical problem has been proposed to find the best timeslots for loading/unloading the shipments minimizing the overall delays subject to respecting the capacity of loading/unloading of each node, the required delivery date of each shipment (considering the lead-times), and working-days of each node. This model was implemented on python and solved using Python-MIP on a sample data set. Finally, the idea of a heuristic algorithm has been proposed as a way of improving the solution method that helps to implement the model on larger data sets in real business cases, including more nodes and shipments.

Keywords: supply chain management, transportation, multiple-multiple network, timeslots management, mathematical modeling, mixed integer programming

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1350 Characterization of Articular Cartilage Based on the Response of Cartilage Surface to Loading/Unloading

Authors: Z. Arabshahi, I. Afara, A. Oloyede, H. Moody, J. Kashani, T. Klein

Abstract:

Articular cartilage is a fluid-swollen tissue of synovial joints that functions by providing a lubricated surface for articulation and to facilitate the load transmission. The biomechanical function of this tissue is highly dependent on the integrity of its ultrastructural matrix. Any alteration of articular cartilage matrix, either by injury or degenerative conditions such as osteoarthritis (OA), compromises its functional behaviour. Therefore, the assessment of articular cartilage is important in early stages of degenerative process to prevent or reduce further joint damage with associated socio-economic impact. Therefore, there has been increasing research interest into the functional assessment of articular cartilage. This study developed a characterization parameter for articular cartilage assessment based on the response of cartilage surface to loading/unloading. This is because the response of articular cartilage to compressive loading is significantly depth-dependent, where the superficial zone and underlying matrix respond differently to deformation. In addition, the alteration of cartilage matrix in the early stages of degeneration is often characterized by PG loss in the superficial layer. In this study, it is hypothesized that the response of superficial layer is different in normal and proteoglycan depleted tissue. To establish the viability of this hypothesis, samples of visually intact and artificially proteoglycan-depleted bovine cartilage were subjected to compression at a constant rate to 30 percent strain using a ring-shaped indenter with an integrated ultrasound probe and then unloaded. The response of articular surface which was indirectly loaded was monitored using ultrasound during the time of loading/unloading (deformation/recovery). It was observed that the rate of cartilage surface response to loading/unloading was different for normal and PG-depleted cartilage samples. Principal Component Analysis was performed to identify the capability of the cartilage surface response to loading/unloading, to distinguish between normal and artificially degenerated cartilage samples. The classification analysis of this parameter showed an overlap between normal and degenerated samples during loading. While there was a clear distinction between normal and degenerated samples during unloading. This study showed that the cartilage surface response to loading/unloading has the potential to be used as a parameter for cartilage assessment.

Keywords: cartilage integrity parameter, cartilage deformation/recovery, cartilage functional assessment, ultrasound

Procedia PDF Downloads 121
1349 Loading Forces following Addition of 5% Cu in Nickel-Titanium Alloy Used for Orthodontics

Authors: Aphinan Phukaoluan, Surachai Dechkunakorn, Niwat Anuwongnukroh, Anak Khantachawana, Pongpan Kaewtathip, Julathep Kajornchaiyakul, Wassana Wichai

Abstract:

Aims: This study aims to address the amount of force delivered by a NiTiCu orthodontic wire with a ternary composition ratio of 46.0 Ni: 49.0 Ti: 5.0 Cu and to compare the results with a commercial NiTiCu 35 °C orthodontic archwire. Materials and Methods: Nickel (purity 99.9%), Titanium (purity 99.9%), and Copper (purity 99.9%) were used in this study with the atomic weight ratio 46.0 Ni: 49.0 Ti: 5.0 Cu. The elements were melted to form an alloy using an electrolytic arc furnace in argon gas atmosphere and homogenized at 800 °C for 1 hr. The alloys were subsequently sliced into thin plates (1.5mm) by EDM wire cutting machine to obtain the specimens and were cold-rolled with 30% followed by heat treatment in a furnace at 400 °C for 1 hour. Then, the three newly fabricated NiTiCu specimens were cut in nearly identical wire sizes of 0.016 inch x0.022 inch. Commercial preformed Ormco NiTiCu35 °C archwire with size 0.016 inch x 0.022 inches were used for comparative purposes. Three-point bending test was performed using a Universal Testing Machine to investigate the force of the load-deflection curve at oral temperature (36 °C+ 1) with deflection points at 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1.0. 1.25, and 1.5 mm. Descriptive statistics was used to evaluate each variables and independent t-test was used to analyze the differences between the groups. Results: Both NiTiCu wires presented typical superelastic properties as observed from the load-deflection curve. The average force was 341.70 g for loading, and 264.18 g for unloading for 46.0 Ni: 49.0 Ti: 5.0 Cu wire. Similarly, the values were 299.88 g for loading, and 201.96 g for unloading of Ormco NiTiCu35°C. There were significant differences (p < 0.05) in mean loading and unloading forces between the two NiTiCu wires. The deflection forces in loading and unloading force for Ormco NiTiCu at each point were less than 46.0 Ni: 49.0 Ti: 5.0 Cu wire, except at the deflection point of 0.25mm. Regarding the force difference between each deflection point of loading and unloading force, Ormco NiTiCu35 °C exerted less force than 46.0 Ni: 49.0 Ti: 5.0 Cu wire, except at difference deflection at 1.5-1.25 mm of unloading force. However, there were still within the acceptable limits for orthodontic use. Conclusion: The fabricated ternary alloy of 46.0 Ni: 49.0 Ti: 5.0 Cu (atomic weight) with 30% reduction and heat treatment at 400°C for 1 hr. and Ormco 35 °C NiTiCu presented the characteristics of the shape memory in their wire form. The unloading forces of both NiTiCu wires were in the range of orthodontic use. This should be a good foundation for further studies towards development of new orthodontic NiTiCu archwires.

Keywords: loading force, ternary alloy, NiTiCu, shape memory, orthodontic wire

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1348 Estimation of Delay Due to Loading–Unloading of Passengers by Buses and Reduction of Number of Lanes at Selected Intersections in Dhaka City

Authors: Sumit Roy, A. Uddin

Abstract:

One of the significant reasons that increase the delay time in the intersections at heterogeneous traffic condition is a sudden reduction of the capacity of the roads. In this study, the delay for this sudden capacity reduction is estimated. Two intersections at Dhaka city were brought in to thestudy, i.e., Kakrail intersection, and SAARC Foara intersection. At Kakrail intersection, the sudden reduction of capacity in the roads is seen at three downstream legs of the intersection, which are because of slowing down or stopping of buses for loading and unloading of passengers. At SAARC Foara intersection, sudden reduction of capacity was seen at two downstream legs. At one leg, it was due to loading and unloading of buses, and at another leg, it was for both loading and unloading of buses and reduction of the number of lanes. With these considerations, the delay due to intentional stoppage or slowing down of buses and reduction of the number of lanes for these two intersections are estimated. Here the delay was calculated by two approaches. The first approach came from the concept of shock waves in traffic streams. Here the delay was calculated by determining the flow, density, and speed before and after the sudden capacity reduction. The second approach came from the deterministic analysis of queues. Here the delay is calculated by determining the volume, capacity and reduced capacity of the road. After determining the delay from these two approaches, the results were compared. For this study, the video of each of the two intersections was recorded for one hour at the evening peak. Necessary geometric data were also taken to determine speed, flow, and density, etc. parameters. The delay was calculated for one hour with one-hour data at both intersections. In case of Kakrail intersection, the per hour delay for Kakrail circle leg was 5.79, and 7.15 minutes, for Shantinagar cross intersection leg they were 13.02 and 15.65 minutes, and for Paltan T intersection leg, they were 3 and 1.3 minutes for 1st and 2nd approaches respectively. In the case of SAARC Foara intersection, the delay at Shahbag leg was only due to intentional stopping or slowing down of busses, which were 3.2 and 3 minutes respectively for both approaches. For the Karwan Bazar leg, the delays for buses by both approaches were 5 and 7.5 minutes respectively, and for reduction of the number of lanes, the delays for both approaches were 2 and 1.78 minutes respectively. Measuring the delay per hour for the Kakrail leg at Kakrail circle, it is seen that, with consideration of the first approach of delay estimation, the intentional stoppage and lowering of speed by buses contribute to 26.24% of total delay at Kakrail circle. If the loading and unloading of buses at intersection is made forbidden near intersection, and any other measures for loading and unloading of passengers are established far enough from the intersections, then the delay at intersections can be reduced at significant scale, and the performance of the intersections can be enhanced.

Keywords: delay, deterministic queue analysis, shock wave, passenger loading-unloading

Procedia PDF Downloads 85
1347 Domain Switching Characteristics of Lead Zirconate Titanate Piezoelectric Ceramic

Authors: Mitsuhiro Okayasu

Abstract:

To better understand the lattice characteristics of lead zirconate titanate (PZT) ceramics, the lattice orientations and domain-switching characteristics have been directly examined during loading and unloading using various experimental techniques. Upon loading, the PZT ceramics are fractured linear and nonlinearly during the compressive loading process. The strain characteristics of the PZT ceramic were directly affected by both the lattice and domain switching strain. Due to the piezoelectric ceramic, electrical activity of lightning-like behavior occurs in the PZT ceramics, which attributed to the severe domain-switching leading to weak piezoelectric property. The characteristics of domain-switching and reverse switching are detected during the loading and unloading processes. The amount of domain-switching depends on the grain, due to different stress levels. In addition, two patterns of 90˚ domain-switching systems are characterized, namely (i) 90˚ turn about the tetragonal c-axis and (ii) 90˚ rotation of the tetragonal a-axis. In this case, PZT ceramic was loaded by the thermal stress at 80°C. Extent of domain switching is related to the direction of c-axis of the tetragonal structure, e.g., that axis, orientated close to the loading direction, makes severe domain switching. It is considered that there is 90˚ domain switching, but in actual, the angle of domain switching is less than 90˚, e.g., 85.4° ~ 90.0°. In situ TEM observation of the domain switching characteristics of PZT ceramic has been conducted with increasing the sample temperature from 25°C to 300°C, and the domain switching like behavior is directly observed from the lattice image, where the severe domain switching occurs less than 100°C.

Keywords: PZT, lead zirconate titanate, piezoelectric ceramic, domain switching, material property

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1346 Viscoelastic Modeling of Hot Mix Asphalt (HMA) under Repeated Loading by Using Finite Element Method

Authors: S. A. Tabatabaei, S. Aarabi

Abstract:

Predicting the hot mix asphalt (HMA) response and performance is a challenging task because of the subjectivity of HMA under the complex loading and environmental condition. The behavior of HMA is a function of temperature of loading and also shows the time and rate-dependent behavior directly affecting design criteria of mixture. Velocity of load passing make the time and rate. The viscoelasticity illustrates the reaction of HMA under loading and environmental conditions such as temperature and moisture effect. The behavior has direct effect on design criteria such as tensional strain and vertical deflection. In this paper, the computational framework for viscoelasticity and implementation in 3D dimensional HMA model is introduced to use in finite element method. The model was lied under various repeated loading conditions at constant temperature. The response of HMA viscoelastic behavior is investigated in loading condition under speed vehicle and sensitivity of behavior to the range of speed and compared to HMA which is supposed to have elastic behavior as in conventional design methods. The results show the importance of loading time pulse, unloading time and various speeds on design criteria. Also the importance of memory fading of material to storing the strain and stress due to repeated loading was shown. The model was simulated by ABAQUS finite element package

Keywords: viscoelasticity, finite element method, repeated loading, HMA

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1345 Sensitivity and Uncertainty Analysis of One Dimensional Shape Memory Alloy Constitutive Models

Authors: A. B. M. Rezaul Islam, Ernur Karadogan

Abstract:

Shape memory alloys (SMAs) are known for their shape memory effect and pseudoelasticity behavior. Their thermomechanical behaviors are modeled by numerous researchers using microscopic thermodynamic and macroscopic phenomenological point of view. Tanaka, Liang-Rogers and Ivshin-Pence models are some of the most popular SMA macroscopic phenomenological constitutive models. They describe SMA behavior in terms of stress, strain and temperature. These models involve material parameters and they have associated uncertainty present in them. At different operating temperatures, the uncertainty propagates to the output when the material is subjected to loading followed by unloading. The propagation of uncertainty while utilizing these models in real-life application can result in performance discrepancies or failure at extreme conditions. To resolve this, we used probabilistic approach to perform the sensitivity and uncertainty analysis of Tanaka, Liang-Rogers, and Ivshin-Pence models. Sobol and extended Fourier Amplitude Sensitivity Testing (eFAST) methods have been used to perform the sensitivity analysis for simulated isothermal loading/unloading at various operating temperatures. As per the results, it is evident that the models vary due to the change in operating temperature and loading condition. The average and stress-dependent sensitivity indices present the most significant parameters at several temperatures. This work highlights the sensitivity and uncertainty analysis results and shows comparison of them at different temperatures and loading conditions for all these models. The analysis presented will aid in designing engineering applications by eliminating the probability of model failure due to the uncertainty in the input parameters. Thus, it is recommended to have a proper understanding of sensitive parameters and the uncertainty propagation at several operating temperatures and loading conditions as per Tanaka, Liang-Rogers, and Ivshin-Pence model.

Keywords: constitutive models, FAST sensitivity analysis, sensitivity analysis, sobol, shape memory alloy, uncertainty analysis

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1344 Performance Analysis of Compression Socks Strips

Authors: Hafiz Faisal Siddique, Adnan Ahmed Mazari, Antonin Havelka

Abstract:

Compression socks are highly recommended textile garment for pressure exertion on the lower part of leg. The extent of compression that a patient can easily manage depends on stage (limb size and shape) of venous disease and his activities (mobility, age). Due to dynamic mechanical influence, the socks destroy their extent of pressure exertion around the leg. The main aim of this research is to investigate how the performance of compression socks is deteriorated due to expected induced wearing mechanical impacts. Wearing mechanical impacts influence the durability parameter i.e. tensile energy loss. For tensile energy loss, cut-strip samples were interacted to constant rate of loading and un-loading, cyclic-loading upto 15th cycles for ±5mm extension (considering muscles expansion and relaxation) and were dwelled (stayed) for 3 minutes at 25%, 50% and 75% extension levels, simultaneously. Statistical validation of tensile energy loss was performed by introducing measures of correlation, p-value (≤ 0.05), R-square values using MINITAB 17 software.

Keywords: compression socks, loading and unloading, 15th cyclic loading, Dwell time effect

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1343 Truck Scheduling Problem in a Cross-Dock Centre with Fixed Due Dates

Authors: Mohsen S. Sajadieha, Danyar Molavia

Abstract:

In this paper, a truck scheduling problem is investigated at a two-touch cross-docking center with due dates for outbound trucks as a hard constraint. The objective is to minimize the total cost comprising penalty and delivery cost of delayed shipments. The sequence of unloading shipments is considered and is assumed that shipments are sent to shipping dock doors immediately after unloading and a First-In-First-Out (FIFO) policy is considered for loading the shipments. A mixed integer programming model is developed for the proposed model. Two meta-heuristic algorithms including genetic algorithm (GA) and variable neighborhood search (VNS) are developed to solve the problem in medium and large sized scales. The numerical results show that increase in due dates for outbound trucks has a crucial impact on the reduction of penalty costs of delayed shipments. In addition, by increase the due dates, the improvement in the objective function arises on average in comparison with the situation that the cross-dock is multi-touch and shipments are sent to shipping dock doors only after unloading the whole inbound truck.

Keywords: cross-docking, truck scheduling, fixed due date, door assignment

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1342 Experimental Studies of the Reverse Load-Unloading Effect on the Mechanical, Linear and Nonlinear Elastic Properties of n-AMg6/C60 Nanocomposite

Authors: Aleksandr I. Korobov, Natalia V. Shirgina, Aleksey I. Kokshaiskiy, Vyacheslav M. Prokhorov

Abstract:

The paper presents the results of an experimental study of the effect of reverse mechanical load-unloading on the mechanical, linear, and nonlinear elastic properties of n-AMg6/C60 nanocomposite. Samples for experimental studies of n-AMg6/C60 nanocomposite were obtained by grinding AMg6 polycrystalline alloy in a planetary mill with 0.3 wt % of C60 fullerite in an argon atmosphere. The resulting product consisted of 200-500-micron agglomerates of nanoparticles. X-ray coherent scattering (CSL) method has shown that the average nanoparticle size is 40-60 nm. The resulting preform was extruded at high temperature. Modifications of C60 fullerite interferes the process of recrystallization at grain boundaries. In the samples of n-AMg6/C60 nanocomposite, the load curve is measured: the dependence of the mechanical stress σ on the strain of the sample ε under its multi-cycle load-unloading process till its destruction. The hysteresis dependence σ = σ(ε) was observed, and insignificant residual strain ε < 0.005 were recorded. At σ≈500 MPa and ε≈0.025, the sample was destroyed. The destruction of the sample was fragile. Microhardness was measured before and after destruction of the sample. It was found that the loading-unloading process led to an increase in its microhardness. The effect of the reversible mechanical stress on the linear and nonlinear elastic properties of the n-AMg6/C60 nanocomposite was studied experimentally by ultrasonic method on the automated complex Ritec RAM-5000 SNAP SYSTEM. In the n-AMg6/C60 nanocomposite, the velocities of the longitudinal and shear bulk waves were measured with the pulse method, and all the second-order elasticity coefficients and their dependence on the magnitude of the reversible mechanical stress applied to the sample were calculated. Studies of nonlinear elastic properties of the n-AMg6/C60 nanocomposite at reversible load-unloading of the sample were carried out with the spectral method. At arbitrary values of the strain of the sample (up to its breakage), the dependence of the amplitude of the second longitudinal acoustic harmonic at a frequency of 2f = 10MHz on the amplitude of the first harmonic at a frequency f = 5MHz of the acoustic wave is measured. Based on the results of these measurements, the values of the nonlinear acoustic parameter in the n-AMg6/C60 nanocomposite sample at different mechanical stress were determined. The obtained results can be used in solid-state physics, materials science, for development of new techniques for nondestructive testing of structural materials using methods of nonlinear acoustic diagnostics. This study was supported by the Russian Science Foundation (project №14-22-00042).

Keywords: nanocomposite, generation of acoustic harmonics, nonlinear acoustic parameter, hysteresis

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1341 Numerical Modeling of Determination of in situ Rock Mass Deformation Modulus Using the Plate Load Test

Authors: A. Khodabakhshi, A. Mortazavi

Abstract:

Accurate determination of rock mass deformation modulus, as an important design parameter, is one of the most controversial issues in most engineering projects. A 3D numerical model of standard plate load test (PLT) using the FLAC3D code was carried to investigate the mechanism governing the test process. Five objectives were the focus of this study. The first goal was to employ 3D modeling in the interpretation of PLT conducted at the Bazoft dam site, Iran. The second objective was to investigate the effect of displacements measuring depth from the loading plates on the calculated moduli. The magnitude of rock mass deformation modulus calculated from PLT depends on anchor depth, and in practice, this may be a cause of error in the selection of realistic deformation modulus for the rock mass. The third goal of the study was to investigate the effect of testing plate diameter on the calculated modulus. Moreover, a comparison of the calculated modulus from ISRM formula, numerical modeling and calculated modulus from the actual PLT carried out at right abutment of the Bazoft dam site was another objective of the study. Finally, the effect of plastic strains on the calculated moduli in each of the loading-unloading cycles for three loading plates was investigated. The geometry, material properties, and boundary conditions on the constructed 3D model were selected based on the in-situ conditions of PLT at Bazoft dam site. A good agreement was achieved between numerical model results and the field tests results.

Keywords: deformation modulus, numerical model, plate loading test, rock mass

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1340 Pedestrian Behavioral Analysis for Safety at Road Crossing at Selected Intersections in Dhaka City

Authors: Sumit Roy

Abstract:

A clear understanding of pedestrian behaviour at road crossing at intersections is needed for providing necessary infrastructure and also for enhancing pedestrian safety at any intersection. Pedestrian road crossing behaviour is studied at Motijheel and Kakrail intersections where Motijheel intersection is a controlled roundabout, and Kakrail intersection is a signalized intersection. Around 60 people at each intersection were interviewed for a questionnaire survey and video recording at different time of a day was done for observation at each intersection. In case of Motijeel intersection, we got pedestrian road crossings were much higher than Kakrail intersection. It is because the number of workplaces here is higher than Kakrail. From questionnaire survey, it is found that 80% of pedestrians crosses at intersection to avail buses and their loading and unloading locations are at intersection, whereas at Kakrail intersection only 25% pedestrian crosses the road for buses as buses do not slow down here. At Motijheel intersection 25 to 40% of pedestrians choose to jump over the barricade for crossing instead of using overbridge for saving time and labour. On the other hand, the pedestrians using overbridge told that they use overbridge for safety. Moreover, pedestrian crosses at the same pace for both red and green interval with vehicle movement in the range of 12.5 to 14.5 km/h and gaps between vehicle were more than 4 m. Here pedestrian crossing speed varies from 3.5 to 7.2 km/h. In Kakrail intersection the road crossing situation can be classified into 4 categories. In case of red time, pedestrians do not wait to cross the road, and crossing speed varies from 3.5 to 7.2 km/h. When vehicle speed varies from 5.4 to 7.4 km/h, and gaps between vehicle vary from 1.5 to 2 m, most of the pedestrians initially choose to wait and try to cross the road in group with crossing speed 2.7 to 3.5 km/h. When vehicle speed varies from 10.8 to 18 km/h, and gaps between vehicles varies from 2 to 3 m most of the people waits and cross the road in group with crossing speed 3.5 to 5.4 km/h. When vehicle speed varies from 25.2 to 32.4 km/h and gaps between vehicles vary from 4 to 6 m most of the pedestrians choose to wait until red time. In Kakrail intersection 87% of people said that they cross the road with risk and 60% of pedestrians told that it is risky to get on and off the bus at this intersection. Planned location of loading and unloading area for buses can improve the pedestrian road crossing behaviour at intersections.

Keywords: crossing speed, pedestrian behaviour, road crossing, use of overbridge

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1339 Optimizing the Location of Parking Areas Adapted for Dangerous Goods in the European Road Transport Network

Authors: María Dolores Caro, Eugenio M. Fedriani, Ángel F. Tenorio

Abstract:

The transportation of dangerous goods by lorries throughout Europe must be done by using the roads conforming the European Road Transport Network. In this network, there are several parking areas where lorry drivers can park to rest according to the regulations. According to the "European Agreement concerning the International Carriage of Dangerous Goods by Road", parking areas where lorries transporting dangerous goods can park to rest, must follow several security stipulations to keep safe the rest of road users. At this respect, these lorries must be parked in adapted areas with strict and permanent surveillance measures. Moreover, drivers must satisfy several restrictions about resting and driving time. Under these facts, one may expect that there exist enough parking areas for the transport of this type of goods in order to obey the regulations prescribed by the European Union and its member countries. However, the already-existing parking areas are not sufficient to cover all the stops required by drivers transporting dangerous goods. Our main goal is, starting from the already-existing parking areas and the loading-and-unloading location, to provide an optimal answer to the following question: how many additional parking areas must be built and where must they be located to assure that lorry drivers can transport dangerous goods following all the stipulations about security and safety for their stops? The sense of the word “optimal” is due to the fact that we give a global solution for the location of parking areas throughout the whole European Road Transport Network, adjusting the number of additional areas to be as lower as possible. To do so, we have modeled the problem using graph theory since we are working with a road network. As nodes, we have considered the locations of each already-existing parking area, each loading-and-unloading area each road bifurcation. Each road connecting two nodes is considered as an edge in the graph whose weight corresponds to the distance between both nodes in the edge. By applying a new efficient algorithm, we have found the additional nodes for the network representing the new parking areas adapted for dangerous goods, under the fact that the distance between two parking areas must be less than or equal to 400 km.

Keywords: trans-european transport network, dangerous goods, parking areas, graph-based modeling

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1338 Liquid Unloading of Wells with Scaled Perforation via Batch Foamers

Authors: Erwin Chan, Aravind Subramaniyan, Siti Abdullah Fatehah, Steve Lian Kuling

Abstract:

Foam assisted lift technology is proven across the industry to provide efficient deliquification in gas wells. Such deliquification is typically achieved by delivering the foamer chemical downhole via capillary strings. In highly liquid loaded wells where capillary strings are not readily available, foamer can be delivered via batch injection or bull-heading. The latter techniques differ from the former in that cap strings allow for liquid to be unloaded continuously, whereas foamer batches require that periodic batching be conducted for the liquid to be unloaded. Although batch injection allows for liquid to be unloaded in wells with suitable water to gas (WGR) ratio and condensate to gas (CGR) ratio without well intervention for capillary string installation, this technique comes with its own set of challenges - for foamer to de-liquify liquids, the chemical needs to reach perforation locations where gas bubbling is observed. In highly scaled perforation zones in certain wells, foamer delivered in batches is unable to reach the gas bubbling zone, thus achieving poor lift efficiency. This paper aims to discuss the techniques and challenges for unloading liquid via batch injection in scaled perforation wells X and Y, whose WGR is 6bbl/MMscf, whose scale build-up is observed at the bottom of perforation interval, whose water column is 400 feet, and whose ‘bubbling zone’ is less than 100 feet. Variables such as foamer Z dosage, batching technique, and well flow control valve opening times are manipulated during the duration of the trial to achieve maximum liquid unloading and gas rates. During the field trial, the team has found optimal values between the three aforementioned parameters for best unloading results, in which each cycle’s gas and liquid rates are compared with baselines with similar flowing tubing head pressures (FTHP). It is discovered that amongst other factors, a good agitation technique is a primary determinant for efficient liquid unloading. An average increment of 2MMscf/d against an average production of 4MMscf/d at stable FTHP is recorded during the trial.

Keywords: foam, foamer, gas lift, liquid unloading, scale, batch injection

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1337 Pull-Out Behavior of Mechanical Anchor Bolts by Cyclic Loading

Authors: Yoshinori Kitsutaka, Kusumi Shingo, Matsuzawa Koichi, Kunieda Yoichiro, Yagisawa Yasuei

Abstract:

In this study, the pull-out properties of various mechanical anchor bolts embedded in concrete were investigated. Five kinds of mechanical anchor bolts were selected which were ordinarily used for concrete anchoring. Tensile tests for mechanical anchor bolts embedded in φ300mm x 100mm size concrete were conducted to measure the load - load displacement curves. The loading conditions were a monotonous loading and a repeating loading. The fracture energy for each mechanical anchor bolts was estimated by the analysis of consumed energy calculated by the load - load displacement curve. The effect of the types of mechanical anchor bolts on the pull-out properties of concrete subjected in monotonous loading and a repeating loading was cleared.

Keywords: concrete, cyclic loading, mechanical anchor bolt, pull-out strength

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1336 Features of Rail Strength Analysis in Conditions of Increased Force Loading

Authors: G. Guramishvili, M. Moistsrapishvili, L. Andghuladze

Abstract:

In the article are considered the problems arising at increasing of transferring from rolling stock axles on rail loading from 210 KN up to 270 KN and is offered for rail strength analysis definition of rail force loading complex integral characteristic with taking into account all affecting force factors that is characterizing specific operation condition of rail structure and defines the working capability of structure. As result of analysis due mentioned method is obtained that in the conditions of 270 KN loading the rail meets the working assessment criteria of rail and rail structures: Strength, rail track stability, rail links stability and its transverse stability, traffic safety condition that is rather important for post-Soviet countries railways.

Keywords: axial loading, rail force loading, rail structure, rail strength analysis, rail track stability

Procedia PDF Downloads 338
1335 A Study on the Influence of Aswan High Dam Reservoir Loading on Earthquake Activity

Authors: Sayed Abdallah Mohamed Dahy

Abstract:

Aswan High Dam Reservoir extends for 500 km along the Nile River; it is a vast reservoir in southern Egypt and northern Sudan. It was created as a result of the construction of the Aswan High Dam between 1958 and 1970; about 95% of the main water resources for Egypt are from it. The purpose of this study is to discuss and understand the effect of the fluctuation of the water level in the reservoir on natural and human-induced environmental like earthquakes in the Aswan area, Egypt. In summary, the correlation between the temporal variations of earthquake activity and water level changes in the Aswan reservoir from 1982 to 2014 are investigated and analyzed. This analysis confirms a weak relation between the fluctuation of the water level and earthquake activity in the area around Aswan reservoir. The result suggests that the seismicity in the area becomes active during a period when the water level is decreasing from the maximum to the minimum. Behavior of the water level in this reservoir characterized by a special manner that is the unloading season extends to July or August, and the loading season starts to reach its maximum in October or November every year. Finally, daily rate of change in the water level did not show any direct relation with the size of the earthquakes, hence, it is not possible to be used as a single tool for prediction.

Keywords: Aswan high dam reservoir, earthquake activity, environmental, Egypt

Procedia PDF Downloads 285
1334 Safety System Design and Overfill Protection for Loading Asphalt onto Trucks

Authors: Wendy Ampadu, Ray Diezmos, Hassan Malik, Jeremy Hyslob

Abstract:

There are several technologies out there for use as high-level switches as part of a system for shutting down flow to a vessel. Given that the asphalt truck loading poses issues such as poor visibility, coating, condensation, and fumes, a solution that is robust enough to last in these conditions is often needed in industries. Furthermore, the design of the loading arm, rack, and process equipment should allow for the safety of workers. The objective of this report includes the redesign of structures for use at loading facilities and selecting an overflow technology protection from hot bitumen. The report is based on loading facilities at a Canadian bitumen production company. The engineering design approach was used to create multiple redesign concepts for the loading dock system. Research on overfill systems was also completed by surveying the existing market for technologies and securing quotes from over 20 Canadian and United States instrumentation companies. A final loading dock redesign and level transmitter for overfill protection solution were chosen.

Keywords: bitumen, reliability engineering, safety system, process safety management, asphalt, loading docks, tanker trucks

Procedia PDF Downloads 55
1333 Loading Factor Performance of a Centrifugal Compressor Impeller: Specific Features and Way of Modeling

Authors: K. Soldatova, Y. Galerkin

Abstract:

A loading factor performance is necessary for the modeling of centrifugal compressor gas dynamic performance curve. Measured loading factors are linear function of a flow coefficient at an impeller exit. The performance does not depend on the compressibility criterion. To simulate loading factor performances, the authors present two parameters: a loading factor at zero flow rate and an angle between an ordinate and performance line. The calculated loading factor performances of non-viscous are linear too and close to experimental performances. Loading factor performances of several dozens of impellers with different blade exit angles, blade thickness and number, ratio of blade exit/inlet height, and two different type of blade mean line configuration. There are some trends of influence, which are evident – comparatively small blade thickness influence, and influence of geometry parameters is more for impellers with bigger blade exit angles, etc. Approximating equations for both parameters are suggested. The next phase of work will be simulating of experimental performances with the suggested approximation equations as a base.

Keywords: loading factor performance, centrifugal compressor, impeller, modeling

Procedia PDF Downloads 256
1332 Full Analytical Procedure to Derive P-I Diagram of a Steel Beam under Blast Loading

Authors: L. Hamra, J. F. Demonceau, V. Denoël

Abstract:

The aim of this paper is to study a beam extracted from a frame and subjected to blast loading. The demand of ductility depends on six dimensionless parameters: two related to the blast loading, two referring to the bending behavior of the beam and two corresponding to the dynamic behavior of the rest of the structure. We develop a full analytical procedure that provides the ductility demand as a function of these six dimensionless parameters.

Keywords: analytical procedure, blast loading, membrane force, P-I diagram

Procedia PDF Downloads 350
1331 Kinematic Behavior of Geogrid Reinforcements during Earthquakes

Authors: Ahmed Hosny Abdel-Rahman, Mohamed Abdel-Moneim

Abstract:

Reinforced earth structures are generally subjected to cyclic loading generated from earthquakes. This paper presents a summary of the results and analyses of a testing program carried out in a large-scale multi-function geosynthetic testing apparatus that accommodates soil samples up to 1.0 m3. This apparatus performs different shear and pullout tests under both static and cyclic loading. The testing program was carried out to investigate the controlling factors affecting soil/geogrid interaction under cyclic loading. The extensibility of the geogrids, the applied normal stresses, the characteristics of the cyclic loading (frequency, and amplitude), and initial static load within the geogrid sheet were considered in the testing program. Based on the findings of the testing program, the effect of these parameters on the pullout resistance of geogrids, as well as the displacement mobility under cyclic loading were evaluated. Conclusions and recommendations for the design of reinforced earth walls under cyclic loading are presented.

Keywords: geogrid, soil, interface, cyclic loading, pullout, large scale testing

Procedia PDF Downloads 514
1330 Displacement Fields in Footing-Sand Interactions under Cyclic Loading

Authors: S. Joseph Antony, Z. K. Jahanger

Abstract:

Soils are subjected to cyclic loading in situ in situations such as during earthquakes and in the compaction of pavements. Investigations on the local scale measurement of the displacements of the grain and failure patterns within the soil bed under the cyclic loading conditions are rather limited. In this paper, using the digital particle image velocimetry (DPIV), local scale displacement fields of a dense sand medium interacting with a rigid footing are measured under the plane-strain condition for two commonly used types of cyclic loading, and the quasi-static loading condition for the purposes of comparison. From the displacement measurements of the grains, the failure envelopes of the sand media are also presented. The results show that, the ultimate cyclic bearing capacity (qultcyc) occurred corresponding to a relatively higher settlement value when compared with that of under the quasi-static loading. For the sand media under the cyclic loading conditions considered here, the displacement fields in the soil media occurred more widely in the horizontal direction and less deeper along the vertical direction when compared with that of under the quasi-static loading. The 'dead zone' in the sand grains beneath the footing is identified for all types of the loading conditions studied here. These grain-scale characteristics have implications on the resulting bulk bearing capacity of the sand media in footing-sand interaction problems.

Keywords: cyclic loading, DPIV, settlement, soil-structure interactions, strip footing

Procedia PDF Downloads 80
1329 Study of Crashworthiness Behavior of Thin-Walled Tube under Axial Loading by Using Computational Mechanics

Authors: M. Kamal M. Shah, Noorhifiantylaily Ahmad, O. Irma Wani, J. Sahari

Abstract:

This paper presents the computationally mechanics analysis of energy absorption for cylindrical and square thin wall tubed structure by using ABAQUS/explicit. The crashworthiness behavior of AISI 1020 mild steel thin-walled tube under axial loading has been studied. The influence effects of different model’s cross-section, as well as model length on the crashworthiness behavior of thin-walled tube, are investigated. The model was placed on loading platform under axial loading with impact velocity of 5 m/s to obtain the deformation results of each model under quasi-static loading. The results showed that model undergoes different deformation mode exhibits different energy absorption performance.

Keywords: axial loading, computational mechanics, energy absorption performance, crashworthiness behavior, deformation mode

Procedia PDF Downloads 357
1328 Innovative Acoustic Emission Techniques for Concrete Health Monitoring

Authors: Rahmat Ali, Beenish Khan, Aftabullah, Abid A. Shah

Abstract:

This research is an attempt to investigate the wide range of events using acoustic emission (AE) sensors of the concrete cubes subjected to different stress condition loading and unloading of concrete cubes. A total of 27 specimens were prepared and tested including 18 cubic (6”x6”x6”) and nine cylindrical (4”x8”) specimens were molded from three batches of concrete using w/c of 0.40, 0.50, and 0.60. The compressive strength of concrete was determined from concrete cylinder specimens. The deterioration of concrete was evaluated using the occurrence of felicity and Kaiser effects at each stress condition. It was found that acoustic emission hits usually exceeded when damage increases. Additionally, the correlation between AE techniques and the load applied were determined by plotting the normalized values. The influence of w/c on sensitivity of the AE technique in detecting concrete damages was also investigated.

Keywords: acoustic emission, concrete, felicity ratio, sensors

Procedia PDF Downloads 240
1327 Mechanical Model of Gypsum Board Anchors Subjected Cyclic Shear Loading

Authors: Yoshinori Kitsutaka, Fumiya Ikedo

Abstract:

In this study, the mechanical model of various anchors embedded in gypsum board subjected cyclic shear loading were investigated. Shear tests for anchors embedded in 200 mm square size gypsum board were conducted to measure the load - load displacement curves. The strength of the gypsum board was changed for three conditions and 12 kinds of anchors were selected which were ordinary used for gypsum board anchoring. The loading conditions were a monotonous loading and a cyclic loading controlled by a servo-controlled hydraulic loading system to achieve accurate measurement. The fracture energy for each of the anchors was estimated by the analysis of consumed energy calculated by the load - load displacement curve. The effect of the strength of gypsum board and the types of anchors on the shear properties of gypsum board anchors was cleared. A numerical model to predict the load-unload curve of shear deformation of gypsum board anchors caused by such as the earthquake load was proposed and the validity on the model was proved.

Keywords: gypsum board, anchor, shear test, cyclic loading, load-unload curve

Procedia PDF Downloads 281
1326 Behaviour of Rc Column under Biaxial Cyclic Loading-State of the Art

Authors: L. Pavithra, R. Sharmila, Shivani Sridhar

Abstract:

Columns severe structural damage needs proportioning a significant portion of earthquake energy can be dissipated yielding in the beams. Presence of axial load along with cyclic loading has a significant influence on column. The objective of this paper is to present the analytical results of columns subjected to biaxial cyclic loading.

Keywords: RC column, Seismic behaviour, cyclic behaviour, biaxial testing, ductile behaviour

Procedia PDF Downloads 261
1325 Study on Effect of Reverse Cyclic Loading on Fracture Resistance Curve of Equivalent Stress Gradient (ESG) Specimen

Authors: Jaegu Choi, Jae-Mean Koo, Chang-Sung Seok, Byungwoo Moon

Abstract:

Since massive earthquakes in the world have been reported recently, the safety of nuclear power plants for seismic loading has become a significant issue. Seismic loading is the reverse cyclic loading, consisting of repeated tensile and compression by longitudinal and transverse wave. Up to this time, the study on characteristics of fracture toughness under reverse cyclic loading has been unsatisfactory. Therefore, it is necessary to obtain the fracture toughness under reverse cyclic load for the integrity estimation of nuclear power plants under seismic load. Fracture resistance (J-R) curves, which are used for determination of fracture toughness or integrity estimation in terms of elastic-plastic fracture mechanics, can be derived by the fracture resistance test using single specimen technique. The objective of this paper is to study the effects of reverse cyclic loading on a fracture resistance curve of ESG specimen, having a similar stress gradient compared to the crack surface of the real pipe. For this, we carried out the fracture toughness test under the reverse cyclic loading, while changing incremental plastic displacement. Test results showed that the J-R curves were decreased with a decrease of the incremental plastic displacement.

Keywords: reverse cyclic loading, j-r curve, ESG specimen, incremental plastic displacement

Procedia PDF Downloads 265
1324 Physical and Mechanical Phenomena Associated with Rock Failure in Brazilian Disc Specimens

Authors: Hamid Reza Nejati, Amin Nazerigivi, Ahmad Reza Sayadi

Abstract:

Failure mechanism of rocks is one of the fundamental aspects to study rock engineering stability. Rock is a material that contains flaws, initial damage, micro-cracks, etc. Failure of rock structure is largely due to tensile stress and was influenced by various parameters. In the present study, the effect of brittleness and loading rate on the physical and mechanical phenomena produced in rock during loading sequences is considered. For this purpose, Acoustic Emission (AE) technique is used to monitor fracturing process of three rock types (onyx marble, sandstone and soft limestone) with different brittleness and sandstone samples under different loading rate. The results of experimental tests revealed that brittleness and loading rate have a significant effect on the mode and number of induced fracture in rocks. An increase in rock brittleness increases the frequency of induced cracks, and the number of tensile fracture decreases when loading rate increases.

Keywords: brittleness, loading rate, acoustic emission, tensile fracture, shear fracture

Procedia PDF Downloads 228
1323 Investigation of Steel Infill Panels under Blast Impulsive Loading

Authors: Seyed M. Zahrai, Saeid Lotfi

Abstract:

If an infill panel does not have enough ductility against the loading, it breaks and gets damaged before depreciation and load transfer. As steel infill panel has appropriate ductility before fracture, it can be used as an alternative to typical infill panels under blast loading. Concerning enough ductility of out-of-plane behavior the infill panel, the impact force enters the horizontal diaphragm and is distributed among the lateral elements which can be made from steel infill panels. This article investigates the behavior of steel infill panels with different thickness and stiffeners using finite element analysis with geometric and material nonlinearities for optimization of the steel plate thickness and stiffeners arrangement to obtain more efficient design for its out-of-plane behavior.

Keywords: blast loading, ductility, maximum displacement, steel infill panel

Procedia PDF Downloads 180