Commenced in January 2007
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Paper Count: 9578

Search results for: moisture loss rate

9578 Modelling of Moisture Loss and Oil Uptake during Deep-Fat Frying of Plantain

Authors: James A. Adeyanju, John O. Olajide, Akinbode A. Adedeji


A predictive mathematical model based on the fundamental principles of mass transfer was developed to simulate the moisture content and oil content during Deep-Fat Frying (DFF) process of dodo. The resulting governing equation, that is, partial differential equation that describes rate of moisture loss and oil uptake was solved numerically using explicit Finite Difference Technique (FDT). Computer codes were written in MATLAB environment for the implementation of FDT at different frying conditions and moisture loss as well as oil uptake simulation during DFF of dodo. Plantain samples were sliced into 5 mm thickness and fried at different frying oil temperatures (150, 160 and 170 ⁰C) for periods varying from 2 to 4 min. The comparison between the predicted results and experimental data for the validation of the model showed reasonable agreement. The correlation coefficients between the predicted and experimental values of moisture and oil transfer models ranging from 0.912 to 0.947 and 0.895 to 0.957, respectively. The predicted results could be further used for the design, control and optimization of deep-fat frying process.

Keywords: frying, moisture loss, modelling, oil uptake

Procedia PDF Downloads 367
9577 Effect of Moisture Removal from Molten Salt on Corrosion of Alloys

Authors: Bhavesh D. Gajbhiye, Divya Raghunandanan, C. S. Sona, Channamallikarjun S. Mathpati


Molten fluoride salt FLiNaK (LiF-NaF-KF: 46.5-11.5-42 mol %) is a promising candidate as high temperature coolant for next generation nuclear reactors due to its superior thermophysical properties. Corrosion of alloys in molten FLiNaK has however been recognized as a serious issue in the selection of structural materials. Corrosion experiments of alloys Inconel-625 (Fe-Ni alloy) and Hastelloy-B (Ni-Mo alloy) were performed in FLiNaK salt. The tests were carried out at a temperature of 650°C in graphite crucibles for 60 hours under inert atmosphere. Corrosion experiments were performed to study the effect of moisture removal in the salt by pre heating and vacuum drying. Weight loss of the alloy samples due to corrosion was measured and corrosion rate was estimated. The surface morphology of the alloy samples was analyzed by Scanning Electron Microscopy. A significant decrease in the corrosion rate was observed for the alloys studied in moisture removed salt.

Keywords: FLiNaK, hastelloy, inconel, weight loss

Procedia PDF Downloads 402
9576 Effect of Whey Protein Based Edible Coating on the Moisture Loss and Sensory Attributes of Fresh Mutton

Authors: Saba Belgheisi


Food packaging, is an important discipline in the area of food technology, concerns preservation and protection of foods. The objective of this research was to determine of the effect of whey protein based edible coating on the moisture loss and sensory attributes of fresh mutton after 0, 1, 3 and 5 days at 5° C. The moisture content, moisture loss and sensory attributes (juiciness, color and odor) of the coated and uncoated samples were analyzed. The results showed that, moisture content, moisture loss, juiciness and color of the coated and uncoated samples have significant differences (p < 0.05) at the intervals of 0 to 1 and 1 to 3 days of storage. But no significant difference was observed at interval time 3 to 5 days of storage (p > 0.05). Also, there was no significant differences in the odor values of the coated and uncoated samples (p > 0.05). Therefore, the coated samples had consistently more moisture, juiciness and colored values than uncoated samples after 3 days at 5° C. So, whey protein edible coating could enhance product presentation and eliminate the need for placing absorbent pads at the bottom of the trays.

Keywords: coating, whey protein, mutton, moisture, sensory

Procedia PDF Downloads 385
9575 Effects of Moisture on Fatigue Behavior of Asphalt Concrete Mixtures Using Four-Point Bending Test

Authors: Mohit Chauhan, Atul Narayan


Moisture damage is the continuous deterioration of asphalt concrete mixtures by the loss of adhesive bond between the asphalt binder and aggregates, or loss of cohesive bonds within the asphalt binder in the presence of moisture. Moisture has been known to either cause or exacerbates distresses in asphalt concrete pavements. Since moisture would often retain for a relatively long duration at the bottom of asphalt concrete layer, the movement of traffic loading in this saturated condition would cause excess stresses or strains within the mixture. This would accelerate the degradation of the adhesion and cohesion within the mixture and likely to contribute the development of fatigue cracking in asphalt concrete pavements. In view of this, it is important to investigate the effect of moisture on the fatigue behavior of asphalt concrete mixtures. In this study, changes in fatigue characteristics after moisture conditioning were evaluated by conducting four-point beam fatigue tests on dry and moisture conditioned specimens. For this purpose, mixtures with two different types of binders were prepared and saturated with moisture using 700 mm Hg vacuum. Beam specimens, in this way, were taken to a saturation level of 65-75 percent. After preconditioning specimens in this degree of saturation and 60°C for a period of 24 hours, they were subjected to four point beam fatigue tests in strain-controlled mode with a strain amplitude of 400 microstrain. The results were then compared with the fatigue test results obtained with beam specimens that were not subjected to moisture conditioning. Test results show that the conditioning reduces both fatigue life and initial flexural stiffness of specimen significantly. The moisture conditioning was also found to increase the rate of reduction of flexural stiffness. Moreover, it was observed that the fatigue life ratio (FLR), the ratio of the fatigue life of the moisture conditioned sample to that of the dry sample, is significantly lower than the flexural stiffness ratio (FSR). The study indicates that four-point bending test is an appropriate tool with FLR and FSR as the potential parameters for moisture-sensitivity evaluation.

Keywords: asphalt concrete, fatigue cracking, moisture damage, preconditioning

Procedia PDF Downloads 78
9574 Investigation of Moisture Management Properties of Cotton and Blended Knitted Fabrics

Authors: N. S. Achour, M. Hamdaoui, S. Ben Nasrallah, A. Perwuelz


The main idea of this work is to investigate the effect of knitted fabrics characteristics on moisture management properties. Wetting and transport properties of single jersey, Rib 1&1 and English Rib fabrics made out of cotton and blended Cotton/Polyester yarns were studied. The dynamic water sorption of fabrics was investigated under same isothermal and terrestrial conditions at 20±2°C-65±2% by using the Moisture Management Tester (MMT) which can be used to quantitatively measure liquid moisture transfer in one step in a fabric in multi directions: Absorption rate, moisture absorbing time of the fabric's inner and outer surfaces, one-way transportation capability, the spreading/drying rate, the speed of liquid moisture spreading on fabric's inner and outer surfaces are measured, recorded and discussed. The results show that fabric’s composition and knit’s structure have a significant influence on those phenomena.

Keywords: knitted fabrics characteristics, moisture management properties, multi directions, the moisture management tester

Procedia PDF Downloads 422
9573 Enhancement of Shelflife of Malta Fruit with Active Packaging

Authors: Rishi Richa, N. C. Shahi, J. P. Pandey, S. S. Kautkar


Citrus fruits rank third in area and production after banana and mango in India. Sweet oranges are the second largest citrus fruits cultivated in the country. Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra, Karnataka, Punjab, Haryana, Rajasthan, and Uttarakhand are the main sweet orange-growing states. Citrus fruits occupy a leading position in the fruit trade of Uttarakhand, is casing about 14.38% of the total area under fruits and contributing nearly 17.75 % to the total fruit production. Malta is grown in most of the hill districts of the Uttarakhand. Malta common is having high acceptability due to its attractive colour, distinctive flavour, and taste. The excellent quality fruits are generally available for only one or two months. However due to its less shelf-life, Malta can not be stored for longer time under ambient conditions and cannot be transported to distant places. Continuous loss of water adversely affects the quality of Malta during storage and transportation. Method of picking, packaging, and cold storage has detrimental effects on moisture loss. The climatic condition such as ambient temperature, relative humidity, wind condition (aeration) and microbial attack greatly influences the rate of moisture loss and quality. Therefore, different agro-climatic zone will have different moisture loss pattern. The rate of moisture loss can be taken as one of the quality parameters in combination of one or more parameter such as RH, and aeration. The moisture contents of the fruits and vegetables determine their freshness. Hence, it is important to maintain initial moisture status of fruits and vegetable for prolonged period after the harvest. Keeping all points in views, effort was made to store Malta at ambient condition. In this study, the response surface method and experimental design were applied for optimization of independent variables to enhance the shelf life of four months stored malta. Box-Benkhen design, with, 12 factorial points and 5 replicates at the centre point were used to build a model for predicting and optimizing storage process parameters. The independent parameters, viz., scavenger (3, 4 and 5g), polythene thickness (75, 100 and 125 gauge) and fungicide concentration (100, 150 and 200ppm) were selected and analyzed. 5g scavenger, 125 gauge and 200ppm solution of fungicide are the optimized value for storage which may enhance life up to 4months.

Keywords: Malta fruit, scavenger, packaging, shelf life

Procedia PDF Downloads 216
9572 Modeling Drying and Pyrolysis of Moist Wood Particles at Slow Heating Rates

Authors: Avdhesh K. Sharma


Formulation for drying and pyrolysis process in packed beds at slow heating rates is presented. Drying of biomass particles bed is described by mass diffusion equation and local moisture-vapour-equilibrium relations. In gasifiers, volatilization rate during pyrolysis of biomass is modeled by using apparent kinetic rate expression, while product compositions at slow heating rates is modeled using empirical fitted mass ratios (i.e., CO/CO2, ME/CO2, H2O/CO2) in terms of pyrolysis temperature. The drying module is validated fairly with available chemical kinetics scheme and found that the testing zone in gasifier bed constituted of relatively smaller particles having high airflow with high isothermal temperature expedite the drying process. Further, volatile releases more quickly within the shorter zone height at high temperatures (isothermal). Both, moisture loss and volatile release profiles are found to be sensitive to temperature, although the influence of initial moisture content on volatile release profile is not so sensitive.

Keywords: modeling downdraft gasifier, drying, pyrolysis, moist woody biomass

Procedia PDF Downloads 55
9571 An Approach for Thermal Resistance Prediction of Plain Socks in Wet State

Authors: Tariq Mansoor, Lubos Hes, Vladimir Bajzik


Socks comfort has great significance in our daily life. This significance even increased when we have undergone a work of low or high activity. It causes the sweating of our body with different rates. In this study, plain socks with differential fibre composition were wetted to saturated level. Then after successive intervals of conditioning, these socks are characterized by thermal resistance in dry and wet states. Theoretical thermal resistance is predicted by using combined filling coefficients and thermal conductivity of wet polymers instead of dry polymer (fibre) in different models. By this modification, different mathematical models could predict thermal resistance at different moisture levels. Furthermore, predicted thermal resistance by different models has reasonable correlation range between (0.84 -0.98) with experimental results in both dry (lab conditions moisture) and wet states. "This work is supported by Technical University of Liberec under SGC-2019. Project number is 21314".

Keywords: thermal resistance, mathematical model, plain socks, moisture loss rate

Procedia PDF Downloads 63
9570 Predictive Simulations to Estimate Tire Pressure Loss and Air Mass Leakage Rate

Authors: Mahmoud C. Assaad


Inflated tires experience a loss of pressure with time. This phenomenon is due to the movement of gas through the boundary surrounding the cavity, namely the inner liner. Tire gauges and materials permeability are two essential parameters needed to provide an engineering estimate of the tire pressure loss with time. This predictive methodology was developed jointly with Sandia National Laboratories (National Technology and Engineering Solutions of Sandia), it provides the analysts with a numerical tool to predict the air net mass leakage rate \dot{m}.

Keywords: tire, pressure loss, porous media, fea

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9569 Batch Biodrying of Pulp and Paper Secondary Sludge: Influence of Initial Moisture Content on the Process

Authors: César Huiliñir, Danilo Villanueva, Pedro Iván Alvarez, Francisco Cubillos


Biodrying aims at removing water from biowastes and has been mostly studied for municipal solid wastes (MSW), while few studies have dealt with secondary sludge from the paper and pulp industry. The goal of this study was to investigate the effect of initial moisture content (MC) on the batch biodrying of pulp and paper secondary sludge, using rice husks as bulking agents. Three initial MCs were studied (54, 65, and 74% w.b.) in closed batch laboratory-scale reactors under adiabatic conditions and with a constant air-flow rate (0.65 l min-1 kg-1 wet solid). The initial MC of the mixture of secondary sludge and rice husks showed a significant effect on the biodrying process. Using initial moisture content between 54-65% w.b., the solid moisture content was reduce up to 37 % w.b. in ten days, getting calorific values between 8000-9000 kJ kg-1. It was concluded that a decreasing of initial MC improves the drying rate and decreases the solid volatile consumption, therefore, the optimization of biodrying should consider this parameter.

Keywords: biodrying, secondary sludge, initial moisture content, pulp and paper industry, rice husk

Procedia PDF Downloads 398
9568 The Effects of Different Amounts of Additional Moisture on the Physical Properties of Cow Pea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) Extrudates

Authors: L. Strauta, S. Muižniece-Brasava


Even though legumes possess high nutritional value and have a rather high protein content for plant origin products, they are underutilized mostly due to their lengthy cooking time. To increase the presence of legume-based products in human diet, new extruded products were made of cow peas (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.). But as it is known, adding different moisture content to flour before extrusion can change the physical properties of the extruded product. Experiments were carried out to estimate the optimal moisture content for cow pea extrusion. After extrusion, the pH level had dropped from 6.7 to 6.5 and the lowest hardness rate was observed in the samples with additional 9 g 100g-1 of moisture - 28±4N, but the volume mass of the samples with additional 9 g100g-1 of water was 263±3 g L-1; all samples were approximately 7±1mm long.

Keywords: cow pea, extrusion–cooking, moisture, size

Procedia PDF Downloads 134
9567 Moisture Variations in Unbound Layers in an Instrumented Pavement Section

Authors: R. Islam, Rafiqul A. Tarefder


This study presents the moisture variations of unbound layers from April 2012 to January 2014 in the Interstate 40 (I-40) pavement section in New Mexico. Three moisture probes were installed at different layers inside the pavement which measure the continuous moisture variations of the pavement. Data show that the moisture contents of unbound layers are typically constant throughout the day and month unless there is rainfall. Moisture contents of all unbound layers change with rainfall. Change in ground water table may affect the moisture content of unbound layers which has not investigated in this study. In addition, the Level 3 predictions of moisture contents using the Pavement Mechanistic-Empirical (ME) Design software are compared and found quite reasonable. However, results presented in the current study may not be applicable for pavement in other regions.

Keywords: asphalt pavement, moisture probes, resilient modulus, climate model

Procedia PDF Downloads 406
9566 Effect Different Moisture States of Surface-treated Recycled Concrete Aggregate on Properties of Fresh and Hardened Concrete

Authors: Sallehan Ismail, Mahyuddin Ramli


This study examined the properties of fresh and hardened concretes as influenced by the moisture state of the coarse recycled concrete aggregates (RCA) after surface treatment. Surface treatment was performed by immersing the coarse RCA in a calcium metasilicate (CM) solution. The treated coarse RCA was maintained in three controlled moisture states, namely, air-dried, oven-dried, and saturated surface-dried (SSD), prior to its use in a concrete mix. The physical properties of coarse RCA were evaluated after surface treatment during the first phase of the experiment to determine the density and the water absorption characteristics of the RCA. The second phase involved the evaluation of the slump, slump loss, density, and compressive strength of the concretes that were prepared with different proportions of natural and treated coarse RCA. Controlling the moisture state of the coarse RCA after surface treatment was found to significantly influence the properties of the fresh and hardened concretes.

Keywords: moisture state, recycled concrete aggregate, surface treatment

Procedia PDF Downloads 193
9565 Soil Loss Assessment at Steep Slope: A Case Study at the Guthrie Corridor Expressway, Selangor, Malaysia

Authors: Rabiul Islam


The study was in order to assess soil erosion at plot scale Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) erosion model and Geographic Information System (GIS) technique have been used for the study 8 plots in Guthrie Corridor Expressway, Selangor, Malaysia. The USLE model estimates an average soil loss soil integrating several factors such as rainfall erosivity factor(R ), Soil erodibility factor (K), slope length and steepness factor (LS), vegetation cover factor as well as conservation practice factor (C &P) and Results shows that the four plots have very low rates of soil loss, i.e. NLDNM, NDNM, PLDM, and NDM having an average soil loss of 0.059, 0.106, 0.386 and 0.372 ton/ha/ year, respectively. The NBNM, PLDNM and NLDM plots had a relatively higher rate of soil loss, with an average of 0.678, 0.757 and 0.493ton/ha/year. Whereas, the NBM is one of the highest rate of soil loss from 0.842 ton/ha/year to maximum 16.466 ton/ha/year. The NBM plot was located at bare the land; hence the magnitude of C factor(C=0.15) was the highest one.

Keywords: USLE model, GIS, Guthrie Corridor Expressway (GCE), Malaysia

Procedia PDF Downloads 431
9564 Drying Kinetics of Okara (Soy Pulp) Using the Multi-Commodity Heat Pump Dryer (MCHPD)

Authors: Lorcelie B. Taclan, Jolly S. Balila, Maribel Balagtas, Eunice M. Aclan, Myrtle C. Orbon, Emson Y. Taclan, Irenea A. Centeno


Okara (soy pulp), a by-product and waste from the production of soymilk, tufo and tokwa and soybean-based vegan food products is readily available in the university thrice a week. The Food Factory owned and managed by AUP produces these food products weekly. Generally the study was conducted to determine the drying kinetics of soya pulp using the MCHPD. Specifically, it aimed to establish the time of drying; moisture loss per hour and percent moisture content of soya pulp and to establish the dried okara as an ingredient to other foods. The MCHPD is drying equipment that has an ideal drying condition of 50.00C and 10.0% relative humidity. Fresh and wet soya pulp were weighed at 1.0 kg per tray (21 drying trays), laid on the trays lined with cheese cloth. The MCHPD was set to desired drying conditions. Weight loss was monitored every hour and calculated using standard formulas. Research results indicated that the drying time for soya pulp was 19.0 hours; the % moisture content was reduced from 87.6.0% to 9.7.0% at an average moisture loss of 3.0 g/hr. The nutritional values of okara were favorably maintained with enhanced color. The dried okara was added as an ingredient to other healthy bakery products produced by the AUP Food Factory. Making use of okara would add nutritional values to other food products and would also help waste management concerns inside the university.

Keywords: okara, MCHPD, drying kinetics, nutritional values, waste management

Procedia PDF Downloads 325
9563 Comparison of Different Techniques to Estimate Surface Soil Moisture

Authors: S. Farid F. Mojtahedi, Ali Khosravi, Behnaz Naeimian, S. Adel A. Hosseini


Land subsidence is a gradual settling or sudden sinking of the land surface from changes that take place underground. There are different causes of land subsidence; most notably, ground-water overdraft and severe weather conditions. Subsidence of the land surface due to ground water overdraft is caused by an increase in the intergranular pressure in unconsolidated aquifers, which results in a loss of buoyancy of solid particles in the zone dewatered by the falling water table and accordingly compaction of the aquifer. On the other hand, exploitation of underground water may result in significant changes in degree of saturation of soil layers above the water table, increasing the effective stress in these layers, and considerable soil settlements. This study focuses on estimation of soil moisture at surface using different methods. Specifically, different methods for the estimation of moisture content at the soil surface, as an important term to solve Richard’s equation and estimate soil moisture profile are presented, and their results are discussed through comparison with field measurements obtained from Yanco1 station in south-eastern Australia. Surface soil moisture is not easy to measure at the spatial scale of a catchment. Due to the heterogeneity of soil type, land use, and topography, surface soil moisture may change considerably in space and time.

Keywords: artificial neural network, empirical method, remote sensing, surface soil moisture, unsaturated soil

Procedia PDF Downloads 291
9562 Performance of an Improved Fluidized System for Processing Green Tea

Authors: Nickson Kipng’etich Lang’at, Thomas Thoruwa, John Abraham, John Wanyoko


Green tea is made from the top two leaves and buds of a shrub, Camellia sinensis, of the family Theaceae and the order Theales. The green tea leaves are picked and immediately sent to be dried or steamed to prevent fermentation. Fluid bed drying technique is a common drying method used in drying green tea because of its ease in design and construction and fluidization of fine tea particles. Major problems in this method are significant loss of chemical content of the leaf and green appearance of tea, retention of high moisture content in the leaves and bed channeling and defluidization. The energy associated with the drying technology has been shown to be a vital factor in determining the quality of green tea. As part of the implementation, prototype dryer was built that facilitated sequence of operations involving steaming, cooling, pre-drying and final drying. The major findings of the project were in terms of quality characteristics of tea leaves and energy consumption during processing. The optimal design achieved a moisture content of 4.2 ± 0.84%. With the optimum drying temperature of 100 ºC, the specific energy consumption was 1697.8 kj.Kg-1 and evaporation rate of 4.272 x 10-4 Kg.m-2.s-1. The energy consumption in a fluidized system can be further reduced by focusing on energy saving designs.

Keywords: evaporation rate, fluid bed dryer, maceration, specific energy consumption

Procedia PDF Downloads 205
9561 Investigation of Steady State Infiltration Rate for Different Head Condition

Authors: Nour Aljafari, Mariam, S. Maani, Serter Atabay, Tarig Ali, Said Daker, Lara Daher, Hamad Bukhammas, Mohammed Abou Shakra


This paper aims at determining the soil characteristics that influence the irrigation process of green landscapes and deciding on the optimum amount of water needed for irrigation. The laboratory experiments were conducted using the constant head methodology to determine the soil infiltration rates. The steady state infiltration rate was reached after 10 minutes of infiltration at a rate of 200 mm/hr. The effects of different water heads on infiltration rates were also investigated, and the head of 11 cm was found to be the optimum head for the test. The experimental results showed consistent infiltration results for the range between 11 cm and 15 cm. The study also involved finding the initial moisture content, which ranged between 5% and 25%, and finding the organic content, which occupied 1% to 2% of the soil. These results will be later utilized, using the water balance approach, to estimate the optimum amount of water needed for irrigation for changing weather conditions.

Keywords: infiltration rate, moisture content, grass type, organic content

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9560 Measurement of Viscosity and Moisture of Oil in Supradistribution Transformers Using Ultrasonic Waves

Authors: Ehsan Kadkhodaie, Shahin Parvar, Soroush Senemar, Mostafa Shriat, Abdolrasoul Malekpour


The role of oil in supra distribution transformers is so critical and, several standards in determining the quality of oil have been offered. So far, moisture, viscosity and insulation protection of the oil have been measured based on mechanical and chemical methods and systems such as kart fisher, falling ball and TDM 4000 that most of these techniques are destructive and have many problems such as pollution. In this study, due to the properties of oil and also physical behavior of ultrasound wave new method was designed to in the determination of oil indicators including viscosity and moisture. The results show the oil viscosity can be found from the relationship μ = 42.086/√EE and moisture from (PLUS+) = −15.65 (PPM) + 26040 relationship.

Keywords: oil, viscosity, moisture, ultrasonic waves

Procedia PDF Downloads 441
9559 Fire Characteristic of Commercial Retardant Flame Polycarbonate under Different Oxygen Concentration: Ignition Time and Heat Blockage

Authors: Xuelin Zhang, Shouxiang Lu, Changhai Li


The commercial retardant flame polycarbonate samples as the main high speed train interior carriage material with different thicknesses were investigated in Fire Propagation Apparatus with different external heat fluxes under different oxygen concentration from 12% to 40% to study the fire characteristics and quantitatively analyze the ignition time, mass loss rate and heat blockage. The additives of commercial retardant flame polycarbonate were intumescent and maintained a steady height before ignition when heated. The results showed the transformed ignition time (1/t_ig)ⁿ increased linearly with external flux under different oxygen concentration after deducting the heat blockage due to pyrolysis products, the mass loss rate was taken on linearly with external heat fluxes and the slop of the fitting line for mass loss rate and external heat fluxes decreased with the enhanced oxygen concentration and the heat blockage independent on external heat fluxes rose with oxygen concentration increasing. The inquired data as the input of the fire simulation model was the most important to be used to evaluate the fire risk of commercial retardant flame polycarbonate.

Keywords: ignition time, mass loss rate, heat blockage, fire characteristic

Procedia PDF Downloads 211
9558 Evaluating the Effects of Rainfall and Agricultural Practices on Soil Erosion (Palapye Case Study)

Authors: Mpaphi Major


Soil erosion is becoming an important aspect of land degradation. Therefore it is of great consideration to note any factor that may escalate the rate of soil erosion in our arable land. There exist 3 main driving forces in soil erosion which are rainfall, wind and land use of which in this project only rainfall and land use will be looked at. With the increase in world population at an alarming rate, the demand for food production is expected to increase which will in turn lead to more land being converted from forests to agricultural use of which very few of it are now fertile. In our country Botswana, the rate of crop production is decreasing due to the wearing away of the fertile top soil and poor arable land management. As a result, some studies on the rate of soil loss and farm management practices should be conducted so that best soil and water conservation practices should be employed and hence reduce the risk of soil loss and increase the rate of crop production and yield. The Soil loss estimation model for Southern Africa (SLEMSA) will be used to estimate the rate of soil loss in some selected arable farms within the Palapye watershed and some field observations will be made to determine the management practices used and their impact on the arable land. Upon observations it have been found that many arable fields have been exposed to soil erosion, of which the affected parts are no longer suitable for any crop production unless the land areas are modified. Improper land practices such as ploughing along the slope and land cultivation practices were observed. As a result farmers need to be educated on best conservation practices that can be used to manage their arable land hence reduced risk of soil erosion and improved crop production.

Keywords: soil and water conservation, soil erosion, SLEMSA, land degradation

Procedia PDF Downloads 327
9557 Modeling Approach for Evaluating Infiltration Rate of a Large-Scale Housing Stock

Authors: Azzam Alosaimi


Different countries attempt to reduce energy demands and Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions to mitigate global warming potential. They set different building codes to regulate excessive building’s energy losses. Energy losses occur due to pressure difference between the indoor and outdoor environments, and thus, heat transfers from one region to another. One major sources of energy loss is known as building airtightness. Building airtightness is the fundamental feature of the building envelope that directly impacts infiltration. Most of international building codes require minimum performance for new construction to ensure acceptable airtightness. The execution of airtightness required standards has become more challenging in recent years due to a lack of expertise and equipment, making it costly and time-consuming. Hence, researchers have developed predictive models to predict buildings infiltration rates to meet building codes and to reduce energy and cost. This research applies a theoretical modeling approach using Matlab software to predict mean infiltration rate distributions and total heat loss of Saudi Arabia’s housing stock.

Keywords: infiltration rate, energy demands, heating loss, cooling loss, carbon emissions

Procedia PDF Downloads 71
9556 Dry Matter, Moisture, Ash and Crude Fibre Content in Distinct Segments of ‘Durian Kampung’ Husk

Authors: Norhanim Nordin, Rosnah Shamsudin, Azrina Azlan, Mohammad Effendy Ya’acob


An environmental friendly approach for disposal of voluminous durian husk waste could be implemented by substituting them into various valuable commodities, such as healthcare and biofuel products. Thus, the study of composition value in each segment of durian husk was very crucial to determine the suitable proportions of nutrients that need to be added and mixed in the product. A total of 12 ‘Durian Kampung’ fruits from Sg Ruan, Pahang were selected and each fruit husk was divided into four segments and labelled as P-L (thin neck area of white inner husk), P-B (thick bottom area of white inner husk), H (green and thorny outer husk) and W (whole combination of P-B and H). Four experiments have been carried out to determine the dry matter, moisture, ash and crude fibre content. The results show that the H segment has the highest dry matter content (30.47%), while the P-B segment has the highest percentage in moisture (81.83%) and ash (6.95%) content. It was calculated that the ash content of the P-B segment has a higher rate of moisture level which causes the ash content to increase about 2.89% from the P-L segment. These data have proven that each segment of durian husk has a significant difference in terms of composition value, which might be useful information to fully utilize every part of the durian husk in the future.

Keywords: durian husk, crude fibre content, dry matter content, moisture content

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9555 Disaggregation of Coarser Resolution Radiometer Derived Soil Moisture to Finer Scales

Authors: Gurjeet Singh, Rabindra K. Panda


Soil moisture is a key hydrologic state variable and is intrinsically linked to the Earth's water, climate and carbon cycles. On ecological point of view, the soil moisture is a fundamental natural resource providing the transpirable water for plants. Soil moisture varies both temporally and spatially due to spatiotemporal variation in rainfall, vegetation cover, soil properties and topography. Satellite derived soil moisture provides spatio-temporal extensive data. However, the spatial resolution of a typical satellite (L-band radiometry) is of the order of tens of kilometers, which is not good enough for developing efficient agricultural water management schemes at the field scale. In the present study, the soil moisture from radiometer data has been disaggregated using blending approach to achieve higher resolution soil moisture data. The radiometer estimates of soil moisture at a 40 km resolution have been disaggregated to 10 km, 5 km and 1 km resolutions. The disaggregated soil moisture was compared with the observed data, consisting of continuous sensor based soil moisture profile measurements, at three monitoring sites and extensive spatial near-surface soil moisture measurements, concurrent with satellite monitoring in the 500 km2 study watershed in the Eastern India. The estimated soil moisture status at different spatial scales can help in developing efficient agricultural water management schemes to increase the crop production and water use efficiency.

Keywords: disaggregation, eastern India, radiometers, soil moisture, water use efficiency

Procedia PDF Downloads 203
9554 Main Control Factors of Fluid Loss in Drilling and Completion in Shunbei Oilfield by Unmanned Intervention Algorithm

Authors: Peng Zhang, Lihui Zheng, Xiangchun Wang, Xiaopan Kou


Quantitative research on the main control factors of lost circulation has few considerations and single data source. Using Unmanned Intervention Algorithm to find the main control factors of lost circulation adopts all measurable parameters. The degree of lost circulation is characterized by the loss rate as the objective function. Geological, engineering and fluid data are used as layers, and 27 factors such as wellhead coordinates and WOB are used as dimensions. Data classification is implemented to determine function independent variables. The mathematical equation of loss rate and 27 influencing factors is established by multiple regression method, and the undetermined coefficient method is used to solve the undetermined coefficient of the equation. Only three factors in t-test are greater than the test value 40, and the F-test value is 96.557%, indicating that the correlation of the model is good. The funnel viscosity, final shear force and drilling time were selected as the main control factors by elimination method, contribution rate method and functional method. The calculated values of the two wells used for verification differ from the actual values by -3.036m3/h and -2.374m3/h, with errors of 7.21% and 6.35%. The influence of engineering factors on the loss rate is greater than that of funnel viscosity and final shear force, and the influence of the three factors is less than that of geological factors. Quantitatively calculate the best combination of funnel viscosity, final shear force and drilling time. The minimum loss rate of lost circulation wells in Shunbei area is 10m3/h. It can be seen that man-made main control factors can only slow down the leakage, but cannot fundamentally eliminate it. This is more in line with the characteristics of karst caves and fractures in Shunbei fault solution oil and gas reservoir.

Keywords: drilling and completion, drilling fluid, lost circulation, loss rate, main controlling factors, unmanned intervention algorithm

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9553 The Application of to Optimize Pellet Quality in Broiler Feeds

Authors: Reza Vakili


The aim of this experiment was to optimize the effect of moisture, the production rate, grain particle size and steam conditioning temperature on pellet quality in broiler feed using Taguchi method and a 43 fractional factorial arrangement was conducted. Production rate, steam conditioning temperatures, particle sizes and moisture content were performed. During the production process, sampling was done, and then pellet durability index (PDI) and hardness evaluated in broiler feed grower and finisher. There was a significant effect of processing parameters on PDI and hardness. Based on the results of this experiment Taguchi method can be used to find the best combination of factors for optimal pellet quality.

Keywords: broiler, feed physical quality, hardness, processing parameters, PDI

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9552 Influence of the Moisture Content on the Flowability of Fine-Grained Iron Ore Concentrate

Authors: C. Lanzerstorfer, M. Hinterberger


The iron content of the ore used is crucial for the productivity and coke consumption rate in blast furnace pig iron production. Therefore, most iron ore deposits are processed in beneficiation plants to increase the iron content and remove impurities. In several comminution stages, the particle size of the ore is reduced to ensure that the iron oxides are physically liberated from the gangue. Subsequently, physical separation processes are applied to concentrate the iron ore. The fine-grained ore concentrates produced need to be transported, stored, and processed. For smooth operation of these processes, the flow properties of the material are crucial. The flowability of powders depends on several properties of the material: grain size, grain size distribution, grain shape, and moisture content of the material. The flowability of powders can be measured using ring shear testers. In this study, the influence of the moisture content on the flowability for the Krivoy Rog magnetite iron ore concentrate was investigated. Dry iron ore concentrate was mixed with varying amounts of water to produce samples with a moisture content in the range of 0.2 to 12.2%. The flowability of the samples was investigated using a Schulze ring shear tester. At all measured values of the normal stress (1.0 kPa – 20 kPa), the flowability decreased significantly from dry ore to a moisture content of approximately 3-5%. At higher moisture contents, the flowability was nearly constant, while at the maximum moisture content the flowability improved for high values of the normal stress only. The results also showed an improving flowability with increasing consolidation stress for all moisture content levels investigated. The wall friction angle of the dust with carbon steel (S235JR), and an ultra-high molecule low-pressure polyethylene (Robalon) was also investigated. The wall friction angle increased significantly from dry ore to a moisture content of approximately 3%. For higher moisture content levels, the wall friction angles were nearly constant. Generally, the wall friction angle was approximately 4° lower at the higher wall normal stress.

Keywords: iron ore concentrate, flowability, moisture content, wall friction angle

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9551 Study of Rehydration Process of Dried Squash (Cucurbita pepo) at Different Temperatures and Dry Matter-Water Ratios

Authors: Sima Cheraghi Dehdezi, Nasser Hamdami


Air-drying is the most widely employed method for preserving fruits and vegetables. Most of the dried products must be rehydrated by immersion in water prior to their use, so the study of rehydration kinetics in order to optimize rehydration phenomenon has great importance. Rehydration typically composes of three simultaneous processes: the imbibition of water into dried material, the swelling of the rehydrated products and the leaching of soluble solids to rehydration medium. In this research, squash (Cucurbita pepo) fruits were cut into 0.4 cm thick and 4 cm diameter slices. Then, squash slices were blanched in a steam chamber for 4 min. After cooling to room temperature, squash slices were dehydrated in a hot air dryer, under air flow 1.5 m/s and air temperature of 60°C up to moisture content of 0.1065 kg H2O per kg d.m. Dehydrated samples were kept in polyethylene bags and stored at 4°C. Squash slices with specified weight were rehydrated by immersion in distilled water at different temperatures (25, 50, and 75°C), various dry matter-water ratios (1:25, 1:50, and 1:100), which was agitated at 100 rpm. At specified time intervals, up to 300 min, the squash samples were removed from the water, and the weight, moisture content and rehydration indices of the sample were determined.The texture characteristics were examined over a 180 min period. The results showed that rehydration time and temperature had significant effects on moisture content, water absorption capacity (WAC), dry matter holding capacity (DHC), rehydration ability (RA), maximum force and stress in dried squash slices. Dry matter-water ratio had significant effect (p˂0.01) on all squash slice properties except DHC. Moisture content, WAC and RA of squash slices increased, whereas DHC and texture firmness (maximum force and stress) decreased with rehydration time. The maximum moisture content, WAC and RA and the minimum DHC, force and stress, were observed in squash slices rehydrated into 75°C water. The lowest moisture content, WAC and RA and the highest DHC, force and stress, were observed in squash slices immersed in water at 1:100 dry matter-water ratio. In general, for all rehydration conditions of squash slices, the highest water absorption rate occurred during the first minutes of process. Then, this rate decreased. The highest rehydration rate and amount of water absorption occurred in 75°C.

Keywords: dry matter-water ratio, squash, maximum force, rehydration ability

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9550 A New Manoeuvre for Prevention of Post-Partum Haemorrhage

Authors: Amr Hamdy


Background: Postpartum haemorrhage (PPH) is the leading cause of maternal mortality worldwide. Many methods have been developed to decrease its rate. The aim of this study was to evaluate the applicability of a new non-pharmacologic maneuver in decreasing its rate. Methods: This case series study was conducted in one centre in Cairo, Egypt, from January-2010 to June-2013. 400 pregnant–women aged 18 years or more and candidate for normal labour; were enrolled to this study. High-risk subjects for PPH were excluded. After placental delivery, the new maneuver was done by sustained traction of the anterior and posterior lips of the cervix by two ovum forceps for duration of 90 seconds. The amount of blood loss was estimated by standardized visual estimation after removal of the forceps. All subjects were followed up for 6 hours. Results: The rate of PPH, defined as more than 500 ml, was 8 cases (2%) with 95% CI (0.63-3.37%). The rate of PPH was not affected by parity, gestational age, episiotomy or the presence of tears. PPH is more in cases with anemia (p 0.032). It occurred in all cases with uterine atony (p <0.001). The range of estimated blood loss was 550-600ml in cases with PPH and 150-450ml in cases without PPH. Severe PPH more than 1000 ml, did not occur. Conclusion: This pilot study introduced a novel maneuver that can be helpful in decreasing the rate of PPH and reducing the amount of post partum blood loss.Despite the low rate of PPH showed in this study, the need for conducting a randomized controlled study is at its highest level before further inclusion of such manoeuvre to be a part of the current medical practice and before considering it as an evident tool to decrease the burden of PPH.

Keywords: maternal mortality, new manoeuvre, post-partum haemorrhage, uterine atony

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9549 Effects of Inlet Filtration Pressure Loss on Single and Two-Spool Gas Turbine

Authors: Enyia James Diwa, Dodeye Ina Igbong, Archibong Archibong Eso


Gas turbine operators have been faced with the dramatic financial setback resulting from compressor fouling. In a highly deregulated power industry where there is stiffness in the market competition, has made it imperative to improvise means of reducing maintenance cost in other to yield maximum profit. Compressor fouling results from the deposition of contaminants in the presence of oil and moisture on the compressor blade or annulus surfaces, which leads to a loss in flow capacity and compressor efficiency. These combined effects reduce power output, increase heat rate and cause creep life reduction. This paper also contains a model of two gas turbine engines via Cranfield University software known as TURBOMATCH, which is simulation software for detecting engine fouling rate. The model engines are of different configurations and capacities, and are operating in two different modes of constant output power and turbine inlet temperature for a two and three stage filter system. The idea is to investigate the more economically viable filtration systems by gas turbine users based on performance only. It has been demonstrated in the results that the two spool engine is a little more beneficial compared to the single spool. This is as a result of a higher pressure ratio of the two spools as well as the deceleration of the high-pressure compressor and high-pressure turbine speed in a constant TET. Meanwhile, the inlet filtration system was properly designed and balanced with a well-timed and economical compressor washing regime/scheme to control compressor fouling. The different technologies of inlet air filtration and compressor washing are considered and an attempt at optimization with respect to the cost of a combination of both control measures are made.

Keywords: inlet filtration, pressure loss, single spool, two spool

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