Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 3878

Search results for: structural break

3878 Estimation of Break Points of Housing Price Growth Rate for Top MSAs in Texas Area

Authors: Hui Wu, Ye Li


Applying the structural break estimation method proposed by Perron and Bai (1998) to the housing price growth rate of top 5 MSAs in the Texas area, this paper estimated the structural break date for the growth rate of housing prices index. As shown in the estimation results, the break dates for each region are quite different, which indicates the heterogeneity of the housing market in response to macroeconomic conditions.

Keywords: structural break, housing prices index, ADF test, linear model

Procedia PDF Downloads 51
3877 Assessment of Golestan Dam Break Using Finite Volume Method

Authors: Ebrahim Alamatian, Seyed Mehdi Afzalnia


One of the most vital hydraulic structures is the dam. Regarding the unrecoverable damages which may occur after a dam break phenomenon, analyzing dams’ break is absolutely essential. GOLESTAN dam is located in the western South of Mashhad city in Iran. GOLESTAN dam break might lead to severe problems due to adjacent tourist and entertainment areas. In this paper, a numerical code based on the finite volume method was applied for assessing the risk of GOLESTAN dam break. As to this issue, first, a canal with a triangular barrier was modeled so as to verify the capability of the concerned code. Comparing analytical, experimental and numerical results showed that water level in the model results is in a good agreement with the similar water level in the analytical solutions and experimental data. The results of dam break modeling are revealed that two of the bridges, that are PARTOIE and NAMAYESHGAH, located downstream in the flow direction, are at risk following the potential GOLESTAN dam break. Therefore, the required times to conduct the precautionary measures at bridges were calculated at about 12 and 21 minutes, respectively. Thus, it is crucial to announce people about the possible risks of the dam break in order to decrease likely losses.

Keywords: numerical model, shallow water equations, GOLESTAN dam break, dry and wet beds modeling

Procedia PDF Downloads 85
3876 Taleghan Dam Break Numerical Modeling

Authors: Hamid Goharnejad, Milad Sadeghpoor Moalem, Mahmood Zakeri Niri, Leili Sadeghi Khalegh Abadi


While there are many benefits to using reservoir dams, their break leads to destructive effects. From the viewpoint of International Committee of Large Dams (ICOLD), dam break means the collapse of whole or some parts of a dam; thereby the dam will be unable to hold water. Therefore, studying dam break phenomenon and prediction of its behavior and effects reduces losses and damages of the mentioned phenomenon. One of the most common types of reservoir dams is embankment dam. Overtopping in embankment dams occurs because of flood discharge system inability in release inflows to reservoir. One of the most important issues among managers and engineers to evaluate the performance of the reservoir dam rim when sliding into the storage, creating waves is large and long. In this study, the effects of floods which caused the overtopping of the dam have been investigated. It was assumed that spillway is unable to release the inflow. To determine outflow hydrograph resulting from dam break, numerical model using Flow-3D software and empirical equations was used. Results of numerical models and their comparison with empirical equations show that numerical model and empirical equations can be used to study the flood resulting from dam break.

Keywords: embankment dam break, empirical equations, Taleghan dam, Flow-3D numerical model

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3875 Dambreak Flood Analysis Using HEC-RAS and GIS Technologies

Authors: Oussama Derdous, Lakhdar Djemili, Hamza Bouchehed


The potential risks associated with dam break flooding could be considerable and result in major damage, including loss of life and property destruction. In the past, Algeria experienced such flood disasters; let’s recall the failure of Fergoug dam in 1881, this accident cost 200 lives, many houses and bridges were destroyed by the flooding. Recently the Algerian government have obligated to dam owners the development of detailed dam break Emergency Action Plans for its 64 major dams. The research presented here was conducted within this framework, Zardezas dam which is located in the city of Skikda in the North East of Algeria was the case of study. The model HEC-RAS was used for the hydrodynamic routing of the dam break flood wave. In addition, Geographic Information System (GIS) was used to create inundation maps and produce a visualization of the flood propagation in the Saf-Saf River.The simulation results that demonstrate the significance of Zardezas dam break flooding; constitute a real tool for developing emergency response plans and assisting territorial communities in land use planning.

Keywords: dam break, HEC-RAS, GIS, inundation maps, Emergency Action Plan

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3874 Structural Breaks, Asymmetric Effects and Long Memory in the Volatility of Turkey Stock Market

Authors: Serpil Türkyılmaz, Mesut Balıbey


In this study, long memory properties in volatility of Turkey Stock Market are being examined through the FIGARCH, FIEGARCH and FIAPARCH models under different distribution assumptions as normal and skewed student-t distributions. Furthermore, structural changes in volatility of Turkey Stock Market are investigated. The results display long memory property and the presence of asymmetric effects of shocks in volatility of Turkey Stock Market.

Keywords: FIAPARCH model, FIEGARCH model, FIGARCH model, structural break

Procedia PDF Downloads 234
3873 Integrated Thermal Control to Improve Workers' Intellectual Concentration in Office Environment

Authors: Kimi Ueda, Kosuke Sugita, Soma Kawamoto, Hiroshi Shimoda, Hirotake Ishii, Fumiaki Obayashi, Kazuhiro Taniguchi, Ayaka Suzuki


The authors have focused on the thermal difference between office rooms and break rooms, and proposed an integrated thermal control method to improve workers’ intellectual concentration. First, a trial experiment was conducted to verify the effect of temperature difference on workers’ intellectual concentration with using two experimental rooms; a thermally neutral break room and a cooler office room. As the result of the experiment, it was found that the thermal difference had a significant effect on improving their intellectual concentration. Workers, however, often take a short break at their desks without moving to a break room, so that the thermal difference cannot be given to them. So utilization of airflow was proposed as an integrated thermal control method instead of the temperature difference to realize the similar effect. Concretely, they are exposed to airflow when working in order to reduce their effective temperature while it is weakened when taking a break. Another experiment was conducted to confirm the effect of the airflow control on their intellectual concentration. As the result of concentration index and questionnaire survey, their intellectual concentration was significantly improved in the integrated thermal controlled environment. It was also found that most of them felt more comfortable and had higher motivation and higher degree of concentration in the environment.

Keywords: airflow, evaluation experiment, intellectual concentration, thermal difference

Procedia PDF Downloads 180
3872 The Collapse of a Crane on Site: A Case Study

Authors: T. Teruzzi, S. Antonietti, C. Mosca, C. Paglia


This paper discusses the causes of the structural failure in a tower crane. The structural collapse occurred at the upper joints of the extension element used to increase the height of the crane. The extension element consists of a steel lattice structure made with angular profiles and plates joined to the tower element by arc welding. Macroscopic inspection of the sections showed that the break was always observed on the angular profiles at the weld bead edge. The case study shows how, using mechanical characterization, chemical analysis of the steel and macroscopic and microscopic metallographic examinations, it was possible to obtain significant evidence that identified the mechanism causing the breakage. The analyses identified the causes of the structural failure as the use of materials that were not suitable for welding and poor performance in the welding joints.

Keywords: failure, metals, weld, microstructure

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3871 Structural Optimization of Shell and Arched Structures

Authors: Mitchell Gohnert, Ryan Bradley


This paper reviews some fundamental concepts of structural optimization of shell structures, which is based on the type of materials used in construction and the shape of the structure. The first step of structural optimization is to break down all internal forces into fundamental principal stresses. The stress patterns direct our selection of structural shapes and the most appropriate type of construction material. In our selection of materials, it is essential to understand that all construction materials have flaws, or micro-cracks, which reduce the capacity of the material. Because of material defects, many construction materials perform significantly better when subjected to compressive forces. Structures are also more efficient if bending moments are eliminated; thus, it is essential to select natural structures, or structures where the natural flow of stress follows the axis of the shell. The shape of the structure, therefore, has a profound effect on stress levels. Stress may be reduced dramatically by simply changing the shape. Catenary, triangular and linear shapes are the fundamental structural forms to achieve optimal stress flow. If the natural flow of stress matches the shape of the structures, the most optimal shape is determined.

Keywords: arches, economy of stresses, material strength, optimization, shells

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3870 Mathematical Modeling for the Break-Even Point Problem in a Non-homogeneous System

Authors: Filipe Cardoso de Oliveira, Lino Marcos da Silva, Ademar Nogueira do Nascimento, Cristiano Hora de Oliveira Fontes


This article presents a mathematical formulation for the production Break-Even Point problem in a non-homogeneous system. The optimization problem aims to obtain the composition of the best product mix in a non-homogeneous industrial plant, with the lowest cost until the breakeven point is reached. The problem constraints represent real limitations of a generic non-homogeneous industrial plant for n different products. The proposed model is able to solve the equilibrium point problem simultaneously for all products, unlike the existing approaches that propose a resolution in a sequential way, considering each product in isolation and providing a sub-optimal solution to the problem. The results indicate that the product mix found through the proposed model has economical advantages over the traditional approach used.

Keywords: branch and bound, break-even point, non-homogeneous production system, integer linear programming, management accounting

Procedia PDF Downloads 111
3869 An Experiment Research on the Effect of Brain-Break in the Classroom on Elementary School Students’ Selective Attention

Authors: Hui Liu, Xiaozan Wang, Jiarong Zhong, Ziming Shao


Introduction: Related research shows that students don’t concentrate on teacher’s speaking in the classroom. The d2 attention test is a time-limited test about selective attention. The d2 attention test can be used to evaluate individual selective attention. Purpose: To use the d2 attention test tool to measure the difference between the attention level of the experimental class and the control class before and after Brain-Break and to explore the effect of Brain-Break in the classroom on students' selective attention. Methods: According to the principle of no difference in pre-test data, two classes in the fourth- grade of Shenzhen Longhua Central Primary School were selected. After 20 minutes of class in the third class in the morning and the third class in the afternoon, about 3-minute Brain-Break intervention was performed in the experimental class for 10 weeks. The normal class in the control class did not intervene. Before and after the experiment, the d2 attention test tool was used to test the attention level of the two-class students. The paired sample t-test and independent sample t-test in SPSS 23.0 was used to test the change in the attention level of the two-class classes around 10 weeks. This article only presents results with significant differences. Results: The independent sample t-test results showed that after ten-week of Brain-Break, the missed errors (E1 t = -2.165 p = 0.042), concentration performance (CP t = 1.866 p = 0.05), and the degree of omissions (Epercent t = -2.375 p = 0.029) in experimental class showed significant differences compared with control class. The students’ error level decreased and the concentration increased. Conclusions: Adding Brain-Break interventions in the classroom can effectively improve the attention level of fourth-grade primary school students to a certain extent, especially can improve the concentration of attention and decrease the error rate in the tasks. The new sport's learning model is worth promoting

Keywords: cultural class, micromotor, attention, D2 test

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3868 The Dynamics of Algeria’s Natural Gas Exports to Europe: Evidence from ARDL Bounds Testing Approach with Breakpoints

Authors: Hicham Benamirouche, Oum Elkheir Moussi


The purpose of the study is to examine the dynamics of Algeria’s natural gas exports through the Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) bounds testing approach with break points. The analysis was carried out for the period from 1967 to 2015. Based on imperfect substitution specification, the ARDL approach reveals a long-run equilibrium relationship between Algeria’s Natural gas exports and their determinant factors (Algeria’s gas reserves, Domestic gas consumption, Europe’s GDP per capita, relative prices, the European gas production and the market share of competitors). All the long-run elasticities estimated are statistically significant with a large impact of domestic factors, which constitute the supply constraints. In short term, the elasticities are statistically significant, and almost comparable to those of the long term. Furthermore, the speed of adjustment towards long-run equilibrium is less than one year because of the little flexibility of the long term export contracts. Two break points have been estimated when we employ the domestic gas consumption as a break variable; 1984 and 2010, which reflect the arbitration policy between the domestic gas market and gas exports.

Keywords: natural gas exports, elasticity, ARDL bounds testing, break points, Algeria

Procedia PDF Downloads 100
3867 Investigation about Mechanical Equipment Needed to Break the Molecular Bonds of Heavy Oil by Using Hydrodynamic Cavitation

Authors: Mahdi Asghari


The cavitation phenomenon is the formation and production of micro-bubbles and eventually the bursting of the micro-bubbles inside the liquid fluid, which results in localized high pressure and temperature, causing physical and chemical fluid changes. This pressure and temperature are predicted to be 2000 atmospheres and 5000 °C, respectively. As a result of small bubbles bursting from this process, temperature and pressure increase momentarily and locally, so that the intensity and magnitude of these temperatures and pressures provide the energy needed to break the molecular bonds of heavy compounds such as fuel oil. In this paper, we study the theory of cavitation and the methods of cavitation production by acoustic and hydrodynamic methods and the necessary mechanical equipment and reactors for industrial application of the hydrodynamic cavitation method to break down the molecular bonds of the fuel oil and convert it into useful and economical products.

Keywords: Cavitation, Hydrodynamic Cavitation, Cavitation Reactor, Fuel Oil

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3866 Flood Modeling in Urban Area Using a Well-Balanced Discontinuous Galerkin Scheme on Unstructured Triangular Grids

Authors: Rabih Ghostine, Craig Kapfer, Viswanathan Kannan, Ibrahim Hoteit


Urban flooding resulting from a sudden release of water due to dam-break or excessive rainfall is a serious threatening environment hazard, which causes loss of human life and large economic losses. Anticipating floods before they occur could minimize human and economic losses through the implementation of appropriate protection, provision, and rescue plans. This work reports on the numerical modelling of flash flood propagation in urban areas after an excessive rainfall event or dam-break. A two-dimensional (2D) depth-averaged shallow water model is used with a refined unstructured grid of triangles for representing the urban area topography. The 2D shallow water equations are solved using a second-order well-balanced discontinuous Galerkin scheme. Theoretical test case and three flood events are described to demonstrate the potential benefits of the scheme: (i) wetting and drying in a parabolic basin (ii) flash flood over a physical model of the urbanized Toce River valley in Italy; (iii) wave propagation on the Reyran river valley in consequence of the Malpasset dam-break in 1959 (France); and (iv) dam-break flood in October 1982 at the town of Sumacarcel (Spain). The capability of the scheme is also verified against alternative models. Computational results compare well with recorded data and show that the scheme is at least as efficient as comparable second-order finite volume schemes, with notable efficiency speedup due to parallelization.

Keywords: dam-break, discontinuous Galerkin scheme, flood modeling, shallow water equations

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3865 Effect of Modeling of Hydraulic Form Loss Coefficient to Break on Emergency Core Coolant Bypass

Authors: Young S. Bang, Dong H. Yoon, Seung H. Yoo


Emergency Core Coolant Bypass (ECC Bypass) has been regarded as an important phenomenon to peak cladding temperature of large-break loss-of-coolant-accidents (LBLOCA) in nuclear power plants (NPP). A modeling scheme to address the ECC Bypass phenomena and the calculation of LBLOCA using that scheme are discussed in the present paper. A hydraulic form loss coefficient (HFLC) from the reactor vessel downcomer to the broken cold leg is predicted by the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code with a variation of the void fraction incoming from the downcomer. The maximum, mean, and minimum values of FLC are derived from the CFD results and are incorporated into the LBLOCA calculation using a system thermal-hydraulic code, MARS-KS. As a relevant parameter addressing the ECC Bypass phenomena, the FLC to the break and its range are proposed.

Keywords: CFD analysis, ECC bypass, hydraulic form loss coefficient, system thermal-hydraulic code

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3864 BTG-BIBA: A Flexibility-Enhanced Biba Model Using BTG Strategies for Operating System

Authors: Gang Liu, Can Wang, Runnan Zhang, Quan Wang, Huimin Song, Shaomin Ji


Biba model can protect information integrity but might deny various non-malicious access requests of the subjects, thereby decreasing the availability in the system. Therefore, a mechanism that allows exceptional access control is needed. Break the Glass (BTG) strategies refer an efficient means for extending the access rights of users in exceptional cases. These strategies help to prevent a system from stagnation. An approach is presented in this work for integrating Break the Glass strategies into the Biba model. This research proposes a model, BTG-Biba, which provides both an original Biba model used in normal situations and a mechanism used in emergency situations. The proposed model is context aware, can implement a fine-grained type of access control and primarily solves cross-domain access problems. Finally, the flexibility and availability improvement with the use of the proposed model is illustrated.

Keywords: Biba model, break the glass, context, cross-domain, fine-grained

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3863 The Influence of Active Breaks on the Attention/Concentration Performance in Eighth-Graders

Authors: Christian Andrä, Luisa Zimmermann, Christina Müller


Introduction: The positive relation between physical activity and cognition is commonly known. Relevant studies show that in everyday school life active breaks can lead to improvement in certain abilities (e.g. attention and concentration). A beneficial effect is in particular attributed to moderate activity. It is still unclear whether active breaks are beneficial after relatively short phases of cognitive load and whether the postulated effects of activity really have an immediate impact. The objective of this study was to verify whether an active break after 18 minutes of cognitive load leads to enhanced attention/concentration performance, compared to inactive breaks with voluntary mobile phone activity. Methodology: For this quasi-experimental study, 36 students [age: 14.0 (mean value) ± 0.3 (standard deviation); male/female: 21/15] of a secondary school were tested. In week 1, every student’s maximum heart rate (Hfmax) was determined through maximum effort tests conducted during physical education classes. The task was to run 3 laps of 300 m with increasing subjective effort (lap 1: 60%, lap 2: 80%, lap 3: 100% of the maximum performance capacity). Furthermore, first attention/concentration tests (D2-R) took place (pretest). The groups were matched on the basis of the pretest results. During week 2 and 3, crossover testing was conducted, comprising of 18 minutes of cognitive preload (test for concentration performance, KLT-R), a break and an attention/concentration test after a 2-minutes transition. Different 10-minutes breaks (active break: moderate physical activity with 65% Hfmax or inactive break: mobile phone activity) took place between preloading and transition. Major findings: In general, there was no impact of the different break interventions on the concentration test results (symbols processed after physical activity: 185.2 ± 31.3 / after inactive break: 184.4 ± 31.6; errors after physical activity: 5.7 ± 6.3 / after inactive break: 7.0. ± 7.2). There was, however, a noticeable development of the values over the testing periods. Although no difference in the number of processed symbols was detected (active/inactive break: period 1: 49.3 ± 8.8/46.9 ± 9.0; period 2: 47.0 ± 7.7/47.3 ± 8.4; period 3: 45.1 ± 8.3/45.6 ± 8.0; period 4: 43.8 ± 7.8/44.6 ± 8.0), error rates decreased successively after physical activity and increased gradually after an inactive break (active/inactive break: period 1: 1.9 ± 2.4/1.2 ± 1.4; period 2: 1.7 ± 1.8/ 1.5 ± 2.0, period 3: 1.2 ± 1.6/1.8 ± 2.1; period 4: 0.9 ± 1.5/2.5 ± 2.6; p= .012). Conclusion: Taking into consideration only the study’s overall results, the hypothesis must be dismissed. However, more differentiated evaluation shows that the error rates decreased after active breaks and increased after inactive breaks. Obviously, the effects of active intervention occur with a delay. The 2-minutes transition (regeneration time) used for this study seems to be insufficient due to the longer adaptation time of the cardio-vascular system in untrained individuals, which might initially affect the concentration capacity. To use the positive effects of physical activity for teaching and learning processes, physiological characteristics must also be considered. Only this will ensure optimum ability to perform.

Keywords: active breaks, attention/concentration test, cognitive performance capacity, heart rate, physical activity

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3862 Mechanical and Microstructural Study of Photo-Aged Low Density Polyethylene (LDPE) Films

Authors: Meryem Imane Babaghayou, Abdelhafidi Asma


This study deals with the ageing of Blown extruded films of low-density polyethylene (LDPE), used for greenhouse covering. The LDPE have been subjected to climatic ageing in a sub-Saharan facility at Laghouat (Algeria) with direct exposure to sun. The microstructural changes in the films were analyzed by IRFT for different states of ageing. The mechanical characterization was performed on a uniaxial tensile apparatus. The mechanical properties such as Young's modulus, strain at break, and stress at break have been followed for different states of exposure time (0 to 6 months). The Climatic ageing of LDPE films shows the effect of ageing on the microstructural Plan which leads to: i) To an oxidation of the molecular chains. ii) To the formation of cross-linkings and breaking chains, which both of them are responsible for the mechanical behavior’s modifications of the material. Cross-links are in favor of strengthening of the mechanical properties at break (the increase of σr and εr). In other side, the chains breaking leads to a decrease of these properties. The increase in the Young's modulus also seems to be related to those structural changes since the cross-links increase the average molecular weight. Branchings and tangles are favorable pairs for the ductile nature of the material. And in other side, the chains breaking reduces the average molecular weight and therefore promotes the stiffening (following to morphological changes) so the material becomes fragile. The post-mortem analysis of the samples shows that the mechanical stress has an effect on the molecular structure of the material. Although if quantitatively the concentrations of different chemical species exchanges, from a quantitative point of view only the unsaturations raises the polemics of a possible microstructural modification induced by mechanical stress applied during the tensile test. Also, we recommend a more rigorous analysis with other means of investigation.

Keywords: low-density polyethylene, ageing, mechanical properties, IRTF

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3861 Mean and Volatility Spillover between US Stocks Market and Crude Oil Markets

Authors: Kamel Malik Bensafta, Gervasio Bensafta


The purpose of this paper is to investigate the relationship between oil prices and socks markets. The empirical analysis in this paper is conducted within the context of Multivariate GARCH models, using a transform version of the so-called BEKK parameterization. We show that mean and uncertainty of US market are transmitted to oil market and European market. We also identify an important transmission from WTI prices to Brent Prices.

Keywords: oil volatility, stock markets, MGARCH, transmission, structural break

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3860 Boussinesq Model for Dam-Break Flow Analysis

Authors: Najibullah M, Soumendra Nath Kuiry


Dams and reservoirs are perceived for their estimable alms to irrigation, water supply, flood control, electricity generation, etc. which civilize the prosperity and wealth of society across the world. Meantime the dam breach could cause devastating flood that can threat to the human lives and properties. Failures of large dams remain fortunately very seldom events. Nevertheless, a number of occurrences have been recorded in the world, corresponding in an average to one to two failures worldwide every year. Some of those accidents have caused catastrophic consequences. So it is decisive to predict the dam break flow for emergency planning and preparedness, as it poses high risk to life and property. To mitigate the adverse impact of dam break, modeling is necessary to gain a good understanding of the temporal and spatial evolution of the dam-break floods. This study will mainly deal with one-dimensional (1D) dam break modeling. Less commonly used in the hydraulic research community, another possible option for modeling the rapidly varied dam-break flows is the extended Boussinesq equations (BEs), which can describe the dynamics of short waves with a reasonable accuracy. Unlike the Shallow Water Equations (SWEs), the BEs taken into account the wave dispersion and non-hydrostatic pressure distribution. To capture the dam-break oscillations accurately it is very much needed of at least fourth-order accurate numerical scheme to discretize the third-order dispersion terms present in the extended BEs. The scope of this work is therefore to develop an 1D fourth-order accurate in both space and time Boussinesq model for dam-break flow analysis by using finite-volume / finite difference scheme. The spatial discretization of the flux and dispersion terms achieved through a combination of finite-volume and finite difference approximations. The flux term, was solved using a finite-volume discretization whereas the bed source and dispersion term, were discretized using centered finite-difference scheme. Time integration achieved in two stages, namely the third-order Adams Basforth predictor stage and the fourth-order Adams Moulton corrector stage. Implementation of the 1D Boussinesq model done using PYTHON 2.7.5. Evaluation of the performance of the developed model predicted as compared with the volume of fluid (VOF) based commercial model ANSYS-CFX. The developed model is used to analyze the risk of cascading dam failures similar to the Panshet dam failure in 1961 that took place in Pune, India. Nevertheless, this model can be used to predict wave overtopping accurately compared to shallow water models for designing coastal protection structures.

Keywords: Boussinesq equation, Coastal protection, Dam-break flow, One-dimensional model

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3859 Crude Oil and Stocks Markets: Prices and Uncertainty Transmission Analysis

Authors: Kamel Malik Bensafta, Gervasio Semedo


The purpose of this paper is to investigate the relationship between oil prices and socks markets. The empirical analysis in this paper is conducted within the context of Multivariate GARCH models, using a transform version of the so-called BEKK parameterization. We show that mean and uncertainty of US market are transmitted to oil market and European market. We also identify an important transmission from WTI prices to Brent Prices.

Keywords: oil volatility, stock markets, MGARCH, transmission, structural break

Procedia PDF Downloads 439
3858 Simulation of Complex-Shaped Particle Breakage with a Bonded Particle Model Using the Discrete Element Method

Authors: Felix Platzer, Eric Fimbinger


In Discrete Element Method (DEM) simulations, the breakage behavior of particles can be simulated based on different principles. In the case of large, complex-shaped particles that show various breakage patterns depending on the scenario leading to the failure and often only break locally instead of fracturing completely, some of these principles do not lead to realistic results. The reason for this is that in said cases, the methods in question, such as the Particle Replacement Method (PRM) or Voronoi Fracture, replace the initial particle (that is intended to break) into several sub-particles when certain breakage criteria are reached, such as exceeding the fracture energy. That is why those methods are commonly used for the simulation of materials that fracture completely instead of breaking locally. That being the case, when simulating local failure, it is advisable to pre-build the initial particle from sub-particles that are bonded together. The dimensions of these sub-particles consequently define the minimum size of the fracture results. This structure of bonded sub-particles enables the initial particle to break at the location of the highest local loads – due to the failure of the bonds in those areas – with several sub-particle clusters being the result of the fracture, which can again also break locally. In this project, different methods for the generation and calibration of complex-shaped particle conglomerates using bonded particle modeling (BPM) to enable the ability to depict more realistic fracture behavior were evaluated based on the example of filter cake. The method that proved suitable for this purpose and which furthermore allows efficient and realistic simulation of breakage behavior of complex-shaped particles applicable to industrial-sized simulations is presented in this paper.

Keywords: bonded particle model, DEM, filter cake, particle breakage

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3857 A Finite Element/Finite Volume Method for Dam-Break Flows over Deformable Beds

Authors: Alia Alghosoun, Ashraf Osman, Mohammed Seaid


A coupled two-layer finite volume/finite element method was proposed for solving dam-break flow problem over deformable beds. The governing equations consist of the well-balanced two-layer shallow water equations for the water flow and a linear elastic model for the bed deformations. Deformations in the topography can be caused by a brutal localized force or simply by a class of sliding displacements on the bathymetry. This deformation in the bed is a source of perturbations, on the water surface generating water waves which propagate with different amplitudes and frequencies. Coupling conditions at the interface are also investigated in the current study and two mesh procedure is proposed for the transfer of information through the interface. In the present work a new procedure is implemented at the soil-water interface using the finite element and two-layer finite volume meshes with a conservative distribution of the forces at their intersections. The finite element method employs quadratic elements in an unstructured triangular mesh and the finite volume method uses the Rusanove to reconstruct the numerical fluxes. The numerical coupled method is highly efficient, accurate, well balanced, and it can handle complex geometries as well as rapidly varying flows. Numerical results are presented for several test examples of dam-break flows over deformable beds. Mesh convergence study is performed for both methods, the overall model provides new insight into the problems at minimal computational cost.

Keywords: dam-break flows, deformable beds, finite element method, finite volume method, hybrid techniques, linear elasticity, shallow water equations

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3856 Inhibition and Breaking of Advanced Glycation End Products with Nuts and Polyphenols

Authors: Moon Ho Do, Sin-Hee Park, Jae Hyuk Lee, Kyo Hee Cho, Jae Kyung Chae, Sun Yeou Kim


Long-term hyperglycemic conditions associated with diabetes lead to the formation of advanced glycation end-products (AGEs). Highly reactive glucose metabolites, methylglyoxal (MGO) and glyoxal (GO), induced carbonyl stress and it may induce cellular damage, cross-linking of proteins, and glycation, playing an important role in the impairment of kidney function. Small molecules that have the ability to inhibit AGE formation, and even break preformed AGEs have a beneficial impact on metabolic syndrome, diabetes, and cancer. We quantified contents of polyphenols in nuts and investigated the protective effect of nuts and polyphenols on MGO-induced cytotoxicity in porcine kidney epithelial cells (LLC-PK1). Moreover, we evaluated the inhibitory effect of AGEs formation in the presence of MGO or GO and possess the ability to break preformed AGEs. In this study, we confirmed twenty polyphenols in diverse nuts using LC-MS/MS system. Nuts and polyphenols play a protective role in LLC-PK1 cells by reducing MGO-induced cytotoxicity. They could also prevent the formation of MGO or GO-mediated AGEs and Break AGEs crosslink. It can be surmised that increased consumption of nuts would be an effective means of preventing diabetic diseases.

Keywords: advanced glycation end products, LLC-PK1, methylglyoxal, nut, polyphenol

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3855 Numerical Modeling of Large Scale Dam Break Flows

Authors: Amanbek Jainakov, Abdikerim Kurbanaliev


The work presents the results of mathematical modeling of large-scale flows in areas with a complex topographic relief. The Reynolds-averaged Navier—Stokes equations constitute the basis of the three-dimensional unsteady modeling. The well-known Volume of Fluid method implemented in the solver interFoam of the open package OpenFOAM 2.3 is used to track the free-boundary location. The mathematical model adequacy is checked by comparing with experimental data. The efficiency of the applied technology is illustrated by the example of modeling the breakthrough of the dams of the Andijan (Uzbekistan) and Papan (near the Osh town, Kyrgyzstan) reservoir.

Keywords: three-dimensional modeling, free boundary, the volume-of-fluid method, dam break, flood, OpenFOAM

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3854 Usage of Military Spending, Debt Servicing and Growth for Dealing with Emergency Plan of Indian External Debt

Authors: Sahbi Farhani


This study investigates the relationship between external debt and military spending in case of India over the period of 1970–2012. In doing so, we have applied the structural break unit root tests to examine stationarity properties of the variables. The Auto-Regressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) bounds testing approach is used to test whether cointegration exists in presence of structural breaks stemming in the series. Our results indicate the cointegration among external debt, military spending, debt servicing, and economic growth. Moreover, military spending and debt servicing add in external debt. Economic growth helps in lowering external debt. The Vector Error Correction Model (VECM) analysis and Granger causality test reveal that military spending and economic growth cause external debt. The feedback effect also exists between external debt and debt servicing in case of India.

Keywords: external debt, military spending, ARDL approach, India

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3853 Failure Localization of Bipolar Integrated Circuits by Implementing Active Voltage Contrast

Authors: Yiqiang Ni, Xuanlong Chen, Enliang Li, Linting Zheng, Shizheng Yang


Bipolar ICs are playing an important role in military applications, mainly used in logic gates, such as inverter and NAND gate. The defect of metal break located on the step is one of the main failure mechanisms of bipolar ICs, resulting in open-circuit or functional failure. In this situation, general failure localization methods like optical beam-induced resistance change (OBIRCH) and photon emission microscopy (PEM) might not be fully effective. However, active voltage contrast (AVC) can be used as a voltage probe, which may pinpoint the incorrect potential and thus locate the failure position. Two case studies will be present in this paper on how to implement AVC for failure localization, and the detailed failure mechanism will be discussed.

Keywords: bipolar IC, failure localization, metal break, open failure, voltage contrast

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3852 Evaluation of the Gamma-H2AX Expression as a Biomarker of DNA Damage after X-Ray Radiation in Angiography Patients

Authors: Reza Fardid, Aliyeh Alipour


Introduction: Coronary heart disease (CHD) is the most common and deadliest diseases. A coronary angiography is an important tool for the diagnosis and treatment of this disease. Because angiography is performed by exposure to ionizing radiation, it can lead to harmful effects. Ionizing radiation induces double-stranded breaks in DNA, which is a potentially life-threatening injury. The purpose of the present study is an investigation of the phosphorylation of histone H2AX in the location of the double-stranded break in Peripheral blood lymphocytes as an indication of Biological effects of radiation on angiography patients. Materials and Methods: This method is based on measurement of the phosphorylation of histone (gamma-H2AX, gH2AX) level on serine 139 after formation of DNA double-strand break. 5 cc of blood from 24 patients with angiography were sampled before and after irradiation. Blood lymphocytes were removed, fixed and were stained with specific ϒH2AX antibodies. Finally, ϒH2AX signal as an indicator of the double-strand break was measured with Flow Cytometry Technique. Results and discussion: In all patients, an increase was observed in the number of breaks in double-stranded DNA after irradiation (20.15 ± 14.18) compared to before exposure (1.52 ± 0.34). Also, the mean of DNA double-strand break was showed a linear correlation with DAP. However, although induction of DNA double-strand breaks associated with radiation dose in patients, the effect of individual factors such as radiosensitivity and regenerative capacity should not be ignored. If in future we can measure DNA damage response in every patient angiography and it will be used as a biomarker patient dose, will look very impressive on the public health level. Conclusion: Using flow cytometry readings which are done automatically, it is possible to detect ϒH2AX in the number of blood cells. Therefore, the use of this technique could play a significant role in monitoring patients.

Keywords: coronary angiography, DSB of DNA, ϒH2AX, ionizing radiation

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3851 Kalman Filter Design in Structural Identification with Unknown Excitation

Authors: Z. Masoumi, B. Moaveni


This article is about first step of structural health monitoring by identifying structural system in the presence of unknown input. In the structural system identification, identification of structural parameters such as stiffness and damping are considered. In this study, the Kalman filter (KF) design for structural systems with unknown excitation is expressed. External excitations, such as earthquakes, wind or any other forces are not measured or not available. The purpose of this filter is its strengths to estimate the state variables of the system in the presence of unknown input. Also least squares estimation (LSE) method with unknown input is studied. Estimates of parameters have been adopted. Finally, using two examples advantages and drawbacks of both methods are studied.

Keywords: Kalman filter (KF), least square estimation (LSE), structural health monitoring (SHM), structural system identification

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3850 Dam Break Model Using Navier-Stokes Equation

Authors: Alireza Lohrasbi, Alireza Lavaei, Mohammadali M. Shahlaei


The liquid flow and the free surface shape during the initial stage of dam breaking are investigated. A numerical scheme is developed to predict the wave of an unsteady, incompressible viscous flow with free surface. The method involves a two dimensional finite element (2D), in a vertical plan. The Naiver-Stokes equations for conservation of momentum and mass for Newtonian fluids, continuity equation, and full nonlinear kinematic free-surface equation were used as the governing equations. The mapping developed to solve highly deformed free surface problems common in waves formed during wave propagation, transforms the run up model from the physical domain to a computational domain with Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian (ALE) finite element modeling technique.

Keywords: dam break, Naiver-Stokes equations, free-surface flows, Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian

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3849 Structural and Thermodynamic Properties of MnNi

Authors: N. Benkhettoua, Y. Barkata


We present first-principles studies of structural and thermodynamic properties of MnNi According to the calculated total energies, by using an all-electron full-potential linear muffin–tin orbital method (FP-LMTO) within LDA and the quasi-harmonic Debye model implemented in the Gibbs program is used for the temperature effect on structural and calorific properties.

Keywords: magnetic materials, structural properties, thermodynamic properties, metallurgical and materials engineering

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