Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 24

Search results for: gratitude

24 Effects of the Gratitude Program on the Gratitude, Well-Being, Perceived Stress, and Stress Coping of Nurses

Authors: Yu H. Chen, Li C. Chen, Hsiang Y. Wu, Wan Y. Chen, Yin S. Lai, Sarah S. Chen


Little has been done to customize an appropriate program on gratitude for nurses, who work in high-stress environments. The purpose of this study is to design an appropriate program on gratitude for nurses and to investigate the effects of the program. Based on research done by Kaohsiung Medical University’s Positive Psychology Center, the only one of its kind in Taiwan, one of the top five strengths of nurses is gratitude. Instead of adapting from an older model created from past research, the Gratitude Workshop is developed from a quasi-experimental approach and designed with five additional dimensions that emphasize gratitude: thanking others, thanking one's surroundings, cherishing what one has, appreciating hardships, and appreciating the present. A sample of 84 nurses was randomly selected from the Kaohsiung Municipal Ta-Tung Hospital; 43 of who participated in the nine-hour Gratitude Workshop that spanned over three weeks, while the other 41 were part of the waitlist control group. The pretest and posttest included five questionnaires: Inventory of Undergraduates' Gratitude, The Gratitude Questionnaire-6, Mental Health Continuum‐Short Form, Perceived Stress Scale, and the Stress Coping Strategies Questionnaire. Results of the research showed that the Gratitude Workshop elevates gratitude, well-being, and perceived stress on the nurses; however, it was also found in the Stress Coping Strategies Questionnaire that the Gratitude Workshop only heightened the regulation of emotions.

Keywords: gratitude, nurses, positive psychology, well-being

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23 The Intervention Effect of Gratitude Skills Training on the Reduction of Loneliness

Authors: T. Sakai, A. Aikawa


This study defined 'gratitude skills training' as a social skills training which would become a new intervention method about gratitude intervention. The purpose of this study was to confirm the intervention effect of gratitude skills training on the reduction of loneliness. The participants in this study were university students (n = 36). A waiting list control design was used, in which the participants were assigned either to a training group (n = 18) or a waiting list control group (n = 18); the latter group took the same training after the first group had been trained. The two-week gratitude skills training comprised of three sessions (50 minutes per each of sessions). In the three sessions, the guidebook and the homework developed in this study were used. Results showed that gratitude skills training improved the participants’ gratitude skills. The results also indicated the intervention effect of gratitude skills training on the reduction of loneliness during the follow-up after three weeks. This study suggests that gratitude skills training can reduce loneliness. The gratitude skills training has a possibility of becoming a new treatment to reduce loneliness.

Keywords: gratitude skills, loneliness, social skills training, well-being

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22 Strength of Gratitude Determining Subjective Well-Being: Evidence for Mediating Role of Problem-Solving Styles

Authors: Sarwat Sultan, Shahzad Gul


This study was carried out to see the mediating role of problem solving styles (sensing, intuitive, feeling, and thinking) in the predictive relationship of gratitude with subjective well-being. A sample of 454 college students aged 20-26 years old participated in this study and provided data on the measures of gratitude, problem solving styles, and subjective well-being. Results indicated the significant relationships of gratitude with subjective well-being and problem solving styles of intuitive and thinking. Results further indicated the positive link of intuitive and thinking styles with subjective well-being. Findings also provided the evidence for the significant mediating role of problem solving styles in the relationship of gratitude with subjective well-being. The implication for this study is likely to enhance the medium to long term effects of gratitude on subjective well-being among students and as well as assessing its value in promoting psychological health and problem solving strategies among students.

Keywords: gratitude, subjective well-being, problem solving styles, college students

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21 Gratitude, Forgiveness and Relationship Satisfaction in Dating College Students: A Parallel Multiple Mediator Model

Authors: Qinglu Wu, Anna Wai-Man Choi, Peilian Chi


Gratitude is one individual strength that not only facilitates the mental health, but also fosters the relationship satisfaction in the romantic relationship. In terms of moral effect theory and stress-and-coping theory of forgiveness, present study not only investigated the association between grateful disposition and relationship satisfaction, but also explored the mechanism by comprehensively examining the potential mediating roles of three profiles of forgiveness (trait forgivingness, decisional forgiveness, emotional forgiveness), another character strength that highly related to the gratitude and relationship satisfaction. Structural equation modeling was used to conduct the multiple mediator model with a sample of 103 Chinese college students in dating relationship (39 male students and 64 female students, Mage = 19.41, SD = 1.34). Findings displayed that both gratitude and relationship satisfaction positively correlated with decisional forgiveness and emotional forgiveness. Emotional forgiveness was the only mediator, and it completely mediated the relationship between gratitude and relationship satisfaction. Gratitude was helpful in enhancing individuals’ perception of satisfaction in romantic relationship through replacing negative emotions toward partners with positive ones after transgression in daily life. It highlighted the function of emotional forgiveness in personal healing and peaceful state, which is important to the perception of satisfaction in relationship. Findings not only suggested gratitude could provide a stability for forgiveness, but also the mechanism of prosocial responses or positive psychological processes on relationship satisfaction. The significant roles of gratitude and emotional forgiveness could be emphasized in the intervention working on the romantic relationship development or reconciliation.

Keywords: decisional forgiveness, emotional forgiveness, gratitude, relationship satisfaction, trait forgivingness

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20 Attributes of Gratitude in Promoting Purpose in Life of Thai Adolescents

Authors: Karnsunaphat Balthip, Bunrome Suwanphahu


Purpose in life is one attribute of the concept of spirituality which is used in health promotion to promote holistic wellbeing. Purpose is a significant foundation of motivation and achievement that guides adolescents down positive life paths. Adolescents who have life purpose are more likely to achieve greater success and wellbeing in their lives. The current study used qualitative research methodology to describe the experiences that enhanced the purpose in life of 27 Thai adolescents from different backgrounds, living in urban areas in southern Thailand. Data were gathered through in-depth interviews and observation. Thematic analysis methods guided data analysis. The results showed that love and connectedness are important in enhancing purpose in life. They illustrate four attributes of love and connection reflecting the four attributes of gratitude that enhance purpose in life: (1) self-love, or gratitude to oneself, whereby participants endeavor to live life in a positive way by taking care of themselves based on moral and ethical values; (2) connectedness or gratitude to parents or significant others, whereby participants are committed to taking holistic care (physical, psychological, and spiritual) of their significant others; (3) connectedness or gratitude to peers, whereby participants support their peers to help them live their own lives in a positive way; and (4) connectedness or gratitude to the wider world (environment, society, nation and beyond), through a sense of altruism towards others. The findings provide helpful insights for parents, nurses, and other health professionals supporting adolescents to obtain a purpose in life.

Keywords: adolescent, gratitude, purpose in life, spirituality

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19 Discussing Concept Gratitude of Muslim Consumers Based on Islamic Law: A Confirmation on the Theory of Consumer Satisfaction through Imam Al-Ghazali's Thought

Authors: Suprihatin Soewarto


The background of writing this paper is to assess the truth of rejection of some Muslim scholars who develop Islamic economics on the concept of consumer satisfaction and replace it with the concept of maslahah. In the perspective of Islamic law, this rejection attitude needs to be verified in order to know the accuracy of the replacement of this concept of satisfaction with maslahah as part of consumer behavior. This is done so that replacement of rejection of the term satisfaction with maslahah is objective. This objective replacement of the term will surely be more enlightening and more just than the subjective substitution. Therefore the writing of this paper aims to get an answer whether the concept of satisfaction needs to be replaced? is it possible for Islamic law to confirm the theory of consumer satisfaction? The method of writing this paper using the method of literature with a critical analysis approach. The results of this study is an explanation of the similarities and differences of consumer satisfaction theory and consumer theory maslahah according to Islamic law. disclosure of the concept of consumer gratitude according to Islamic law and its implementation in Muslim consumer demand theory.

Keywords: consumer's gratitude, islamic law, confirmation, satisfaction consumer's

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18 'Sit Down, Breathe, and Feel What?' Bringing a Contemplative Intervention into a Public Urban Middle School

Authors: Lunthita M. Duthely, John T. Avella, John Ganapati Coleman


For as many as one in three adolescents living in the United States, the adolescent years is a period of low well-being and mental health challenges—from depressive symptoms to mild to moderate psychological diagnoses. Longitudinal population health studies demonstrated that these challenges persist in young adulthood, and beyond. The positive psychology (PS) approach is a more preventative approach to well-being, which contrasts the traditional, deficits approach to curing mental illness. The research among adult populations formed the basis for PS studies among adolescents. The empirical evidence for the effectiveness of PS interventions exists for both adult and youth populations. Positive Psychology interventions target individuals’ strengths, such as hope and optimism, and positive emotions, such as gratitude. Positive psychology interventions such as increasing gratitude, proved effective in many outcomes among youth, including psychological, social, and academically-related outcomes. Although gratitude-inducing studies have been conducted for the past decade in the United States, few studies have been conducted among samples of urban youth, particularly youth of diverse cultural backgrounds. For nearly two decades, the secular practice of meditation has been tested among adults and more recently among youth, focused mostly among clinical samples. The field of Contemplative Sciences explores practices such as Hatha Yoga, Tai Chi, and Meditation, as preventative practices among children and adolescents. A more recent initiative is to explore Contemplative Practices in the school environment. Contemplative Practices yield a variety of positive outcomes, including academic, social, psychological, physiological, and neurological changes among children and adolescents. Again, few studies were conducted among adolescents of diverse cultural backgrounds. The purpose of this doctoral dissertation research study was to test a gratitude-meditation intervention among middle school students attending a public charter school, located in an urban region of Metropolitan Miami. The objective of this presentation is to summarize the challenges and success of bringing a positive psychology and meditation intervention into an urban middle school. Also, the most recent findings on positive psychology and meditation interventions conducted in school environments will be presented as well.

Keywords: adolescents, contemplative intervention, gratitude, secular meditation, positive psychology, school engagement, Sri Chinmoy

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17 A Narrative of Monks: Culture Heroes in Songkhla Province

Authors: Kuntalee Vaitayavanich


This study aimed to look into roles of culture heroes of monks in Buddhism in Songkhla province during the last 50 years. Qualitative study, in-depth interviews, participatory observation and non-participatory observation were employed for this study. The results of the study indicated that culture heroes in Songkhla province would act as the followings. 1) For secular matters, monks would do something beneficial to the community. 2) For religious matters, monks would behave to follow Buddhism discipline strictly and unambitiously. At the same time, monks would not neglect to teach Buddhists to give respect to Lord Buddha by doing meditation and praying. However, when some of those culture heroes passed away, villagers in the community would show gratitude and appreciation by arranging a religious death anniversary ceremony, having icon, or having narrative to recognize those, continuously.

Keywords: narrative of monks, culture heroes, Songkhla province, social sustainability

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16 The Use of Emoticons in Polite Phrases of Greeting and Thanks

Authors: Zuzana Komrsková


This paper shows the connection between emoticons and politeness in written computer-mediated communication. It studies if there are some differences in the use of emoticon between Czech and English written tweets. My assumptions about the use of emoticons were based on the use of greetings and thanks in real, face to face situations. The first assumption, that welcome greeting phrase would be accompanied by positive emoticon was correct. But for the farewell greeting both positive and negative emoticons are possible. My results show lower frequency of negative emoticons in this context. I also found quite often both positive and negative emoticon in the same tweet. The expression of gratitude is associated with positive emotions. The results show that emoticons accompany polite phrases of greeting and thanks very often both in Czech and English. The use of emoticons with studied polite phrases shows that emoticons have become an integral part of these phrases.

Keywords: Czech, emoticon, english, politeness, twitter

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15 Attitudes of Gratitude: An Analysis of 30 Cancer Patient Narratives Published by Leading U.S. Cancer Care Centers

Authors: Maria L. McLeod


This study examines the ways in which cancer patient narratives are portrayed and framed on the websites of three leading U.S. cancer care centers –The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center in Houston, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center in New York, and Seattle Cancer Care Alliance. Thirty patient stories, ten from each cancer center website blog, were analyzed using qualitative and quantitative textual analysis of unstructured data, documenting repeated use of specific metaphors and tropes while charting common themes and other elements of story structure and content. Patient narratives were coded using grounded theory as the basis for conducting emergent qualitative research. As part of a systematic, inductive approach to collecting and analyzing data, recurrent and unique themes were examined and compared in terms of positive and negative framing, patient agency, and institutional praise. All three of these cancer care centers are teaching hospitals with university affiliations, that emphasizes an evidence-based scientific approach to treatment that utilizes the latest research and cutting-edge techniques and technology. Thus, the use of anecdotal evidence presented in patient narratives could be perceived as being in conflict with this evidence-based model, as the patient stories are not an accurate representation of scientific outcomes related to developing cancer, cancer reoccurrence, or cancer outcomes. The representative patient narratives tend to exclude or downplay adverse responses to treatment, survival rates, integrative and/or complementary cancer treatments, cancer prevention and causes, and barriers to treatment, such as the limitation of insurance plans, costs of treatment, and/or other issues related to access, potentially contributing to false narratives and inaccurate notions of cancer prevention, cancer care treatment and the potential for a cure. Both quantitative and qualitative findings demonstrate that cancer patient stories featured on the blogsites of the nation’s top cancer care centers deemphasize patient agency and, instead, emphasize deference and gratitude toward the institutions where the featured patients received treatment. Along these lines, language choices reflect positive framing of the cancer experience. Accompanying portrait photos of healthy appearing subjects as well as positive-framed headlines, subheads, and pull quotes function similarly, reflecting hopeful, transformative experiences and outcomes over hardship and suffering. Although patient narratives include real, factual scientific details and descriptions of actual events, the stories lack references to more negative realities of cancer diagnosis and treatment. Instead, they emphasize the triumph of survival by which the cancer care center, in the savior/hero role, enables the patient’s success, represented as a cathartic medical journey.

Keywords: cancer framing, cancer stories, medical gaze, patient narratives

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14 The Development of a School-Based Wellbeing Programme to Enhance the Social Functioning of Learners in Middle Childhood

Authors: Soretha Beets, Izanette Van Schalkwyk, Doret K. Kirsten


Children in middle childhood are exposed to various risks, for example, risks associated with poverty and/or dysfunctional families, that may threaten their social functioning. The aim of this study was to develop and design a programme that can be presented to children in middle childhood in order to enhance their social functioning towards better wellbeing. The skills and competencies needed to be included in the programme were identified by means of a literature review and 4 focus groups with educators from 4 sub-areas in a certain district in the North-West Province of South Africa. The programme consists of 8 sessions, presented in a certain order. The sessions cover the following aspects: self-esteem and gratitude, self-regulation and goal-setting, values and relationships, communication and listening, conflict management, emotional competence, and resilient coping. These aspects may benefit children in the middle child’s wellbeing and live on the short-term and may also hold long-term benefits.

Keywords: middle childhood, programme development, social functioning, wellbeing

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13 Inquiry of Gender Discrimination in Contrast Emotions: A Study on Perception of Gender of Youth University

Authors: Duygu Alptekin


Patriarchal social structure is based on a gender-based discrimination. Due to confrontational nature of discrimination; in a patriarchal society men and women exists in a based on contrasts and inequalities interaction patterns and this situation continues as socio-cultural with dominant gender perception in society. In this context gender perception of youth is a required vision tool for multidimensional understanding and resolving of gender discrimination problem and making projections about future. The aim of the study is explaining the gender discrimination by helping of Ambivalent Sexism Inventory and hostile benevolent sexism which are subdimensions of (ASI). Additionally the sexism perception of youth will be try to analyse ın the context of conflict of conventionalism and modernism. For that purpose survey have carried aout with the participation of students at the Selcuk University and the conclusions revealed that reached ampirically Young people's perceptions about the hierarchy of power revealed between men and women; sexual, economic and occupational segregation by pointing to statements about male-female relationships commitment, guardianship, gratitude, expressions containing highlights the superiority of socio-psychological (ASI) where results are determined by the application. The results of the factor analysis performed in this direction with the detection of the previous studies were evaluated by blending.

Keywords: ambivalent sexism inventory, gender discrimination, youth, conventionalism

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12 The Impact of Character Strengths on Employee Well-Being: The Mediating Effect of Work-Family Relationship

Authors: Jing Wang, Yong Wang


For organizational development, employee well-being is critical and has been influenced deeply by character strengths. Therefore, investigating the relationship between character strengths and employee well-being and its inner mechanism is crucial. In this study, we explored the features of Chinese employees' character strengths, studied the relationship between character strengths and employees' subjective well-being, work well-being and psychological well-being respectively, and examined the mediating effect of work-family relationship (both enrichment and conflict). An online survey was conducted. The results showed that: (1) The top five character strengths of Chinese employees were gratitude, citizenship, kindness, appreciation of beauty and excellence, justice, while the bottom five ones were creativity, authenticity, bravery, spirituality, open-mindedness. (2) Subjective well-being was significantly correlated to courage, humanity, transcendence and justice. Work well-being was significantly correlated to wisdom, courage, humanity, justice and transcendence. Psychological well-being was significantly correlated to all the above five character strengths and temperance. (3) Wisdom and humanity influenced Chinese employees’ subjective well-being through work-family enrichment. Justice enhanced psychological well-being via work-family enrichment; meanwhile, it also played a positive role in subjective well-being, work well-being, and psychological well-being by decreasing the family-work conflict. At the end of this paper, some theoretical and practical contributions to organizational management were further discussed.

Keywords: character strengths, work-family conflict, work-family enrichment, employee well-being, work well-being

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11 A Study of Level of Happiness in Orphans of Patna District

Authors: Riya Kartikee, Uday Shankar


Background –.Happiness refers to a range of the balance of positive and pleasant emotions of joy, pride, contentment, gratitude, and living with ethics. Happiness is an experience combined with a sense that one’s life is good, meaningful, and worth a while, but in the context of orphans who have lost their birthgivers, their parents who play an important role in bringing necessities and comfort to them, but many terms of the above phases are missing in the life of orphan So, stress increases because of lack of love, attention, sympathy, care, they experience many kind of trauma and also in some cases their lives get worst as they face some physiological abuse, sexual abuse, they are forced to have stress at a not only mentally but physically also in the context of Patna, Bihar where many people are below poverty line, lack of resources is a normal condition for the Orphanages.AIM- The present study was intended to study the level of Happiness among the orphans of Patna District, also it was attempted to find the role of happiness in their lives as an individual.Method- The sample of 70 Orphans in the age group of 12 to 18 years were taken from the orphanages of Patna district-Apnaghar, Rainbow homes, etc. Purposive sampling was used in the study, There has been one research tool used in the study, which is Happiness scale by Dr.R.L Bhardwaj and Dr.Poonam R Das. Results- Results have revealed that Orphans have possessed a very low level of happiness and unhappiness was related due to their living conditions in the orphanage.Conclusion-It can be stated that the Level of happiness is an important missing determinant in the lives of orphans.

Keywords: happiness, orphans, patna, orphanage

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10 Tom Stoppard: The Amorality of the Artist

Authors: Majeed Mohammed Midhin, Clare Finburgh


To maintain a healthy balanced loyalty between art and politics posits a debatable issue. The artist is always on the look out for the potential tension between those two realms. Therefore, one of the most painful dilemmas the artist finds is how to function in a society without sacrificing the aesthetic values of his/her work. In other words, the life-long awareness of failure which derives from the concept of the artist as caught between unflattering social realities and the need to invent genuine art forms becomes a fertilizing soil for the artists to dig deep into its origin. Thus, within the framework of this dilemma, the question of the responsibility of the artist and the relationship of the art to politics will be illuminating. The present paper tackles the idea of the amorality of the artist in selected plays by Tom Stoppard. However, Stoppard’s awareness of his situation as a refugee has led him to keep at a distance from politics. He tried hard to avoid any intervention into the realms of political debate, especially in his earliest work. On the one hand, it is not meant that he did not interest in politics as such, but rather he preferred to question it than to create a fixed ideological position. On the other hand, Stoppard’s refusal to intervene in politics is ascribed to his feeling of gratitude to Britain where he settled. As a result, Stoppard has frequently been criticized for a lack of political engagement and also for not leaning too much for the left when he does engage. His reaction to these public criticisms finds expression in his self-conscious statements which defensively stressed the artifice of his work. He, like Oscar Wilde thinks that the responsibility of the artist is devoted to the realm of his/her art. Consequently, his consciousness for the role of the artist is truly reflected in his two plays, Artist Descending a Staircase(1972) and Travesties(1974).

Keywords: amorality, dilemma, aesthetic, responsibility of the artist, political theatre

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9 In the Eyes of Basilyo at Crispin: A Phenomenological Lived Experience of the Filipino Children of Parents with Mental Illness

Authors: Cely D. Magpantay, Geolynne Marie Adel, Cire-rine Mae Concepcion, Dessa Jean Orcajada, Jorgette Andrea Santos, Orian Laurace Canaman


Mental illness initiative is very relevant in promoting the Mental Health Bill act of 2017. In the Philippines alone, the public is more open and receptive to people at risks with a mental condition. Although it is uncommon that parents can become more psychologically unfit compared to their children, research shows that parents who are suffering from mental illness have a more significant negative effect than another family member. The impact of parent’s mental health can put their children more susceptible to acquire the same disorder. The aim of the study is to explore the lived experiences of children whose parents suffered from mental illness. It discusses how their parent's mental condition in, anyway, affects their psychological development. Using Phenomenological Qualitative Research, an in-depth, interview was conducted to five (5) consenting adults who lived with their parents diagnosed with a mental disorder. Results are clustered into four themes. The first theme is the negative emotion towards parents, the second theme is the psychosocial dynamics in caring for the patient, third is accepting the disease, and fourth is a general perspective on the family. Each themes is validated by experts and the participants. This theme generates subcomponent like isolation, shallow relationship and debt of gratitude. Along with these themes comes the fear of having a family emerged. There is a growing need to strengthen the family ties even more because of parent’s mental illness. Therefore, parental mental illness has an effect on the children’s psychological and social development.

Keywords: lived experience in Philippines, mental health, parental mental illness, psychosocial dynamics

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8 Great-Grandparents: Inter and Transgenerational Relationships Involved in the Family

Authors: Emily Schuler, Cristina M. S. B. Dias


The increase of human aging is a phenomenon observed in world scale and allows the experience of several roles within the family. Nowadays grandparents can see their grandchildren growing up and having children, becoming great-grandparents, and thus adding another generation in the network of relationships. Consequently, more and more multigenerational families are emerging, formed by four or even five generations, and therefore more vertically. Thus, the objective of this research was to understand the role of great-grandparents, as well as the intergenerational repercussions of this role in their lives and that of their relatives. More specifically it was intended: to analyze the meaning of being great-grandparents in the family, from the perspective of each generation; identify the activities performed by their great-grandparents; identify the legacy that the great-grandparents wish to convey; characterize the needs and feelings experienced by the great-grandparents and their families; understand intergenerational relations permeated by the presence of great-grandparents among family members. It is a multiple case study with four families consisting of four generations and a family with five generations, thus totaling twenty-two participants; three great-grandmothers, two great-grandfathers, and one great-great-grandmother. As for the other generations, five children, grandchildren, great-grandchildren, and a great-great-grandchild were interviewed. As a research instrument, a semi-directed interview was used, with a specific script for each generation, as well as a questionnaire with the sociodemographic data of the participants. The data were analyzed through thematic content analysis. The main results pointed out the following: 1) As for the feelings experienced when becoming great-grandparents, they reported joy, satisfaction, and gratitude; 2) The support provided by them, most of the time, is of the emotional type; 3) The family relationship appeared quite significant, being characterized especially in the form of visits; 4) Conflicts exist, but seem to be circumvented with wisdom and much respect; 5) The legacies transmitted by them are related to faith, solidarity, education, and order; 6) The meaning of being great-grandmother is intimately linked to the feeling of transcendence, the sense of having fulfilled the purpose of life and also its continuity in grandchildren and great-grandchildren. In other generations, the appreciation of the great-grandparents, perceived as wise people, has been observed and can contribute as teachers to the new generations. It is hoped to give visibility to this generation still little studied in our country.

Keywords: great-grandparents, intergenerational relation, multigenerational families, transgenerational legacies

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7 Psychometric Properties of Several New Positive Psychology Measures

Authors: Lauren Benyo Linford, Jared Warren, Jeremy Bekker, Gus Salazar


In order to accurately identify areas needing improvement and track growth, the availability of valid and reliable measures of different facets of well-being is vital. Because no specific measures currently exist for many facets of well-being, the purpose of this study was to construct and validate measures of the following constructs: Purpose, Values, Mindfulness, Savoring, Gratitude, Optimism, Supportive Relationships, Interconnectedness, Compassion, Community, Contribution, Engaged Living, Personal Growth, Flow Experiences, Self-Compassion, Exercise, Meditation, and an overall measure of subjective well-being—the Survey on Flourishing. In order to assess their psychometric properties, each measure was examined for internal consistency estimates, and items with poor item-test correlations were dropped. Additionally, the convergent validity of the Survey on Flourishing (SURF) was assessed. Total score correlations of SURF and other commonly used measures of well-being such as the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS), The Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS), the PERMA Profiler (measure of Positive Emotion, Engagement, Relationships, Meaning, and Achievement) were examined to establish convergent validity. The Kessler Psychological distress scale (K6) was also included to determine the divergent validity of the SURF measure. Three week test-retest reliability was also assessed for the SURF measure. Additionally, normative data from general population samples was collected for both the Self-Compassion and Survey on Flourishing (SURF) measures. The purpose of this study is to introduce each of these measures, divulge the psychometric findings of this study, as well as explore additional psychometric properties of the SURF measure in particular. This study will highlight how these measures can be used in future research exploring these positive psychology constructs. Additionally, this study will discuss the utility of these measures to guide individuals in their use of the online self-directed, self-administered My Best Self 101 positive psychology resources developed by the researchers. The goal of My Best Self 101 is to disseminate real, research-based measures and tools to individuals who are seeking to increase their well-being.

Keywords: measurement, psychometrics, test validation, well-Being

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6 Impact of Positive Psychology Education and Interventions on Well-Being: A Study of Students Engaged in Pastoral Care

Authors: Inna R. Edara, Haw-Lin Wu


Positive psychology investigates human strengths and virtues and promotes well-being. Relying on this assumption, positive interventions have been continuously designed to build pleasure and happiness, joy and contentment, engagement and meaning, hope and optimism, satisfaction and gratitude, spirituality, and various other positive measures of well-being. In line with this model of positive psychology and interventions, this study investigated certain measures of well-being in a group of 45 students enrolled in an 18-week positive psychology course and simultaneously engaged in service-oriented interventions that they chose for themselves based on the course content and individual interests. Students’ well-being was measured at the beginning and end of the course. The well-being indicators included positive automatic thoughts, optimism and hope, satisfaction with life, and spirituality. A paired-samples t-test conducted to evaluate the impact of class content and service-oriented interventions on students’ scores of well-being indicators indicated statistically significant increase from pre-class to post-class scores. There were also significant gender differences in post-course well-being scores, with females having higher levels of well-being than males. A two-way between groups analysis of variance indicated a significant interaction effect of age by gender on the post-course well-being scores, with females in the age group of 56-65 having the highest scores of well-being in comparison to the males in the same age group. Regression analyses indicated that positive automatic thought significantly predicted hope and satisfaction with life in the pre-course analysis. In the post-course regression analysis, spiritual transcendence made a significant contribution to optimism, and positive automatic thought made a significant contribution to both hope and satisfaction with life. Finally, a significant test between pre-course and post-course regression coefficients indicated that the regression coefficients at pre-course were significantly different from post-course coefficients, suggesting that the positive psychology course and the interventions were helpful in raising the levels of well-being. The overall results suggest a substantial increase in the participants’ well-being scores after engaging in the positive-oriented interventions, implying a need for designing more positive interventions in education to promote well-being.  

Keywords: hope, optimism, positive automatic thoughts, satisfaction with life, spirituality, well-being

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5 The Tradition of Drinking Tuak in Batak Society againts the Law of Alcohol Usage in Indonesia

Authors: Siti Hazar Sitorus, Marini Kristina Situmeang, Mukhammad Fatkhullah, Arfan Fadli


This study aims to examine how the Batak tribe in the Village Lumban Sitorus Parmaksian District, Toba Samosir (Tobasa) interpret the culture of drinking Tuak as a social interaction. This research uses qualitative method with case study approach. Through this approach, the researchers obtained primary data by looking at and observing the social interaction that occurs when the activity of drinking tuak takes place on the daily life of the Batak Toba community in the village of Lumban Sitorus. The technique of data collecting is done by observation and in-depth interview. This study focuses on Batak Toba community, especially men who daily drink tuak. The results obtained from this study is Batak Toba society has a habit of drinking Tuak (a type of alcoholic beverage derived from water sapphire juice that is fermented). In Batak Toba society, tuak is not only considered as an alcoholic drink which is usually drunk in the afternoon at lapotuak (tuak shop), but tuak is also understood as a drink of honor in a traditional party at Toba Batak society. On the other hand, the activity of drinking of tuak was also considered as a medium or a means of connecting the formation of a sense of solidarity among the people of LumbanSitorous Village. In its existence, drinking tuak is defined as a mean that can facilitate the establishment to open communication with fellow members of Batak Toba community, such as at leisure, birth party, death or as medicine. Specifically, tuak in a special sense in Batak Toba society is also a symbol of intimacy, gratitude, and respect which is manifested in the activity of daily drinking tuak. In Indonesia, if we refer to the Criminal Code in articles 300 and 536 it is clear that whoever intentionally sells and consumes intoxicating / alcoholic drinks will be subject to a maximum jail term of one year. It became interesting then when looking at Indonesia as a country that has a diversity of cultures in which the law implies the prohibition of alcoholic / intoxicating beverages. However, the existence of drinking of tuak as a drink that categorized intoxicating in Batak Toba society still continues to.

Keywords: tradition of drinking tuak, meaning of tuak, Batak society, cultural studies

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4 Building Student Empowerment through Live Commercial Projects: A Reflective Account of Participants

Authors: Nilanthi Ratnayake, Wen-Ling Liu


Prior research indicates an increasing gap between the skills and capabilities of graduates in the contemporary workplace across the globe. The challenge of addressing this issue primarily lies on the hands of higher education institutes/universities. In particular, surveys of UK employers and retailers found that soft skills including communication, numeracy, teamwork, confidence, analytical ability, digital/IT skills, business sense, language, and social skills are highly valued by graduate employers, and in achieving this, there are various assessed and non-assessed learning exercises have already been embedded into the university curriculum. To this end, this research study aims to explore the reflections of postgraduate student participation in a live commercial project (i.e. designing an advertising campaign for open days, summer school etc.) implemented with the intention of offering a transformative experience by deploying this project. Qualitative research methodology has been followed in this study, collecting data from three types of target audiences; students, academics and employers via a series of personal interviews and focus group discussions. Recorded data were transcribed, entered into NVIVO, and analysed using meaning condensation and content analysis. Students reported that they had a very positive impact towards improving self-efficacy, especially in relation to soft skills and confidence in seeking employment opportunities. In addition, this project has reduced cultural barriers for international students in general communications. Academic staff and potential employers who attended on the presentation day expressed their gratitude for offering a lifelong experience for students, and indeed believed that these type of projects contribute significantly to enhance skills and capabilities of students to cater the demands of employers. In essence, key findings demonstrate that an integration of knowledge-based skills into a live commercial project facilitate individuals to make the transition from education to employment in terms of skills, abilities and work behaviours more effectively in comparison to some other activities/assuagements that are currently in place in higher education institutions/universities.

Keywords: soft skills, commercially live project, higher education, student participation

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3 A Comparative Study on Compliment Response between Indonesian EFL Students and English Native Speakers

Authors: Maria F. Seran


In second language interaction, an EFL student always carries his knowledge of targeted language and sometimes gets influenced by his first language cultures which makes him transfer his utterances from the first language to the second language. The influence of L1 cultures somehow can lead to face-threatening act when it comes to responding on speech act, for instance, compliment. A speaker praises a compliment to show gratitude, and in return, he expects for compliment respond uttered by the hearer. While Western people use more acceptance continuum on compliment response, Indonesians utter more denial continuum which can somehow put the speakers into a face-threating situation and offense. This study investigated compliment response employed by EFL students and English native speakers. The study was distinct as none compliment response studies had been conducted to compare the compliment response between English native speakers and two different Indonesian EFL proficiency groups in which this research sought to meet this need. This study was significant for EFL teachers because it gave insight on cross-cultural understanding and brought pedagogical implication on explicit pragmatic instruction. Two research questions were set, 1. How do Indonesian EFL students and English native speakers respond compliments? 2. Is there any correlation between Indonesia EFL students’ proficiency and their compliment response use in English? The study involved three groups of participants; 5 English native speakers, 10 high-proficiency and 10 low-proficiency Indonesian EFL university students. The research instruments used in this study were as follows, an online TOEFL prediction test, focusing on grammar skill which was modified from Barron TOEFL exercise test, and a discourse completion task (DCT), consisting of 10 compliment respond items. Based on the research invitation, 20 second-year university students majoring in English education at Widya Mandira Catholic University, Kupang, East Nusa Tenggara, Indonesia who willingly participated in the research took the TOEFL prediction test online from the link provided. Students who achieved score 75-100 in test were categorized as high-proficiency students, while, students who attained score below 74 were considered as low-proficiency students. Then, the DCT survey was administered to these EFL groups and the native speaker group. Participants’ responses were coded and analyzed using categories of compliment response framework proposed by Tran. The study found out that 5 native speakers applied more compliment upgrades and appreciation token in compliment response, whereas, Indonesian EFL students combined some compliment response strategies in their utterance, such as, appreciation token, return and compliment downgrade. There is no correlation between students’ proficiency level and their CR responds as most EFL students in both groups produced less varied compliment responses and only 4 Indonesian high-proficiency students uttered more varied and were similar to the native speakers. The combination strategies used by EFL students can be explained as the influence of pragmatic transfer from L1 to L2; therefore, EFL teachers should explicitly teach more compliment response strategies to raise students’ awareness on English culture and elaborate their speaking to be more competence as close to native speakers as possible.

Keywords: compliment response, English native speakers, Indonesian EFL students, speech acts

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2 Multicomponent Positive Psychology Intervention for Health Promotion of Retirees: A Feasibility Study

Authors: Helen Durgante, Mariana F. Sparremberger, Flavia C. Bernardes, Debora D. DellAglio


Health promotion programmes for retirees, based on Positive Psychology perspectives for the development of strengths and virtues, demand broadened empirical investigation in Brazil. In the case of evidence-based applied research, it is suggested feasibility studies are conducted prior to efficacy trials of the intervention, in order to identify and rectify possible faults in the design and implementation of the intervention. The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of a multicomponent Positive Psychology programme for health promotion of retirees, based on Cognitive Behavioural Therapy and Positive Psychology perspectives. The programme structure included six weekly group sessions (two hours each) encompassing strengths such as Values and self-care, Optimism, Empathy, Gratitude, Forgiveness, and Meaning of life and work. The feasibility criteria evaluated were: Demand, Acceptability, Satisfaction with the programme and with the moderator, Comprehension/Generalization of contents, Evaluation of the moderator (Social Skills and Integrity/Fidelity), Adherence, and programme implementation. Overall, 11 retirees (F=11), age range 54-75, from the metropolitan region of Porto Alegre-RS-Brazil took part in the study. The instruments used were: Qualitative Admission Questionnaire; Moderator Field Diary; the Programme Evaluation Form to assess participants satisfaction with the programme and with the moderator (a six-item 4-point likert scale), and Comprehension/Generalization of contents (a three-item 4-point likert scale); Observers’ Evaluation Form to assess the moderator Social Skills (a five-item 4-point likert scale), Integrity/Fidelity (a 10 item 4-point likert scale), and Adherence (a nine-item 5-point likert scale). Qualitative data were analyzed using content analysis. Descriptive statistics as well as Intraclass Correlations coefficients were used for quantitative data and inter-rater reliability analysis. The results revealed high demand (N = 55 interested people) and acceptability (n = 10 concluded the programme with overall 88.3% frequency rate), satisfaction with the program and with the moderator (X = 3.76, SD = .34), and participants self-report of Comprehension/Generalization of contents provided in the programme (X = 2.82, SD = .51). In terms of the moderator Social Skills (X = 3.93; SD = .40; ICC = .752 [IC = .429-.919]), Integrity/Fidelity (X = 3.93; SD = .31; ICC = .936 [IC = .854-.981]), and participants Adherence (X = 4.90; SD = .29; ICC = .906 [IC = .783-.969]), evaluated by two independent observers present in each session of the programme, descriptive and Intraclass Correlation results were considered adequate. Structural changes were introduced in the intervention design and implementation methods, as well as the removal of items from questionnaires and evaluation forms. The obtained results were satisfactory, allowing changes to be made for further efficacy trials of the programme. Results are discussed taking cultural and contextual demands in Brazil into account.

Keywords: feasibility study, health promotion, positive psychology intervention, programme evaluation, retirees

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1 Disseminating Positive Psychology Resources Online: Current Research and Future Directions

Authors: Warren Jared, Bekker Jeremy, Salazar Guy, Jackman Katelyn, Linford Lauren


Introduction: Positive Psychology research has burgeoned in the past 20 years; however, relatively few evidence-based resources to cultivate positive psychology skills are widely available to the general public. The positive psychology resources at were developed to assist individuals in cultivating well-being using a variety of techniques, including gratitude, purpose, mindfulness, self-compassion, savoring, personal growth, and supportive relationships. These resources are empirically based and are built to be accessible to a broad audience. Key Objectives: This presentation highlights results from two recent randomized intervention studies of specific MBS101 learning modules. A key objective of this research is to empirically assess the efficacy and usability of these online resources. Another objective of this research is to encourage the broad dissemination of online positive psychology resources; thus, recommendations for further research and dissemination will be discussed. Methods: In both interventions, we recruited adult participants using social media advertisements. The participants completed several well-being and positive psychology construct-specific measures (savoring and self-compassion measures) at baseline and post-intervention. Participants in the experimental condition were also given a feedback questionnaire to gather qualitative data on how participants viewed the modules. Participants in the self-compassion study were randomly split between an experimental group, who received the treatment, and a control group, who were placed on a waitlist. There was no control group for the savoring study. Participants were instructed to read content on the module and practice savoring or self-compassion strategies listed in the module for a minimum of twenty minutes a day for 21 days. The intervention was semi-structured, as participants were free to choose which module activities they would complete from a menu of research-based strategies. Participants tracked which activities they completed and how long they spent on the modules each day. Results: In the savoring study, participants increased in savoring ability as indicated by multiple measures. In addition, participants increased in well-being from pre- to post-treatment. In the self-compassion study, repeated measures mixed model analyses revealed that compared to waitlist controls, participants who used the MBS101 self-compassion module experienced significant improvements in self-compassion, well-being, and body image with effect sizes ranging from medium to large. Attrition was 10.5% for the self-compassion study and 71% for the savoring study. Overall, participants indicated that the modules were generally helpful, and they particularly appreciated the specific strategy menus. Participants requested more structured course activities, more interactive content, and more practice activities overall. Recommendations: is an applied positive psychology research program that shows promise as a model for effectively disseminating evidence-based positive psychology resources that are both engaging and easily accessible. Considerable research is still needed, both to test the efficacy and usability of the modules currently available and to improve them based on participant feedback. Feedback received from participants in the randomized controlled trial led to the development of an expanded, 30-day online course called The Gift of Self-Compassion and an online mindfulness course currently in development called Mindfulness For Humans.

Keywords: positive psychology, intervention, online resources, self-compassion, dissemination, online curriculum

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