Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2655

Search results for: open volumetric air receiver

2655 Modeling and Design of a Solar Thermal Open Volumetric Air Receiver

Authors: Piyush Sharma, Laltu Chandra, P. S. Ghoshdastidar, Rajiv Shekhar


Metals processing operations such as melting and heat treatment of metals are energy-intensive, requiring temperatures greater than 500oC. The desired temperature in these industrial furnaces is attained by circulating electrically-heated air. In most of these furnaces, electricity produced from captive coal-based thermal power plants is used. Solar thermal energy could be a viable heat source in these furnaces. A retrofitted solar convective furnace (SCF) concept, which uses solar thermal generated hot air, has been proposed. Critical to the success of a SCF is the design of an open volumetric air receiver (OVAR), which can heat air in excess of 800oC. The OVAR is placed on top of a tower and receives concentrated solar radiation from a heliostat field. Absorbers, mixer assembly, and the return air flow chamber (RAFC) are the major components of an OVAR. The absorber is a porous structure that transfers heat from concentrated solar radiation to ambient air, referred to as primary air. The mixer ensures uniform air temperature at the receiver exit. Flow of the relatively cooler return air in the RAFC ensures that the absorbers do not fail by overheating. In an earlier publication, the detailed design basis, fabrication, and characterization of a 2 kWth open volumetric air receiver (OVAR) based laboratory solar air tower simulator was presented. Development of an experimentally-validated, CFD based mathematical model which can ultimately be used for the design and scale-up of an OVAR has been the major objective of this investigation. In contrast to the published literature, where flow and heat transfer have been modeled primarily in a single absorber module, the present study has modeled the entire receiver assembly, including the RAFC. Flow and heat transfer calculations have been carried out in ANSYS using the LTNE model. The complex return air flow pattern in the RAFC requires complicated meshes and is computational and time intensive. Hence a simple, realistic 1-D mathematical model, which circumvents the need for carrying out detailed flow and heat transfer calculations, has also been proposed. Several important results have emerged from this investigation. Circumferential electrical heating of absorbers can mimic frontal heating by concentrated solar radiation reasonably well in testing and characterizing the performance of an OVAR. Circumferential heating, therefore, obviates the need for expensive high solar concentration simulators. Predictions suggest that the ratio of power on aperture (POA) and mass flow rate of air (MFR) is a normalizing parameter for characterizing the thermal performance of an OVAR. Increasing POA/MFR increases the maximum temperature of air, but decreases the thermal efficiency of an OVAR. Predictions of the 1-D mathematical are within 5% of ANSYS predictions and computation time is reduced from ~ 5 hours to a few seconds.

Keywords: absorbers, mixer assembly, open volumetric air receiver, return air flow chamber, solar thermal energy

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2654 A 1.57ghz Mixer Design for GPS Receiver

Authors: Hamd Ahmed


During the Persian Gulf War in 1991s, The confederation forces were surprised when they were being shot at by friendly forces in Iraqi desert. As obvious was the fact that they were mislead due to the lack of proper guidance and technology resulting in unnecessary loss of life and bloodshed. This unforeseen incident along with many others led the US department of defense to open the doors of GPS. In the very beginning, this technology was for military use, but now it is being widely used and increasingly popular among the public due to its high accuracy and immeasurable significance. The GPS system simply consists of three segments, the space segment (the satellite), the control segment (ground control) and the user segment (receiver). This project work is about designing a 1.57GHZ mixer for triple conversion GPS receiver .The GPS Front-End receiver based on super heterodyne receiver which improves selectivity and image frequency. However the main principle of the super heterodyne receiver depends on the mixer. Many different types of mixers (single balanced mixer, Single Ended mixer, Double balanced mixer) can be used with GPS receiver, it depends on the required specifications. This research project will provide an overview of the GPS system and details about the basic architecture of the GPS receiver. The basic emphasis of this report in on investigating general concept of the mixer circuit some terms related to the mixer along with their definitions and present the types of mixer, then gives some advantages of using singly balanced mixer and its application. The focus of this report is on how to design mixer for GPS receiver and discussing the simulation results.

Keywords: GPS , RF filter, heterodyne, mixer

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2653 Design of Low Power FSK Receiver

Authors: M. Aeysha Parvin, J. Asha, J. Jenifer


This letter presents a novel frequency-shift keying(FSK) receiver using PLL-based FSK demodulator, thereby achieving high sensitivity and low power consumption. The proposed receiver comprises a power amplifier, mixer, 3-stage ring oscillator, PLL based demodulator. Moreover, the proposed receiver is fabricated using 0.12µm CMOS process and consumes 0.7Mw. Measurement results demonstrate that the proposed receiver has a sensitivity of -93dbm with 1Mbps data rate in receiving a 2.4 GHz FSK signal.

Keywords: CMOS FSK receiver, phase locked loop (PLL), 3-stage ring oscillator, FSK signal

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2652 Is It Important to Measure the Volumetric Mass Density of Nanofluids?

Authors: Z. Haddad, C. Abid, O. Rahli, O. Margeat, W. Dachraoui, A. Mataoui


The present study aims to measure the volumetric mass density of NiPd-heptane nanofluids synthesized using a one-step method known as thermal decomposition of metal-surfactant complexes. The particle concentration is up to 7.55 g/l and the temperature range of the experiment is from 20°C to 50°C. The measured values were compared with the mixture theory and good agreement between the theoretical equation and measurement were obtained. Moreover, the available nanofluids volumetric mass density data in the literature is reviewed.

Keywords: NiPd nanoparticles, nanofluids, volumetric mass density, stability

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2651 Numerical Study of Natural Convection in Isothermal Open Cavities

Authors: Gaurav Prabhudesai, Gaetan Brill


The sun's energy source comes from a hydrogen-to-helium thermonuclear reaction, generating a temperature of about 5760 K on its outer layer. On account of this high temperature, energy is radiated by the sun, a part of which reaches the earth. This sunlight, even after losing part of its energy en-route to scattering and absorption, provides a time and space averaged solar flux of 174.7 W/m^2 striking the earth’s surface. According to one study, the solar energy striking earth’s surface in one and a half hour is more than the energy consumption that was recorded in the year 2001 from all sources combined. Thus, technology for extraction of solar energy holds much promise for solving energy crisis. Of the many technologies developed in this regard, Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) plants with central solar tower and receiver system are very impressive because of their capability to provide a renewable energy that can be stored in the form of heat. One design of central receiver towers is an open cavity where sunlight is concentrated into by using mirrors (also called heliostats). This concentrated solar flux produces high temperature inside the cavity which can be utilized in an energy conversion process. The amount of energy captured is reduced by losses occurring at the cavity through all three modes viz., radiation to the atmosphere, conduction to the adjoining structure and convection. This study investigates the natural convection losses to the environment from the receiver. Computational fluid dynamics were used to simulate the fluid flow and heat transfer of the receiver; since no analytical solution can be obtained and no empirical correlations exist for the given geometry. The results provide guide lines for predicting natural convection losses for hexagonal and circular shaped open cavities. Additionally, correlations are given for various inclination angles and aspect ratios. These results provide methods to minimize natural convection through careful design of receiver geometry and modification of the inclination angle, and aspect ratio of the cavity.

Keywords: concentrated solar power (CSP), central receivers, natural convection, CFD, open cavities

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2650 A Low-Power, Low-Noise and High-Gain 58~66 GHz CMOS Receiver Front-End for Short-Range High-Speed Wireless Communications

Authors: Yo-Sheng Lin, Jen-How Lee, Chien-Chin Wang


A 60-GHz receiver front-end using standard 90-nm CMOS technology is reported. The receiver front-end comprises a wideband low-noise amplifier (LNA), and a double-balanced Gilbert cell mixer with a current-reused RF single-to-differential (STD) converter, an LO Marchand balun and a baseband amplifier. The receiver front-end consumes 34.4 mW and achieves LO-RF isolation of 60.7 dB, LO-IF isolation of 45.3 dB and RF-IF isolation of 41.9 dB at RF of 60 GHz and LO of 59.9 GHz. At IF of 0.1 GHz, the receiver front-end achieves maximum conversion gain (CG) of 26.1 dB at RF of 64 GHz and CG of 25.2 dB at RF of 60 GHz. The corresponding 3-dB bandwidth of RF is 7.3 GHz (58.4 GHz to 65.7 GHz). The measured minimum noise figure was 5.6 dB at 64 GHz, one of the best results ever reported for a 60 GHz CMOS receiver front-end. In addition, the measured input 1-dB compression point and input third-order inter-modulation point are -33.1 dBm and -23.3 dBm, respectively, at 60 GHz. These results demonstrate the proposed receiver front-end architecture is very promising for 60 GHz direct-conversion transceiver applications.

Keywords: CMOS, 60 GHz, direct-conversion transceiver, LNA, down-conversion mixer, marchand balun, current-reused

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2649 Effects of Dimensional Sizes of Mould on the Volumetric Shrinkage Strain of Lateric Soil

Authors: John E. Sani, Moses George


The paper presents the result of a laboratory study carried out on lateritic soil to determine the effects of dimensional size on the volumetric shrinkage strain (VSS) using three mould sizes i.e. split former mould, proctor mould and California bearing ratio (CBR) mould at three energy levels; British standard light (BSL), West African standard (WAS) and British standard heavy (BSH) respectively. Compactions were done at different molding water content of -2 % to +6 % optimum moisture content (OMC). At -2% to +2% molding water content for the split former mould the volumetric shrinkage strain met the requirement of not more than 4% while at +4% and +6% only the WAS and BSH met the requirement. The proctor mould and the CBR mould on the other hand gave a lower value of volumetric shrinkage strain in all compactive effort and the values are lower than the 4% safe VSS value.

Keywords: lateritic soil, volumetric shrinkage strain, molding water content, compactive effort

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2648 Thermal Radiation Effect on Mixed Convection Boundary Layer Flow over a Vertical Plate with Varying Density and Volumetric Expansion Coefficient

Authors: Sadia Siddiqa, Z. Khan, M. A. Hossain


In this article, the effect of thermal radiation on mixed convection boundary layer flow of a viscous fluid along a highly heated vertical flat plate is considered with varying density and volumetric expansion coefficient. The density of the fluid is assumed to vary exponentially with temperature, however; volumetric expansion coefficient depends linearly on temperature. Boundary layer equations are transformed into convenient form by introducing primitive variable formulations. Solutions of transformed system of equations are obtained numerically through implicit finite difference method along with Gaussian elimination technique. Results are discussed in view of various parameters, like thermal radiation parameter, volumetric expansion parameter and density variation parameter on the wall shear stress and heat transfer rate. It is concluded from the present investigation that increase in volumetric expansion parameter decreases wall shear stress and enhances heat transfer rate.

Keywords: thermal radiation, mixed convection, variable density, variable volumetric expansion coefficient

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2647 The Secrecy Capacity of the Semi-Deterministic Wiretap Channel with Three State Information

Authors: Mustafa El-Halabi


A general model of wiretap channel with states is considered, where the legitimate receiver and the wiretapper’s observations depend on three states S1, S2 and S3. State S1 is non-causally known to the encoder, S2 is known to the receiver, and S3 remains unknown. A secure coding scheme, based using structured-binning, is proposed, and it is shown to achieve the secrecy capacity when the signal at legitimate receiver is a deterministic function of the input.

Keywords: physical layer security, interference, side information, secrecy capacity

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2646 QI Wireless Charging a Scope of Magnetic Inductive Coupling

Authors: Sreenesh Shashidharan, Umesh Gaikwad


QI or 'Chee' which is an interface standard for inductive electrical power transfer over distances of up to 4 cm (1.6 inches). The Qi system comprises a power transmission pad and a compatible receiver in a portable device which is placed on top of the power transmission pad, which charges using the principle of electromagnetic induction. An alternating current is passed through the transmitter coil, generating a magnetic field. This, in turn, induces a voltage in the receiver coil; this can be used to power a mobile device or charge a battery. The efficiency of the power transfer depends on the coupling (k) between the inductors and their quality (Q) The coupling is determined by the distance between the inductors (z) and the relative size (D2 /D). The coupling is further determined by the shape of the coils and the angle between them. If the receiver coil is at a certain distance to the transmitter coil, only a fraction of the magnetic flux, which is generated by the transmitter coil, penetrates the receiver coil and contributes to the power transmission. The more flux reaches the receiver, the better the coils are coupled.

Keywords: inductive electric power, electromagnetic induction, magnetic flux, coupling

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2645 Technology Planning with Internal and External Resource for Open Innovation

Authors: Jeonghwan Jeon


Technology planning with both internal capacity and external resource is necessary for successful open innovation. Until now, many types of research have been conducted for this issue. However, technology planning for open innovation at the national level has not been researched sufficiently. This study proposes Open roadmap for open innovation at the national level. The proposed open roadmap can manage the inflow & outflow open innovation systematically. Six types of open roadmap are classified with respect to the innovation direction and characteristics. The proposed open roadmap is applied to the open innovation cases of the Roman period. The proposed open roadmap is expected to be helpful tool for technology policy planning at the national level.

Keywords: technology planning, open innovation, internal resource, external resource, technology management

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2644 3D Receiver Operator Characteristic Histogram

Authors: Xiaoli Zhang, Xiongfei Li, Yuncong Feng


ROC curves, as a widely used evaluating tool in machine learning field, are the tradeoff of true positive rate and negative rate. However, they are blamed for ignoring some vital information in the evaluation process, such as the amount of information about the target that each instance carries, predicted score given by each classification model to each instance. Hence, in this paper, a new classification performance method is proposed by extending the Receiver Operator Characteristic (ROC) curves to 3D space, which is denoted as 3D ROC Histogram. In the histogram, the

Keywords: classification, performance evaluation, receiver operating characteristic histogram, hardness prediction

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2643 Performance Demonstration of Extendable NSPO Space-Borne GPS Receiver

Authors: Hung-Yuan Chang, Wen-Lung Chiang, Kuo-Liang Wu, Chen-Tsung Lin


National Space Organization (NSPO) has completed in 2014 the development of a space-borne GPS receiver, including design, manufacture, comprehensive functional test, environmental qualification test and so on. The main performance of this receiver include 8-meter positioning accuracy, 0.05 m/sec speed-accuracy, the longest 90 seconds of cold start time, and up to 15g high dynamic scenario. The receiver will be integrated in the autonomous FORMOSAT-7 NSPO-Built satellite scheduled to be launched in 2019 to execute pre-defined scientific missions. The flight model of this receiver manufactured in early 2015 will pass comprehensive functional tests and environmental acceptance tests, etc., which are expected to be completed by the end of 2015. The space-borne GPS receiver is a pure software design in which all GPS baseband signal processing are executed by a digital signal processor (DSP), currently only 50% of its throughput being used. In response to the booming global navigation satellite systems, NSPO will gradually expand this receiver to become a multi-mode, multi-band, high-precision navigation receiver, and even a science payload, such as the reflectometry receiver of a global navigation satellite system. The fundamental purpose of this extension study is to port some software algorithms such as signal acquisition and correlation, reused code and large amount of computation load to the FPGA whose processor is responsible for operational control, navigation solution, and orbit propagation and so on. Due to the development and evolution of the FPGA is pretty fast, the new system architecture upgraded via an FPGA should be able to achieve the goal of being a multi-mode, multi-band high-precision navigation receiver, or scientific receiver. Finally, the results of tests show that the new system architecture not only retains the original overall performance, but also sets aside more resources available for future expansion possibility. This paper will explain the detailed DSP/FPGA architecture, development, test results, and the goals of next development stage of this receiver.

Keywords: space-borne, GPS receiver, DSP, FPGA, multi-mode multi-band

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2642 Micromechanical Modelling of Ductile Damage with a Cohesive-Volumetric Approach

Authors: Noe Brice Nkoumbou Kaptchouang, Pierre-Guy Vincent, Yann Monerie


The present work addresses the modelling and the simulation of crack initiation and propagation in ductile materials which failed by void nucleation, growth, and coalescence. One of the current research frameworks on crack propagation is the use of cohesive-volumetric approach where the crack growth is modelled as a decohesion of two surfaces in a continuum material. In this framework, the material behavior is characterized by two constitutive relations, the volumetric constitutive law relating stress and strain, and a traction-separation law across a two-dimensional surface embedded in the three-dimensional continuum. Several cohesive models have been proposed for the simulation of crack growth in brittle materials. On the other hand, the application of cohesive models in modelling crack growth in ductile material is still a relatively open field. One idea developed in the literature is to identify the traction separation for ductile material based on the behavior of a continuously-deforming unit cell failing by void growth and coalescence. Following this method, the present study proposed a semi-analytical cohesive model for ductile material based on a micromechanical approach. The strain localization band prior to ductile failure is modelled as a cohesive band, and the Gurson-Tvergaard-Needleman plasticity model (GTN) is used to model the behavior of the cohesive band and derived a corresponding traction separation law. The numerical implementation of the model is realized using the non-smooth contact method (NSCD) where cohesive models are introduced as mixed boundary conditions between each volumetric finite element. The present approach is applied to the simulation of crack growth in nuclear ferritic steel. The model provides an alternative way to simulate crack propagation using the numerical efficiency of cohesive model with a traction separation law directly derived from porous continuous model.

Keywords: ductile failure, cohesive model, GTN model, numerical simulation

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2641 Artificial Neural Network in Predicting the Soil Response in the Discrete Element Method Simulation

Authors: Zhaofeng Li, Jun Kang Chow, Yu-Hsing Wang


This paper attempts to bridge the soil properties and the mechanical response of soil in the discrete element method (DEM) simulation. The artificial neural network (ANN) was therefore adopted, aiming to reproduce the stress-strain-volumetric response when soil properties are given. 31 biaxial shearing tests with varying soil parameters (e.g., initial void ratio and interparticle friction coefficient) were generated using the DEM simulations. Based on these 45 sets of training data, a three-layer neural network was established which can output the entire stress-strain-volumetric curve during the shearing process from the input soil parameters. Beyond the training data, 2 additional sets of data were generated to examine the validity of the network, and the stress-strain-volumetric curves for both cases were well reproduced using this network. Overall, the ANN was found promising in predicting the soil behavior and reducing repetitive simulation work.

Keywords: artificial neural network, discrete element method, soil properties, stress-strain-volumetric response

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2640 Pin Count Aware Volumetric Error Detection in Arbitrary Microfluidic Bio-Chip

Authors: Kunal Das, Priya Sengupta, Abhishek K. Singh


Pin assignment, scheduling, routing and error detection for arbitrary biochemical protocols in Digital Microfluidic Biochip have been reported in this paper. The research work is concentrating on pin assignment for 2 or 3 droplets routing in the arbitrary biochemical protocol, scheduling and routing in m × n biochip. The volumetric error arises due to droplet split in the biochip. The volumetric error detection is also addressed using biochip AND logic gate which is known as microfluidic AND or mAND gate. The algorithm for pin assignment for m × n biochip required m+n-1 numbers of pins. The basic principle of this algorithm is that no same pin will be allowed to be placed in the same column, same row and diagonal and adjacent cells. The same pin should be placed a distance apart such that interference becomes less. A case study also reported in this paper.

Keywords: digital microfludic biochip, cross-contamination, pin assignment, microfluidic AND gate

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2639 Numerical Investigation of Hot Oil Velocity Effect on Force Heat Convection and Impact of Wind Velocity on Convection Heat Transfer in Receiver Tube of Parabolic Trough Collector System

Authors: O. Afshar


A solar receiver is designed for operation under extremely uneven heat flux distribution, cyclic weather, and cloud transient cycle conditions, which can include large thermal stress and even receiver failure. In this study, the effect of different oil velocity on convection coefficient factor and impact of wind velocity on local Nusselt number by Finite Volume Method will be analyzed. This study is organized to give an overview of the numerical modeling using a MATLAB software, as an accurate, time efficient and economical way of analyzing the heat transfer trends over stationary receiver tube for different Reynolds number. The results reveal when oil velocity is below 0.33m/s, the value of convection coefficient is negligible at low temperature. The numerical graphs indicate that when oil velocity increases up to 1.2 m/s, heat convection coefficient increases significantly. In fact, a reduction in oil velocity causes a reduction in heat conduction through the glass envelope. In addition, the different local Nusselt number is reduced when the wind blows toward the concave side of the collector and it has a significant effect on heat losses reduction through the glass envelope.

Keywords: receiver tube, heat convection, heat conduction, Nusselt number

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2638 A Case Study of Open Source Development Practices within a Large Company Setting

Authors: Alma Orucevic-Alagic, Martin Höst


Open source communities have demonstrated that complex and enterprise grade software can be produced, supported, and maintained by self-organizing groups of developers using primarily electronic form of communication. Due to the inherent nature of open source development, a specific set of open source software development practices has evolved. While there is an ongoing research on the topic of applicability of open source development practices within a company setting, still little is known about their benefits and challenges. The objective of this research is to understand if and to what degree open source development practices observed within a mature open source community are aligned with development practices within a large software and hardware company setting. For the purpose of this case study a set of open source development practices that are present in a mature open source community has been identified. Then, development practices of a large, international, hardware and software company based in Sweden were assessed and compared to the identified open source community practices. It is shown that there are many similarities between a mature open source community and a large company setting in regard to software development practices. We also identify practices that exist in open source communities and that are not standard within a company setting, but whose implementation can result in an improved software development efficiency within the company setting.

Keywords: development practices, open source software, innersource, closed open source

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2637 Impact of Capture Effect on Receiver Initiated Collision Detection with Sequential Resolution in WLAN

Authors: Sethu Lekshmi, Shahanas, Prettha P.


All existing protocols in wireless networks are mainly based on Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision avoidance. By applying collision detection in wireless networks, the time spent on collision can be reduced and thus improves system throughput. However in a real WLAN scenario due to the use of nonlinear modulation techniques only receiver can decided whether a packet loss take place, even there are multiple transmissions. In this proposed method, the receiver or Access Point detects the collision when multiple data packets are transmitted from different wireless stations. Whenever the receiver detects a collision, it transmits a jamming signal to all the transmitting stations so that they can immediately stop their on-going transmissions. We also provide preferential access to all collided packet to reduce unfairness and to increase system throughput by reducing contention. However, this preferential access will not block the channel for the long time. Here, an in-band transmission is considered in which both the data frames and control frames are transmitted in the same channel. We also provide a simple mathematical model for the proposed protocol and give the simulation result of WLAN scenario under various capture thresholds.

Keywords: 802.11, WLAN, capture effect, collision detection, collision resolution, receiver initiated

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2636 Secure Content Centric Network

Authors: Syed Umair Aziz, Muhammad Faheem, Sameer Hussain, Faraz Idris


Content centric network is the network based on the mechanism of sending and receiving the data based on the interest and data request to the specified node (which has cached data). In this network, the security is bind with the content not with the host hence making it host independent and secure. In this network security is applied by taking content’s MAC (message authentication code) and encrypting it with the public key of the receiver. On the receiver end, the message is first verified and after verification message is saved and decrypted using the receiver's private key.

Keywords: content centric network, client-server, host security threats, message authentication code, named data network, network caching, peer-to-peer

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2635 Bank ATM Monitoring System Using IR Sensor

Authors: P. Saravanakumar, N. Raja, M. Rameshkumar, D. Mohankumar, R. Sateeshkumar, B. Maheshwari


This research work is designed using Microsoft VB. Net as front end and MySQL as back end. The project deals with secure the user transaction in the ATM system. This application contains the option for sending the failed transaction details to the particular customer by using the SMS. When the customer withdraws the amount from the Bank ATM system, sometimes the amount will not be dispatched but the amount will be debited to the particular account. This application is used to avoid this type of problems in the ATM system. In this proposed system using IR technique to detect the dispatched amount. IR Transmitter and IR Receiver are placed in the path of cash dispatch. It is connected each other through the IR signal. When the customers withdraw the amount in the ATM system then the amount will be dispatched or not is monitored by IR Receiver. If the amount will be dispatched then the signal will be interrupted between the IR Receiver and the IR Transmitter. At that time, the monitoring system will be reduced their particular withdraw amount on their account. If the cash will not be dispatched, the signal will not be interrupted, at that time the particular withdraw amount will not be reduced their account. If the transaction completed successfully, the transaction details such as withdraw amount and current balance can be sent to the customer via the SMS. If the transaction fails, the transaction failed message can be send to the customer.

Keywords: ATM system, monitoring system, IR Transmitter, IR Receiver

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2634 A SiGe Low Power RF Front-End Receiver for 5.8GHz Wireless Biomedical Application

Authors: Hyunwon Moon


It is necessary to realize new biomedical wireless communication systems which send the signals collected from various bio sensors located at human body in order to monitor our health. Also, it should seamlessly connect to the existing wireless communication systems. A 5.8 GHz ISM band low power RF front-end receiver for a biomedical wireless communication system is implemented using a 0.5 µm SiGe BiCMOS process. To achieve low power RF front-end, the current optimization technique for selecting device size is utilized. The implemented low noise amplifier (LNA) shows a power gain of 9.8 dB, a noise figure (NF) of below 1.75 dB, and an IIP3 of higher than 7.5 dBm while current consumption is only 6 mA at supply voltage of 2.5 V. Also, the performance of a down-conversion mixer is measured as a conversion gain of 11 dB and SSB NF of 10 dB.

Keywords: biomedical, LNA, mixer, receiver, RF front-end, SiGe

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2633 The Effect of Material Properties and Volumetric Changes in Phase Transformation to the Final Residual Stress of Welding Process

Authors: Djarot B. Darmadi


The wider growing Finite Element Method (FEM) application is caused by its benefits of cost saving and environment friendly. Also, by using FEM a deep understanding of certain phenomenon can be achieved. This paper observed the role of material properties and volumetric change when Solid State Phase Transformation (SSPT) takes place in residual stress formation due to a welding process of ferritic steels through coupled Thermo-Metallurgy-Mechanical (TMM) analysis. The correctness of FEM residual stress prediction was validated by experiment. From parametric study of the FEM model, it can be concluded that the material properties change tend to over-predicts residual stress in the weld center whilst volumetric change tend to underestimates it. The best final result is the compromise of both by incorporates them in the model which has a better result compared to a model without SSPT.

Keywords: residual stress, ferritic steels, SSPT, coupled-TMM

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2632 Assessment of Hygroscopic Characteristics of Hevea brasiliensis Wood

Authors: John Tosin Aladejana


Wood behave differently under different environmental conditions. The knowledge of the hygroscopic nature of wood becomes a key factor in selecting wood for use and required treatment. This study assessed the hygroscopic behaviour of Hevea brasiliensis (Rubber) wood. Void volume, volumetric swelling in the tangential, radial and longitudinal directions and volumetric shrinkage were used to assess the response of the wood when loosing or taking up moisture. Hevea brasiliensis wood samples cut into 20 × 20 × 60 mm taken longitudinally and transversely were used for the study and dried in the oven at 103 ± 2⁰C. The mean values for moisture content in green Hevea brasiliensis wood were 49.74 %, 51.14 % and 54.36 % for top, middle and bottom portion respectively while 51.77 %, 50.02 % and 53.45 % were recorded for outer, middle and inner portions respectively for the tree. The values obtained for volumetric shrinkage and swelling indicated that shrinkage and swelling were higher at the top part of H. brasiliensis. It was also observed that the longitudinal shrinkage was negligible while tangential direction showed the highest shrinkage among the wood direction. The values of the void volume obtained were 43.0 %, 39.0 % and 38.0 % at the top, middle and bottom respectively. The result obtained showed clarification on the wood density of hevea brasiliensis based on the position and portion of the wood species and the variation in moisture content, void volume, volumetric shrinkage and swelling were also revealed. This will provide information in the process of drying hevea brasiliensis wood to ensure better wood quality devoid of defects.

Keywords: moisture content, shrinkage, swelling, void volume

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2631 Analysis of Solar Thermal Power Plant in Algeria

Authors: M. Laissaoui


The present work has for objective the simulation of a hybrid solar combined cycle power plant, compared with combined cycle conventional (gas turbine and steam turbine), this type of power plants disposed an solar tour (heliostat field and volumetric receiver) insurant a part of the thermal energy necessary for the functioning of the gas turbine. This solar energy serves to feed with heat the combustion air of the gas turbine when he out of the compressor and the front entered the combustion chamber. The simulation of even central and made for three zones deferential to know the zone of Hassi R' mel, Bechare, and the zone of Messaad wilaya of El djelfa. The radiometric and meteorological data arise directly from the software meteonorme 7. The simulation of the energy performances is made by the software TRNSYS 16.1.

Keywords: concentrating solar power, heliostat, thermal, Algeria

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2630 Determination of Crustal Structure and Moho Depth within the Jammu and Kashmir Region, Northwest Himalaya through Receiver Function

Authors: Shiv Jyoti Pandey, Shveta Puri, G. M. Bhat, Neha Raina


The Jammu and Kashmir (J&K) region of Northwest Himalaya has a long history of earthquake activity which falls within Seismic Zones IV and V. To know the crustal structure beneath this region, we utilized teleseismic receiver function method. This paper presents the results of the analyses of the teleseismic earthquake waves recorded by 10 seismic observatories installed in the vicinity of major thrusts and faults. The teleseismic waves at epicentral distance between 30o and 90o with moment magnitudes greater than or equal to 5.5 that contains large amount of information about the crust and upper mantle structure directly beneath a receiver has been used. The receiver function (RF) technique has been widely applied to investigate crustal structures using P-to-S converted (Ps) phases from velocity discontinuities. The arrival time of the Ps, PpPs and PpSs+ PsPs converted and reverberated phases from the Moho can be combined to constrain the mean crustal thickness and Vp/Vs ratio. Over 500 receiver functions from 10 broadband stations located in the Jammu & Kashmir region of Northwest Himalaya were analyzed. With the help of H-K stacking method, we determined the crustal thickness (H) and average crustal Vp/Vs ratio (K) in this region. We also used Neighbourhood algorithm technique to verify our results. The receiver function results for these stations show that the crustal thickness under Jammu & Kashmir ranges from 45.0 to 53.6 km with an average value of 50.01 km. The Vp/Vs ratio varies from 1.63 to 1.99 with an average value of 1.784 which corresponds to an average Poisson’s ratio of 0.266 with a range from 0.198 to 0.331. High Poisson’s ratios under some stations may be related to partial melting in the crust near the uppermost mantle. The crustal structure model developed from this study can be used to refine the velocity model used in the precise epicenter location in the region, thereby increasing the knowledge to understand current seismicity in the region.

Keywords: H-K stacking, Poisson’s ratios, receiver function, teleseismic

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2629 Cost Efficient Receiver Tube Technology for Eco-Friendly Concentrated Solar Thermal Applications

Authors: M. Shiva Prasad, S. R. Atchuta, T. Vijayaraghavan, S. Sakthivel


The world is in need of efficient energy conversion technologies which are affordable, accessible, and sustainable with eco-friendly nature. Solar energy is one of the cornerstones for the world’s economic growth because of its abundancy with zero carbon pollution. Among the various solar energy conversion technologies, solar thermal technology has attracted a substantial renewed interest due to its diversity and compatibility in various applications. Solar thermal systems employ concentrators, tracking systems and heat engines for electricity generation which lead to high cost and complexity in comparison with photovoltaics; however, it is compatible with distinct thermal energy storage capability and dispatchable electricity which creates a tremendous attraction. Apart from that, employing cost-effective solar selective receiver tube in a concentrating solar thermal (CST) system improves the energy conversion efficiency and directly reduces the cost of technology. In addition, the development of solar receiver tubes by low cost methods which can offer high optical properties and corrosion resistance in an open-air atmosphere would be beneficial for low and medium temperature applications. In this regard, our work opens up an approach which has the potential to achieve cost-effective energy conversion. We have developed a highly selective tandem absorber coating through a facile wet chemical route by a combination of chemical oxidation, sol-gel, and nanoparticle coating methods. The developed tandem absorber coating has gradient refractive index nature on stainless steel (SS 304) and exhibited high optical properties (α ≤ 0.95 & ε ≤ 0.14). The first absorber layer (Cr-Mn-Fe oxides) developed by controlled oxidation of SS 304 in a chemical bath reactor. A second composite layer of ZrO2-SiO2 has been applied on the chemically oxidized substrate by So-gel dip coating method to serve as optical enhancing and corrosion resistant layer. Finally, an antireflective layer (MgF2) has been deposited on the second layer, to achieve > 95% of absorption. The developed tandem layer exhibited good thermal stability up to 250 °C in open air atmospheric condition and superior corrosion resistance (withstands for > 200h in salt spray test (ASTM B117)). After the successful development of a coating with targeted properties at a laboratory scale, a prototype of the 1 m tube has been demonstrated with excellent uniformity and reproducibility. Moreover, it has been validated under standard laboratory test condition as well as in field condition with a comparison of the commercial receiver tube. The presented strategy can be widely adapted to develop highly selective coatings for a variety of CST applications ranging from hot water, solar desalination, and industrial process heat and power generation. The high-performance, cost-effective medium temperature receiver tube technology has attracted many industries, and recently the technology has been transferred to Indian industry.

Keywords: concentrated solar thermal system, solar selective coating, tandem absorber, ultralow refractive index

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2628 A Statistical-Algorithmic Approach for the Design and Evaluation of a Fresnel Solar Concentrator-Receiver System

Authors: Hassan Qandil


Using a statistical algorithm incorporated in MATLAB, four types of non-imaging Fresnel lenses are designed; spot-flat, linear-flat, dome-shaped and semi-cylindrical-shaped. The optimization employs a statistical ray-tracing methodology of the incident light, mainly considering effects of chromatic aberration, varying focal lengths, solar inclination and azimuth angles, lens and receiver apertures, and the optimum number of prism grooves. While adopting an equal-groove-width assumption of the Poly-methyl-methacrylate (PMMA) prisms, the main target is to maximize the ray intensity on the receiver’s aperture and therefore achieving higher values of heat flux. The algorithm outputs prism angles and 2D sketches. 3D drawings are then generated via AutoCAD and linked to COMSOL Multiphysics software to simulate the lenses under solar ray conditions, which provides optical and thermal analysis at both the lens’ and the receiver’s apertures while setting conditions as per the Dallas-TX weather data. Once the lenses’ characterization is finalized, receivers are designed based on its optimized aperture size. Several cavity shapes; including triangular, arc-shaped and trapezoidal, are tested while coupled with a variety of receiver materials, working fluids, heat transfer mechanisms, and enclosure designs. A vacuum-reflective enclosure is also simulated for an enhanced thermal absorption efficiency. Each receiver type is simulated via COMSOL while coupled with the optimized lens. A lab-scale prototype for the optimum lens-receiver configuration is then fabricated for experimental evaluation. Application-based testing is also performed for the selected configuration, including that of a photovoltaic-thermal cogeneration system and solar furnace system. Finally, some future research work is pointed out, including the coupling of the collector-receiver system with an end-user power generator, and the use of a multi-layered genetic algorithm for comparative studies.

Keywords: COMSOL, concentrator, energy, fresnel, optics, renewable, solar

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2627 Impact of Schools' Open and Semi-Open Spaces on Student's Studying Behavior

Authors: Chaithanya Pothuganti


Open and semi-open spaces in educational buildings like corridors, mid landings, seating spaces, lobby, courtyards are traditionally have been the places of social communion and interaction which helps in promoting the knowledge, performance, activeness, and motivation in students. Factors like availability of land, commercialization, of educational facilities, especially in e-techno and smart schools, led to closed classrooms to accommodate students thereby lack quality open and semi-open spaces. This insufficient attention towards open space design which is a means of informal learning misses an opportunity to encourage the student’s skill development, behavior and learning skills. The core objective of this paper is to find the level of impact on student learning behavior and to identify the suitable proportions and configuration of spaces that shape the schools. In order to achieve this, different types of open spaces in schools and their impact on student’s performance in various existing models are analysed using case studies to draw some design principles. The study is limited to indoor open spaces like corridors, break out spaces and courtyards. The expected outcome of the paper is to suggest better design considerations for the development of semi-open and open spaces which functions as an element for informal learnings. Its focus is to provide further thinking on designing and development of open spaces in educational buildings.

Keywords: configuration of spaces and proportions, informal learning, open spaces, schools, student’s behavior

Procedia PDF Downloads 95
2626 Open Minds but Closed Access: Why Are There so Few Gold Open Access LIS Journals And Why Are so Many Librarians Unwilling to Unlock Their Scholarship?

Authors: Sarah Baker, Jayati Chaudhuri


Librarians have embraced the open access movement in all disciplines but their own. They are strong advocates on college campuses and curate institutional repositories, yet there are surprisingly few open access LIS journals. Presenters evaluated the open access availability of library and information science literature. After analyzing the top 100 library science journals (the top 50 journals from Scimago and JCR) and finding very few gold open access journals, they then investigated the availability of open access articles from the top 10 closed access journals. Presenters would like to generate a conversation on what type of proactive approach librarians can take to increase open access to literature within our discipline. Librarians like their colleagues in other disciplines are not motivated to submit their articles to their institutional repositories. Presenters have found a similar reluctance from their fellow colleagues regarding open access initiatives on campus. Presenters will describe Open Access Week activities as part of a campus-wide initiative and share some faculty comments, concerns, and misconceptions that came up as a part of this dialog. Presenters will discuss their personal experiences providing access to faculty publications through the California State University Los Angeles institutional repository.

Keywords: faculty scholarship, institutional repositories, library and information science journals, open access

Procedia PDF Downloads 202