Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 335

Search results for: microfluidic AND gate

335 Pin Count Aware Volumetric Error Detection in Arbitrary Microfluidic Bio-Chip

Authors: Kunal Das, Priya Sengupta, Abhishek K. Singh


Pin assignment, scheduling, routing and error detection for arbitrary biochemical protocols in Digital Microfluidic Biochip have been reported in this paper. The research work is concentrating on pin assignment for 2 or 3 droplets routing in the arbitrary biochemical protocol, scheduling and routing in m × n biochip. The volumetric error arises due to droplet split in the biochip. The volumetric error detection is also addressed using biochip AND logic gate which is known as microfluidic AND or mAND gate. The algorithm for pin assignment for m × n biochip required m+n-1 numbers of pins. The basic principle of this algorithm is that no same pin will be allowed to be placed in the same column, same row and diagonal and adjacent cells. The same pin should be placed a distance apart such that interference becomes less. A case study also reported in this paper.

Keywords: digital microfludic biochip, cross-contamination, pin assignment, microfluidic AND gate

Procedia PDF Downloads 69
334 Highly-Efficient Photoreaction Using Microfluidic Device

Authors: Shigenori Togashi, Yukako Asano


We developed an effective microfluidic device for photoreactions with low reflectance and good heat conductance. The performance of this microfluidic device was tested by carrying out a photoreactive synthesis of benzopinacol and acetone from benzophenone and 2-propanol. The yield reached 36% with an irradiation time of 469.2 s and was improved by more than 30% when compared to the values obtained by the batch method. Therefore, the microfluidic device was found to be effective for improving the yields of photoreactions.

Keywords: microfluidic device, photoreaction, black aluminum oxide, benzophenone, yield improvement

Procedia PDF Downloads 107
333 Simulation of Stretching and Fragmenting DNA by Microfluidic for Optimizing Microfluidic Devices

Authors: Shuyi Wu, Chuang Li, Quanshui Zheng, Luping Xu


Stretching and snipping DNA molecule by microfluidic has important application value in gene analysis by lab on a chip. Movement, deformation and fragmenting of DNA in microfluidic are typical fluid-solid coupling problems. An efficient and common simulation system for researching the movement, deformation and fragmenting of DNA by microfluidic has not been well developed. In our study, Brownian dynamics-finite element method (BD-FEM) is used to simulate the dynamic process of stretching and fragmenting DNA by contraction flow. The shape and parameters of micro-channels are changed to optimize the stretching and fragmenting properties of DNA. Our results indicate that strain rate, resulting from contraction microchannel, is the main control parameter for stretching and fragmenting DNA. There is good consistency between the simulation data and previous experimental result about the single DNA molecule behavior and averaged fragmenting properties in this study. BD-FEM method is an efficient calculating tool to research stretching and fragmenting behavior of single DNA molecule and optimize microfluidic devices for manipulating, stretching and fragmenting DNA.

Keywords: fragmenting, DNA, microfluidic, optimize.

Procedia PDF Downloads 161
332 Practical Simulation Model of Floating-Gate MOS Transistor in Sub 100 nm Technologies

Authors: Zina Saheb, Ezz El-Masry


As CMOS technology scaling down, Silicon oxide thickness (SiO2) become very thin (few Nano meters). When SiO2 is less than 3nm, gate direct tunneling (DT) leakage current becomes a dormant problem that impacts the transistor performance. Floating gate MOSFET (FGMOSFET) has been used in many low-voltage and low-power applications. Most of the available simulation models of FGMOSFET for analog circuit design does not account for gate DT current and there is no accurate analysis for the gate DT. It is a crucial to use an accurate mode in order to get a realistic simulation result that account for that DT impact on FGMOSFET performance effectively.

Keywords: CMOS transistor, direct-tunneling current, floating-gate, gate-leakage current, simulation model

Procedia PDF Downloads 384
331 Spin-Dependent Transport Signatures of Bound States: From Finger to Top Gates

Authors: Yun-Hsuan Yu, Chi-Shung Tang, Nzar Rauf Abdullah, Vidar Gudmundsson


Spin-orbit gap feature in energy dispersion of one-dimensional devices is revealed via strong spin-orbit interaction (SOI) effects under Zeeman field. We describe the utilization of a finger-gate or a top-gate to control the spin-dependent transport characteristics in the SOI-Zeeman influenced split-gate devices by means of a generalized spin-mixed propagation matrix method. For the finger-gate system, we find a bound state in continuum for incident electrons within the ultra-low energy regime. For the top-gate system, we observe more bound-state features in conductance associated with the formation of spin-associated hole-like or electron-like quasi-bound states around band thresholds, as well as hole bound states around the reverse point of the energy dispersion. We demonstrate that the spin-dependent transport behavior of a top-gate system is similar to that of a finger-gate system only if the top-gate length is less than the effective Fermi wavelength.

Keywords: spin-orbit, zeeman, top-gate, finger-gate, bound state

Procedia PDF Downloads 136
330 Performance Improvement of SOI-Tri Gate FinFET Transistor Using High-K Dielectric with Metal Gate

Authors: Fatima Zohra Rahou, A.Guen Bouazza, B. Bouazza


SOI TRI GATE FinFET transistors have emerged as novel devices due to its simple architecture and better performance: better control over short channel effects (SCEs) and reduced power dissipation due to reduced gate leakage currents. As the oxide thickness scales below 2 nm, leakage currents due to tunneling increase drastically, leading to high power consumption and reduced device reliability. Replacing the SiO2 gate oxide with a high-κ material allows increased gate capacitance without the associated leakage effects. In this paper, SOI TRI-GATE FinFET structure with use of high K dielectric materials (HfO2) and SiO2 dielectric are simulated using the 3-D device simulator Devedit and Atlas of TCAD Silvaco. The simulated results exhibits significant improvements in the performances of SOI TRI GATE FinFET with gate oxide HfO2 compared with conventional gate oxide SiO2 for the same structure. SOI TRI-GATE FinFET structure with the use of high K materials (HfO2) in gate oxide results into the increase in saturation current, threshold voltage, on-state current and Ion/Ioff ratio while off-state current, subthreshold slope and DIBL effect are decreased.

Keywords: technology SOI, short-channel effects (SCEs), multi-gate SOI MOSFET, SOI-TRI Gate FinFET, high-K dielectric, Silvaco software

Procedia PDF Downloads 215
329 Capacitance Models of AlGaN/GaN High Electron Mobility Transistors

Authors: A. Douara, N. Kermas, B. Djellouli


In this study, we report calculations of gate capacitance of AlGaN/GaN HEMTs with nextnano device simulation software. We have used a physical gate capacitance model for III-V FETs that incorporates quantum capacitance and centroid capacitance in the channel. These simulations explore various device structures with different values of barrier thickness and channel thickness. A detailed understanding of the impact of gate capacitance in HEMTs will allow us to determine their role in future 10 nm physical gate length node.

Keywords: gate capacitance, AlGaN/GaN, HEMTs, quantum capacitance, centroid capacitance

Procedia PDF Downloads 254
328 Area Efficient Carry Select Adder Using XOR Gate Design

Authors: Mahendrapal Singh Pachlaniya, Laxmi Kumre


The AOI (AND – OR- INVERTER) based design of XOR gate is proposed in this paper with less number of gates. This new XOR gate required four basic gates and basic gate include only AND, OR, Inverter (AOI). Conventional XOR gate required five basic gates. Ripple Carry Adder (RCA) used in parallel addition but propagation delay time is large. RCA replaced with Carry Select Adder (CSLA) to reduce propagation delay time. CSLA design with dual RCA considering carry = ‘0’ and carry = ‘1’, so it is not an area efficient adder. To make area efficient, modified CSLA is designed with single RCA considering carry = ‘0’ and another RCA considering carry = ‘1’ replaced with Binary to Excess 1 Converter (BEC). Now replacement of conventional XOR gate by new design of XOR gate in modified CSLA reduces much area compared to regular CSLA and modified CSLA.

Keywords: CSLA, BEC, XOR gate, area efficient

Procedia PDF Downloads 243
327 3D Scaffolds Fabricated by Microfluidic Device for Rat Cardiomyocytes Observation

Authors: Chih-Wei Chao, Jiashing Yu


Microfluidic devices have recently emerged as promising tools for the fabrication of scaffolds for cell culture. To mimic the natural circumstances of organism for cells to grow, here we present three-dimensional (3D) scaffolds fabricated by microfluidics for cells cultivation. This work aims at investigating the behavior in terms of the viability and the proliferation capability of rat H9c2 cardiomyocytes in the gelatin 3D scaffolds by fluorescent images.

Keywords: microfluidic device, H9c2, tissue engineering, 3D scaffolds

Procedia PDF Downloads 275
326 Transient Performance Analysis of Gate Inside Junctionless Transistor (GI-JLT)

Authors: Sangeeta Singh, Pankaj Kumar, P. N. Kondekar


In this paper, the transient device performance analysis of n-type Gate Inside Junctionless Transistor (GIJLT)has been evaluated. 3-D Bohm Quantum Potential (BQP)transport device simulation has been used to evaluate the delay and power dissipation performance. GI-JLT has a number of desirable device parameters such as reduced propagation delay, dynamic power dissipation, power and delay product, intrinsic gate delay and energy delay product as compared to Gate-all-around transistors GAA-JLT. In addition to this, various other device performance parameters namely, on/off current ratio, short channel effects (SCE), transconductance Generation Factor(TGF) and unity gain cut-off frequency (fT) and subthreshold slope (SS) of the GI-JLT and Gate-all-around junctionless transistor(GAA-JLT) have been analyzed and compared. GI-JLT shows better device performance characteristics than GAA-JLT for low power and high frequency applications, because of its larger gate electrostatic control on the device operation.

Keywords: gate-inside junctionless transistor GI-JLT, gate-all-around junctionless transistor GAA-JLT, propagation delay, power delay product

Procedia PDF Downloads 254
325 Performance Analysis of BPJLT with Different Gate and Spacer Materials

Authors: Porag Jyoti Ligira, Gargi Khanna


The paper presents a simulation study of the electrical characteristic of Bulk Planar Junctionless Transistor (BPJLT) using spacer. The BPJLT is a transistor without any PN junctions in the vertical direction. It is a gate controlled variable resistor. The characteristics of BPJLT are analyzed by varying the oxide material under the gate. It can be shown from the simulation that an ideal subthreshold slope of ~60 mV/decade can be achieved by using highk dielectric. The effects of variation of spacer length and material on the electrical characteristic of BPJLT are also investigated in the paper. The ION / IOFF ratio improvement is of the order of 107 and the OFF current reduction of 10-4 is obtained by using gate dielectric of HfO2 instead of SiO2.

Keywords: spacer, BPJLT, high-k, double gate

Procedia PDF Downloads 258
324 Analysis of Scaling Effects on Analog/RF Performance of Nanowire Gate-All-Around MOSFET

Authors: Dheeraj Sharma, Santosh Kumar Vishvakarma


We present a detailed analysis of analog and radiofrequency (RF) performance with different gate lengths for nanowire cylindrical gate (CylG) gate-all-around (GAA) MOSFET. CylG GAA MOSFET not only suppresses the short channel effects (SCEs), it is also a good candidate for analog/RF device due to its high transconductance (gm) and high cutoff frequency (fT ). The presented work would be beneficial for a new generation of RF circuits and systems in a broad range of applications and operating frequency covering the RF spectrum. For this purpose, the analog/RF figures of merit for CylG GAA MOSFET is analyzed in terms of gate to source capacitance (Cgs), gate to drain capacitance (Cgd), transconductance generation factor gm = Id (where Id represents drain current), intrinsic gain, output resistance, fT, maximum frequency of oscillation (fmax) and gain bandwidth (GBW) product.

Keywords: Gate-All-Around MOSFET, GAA, output resistance, transconductance generation factor, intrinsic gain, cutoff frequency, fT

Procedia PDF Downloads 253
323 Increase of Sensitivity in 3D Suspended Polymeric Microfluidic Platform through Lateral Misalignment

Authors: Ehsan Yazdanpanah Moghadam, Muthukumaran Packirisamy


In the present study, a design of the suspended polymeric microfluidic platform is introduced that is fabricated with three polymeric layers. Changing the microchannel plane to be perpendicular to microcantilever plane, drastically decreases moment of inertia in that direction. In addition, the platform is made of polymer (around five orders of magnitude less compared to silicon). It causes significant increase in the sensitivity of the cantilever deflection. Next, although the dimensions of this platform are constant, by misaligning the embedded microchannels laterally in the suspended microfluidic platform, the sensitivity can be highly increased. The investigation is studied on four fluids including water, seawater, milk, and blood for flow ranges from low rate of 5 to 70 µl/min to obtain the best design with the highest sensitivity. The best design in this study shows the sensitivity increases around 50% for water, seawater, milk, and blood at the flow rate of 70 µl/min by just misaligning the embedded microchannels in the suspended polymeric microfluidic platform.

Keywords: microfluidic, MEMS, biosensor, microresonator

Procedia PDF Downloads 83
322 Formation of Round Channel for Microfluidic Applications

Authors: A. Zahra, G. de Cesare, D. Caputo, A. Nascetti


PDMS (Polydimethylsiloxane) polymer is a suitable material for biological and MEMS (Microelectromechanical systems) designers, because of its biocompatibility, transparency and high resistance under plasma treatment. PDMS round channel is always been of great interest due to its ability to confine the liquid with membrane type micro valves. In this paper we are presenting a very simple way to form round shape microfluidic channel, which is based on reflow of positive photoresist AZ® 40 XT. With this method, it is possible to obtain channel of different height simply by varying the spin coating parameters of photoresist.

Keywords: lab-on-chip, PDMS, reflow, round microfluidic channel

Procedia PDF Downloads 289
321 Microfluidic Method for Measuring Blood Viscosity

Authors: Eunseop Yeom


Many cardiovascular diseases, such as thrombosis and atherosclerosis, can change biochemical molecules in plasma and red blood cell. These alterations lead to excessive increase of blood viscosity contributing to peripheral vascular diseases. In this study, a simple microfluidic-based method is used to measure blood viscosity. Microfluidic device is composed of two parallel side channels and a bridge channel. To estimate blood viscosity, blood samples and reference fluid are separately delivered into each inlet of two parallel side channels using pumps. An interfacial line between blood samples and reference fluid occurs by blocking the outlet of one side-channel. Since width for this interfacial line is determined by pressure ratio between blood and reference flows, blood viscosity can be estimated by measuring width for this interfacial line. This microfluidic-based method can be used for evaluating variations in the viscosity of animal models with cardiovascular diseases under flow conditions.

Keywords: blood viscosity, microfluidic chip, pressure, shear rate

Procedia PDF Downloads 224
320 Normally Closed Thermoplastic Microfluidic Valves with Microstructured Valve Seats: A Strategy to Avoid Permanently Bonded Valves during Channel Sealing

Authors: Kebin Li, Keith Morton, Matthew Shiu, Karine Turcotte, Luke Lukic, Teodor Veres


We present a normally closed thermoplastic microfluidic valve design that uses microstructured valve seats to locally prevent the membrane from bonding to the valve seat during microfluidic channel sealing. The microstructured valve seat reduces the adhesion force between the contact surfaces of the valve seat and the membrane locally, allowing valve open and close operations while simultaneously providing a permanent and robust bond elsewhere to cover and seal the microfluidic channel network. Dynamic valve operation including opening and closing times can be tuned by changing the valve seat diameter as well as the density of the microstructures on the valve seats. The influence of the microstructured valve seat on the general flow behavior through the microfluidic devices was also studied. A design window for the fabrication of valve structure is identified and discussed to minimize the fabrication complexity.

Keywords: hot-embossing, injection molding, microfabrication, microfluidics, microvalves, thermoplastic elastomer

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319 Gate Voltage Controlled Humidity Sensing Using MOSFET of VO2 Particles

Authors: A. A. Akande, B. P. Dhonge, B. W. Mwakikunga, A. G. J. Machatine


This article presents gate-voltage controlled humidity sensing performance of vanadium dioxide nanoparticles prepared from NH4VO3 precursor using microwave irradiation technique. The X-ray diffraction, transmission electron diffraction, and Raman analyses reveal the formation of VO2 (B) with V2O5 and an amorphous phase. The BET surface area is found to be 67.67 m2/g. The humidity sensing measurements using the patented lateral-gate MOSFET configuration was carried out. The results show the optimum response at 5 V up to 8 V of gate voltages for 10 to 80% of relative humidity. The dose-response equation reveals the enhanced resilience of the gated VO2 sensor which may saturate above 272% humidity. The response and recovery times are remarkably much faster (about 60 s) than in non-gated VO2 sensors which normally show response and recovery times of the order of 5 minutes (300 s).

Keywords: VO2, VO2(B), MOSFET, gate voltage, humidity sensor

Procedia PDF Downloads 204
318 High Aspect Ratio Micropillar Array Based Microfluidic Viscometer

Authors: Ahmet Erten, Adil Mustafa, Ayşenur Eser, Özlem Yalçın


We present a new viscometer based on a microfluidic chip with elastic high aspect ratio micropillar arrays. The displacement of pillar tips in flow direction can be used to analyze viscosity of liquid. In our work, Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) is used to analyze pillar displacement of various micropillar array configurations in flow direction at different viscosities. Following CFD optimization, micro-CNC based rapid prototyping is used to fabricate molds for microfluidic chips. Microfluidic chips are fabricated out of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) using soft lithography methods with molds machined out of aluminum. Tip displacements of micropillar array (300 µm in diameter and 1400 µm in height) in flow direction are recorded using a microscope mounted camera, and the displacements are analyzed using image processing with an algorithm written in MATLAB. Experiments are performed with water-glycerol solutions mixed at 4 different ratios to attain 1 cP, 5 cP, 10 cP and 15 cP viscosities at room temperature. The prepared solutions are injected into the microfluidic chips using a syringe pump at flow rates from 10-100 mL / hr and the displacement versus flow rate is plotted for different viscosities. A displacement of around 1.5 µm was observed for 15 cP solution at 60 mL / hr while only a 1 µm displacement was observed for 10 cP solution. The presented viscometer design optimization is still in progress for better sensitivity and accuracy. Our microfluidic viscometer platform has potential for tailor made microfluidic chips to enable real time observation and control of viscosity changes in biological or chemical reactions.

Keywords: Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD), high aspect ratio, micropillar array, viscometer

Procedia PDF Downloads 143
317 High Performance of Square GAA SOI MOSFET Using High-k Dielectric with Metal Gate

Authors: Fatima Zohra Rahou, A. Guen Bouazza, B. Bouazza


Multi-gate SOI MOSFETs has shown better results in subthreshold performances. The replacement of SiO2 by high-k dielectric can fulfill the requirements of Multi-gate MOSFETS with a scaling trend in device dimensions. The advancement in fabrication technology has also boosted the use of different high -k dielectric materials as oxide layer at different places in MOSFET structures. One of the most important multi-gate structures is square GAA SOI MOSFET that is a strong candidate for the next generation nanoscale devices; show an even stronger control of short channel effects. In this paper, GAA SOI MOSFET structure with using high -k dielectrics materials Al2O3 (k~9), HfO2 (k~20), La2O3 (k~30) and metal gate TiN are simulated by using 3-D device simulator DevEdit and Atlas of SILVACO TCAD tools. Square GAA SOI MOSFET transistor with High-k HfO2 gate dielectrics and TiN metal gate exhibits significant improvements performances compared to Al2O3 and La2O3 dielectrics for the same structure. Simulation results of GAA SOI MOSFET transistor with HfO2 dielectric show the increase in saturation current and Ion/Ioff ratio while leakage current, subthreshold slope and DIBL effect are decreased.

Keywords: technology SOI, short-channel effects (SCEs), multi-gate SOI MOSFET, square GAA SOI MOSFET, high-k dielectric, Silvaco software

Procedia PDF Downloads 133
316 Designing Equivalent Model of Floating Gate Transistor

Authors: Birinderjit Singh Kalyan, Inderpreet Kaur, Balwinder Singh Sohi


In this paper, an equivalent model for floating gate transistor has been proposed. Using the floating gate voltage value, capacitive coupling coefficients has been found at different bias conditions. The amount of charge present on the gate has been then calculated using the transient models of hot electron programming and Fowler-Nordheim Tunnelling. The proposed model can be extended to the transient conditions as well. The SPICE equivalent model is designed and current-voltage characteristics and Transfer characteristics are comparatively analysed. The dc current-voltage characteristics, as well as dc transfer characteristics, have been plotted for an FGMOS with W/L=0.25μm/0.375μm, the inter-poly capacitance of 0.8fF for both programmed and erased states. The Comparative analysis has been made between the present model and capacitive coefficient coupling methods which were already available.

Keywords: FGMOS, floating gate transistor, capacitive coupling coefficient, SPICE model

Procedia PDF Downloads 378
315 Fabricating Method for Complex 3D Microfluidic Channel Using Soluble Wax Mold

Authors: Kyunghun Kang, Sangwoo Oh, Yongha Hwang


PDMS (Polydimethylsiloxane)-based microfluidic device has been recently applied to area of biomedical research, tissue engineering, and diagnostics because PDMS is low cost, nontoxic, optically transparent, gas-permeable, and especially biocompatible. Generally, PDMS microfluidic devices are fabricated by conventional soft lithography. Microfabrication requires expensive cleanroom facilities and a lot of time; however, only two-dimensional or simple three-dimensional structures can be fabricated. In this study, we introduce fabricating method for complex three-dimensional microfluidic channels using soluble wax mold. Using the 3D printing technique, we firstly fabricated three-dimensional mold which consists of soluble wax material. The PDMS pre-polymer is cast around, followed by PDMS casting and curing. The three-dimensional casting mold was removed from PDMS by chemically dissolved with methanol and acetone. In this work, two preliminary experiments were carried out. Firstly, the solubility of several waxes was tested using various solvents, such as acetone, methanol, hexane, and IPA. We found the combination between wax and solvent which dissolves the wax. Next, side effects of the solvent were investigated during the curing process of PDMS pre-polymer. While some solvents let PDMS drastically swell, methanol and acetone let PDMS swell only 2% and 6%, respectively. Thus, methanol and acetone can be used to dissolve wax in PDMS without any serious impact. Based on the preliminary tests, three-dimensional PDMS microfluidic channels was fabricated using the mold which was printed out using 3D printer. With the proposed fabricating technique, PDMS-based microfluidic devices have advantages of fast prototyping, low cost, optically transparence, as well as having complex three-dimensional geometry. Acknowledgements: This research was supported by Supported by a Korea University Grant and Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea(NRF).

Keywords: microfluidic channel, polydimethylsiloxane, 3D printing, casting

Procedia PDF Downloads 155
314 Validity of a Timing System in the Alpine Ski Field: A Magnet-Based Timing System Using the Magnetometer Built into an IMU

Authors: Carla Pérez-Chirinos Buxadé, Bruno Fernández-Valdés, Mónica Morral-Yepes, Sílvia Tuyà Viñas, Josep Maria Padullés Riu, Gerard Moras Feliu


There is a long way to explore all the possible applications inertial measurement units (IMUs) have in the sport field. The aim of this study was to evaluate the validity of a new application on the use of these wearable sensors. Specifically, it was to evaluate a magnet-based timing system (M-BTS) for timing gate-to-gate in an alpine ski slalom using the magnetometer embedded in an IMU. This was a validation study. The criterion validity of time measured by the M-BTS was assessed using the 95% error-range against actual time obtained from photocells. The experiment was carried out with first-and second-year junior skiers performing a ski slalom on a ski training slope. Eight alpine skiers (17.4 ± 0.8 years, 176.4 ± 4.9 cm, 67.7 ± 2.0 kg, 128.8 ± 26.6 slalom FIS-Points) participated in the study. An IMU device was attached to the skier’s lower back. Skiers performed a 40-gate slalom from which four gates were assessed. The M-BTS consisted of placing four bar magnets buried into the snow surface, on the inner side of each gate’s turning pole; the magnetometer built into the IMU detected the peak-shaped magnetic field when passing near the magnets at a certain speed. Four magnetic peaks were detected. The time compressed between peaks was calculated. Three inter-gate times were obtained for each system: photocells and M-BTS. The total time was defined as the time sum of the inter-gate times. The 95% error intervals for the total time was 0.050 s for the ski slalom. The M-BTS is valid for timing gate-to-gate in an alpine ski slalom. Inter-gate times can provide additional data for analyzing skier’s performance, such as asymmetries between left and right foot.

Keywords: gate crossing time, inertial measurement unit, timing system, wearable sensor

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313 Study on an Integrated Real-Time Sensor in Droplet-Based Microfluidics

Authors: Tien-Li Chang, Huang-Chi Huang, Zhao-Chi Chen, Wun-Yi Chen


The droplet-based microfluidic are used as micro-reactors for chemical and biological assays. Hence, the precise addition of reagents into the droplets is essential for this function in the scope of lab-on-a-chip applications. To obtain the characteristics (size, velocity, pressure, and frequency of production) of droplets, this study describes an integrated on-chip method of real-time signal detection. By controlling and manipulating the fluids, the flow behavior can be obtained in the droplet-based microfluidics. The detection method is used a type of infrared sensor. Through the varieties of droplets in the microfluidic devices, the real-time conditions of velocity and pressure are gained from the sensors. Here the microfluidic devices are fabricated by polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). To measure the droplets, the signal acquisition of sensor and LabVIEW program control must be established in the microchannel devices. The devices can generate the different size droplets where the flow rate of oil phase is fixed 30 μl/hr and the flow rates of water phase range are from 20 μl/hr to 80 μl/hr. The experimental results demonstrate that the sensors are able to measure the time difference of droplets under the different velocity at the voltage from 0 V to 2 V. Consequently, the droplets are measured the fastest speed of 1.6 mm/s and related flow behaviors that can be helpful to develop and integrate the practical microfluidic applications.

Keywords: microfluidic, droplets, sensors, single detection

Procedia PDF Downloads 325
312 Graphene Transistor Employing Multilayer Hexagonal Boron Nitride as Substrate and Gate Insulator

Authors: Nikhil Jain, Bin Yu


We explore the potential of using ultra-thin hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) as both supporting substrate and gate dielectric for graphene-channel field effect transistors (GFETs). Different from commonly used oxide-based dielectric materials which are typically amorphous, very rough in surface, and rich with surface traps, h-BN is layered insulator free of dangling bonds and surface states, featuring atomically smooth surface. In a graphene-channel-last device structure with local buried metal gate electrode (TiN), thin h-BN multilayer is employed as both supporting “substrate” and gate dielectric for graphene active channel. We observed superior carrier mobility and electrical conduction, significantly improved from that in GFETs with SiO2 as substrate/gate insulator. In addition, we report excellent dielectric behavior of layered h-BN, including ultra-low leakage current and high critical electric field for breakdown.

Keywords: graphene, field-effect transistors, hexagonal boron nitride, dielectric strength, tunneling

Procedia PDF Downloads 319
311 Suppressing Ambipolar Conduction Using Dual Material Gate in Tunnel-FETs Having Heavily Doped Drain

Authors: Dawit Burusie Abdi, Mamidala Jagadesh Kumar


In this paper, using 2D TCAD simulations, the application of a dual material gate (DMG) for suppressing ambipolar conduction in a tunnel field effect transistor (TFET) is demonstrated. Using the proposed DMG concept, the ambipolar conduction can be effectively suppressed even if the drain doping is as high as that of the source doping. Achieving this symmetrical doping, without the ambipolar conduction in TFETs, gives the advantage of realizing both n-type and p-type devices with the same doping sequences. Furthermore, the output characteristics of the DMG TFET exhibit a good saturation when compared to that of the gate-drain underlap approach. This improved behavior of the DMG TFET makes it a good candidate for inverter based logic circuits.

Keywords: dual material gate, suppressing ambipolar current, symmetrically doped TFET, tunnel FETs, PNPN TFET

Procedia PDF Downloads 246
310 CFD modelling of Microdrops Manipulation by Microfluidic Oscillator

Authors: Tawfiq Chekifi, Brahim Dennai, Rachid Khelfaoui


Over the last few decades, modeling immiscible fluids such as oil and water have been a classical research topic. Droplet-based microfluidics presents a unique platform for mixing, reaction, separation, dispersion of drops, and numerous other functions. For this purpose, several devices were studied, as well as microfluidic oscillator. The latter was obtained from wall attachment microfluidic amplifiers using a feedback loop from the outputs to the control inputs, nevertheless this device have not well used for microdrops applications. In this paper, we suggest a numerical CFD study of a microfluidic oscillator with two different lengths of feedback loop. In order to produce simultaneous microdrops of gasoil on water, a typical geometry that includes double T-junction is connected to the fluidic oscillator. The generation of microdrops is computed by volume-of-fluid method (VOF). Flow oscillations of microdrops were triggered by the Coanda effect of jet flow. The aim of work is to obtain a high oscillation frequency in output of this passive device, the influence of hydrodynamics and physics parameters on the microdrops frequency in the output of our microsystem is also analyzed, The computational results show that, the length of feedback loop, applied pressure on T-junction and interfacial tension have a significant effect on the dispersion of microdrops and its oscillation frequency. Across the range of low Reynold number, the microdrops generation and its dynamics have been accurately controlled by adjusting applying pressure ratio of two phases.

Keywords: fluidic oscillator, microdrops manipulation, VOF (volume of fluid method), microfluidic oscillator

Procedia PDF Downloads 281
309 Numerical Study of Microdrops Manipulation by MicroFluidic Oscillator

Authors: Tawfiq Chekifi, Brahim Dennai, Rachid Khelfaoui


Over the last few decades, modeling immiscible fluids such as oil and water have been a classical research topic. Droplet-based microfluidics presents a unique platform for mixing, reaction, separation, dispersion of drops and numerous other functions. for this purpose Several devices were studied, as well as microfluidic oscillator. The latter was obtained from wall attachment microfluidic amplifiers using a feedback loop from the outputs to the control inputs, nevertheless this device haven’t well used for microdrops applications. In this paper, we suggest a numerical CFD study of a microfluidic oscillator with two different lengths of feedback loop. In order to produce simultaneous microdrops of gasoil on water, a typical geometry that includes double T-junction is connected to the fluidic oscillator, The generation of microdrops is computed by volume-of-fluid method (VOF). Flow oscillations of microdrops were triggered by the Coanda effect of jet flow. The aim of work is to obtain a high oscillation frequency in output of this passive device, the influence of hydrodynamics and physics parameters on the microdrops frequency in the output of our microsystem is also analyzed, The computational results show that, the length of feedback loop, applied pressure on T-junction and interfacial tension have a significant effect on the dispersion of microdrops and its oscillation frequency. Across the range of low Reynold number, the microdrops generation and its dynamics have been accurately controlled by adjusting applying pressure ratio of two phases.

Keywords: fluidic oscillator, microdrops manipulation, volume of fluid method, microfluidic oscillator

Procedia PDF Downloads 345
308 Microfluidic Synthesis of Chlorophyll Extraction–Loaded PCL Composite Microparticles Developed as Health Food

Authors: Ching-Ju Hsiao, Mao-Chen Huang, Pei-Fan Chen, Ruo-Yun Chung, Jiun-Hua Chou, Chih-Hui Yang, Keng-Shiang Huang, Jei-Fu Shaw


Chlorophyll has many benefits for human body. It is known to improve the health of the circulatory, digestive, immune and detoxification systems of the body. However, Chl can’t be preserved at the environment of high temperature and light exposure for a long time due to it is chemical structure is easily degradable. This characteristic causes that human body is difficult to absorb Chl effective components. In order to solve this problem, we utilize polycaprolactone (PCL) polymer encapsulation technology to increase the stability of Chl. In particular, we also established a microfluidic platform provide the control of composite beads diameter. The new composite beads is potential to be a health food. Result show that Chl effective components via the microfludic platform can be encapsulated effectively and still preserve its effective components.

Keywords: chlorophyll, PCL, PVA, microfluidic

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307 Building on Previous Microvalving Approaches for Highly Reliable Actuation in Centrifugal Microfluidic Platforms

Authors: Ivan Maguire, Ciprian Briciu, Alan Barrett, Dara Kervick, Jens Ducrèe, Fiona Regan


With the ever-increasing myriad of applications of which microfluidic devices are capable, reliable fluidic actuation development has remained fundamental to the success of these microfluidic platforms. There are a number of approaches which can be taken in order to integrate liquid actuation on microfluidic platforms, which can usually be split into two primary categories; active microvalves and passive microvalves. Active microvalves are microfluidic valves which require a physical parameter change by external, or separate interaction, for actuation to occur. Passive microvalves are microfluidic valves which don’t require external interaction for actuation due to the valve’s natural physical parameters, which can be overcome through sample interaction. The purpose of this paper is to illustrate how further improvements to past microvalve solutions can largely enhance systematic reliability and performance, with both novel active and passive microvalves demonstrated. Covered within this scope will be two alternative and novel microvalve solutions for centrifugal microfluidic platforms; a revamped pneumatic-dissolvable film active microvalve (PAM) strategy and a spray-on Sol-Gel based hydrophobic passive microvalve (HPM) approach. Both the PAM and the HPM mechanisms were demonstrated on a centrifugal microfluidic platform consisting of alternating layers of 1.5 mm poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) (for reagent storage) sheets and ~150 μm pressure sensitive adhesive (PSA) (for microchannel fabrication) sheets. The PAM approach differs from previous SOLUBON™ dissolvable film methods by introducing a more reliable and predictable liquid delivery mechanism to microvalve site, thus significantly reducing premature activation. This approach has also shown excellent synchronicity when performed in a multiplexed form. The HPM method utilises a new spray-on and low curing temperature (70°C) sol-gel material. The resultant double layer coating comprises a PMMA adherent sol-gel as the bottom layer and an ultra hydrophobic silica nano-particles (SNPs) film as the top layer. The optimal coating was integrated to microfluidic channels with varying cross-sectional area for assessing microvalve burst frequencies consistency. It is hoped that these microvalving solutions, which can be easily added to centrifugal microfluidic platforms, will significantly improve automation reliability.

Keywords: centrifugal microfluidics, hydrophobic microvalves, lab-on-a-disc, pneumatic microvalves

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306 Development of Colorimetric Based Microfluidic Platform for Quantification of Fluid Contaminants

Authors: Sangeeta Palekar, Mahima Rana, Jayu Kalambe


In this paper, a microfluidic-based platform for the quantification of contaminants in the water is proposed. The proposed system uses microfluidic channels with an embedded environment for contaminants detection in water. Microfluidics-based platforms present an evident stage of innovation for fluid analysis, with different applications advancing minimal efforts and simplicity of fabrication. Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)-based microfluidics channel is fabricated using a soft lithography technique. Vertical and horizontal connections for fluid dispensing with the microfluidic channel are explored. The principle of colorimetry, which incorporates the use of Griess reagent for the detection of nitrite, has been adopted. Nitrite has high water solubility and water retention, due to which it has a greater potential to stay in groundwater, endangering aquatic life along with human health, hence taken as a case study in this work. The developed platform also compares the detection methodology, containing photodetectors for measuring absorbance and image sensors for measuring color change for quantification of contaminants like nitrite in water. The utilization of image processing techniques offers the advantage of operational flexibility, as the same system can be used to identify other contaminants present in water by introducing minor software changes.

Keywords: colorimetric, fluid contaminants, nitrite detection, microfluidics

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