Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3341

Search results for: secrecy capacity

3341 The Secrecy Capacity of the Semi-Deterministic Wiretap Channel with Three State Information

Authors: Mustafa El-Halabi

Abstract:

A general model of wiretap channel with states is considered, where the legitimate receiver and the wiretapper’s observations depend on three states S1, S2 and S3. State S1 is non-causally known to the encoder, S2 is known to the receiver, and S3 remains unknown. A secure coding scheme, based using structured-binning, is proposed, and it is shown to achieve the secrecy capacity when the signal at legitimate receiver is a deterministic function of the input.

Keywords: physical layer security, interference, side information, secrecy capacity

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3340 Achievable Average Secrecy Rates over Bank of Parallel Independent Fading Channels with Friendly Jamming

Authors: Munnujahan Ara

Abstract:

In this paper, we investigate the effect of friendly jamming power allocation strategies on the achievable average secrecy rate over a bank of parallel fading wiretap channels. We investigate the achievable average secrecy rate in parallel fading wiretap channels subject to Rayleigh and Rician fading. The achievable average secrecy rate, due to the presence of a line-of-sight component in the jammer channel is also evaluated. Moreover, we study the detrimental effect of correlation across the parallel sub-channels, and evaluate the corresponding decrease in the achievable average secrecy rate for the various fading configurations. We also investigate the tradeoff between the transmission power and the jamming power for a fixed total power budget. Our results, which are applicable to current orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) communications systems, shed further light on the achievable average secrecy rates over a bank of parallel fading channels in the presence of friendly jammers.

Keywords: fading parallel channels, wire-tap channel, OFDM, secrecy capacity, power allocation

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3339 Security Over OFDM Fading Channels with Friendly Jammer

Authors: Munnujahan Ara

Abstract:

In this paper, we investigate the effect of friendly jamming power allocation strategies on the achievable average secrecy rate over a bank of parallel fading wiretap channels. We investigate the achievable average secrecy rate in parallel fading wiretap channels subject to Rayleigh and Rician fading. The achievable average secrecy rate, due to the presence of a line-of-sight component in the jammer channel is also evaluated. Moreover, we study the detrimental effect of correlation across the parallel sub-channels, and evaluate the corresponding decrease in the achievable average secrecy rate for the various fading configurations. We also investigate the tradeoff between the transmission power and the jamming power for a fixed total power budget. Our results, which are applicable to current orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) communications systems, shed further light on the achievable average secrecy rates over a bank of parallel fading channels in the presence of friendly jammers.

Keywords: fading parallel channels, wire-tap channel, OFDM, secrecy capacity, power allocation

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3338 Combating Money Laundering and Inroads into Banking Secrecy: Evidence from Malaysia

Authors: Aspalella A. Rahman

Abstract:

It is widely accepted that the investigation of money laundering and the tracing and confiscation of criminal proceeds have intruded into the principles of banking secrecy. The inroads into banking secrecy present serious threats to democracy, and more importantly, to the traditional banker-customer relationship. It is generally accepted that the fight against money laundering is in conflict with the secrecy rule. Banking secrecy is a customer privilege whereas combating crime is critical for public safety and security. Indeed, achieving a proper balance is a desirable goal. But how we go about achieving such a balance is a question encountered by many law enforcement authorities. Therefore, this paper examines the effect of disclosure under the Malaysian anti-money laundering laws on the traditional duty of banks to keep the customer’s information confidential. It also analyzes whether the Malaysian laws provide a right balance between a duty to keep customer’s information secret and a duty to disclose such information in the fight against money laundering. On closer inspection, it is submitted that the Malaysian laws provide sufficient safeguards to ensure that the disclosure of customer’s information is carried out in a manner that is not prejudicial to the interest of legitimate customers. This is a positive approach that could protect the innocent customers from being mistreated by the law. Ultimately, it can be said that the growing threat of global money laundering and terrorism makes the overriding of banking secrecy justified because without a flow of information from the banks, the effective prevention of the menace is not possible.

Keywords: anti-money laundering law, banker-customer relationship, banking secrecy, confidentiality, money laundering

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3337 Secrecy Analysis in Downlink Cellular Networks in the Presence of D2D Pairs and Hardware Impairment

Authors: Mahdi Rahimi, Mohammad Mahdi Mojahedian, Mohammad Reza Aref

Abstract:

In this paper, a cellular communication scenario with a transmitter and an authorized user is considered to analyze its secrecy in the face of eavesdroppers and the interferences propagated unintentionally through the communication network. It is also assumed that some D2D pairs and eavesdroppers are randomly located in the cell. Assuming hardware impairment, perfect connection probability is analytically calculated, and upper bound is provided for the secrecy outage probability. In addition, a method based on random activation of D2Ds is proposed to improve network security. Finally, the analytical results are verified by simulations.

Keywords: physical layer security, stochastic geometry, device-to-device, hardware impairment

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3336 Official Secrecy and Confidentiality in Tax Administration and Its Impact on Right to Access Information: Nigerian Perspectives

Authors: Kareem Adedokun

Abstract:

Official secrecy is one of the colonial vestiges which upholds non – disclosure of essential information for public consumption. Information, though an indispensable tool in tax administration, is not to be divulged by any person in an official duty of the revenue agency. As a matter o fact, the Federal Inland Revenue Service (Establishment) Act, 2007 emphasizes secrecy and confidentiality in dealing with tax payer’s document, information, returns and assessment in a manner reminiscent of protecting tax payer’s privacy in all situations. It is so serious that any violation attracts criminal sanction. However, Nigeria, being a democratic and egalitarian state recently enacted Freedom of Information Act which heralded in openness in governance and takes away the confidentialities associated with official secrets Laws. Official secrecy no doubts contradicts the philosophy of freedom of information but maintaining a proper balance between protected rights of tax payers and public interest which revenue agency upholds is an uphill task. Adopting the Doctrinal method, therefore, the author of this paper probes into the real nature of the relationship between taxpayers and Revenue Agencies. It also interfaces official secrecy with the doctrine of Freedom of Information and consequently queries the retention of non – disclosure clause under Federal Inland Revenue Service (Establishment) Act (FIRSEA) 2007. The paper finds among others that non – disclosure provision in tax statutes particularly as provided for in FIRSEA is not absolute; so also is the constitutional rights and freedom of information and unless the non – disclosure clause finds justification under any recognized exemption provided under the Freedom of Information Act, its retention is antithesis to democratic ethos and beliefs as it may hinder public interest and public order.

Keywords: confidentiality, information, official secrecy, tax administration

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3335 A Review on Bearing Capacity Factor Nγ of Foundations with Different Shapes

Authors: R. Ziaie Moayed, S. Taghvamanesh

Abstract:

So far several methods by different researchers have been developed in order to calculate the bearing capacity factors of foundations and retaining walls. In this paper, the bearing capacity factor Ny (shape factor) for different types of foundation have been investigated. The formula for bearing capacity on c–φ–γ soil can still be expressed by Terzaghi’s equation except that the bearing capacity factor Ny depends on the surcharge ratio, and friction angle φ. Many empirical definitions have been used for measurement of the bearing capacity factors N

Keywords: bearing capacity, bearing capacity factor Nγ, irregular foundations, shape factor

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3334 A History of Knowledge Management: A Chronological Account from the 1970s to 2017

Authors: Alexslis N. Maindze

Abstract:

Knowledge management (KM) has become an imperative to modern business growth, competitive edge, and sustainability. Though there has been extensive research in the field, this literature overview showcases massive gaps that exist on the coverage of the field’s rich and fascinating history. Particularly, accounts of the history of KM are inconsistent and fragmentary in breadth and depth. This paper presents new insights into the history of KM from the early 70s when the actual coinage ‘knowledge management’ entered the literature. It reveals how knowledge over the years was shrouded in secrecy and subsumed by technology. It makes a clear distinction between the histories of the debate around knowledge and that of KM. The paper also finds a history of KM filled with skepticisms and engulfed by an ‘intellectual paradox’.

Keywords: knowledge management history, secrecy, skepticism, intellectual paradox

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3333 An Integrated Mathematical Approach to Measure the Capacity of MMTS

Authors: Bayan Bevrani, Robert L. Burdett, Prasad K. D. V. Yarlagadda

Abstract:

This article focuses upon multi-modal transportation systems (MMTS) and the issues surrounding the determination of system capacity. For that purpose a multi-objective framework is advocated that integrates all the different modes and many different competing capacity objectives. This framework is analytical in nature and facilitates a variety of capacity querying and capacity expansion planning.

Keywords: analytical model, capacity analysis, capacity query, multi-modal transportation system (MMTS)

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3332 Position of the Constitutional Court of the Russian Federation on the Matter of Restricting Constitutional Rights of Citizens Concerning Banking Secrecy

Authors: A. V. Shashkova

Abstract:

The aim of the present article is to analyze the position of the Constitutional Court of the Russian Federation on the matter of restricting the constitutional rights of citizens to inviolability of professional and banking secrecy in effecting controlling activities. The methodological ground of the present Article represents the dialectic scientific method of the socio-political, legal and organizational processes with the principles of development, integrity, and consistency, etc. The consistency analysis method is used while researching the object of the analysis. Some public-private research methods are also used: the formally-logical method or the comparative legal method, are used to compare the understanding of the ‘secrecy’ concept. The aim of the present article is to find the root of the problem and to give recommendations for the solution of the problem. The result of the present research is the author’s conclusion on the necessity of the political will to improve Russian legislation with the aim of compliance with the provisions of the Constitution. It is also necessary to establish a clear balance between the constitutional rights of the individual and the limit of these rights when carrying out various control activities by public authorities. Attempts by the banks to "overdo" an anti-money laundering law under threat of severe sanctions by the regulators actually led to failures in the execution of normal economic activity. Therefore, individuals face huge problems with payments on the basis of clearing, in addition to problems with cash withdrawals. The Bank of Russia sets requirements for banks to execute Federal Law No. 115-FZ too high. It is high place to attract political will here. As well, recent changes in Russian legislation, e.g. allowing banks to refuse opening of accounts unilaterally, simplified banking activities in the country. The article focuses on different theoretical approaches towards the concept of “secrecy”. The author gives an overview of the practices of Spain, Switzerland and the United States of America on the matter of restricting the constitutional rights of citizens to inviolability of professional and banking secrecy in effecting controlling activities. The Constitutional Court of the Russian Federation basing on the Constitution of the Russian Federation has its special understanding of the issue, which should be supported by further legislative development in the Russian Federation.

Keywords: constitutional court, restriction of constitutional rights, bank secrecy, control measures, money laundering, financial control, banking information

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3331 Capacity Loss of Urban Arterial Roads under the Influence of Bus Stop

Authors: Sai Chand, Ashish Dhamaniya, Satish Chandra

Abstract:

Curbside bus stops are provided on urban roads when sufficient land is not available to construct bus bays. The present study demonstrates the effect of curbside bus stops on midblock capacity of an urban arterial road. Data were collected on seven sections of 6-lane urban arterial roads in New Delhi. Three sections were selected without any side friction to estimate the base value of capacity. Remaining four sections were with curbside bus stop. Speed and volume data were collected in field and these data were used to estimate the capacity of a section. The average base midblock capacity of a 6–lane divided urban road was found to be 6314 PCU/hr which was further referred as base capacity. Effect of curbside bus stop on midblock capacity of urban road was evaluated by comparing the capacity of a section with curbside bus stop with that of the base capacity. Finally, a mathematical relation has been developed between bus frequency and capacity loss. Also a relation has been suggested between dwell time and capacity loss. The developed relations would be very useful for practising engineers to estimate capacity loss due to bus stop.

Keywords: bus frequency, bus stops, capacity loss, urban arterial

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3330 Development of a Data Security Model Using Steganography

Authors: Terungwa Simon Yange, Agana Moses A.

Abstract:

This paper studied steganography and designed a simplistic approach to a steganographic tool for hiding information in image files with the view of addressing the security challenges with data by hiding data from unauthorized users to improve its security. The Structured Systems Analysis and Design Method (SSADM) was used in this work. The system was developed using Java Development Kit (JDK) 1.7.0_10 and MySQL Server as its backend. The system was tested with some hypothetical health records which proved the possibility of protecting data from unauthorized users by making it secret so that its existence cannot be easily recognized by fraudulent users. It further strengthens the confidentiality of patient records kept by medical practitioners in the health setting. In conclusion, this work was able to produce a user friendly steganography software that is very fast to install and easy to operate to ensure privacy and secrecy of sensitive data. It also produced an exact copy of the original image and the one carrying the secret message when compared with each.

Keywords: steganography, cryptography, encryption, decryption, secrecy

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3329 How Technology Import Improve the Enterprise's Innovation Capacity: The Mediating Role of Absorptive Capacity

Authors: Zhan Zheng-Qun, Li Min, Xie Yan

Abstract:

Technology plays a key role in determining productivity and economy development in a country. The process of enterprises’ innovation can be seen as a process of knowledge management including the process of knowledge attainment; acquisition and converting and integrating into new knowledge. This research analyzes the influence factors and mechanism of the independent innovation of high-tech enterprises in the year 1995-2013. The result shows that the technology import has a significant positive effect on the innovation capacity of enterprises. And the absorptive capacity, represented by the research outlay input and research staff input, has a significant positive effect on the innovation capacity of enterprises. Furthermore, the effect of technology import on the independent research capacity of high-tech enterprises is significantly positively affected by their absorptive capacity.

Keywords: technology import, innovation capacity, absorptive capacity, high-tech industry

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3328 Model of the Increasing the Capacity of the Train and Railway Track by Using the New Type of Wagon

Authors: Martin Kendra, Jaroslav Mašek, Juraj Čamaj, Martin Búda

Abstract:

The paper deals with possibilities of increase train capacity by using a new type of railway wagon. In the first part is created a mathematical model to calculate the capacity of the train. The model is based on the main limiting parameters of the train - maximum number of axles per train, the maximum gross weight of the train, the maximum length of train and number of TEUs per one wagon. In the second part is the model applied to four different model trains with different composition of the train set and three different average weights of TEU and a train consisting of a new type of wagons. The result is to identify where the carrying capacity of the original trains is higher, respectively less than a capacity of the train consisting of a new type of wagons.

Keywords: loading units, theoretical capacity model, train capacity, wagon for intermodal transport

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3327 Capacity Loss at Midblock Sections of Urban Arterials Due to Pedestrian Crossings

Authors: Ashish Dhamaniya, Satish Chandra

Abstract:

Pedestrian crossings at grade in India are very common and pedestrian cross the carriageway at undesignated locations where they found the path to access the residential and commercial areas. Present paper aims to determine capacity loss on 4-lane urban arterials due to such crossings. Base capacity which is defined as the capacity without any influencing factor is determined on 4-lane roads by collecting speed-flow data in the field. It is observed that base capacity is varying from 1636 pcu/hr/lane to 2043 pcu/hr/lane which is attributed to the different operating conditions at different sections. The variation in base capacity is related with the operating speed on the road sections. Free flow speed of standard car is measured in the field and 85th percentile of this speed is reported as operating speed. Capacity of the 4-lane road sections with different pedestrian cross-flow is also determined and compared with the capacity of base section. The difference in capacity values is reported as capacity loss due to the average number of pedestrian crossings in one hour. It has been observed that capacity of 4-lane road section reduces from 18 to 30 percent with pedestrian cross-flow of 800 to 1550 peds/hr. A model is proposed between capacity loss and pedestrian cross-flow from the observed data.

Keywords: capacity, free flow speed, pedestrian, urban arterial, transport

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3326 Discrete Element Modeling on Bearing Capacity Problems

Authors: N. Li, Y. M. Cheng

Abstract:

In this paper, the classical bearing capacity problem is re-considered from discrete element analysis. In the discrete element approach, the bearing capacity problem is considered from the elastic stage to plastic stage to rupture stage (large displacement). The bearing capacity failure mechanism of a strip footing on soil is investigated, and the influence of micro-parameters on the bearing capacity of soil is also observed. It is found that the distinct element method (DEM) gives very good visualized results, and basically coincides well with that derived by the classical methods.

Keywords: bearing capacity, distinct element method, failure mechanism, large displacement

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3325 Evaluating of Bearing Capacity of Two Adjacent Strip Foundations Located around a Soil Slip

Authors: M. Meftahi, M. Hoseinzadeh, S. A. Naeini

Abstract:

Selection of soil bearing capacity is an important issue that should be investigated under different conditions. The bearing capacity of foundation around of soil slope is based on the active and passive forces. On the other hand, due to extension of urban structures, it is inevitable to put the foundations together. Concerning the two cases mentioned above, investigating the behavior of adjacent foundations which are constructed besides soil slope is essential. It should be noted that, according to the conditions, the bearing capacity of adjacent foundations can be less or more than mat foundations. Also, soil reinforcement increases the bearing capacity of adjacent foundations, and the amount of its increase depends on the distance between foundations. In this research, based on numerical studies, a method is presented for evaluating ultimate bearing capacity of adjacent foundations at different intervals. In the present study, the effect of foundation width, the center to center distance of adjacent foundations and reinforced soil has been investigated on the bearing capacity of adjacent foundations beside soil slope. The results indicate that, due to interference of failure surfaces created under foundation, it depends on their intervals and the ultimate bearing capacity of foundation varies.

Keywords: adjacent foundation, bearing capacity, reinforcements, settlement, numerical analysis

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3324 Undrained Bearing Capacity of Circular Foundations on two Layered Clays

Authors: S. Benmebarek, S. Benmoussa, N. Benmebarek

Abstract:

Natural soils are often deposited in layers. The estimation of the bearing capacity of the soil using conventional bearing capacity theory based on the properties of the upper layer introduces significant inaccuracies if the thickness of the top layer is comparable to the width of the foundation placed on the soil surface. In this paper, numerical computations using the FLAC code are reported to evaluate the two clay layers effect on the bearing capacity beneath rigid circular rough footing subject to axial static load. The computation results of the parametric study are used to illustrate the sensibility of the bearing capacity, the shape factor and the failure mechanisms to the layered strength and layered thickness.

Keywords: numerical modeling, circular footings, layered clays, bearing capacity, failure

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3323 A Mathematical Framework for Expanding a Railway’s Theoretical Capacity

Authors: Robert L. Burdett, Bayan Bevrani

Abstract:

Analytical techniques for measuring and planning railway capacity expansion activities have been considered in this article. A preliminary mathematical framework involving track duplication and section sub divisions is proposed for this task. In railways, these features have a great effect on network performance and for this reason they have been considered. Additional motivations have also arisen from the limitations of prior models that have not included them.

Keywords: capacity analysis, capacity expansion, railways, track sub division, track duplication

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3322 Institutional Capacity and Corruption: Evidence from Brazil

Authors: Dalson Figueiredo, Enivaldo Rocha, Ranulfo Paranhos, José Alexandre

Abstract:

This paper analyzes the effects of institutional capacity on corruption. Methodologically, the research design combines both descriptive and multivariate statistics to examine two original datasets based on secondary data. In particular, we employ a principal component model to estimate an indicator of institutional capacity for both state audit institutions and subnational judiciary courts. Then, we estimate the effect of institutional capacity on two dependent variables: (1) incidence of administrative irregularities and (2) time elapsed to judge corruption cases. The preliminary results using ordinary least squares, negative binomial and Tobit models suggest the same conclusions: higher the institutional audit capacity, higher is the probability of detecting a corruption case. On the other hand, higher the institutional capacity of state judiciary, the lower is the time to judge corruption cases.

Keywords: institutional capacity, corruption, state level institutions, evidence from Brazil

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3321 Role of Strategic Human Resource Practices and Knowledge Management Capacity

Authors: Ploychompoo Kittikunchotiwut

Abstract:

This study examines the relationships between human resource practices, knowledge management capacity, and innovation performance. The data were collected by using a questionnaire from 241 firms in the hotels in Thailand. The hypothesized relationships among variables are examined by using ordinary least square (OLS) regression analysis. The findings show that human resource practices have a positive effect on knowledge management capacity. Besides, knowledge management capacity was found to positively affect innovation performance. Finally, the limitations of the study and directions for future research are discussed.

Keywords: human resource practices, knowledge management capacity, innovation performance

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3320 The Quantitative Analysis of Tourism Carrying Capacity with the Approach of Sustainable Development Case Study: Siahsard Fountain

Authors: Masoumeh Tadayoni, Saeed Kamyabi, Alireza Entezari

Abstract:

Background and goal of the research: In planning and management system, the tourism carrying capacity is used as a holistic approach and supportive instrument. Evaluating the carrying capacity is used in quantitative the resource exploitation in line with sustainable development and as a foundation for identifying the changes in natural ecosystem and for the final evaluation and monitoring the tensions and decays in regressed ecosystem. Therefore, the present research tries to determine the carrying capacity of effective, physical and real range of Siahsard tourism region. Method: In the present research, the quantitative analysis of tourism carrying capacity is studied by used of effective or permissible carrying capacity (EPCC), real carrying capacity (PCC) and physical carrying capacity (RCC) in Siahsard fountain. It is analyzed based on the field survey and various resources were used for collecting information. Findings: The results of the analysis shows that, 3700 people use the Siahsard tourism region every day and 1350500 people use it annually. However, the evaluation of carrying capacity can be annually 1390650 people in this place. It can be an important tourism place along with other places in the region. Results: Siahsard’s tourism region has a little way to reach to its carrying capacity that needs to be analyzed. However, based on the results, some suggestions were offered for sustainable development of this region and as the most logical alternations for tourism management.

Keywords: carrying capacity, evaluation, Siahsard, tourism

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3319 Evaluation of Bearing Capacity of Vertically Loaded Strip Piled-Raft Embedded in Soft Clay

Authors: Seyed Abolhasan Naeini, Mohammad Hosseinzade

Abstract:

Settlement and bearing capacity of a piled raft are the two important issues for the foundations of the structures built on coastal areas from the geotechnical engineering point of view. Strip piled raft as a load carrying system could be used to reduce the possible extensive consolidation settlements and improve bearing capacity of structures in soft ground. The aim of this research was to evaluate the efficiency of strip piled raft embedded in soft clay. The efficiency of bearing capacity of strip piled raft foundation is evaluated numerically in two cases: in first case, the cap is placed directly on the ground surface and in the second, the cap is placed above the ground. Regarding to the fact that the geotechnical parameters of the soft clay are considered at low level, low bearing capacity is expected. The length, diameter and axe-to-axe distance of piles are the parameters which varied in this research to find out how they affect the bearing capacity. Results indicate that increasing the length and the diameter of the piles increase the bearing capacity. The complementary results will be presented in the final version of the paper.

Keywords: soft clay, strip piled raft, bearing capacity, settlement

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3318 Effect of Slope Height and Horizontal Forces on the Bearing Capacity of Strip Footings near Slopes in Cohesionless Soil

Authors: Sven Krabbenhoft, Kristian Krabbenhoft, Lars Damkilde

Abstract:

The problem of determining the bearing capacity of a strip foundation located near a slope of infinite height has been dealt with by several authors. Very often in practical problems the slope is of limited height, and furthermore the resulting load may be inclined at an angle to the horizontal, and in such cases the bearing capacity of the footing cannot be found using the existing methods. The present work comprises finite element based upper- and lower-bound calculations, using the geotechnical software OptumG2 to investigate the effect of the slope height and horizontal forces on the total bearing capacity, both without and with using superposition as presupposed in the traditional bearing capacity equation. The results for friction angles 30, 35 and 40 degrees, slope inclinations 1:2, 1:3 and 1:4, for selfweight and surcharge are given as charts showing the slope inclination factors suitable for design.

Keywords: footings, bearing capacity, slopes, cohesionnless soil

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3317 Aftershock Collapse Capacity Assessment of Mid-Rise Steel Moment Frames Subjected to As-Recorded Mainshock-Aftershock

Authors: Mohammadmehdi Torfehnejada, Serhan Senso

Abstract:

Aftershock collapse capacity of Special Steel Moment Frames (SSMFs) is evaluated under aftershock earthquakes by considering building heights 8 and 12 stories. The assessment evaluates the residual collapse capacity under aftershock excitation when various levels of damage have been induced by the mainshock. For this purpose, incremental dynamic analysis (IDA) under aftershock follows the mainshock imposing the intended damage level. The study results indicate that aftershock collapse capacity of this structure may decrease remarkably when the structure is subjected to large mainshock damage. The capacity reduction under aftershock is finally related to the mainshock damage level through regression equations.

Keywords: aftershock collapse capacity, special steel moment frames, mainshock-aftershock sequences, incremental dynamic analysis, mainshock damage

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3316 Evaluation of Flange Bending Capacity near Member End Using a Finite Element Analysis Approach

Authors: Alicia Kamischke, Souhail Elhouar, Yasser Khodair

Abstract:

The American Institute of Steel Construction (AISC) Specification (360-10) provides equations for calculating the capacity of a W-shaped steel member to resist concentrated forces applied to its flange. In the case of flange local bending, the capacity equations were primarily formulated for an interior point along the member, which is defined to be at a distance larger than ten flange thicknesses away from the member’s end. When a concentrated load is applied within ten flange thicknesses from the member’s end, AISC requires a fifty percent reduction to be applied to the flange bending capacity. This reduction, however, is not supported by any research. In this study, finite element modeling is used to investigate the actual reduction in capacity near the end of such a steel member. The results indicate that the AISC equation for flange local bending is quite conservative for forces applied at less than ten flange thicknesses from the member’s end and a new equation is suggested for the evaluation of available flange local bending capacity within that distance.

Keywords: flange local bending, concentrated forces, column, flange capacity

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3315 Effect of Sand Wall Stabilized with Different Percentages of Lime on Bearing Capacity of Foundation

Authors: Ahmed S. Abdulrasool

Abstract:

Recently sand wall started to gain more attention as the sand is easy to compact by using vibroflotation technique. An advantage of sand wall is the availability of different additives that can be mixed with sand to increase the stiffness of the sand wall and hence to increase its performance. In this paper, the bearing capacity of circular foundation surrounded by sand wall stabilized with lime is evaluated through laboratory testing. The studied parameters include different sand-lime walls depth (H/D) ratio (wall depth to foundation diameter) ranged between (0.0-3.0). Effect of lime percentages on the bearing capacity of skirted foundation models is investigated too. From the results, significant change is occurred in the behavior of shallow foundations due to confinement of the soil. It has been found that (H/D) ratio of 2 gives substantial improvement in bearing capacity, and beyond (H/D) ratio of 2, there is no significant improvement in bearing capacity. The results show that the optimum lime content is 11%, and the maximum increase in bearing capacity reaches approximately 52% at (H/D) ratio of 2.

Keywords: bearing capacity, circular foundation, clay soil, lime-sand wall

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3314 Soil Bearing Capacity of Shallow Foundation and Consolidation Settlement at Around the Prospective Area of Sei Gong Dam Batam

Authors: Andri Hidayat, Zufialdi Zakaria, Raden Irvan Sophian

Abstract:

Batam city within next five years are expected to experience water crisis. Sei Gong dam which is located in the Sijantung village, Galang District, Batam City, Riau Islands Province is one of 13 dams that will be built to solve the problems of raw water crisis in the Batam city. The purpose of this study are to determine the condition of engineering geology around Sei Gong Dam area, knowing the value of the soil bearing capacity and recommended pile foundation, and knowing the characteristics of the soil consolidation as one of the factors that affect the incidence of soil subsidence. Based on calculations for shallow foundation in general - soil shear condition and local - soil condition indicates that the highest value in ultimate soil bearing capacity (qu) for each depth was in the square foundations at two meters depth. The zonations of shallow foundation of the research area are divided into five zones, they are bearing capacity zone <10 ton/m2, bearing capacity zone 10-15 ton/m2, bearing capacity zone 15-20 ton/m2, bearing capacity zone 20-25 ton/m2, and bearing capacity zone >25 ton/m2. Based on the parameters of soil engineering analysis, Sei Gong Dam areas at the middle part has a higher value for land subsidence.

Keywords: ultimate bearing capacity, type of foundation, consolidation, land subsidence, Batam

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3313 Establishing Digital Forensics Capability and Capacity among Malaysia's Law Enforcement Agencies: Issues, Challenges and Recommendations

Authors: Sarah Taylor, Nor Zarina Zainal Abidin, Mohd Zabri Adil Talib

Abstract:

Although cybercrime is on the rise, yet many Law Enforcement Agencies in Malaysia faces difficulty in establishing own digital forensics capability and capacity. The main reasons are undoubtedly because of the high cost and difficulty in convincing their management. A survey has been conducted among Malaysia’s Law Enforcement Agencies owning a digital forensics laboratory to understand their history of building digital forensics capacity and capability, the challenges and the impact of having own laboratory to their case investigation. The result of the study shall be used by other Law Enforcement Agencies in justifying to their management to establish own digital forensics capability and capacity.

Keywords: digital forensics, digital forensics capacity and capability, laboratory, law enforcement agency

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3312 Road Transition Design on Freeway Tunnel Entrance and Exit Based on Traffic Capacity

Authors: Han Bai, Tong Zhang, Lemei Yu, Doudou Xie, Liang Zhao

Abstract:

Road transition design on freeway tunnel entrance and exit is one vital factor in realizing smooth transition and improving traveling safety for vehicles. The goal of this research is to develop a horizontal road transition design tool that considers the transition technology of traffic capacity consistency to explore its accommodation mechanism. The influencing factors of capacity are synthesized and a modified capacity calculation model focusing on the influence of road width and lateral clearance is developed based on the VISSIM simulation to calculate the width of road transition sections. To keep the traffic capacity consistency, the right side of the transition section of the tunnel entrance and exit is divided into three parts: front arc, an intermediate transition section, and end arc; an optimization design on each transition part is conducted to improve the capacity stability and horizontal alignment transition. A case study on the Panlong Tunnel in Ji-Qing freeway illustrates the application of the tool.

Keywords: traffic safety, road transition, freeway tunnel, traffic capacity

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