Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1638

Search results for: volumetric shrinkage strain

1638 Effects of Dimensional Sizes of Mould on the Volumetric Shrinkage Strain of Lateric Soil

Authors: John E. Sani, Moses George


The paper presents the result of a laboratory study carried out on lateritic soil to determine the effects of dimensional size on the volumetric shrinkage strain (VSS) using three mould sizes i.e. split former mould, proctor mould and California bearing ratio (CBR) mould at three energy levels; British standard light (BSL), West African standard (WAS) and British standard heavy (BSH) respectively. Compactions were done at different molding water content of -2 % to +6 % optimum moisture content (OMC). At -2% to +2% molding water content for the split former mould the volumetric shrinkage strain met the requirement of not more than 4% while at +4% and +6% only the WAS and BSH met the requirement. The proctor mould and the CBR mould on the other hand gave a lower value of volumetric shrinkage strain in all compactive effort and the values are lower than the 4% safe VSS value.

Keywords: lateritic soil, volumetric shrinkage strain, molding water content, compactive effort

Procedia PDF Downloads 383
1637 Assessment of Hygroscopic Characteristics of Hevea brasiliensis Wood

Authors: John Tosin Aladejana


Wood behave differently under different environmental conditions. The knowledge of the hygroscopic nature of wood becomes a key factor in selecting wood for use and required treatment. This study assessed the hygroscopic behaviour of Hevea brasiliensis (Rubber) wood. Void volume, volumetric swelling in the tangential, radial and longitudinal directions and volumetric shrinkage were used to assess the response of the wood when loosing or taking up moisture. Hevea brasiliensis wood samples cut into 20 × 20 × 60 mm taken longitudinally and transversely were used for the study and dried in the oven at 103 ± 2⁰C. The mean values for moisture content in green Hevea brasiliensis wood were 49.74 %, 51.14 % and 54.36 % for top, middle and bottom portion respectively while 51.77 %, 50.02 % and 53.45 % were recorded for outer, middle and inner portions respectively for the tree. The values obtained for volumetric shrinkage and swelling indicated that shrinkage and swelling were higher at the top part of H. brasiliensis. It was also observed that the longitudinal shrinkage was negligible while tangential direction showed the highest shrinkage among the wood direction. The values of the void volume obtained were 43.0 %, 39.0 % and 38.0 % at the top, middle and bottom respectively. The result obtained showed clarification on the wood density of hevea brasiliensis based on the position and portion of the wood species and the variation in moisture content, void volume, volumetric shrinkage and swelling were also revealed. This will provide information in the process of drying hevea brasiliensis wood to ensure better wood quality devoid of defects.

Keywords: moisture content, shrinkage, swelling, void volume

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1636 Evaluation of Polymerisation Shrinkage of Randomly Oriented Micro-Sized Fibre Reinforced Dental Composites Using Fibre-Bragg Grating Sensors and Their Correlation with Degree of Conversion

Authors: Sonam Behl, Raju, Ginu Rajan, Paul Farrar, B. Gangadhara Prusty


Reinforcing dental composites with micro-sized fibres can significantly improve the physio-mechanical properties of dental composites. The short fibres can be oriented randomly within dental composites, thus providing quasi-isotropic reinforcing efficiency unlike unidirectional/bidirectional fibre reinforced composites enhancing anisotropic properties. Thus, short fibres reinforced dental composites are getting popular among practitioners. However, despite their popularity, resin-based dental composites are prone to failure on account of shrinkage during photo polymerisation. The shrinkage in the structure may lead to marginal gap formation, causing secondary caries, thus ultimately inducing failure of the restoration. The traditional methods to evaluate polymerisation shrinkage using strain gauges, density-based measurements, dilatometer, or bonded-disk focuses on average value of volumetric shrinkage. Moreover, the results obtained from traditional methods are sensitive to the specimen geometry. The present research aims to evaluate the real-time shrinkage strain at selected locations in the material with the help of optical fibre Bragg grating (FBG) sensors. Due to the miniature size (diameter 250 µm) of FBG sensors, they can be easily embedded into small samples of dental composites. Furthermore, an FBG array into the system can map the real-time shrinkage strain at different regions of the composite. The evaluation of real-time monitoring of shrinkage values may help to optimise the physio-mechanical properties of composites. Previously, FBG sensors have been able to rightfully measure polymerisation strains of anisotropic (unidirectional or bidirectional) reinforced dental composites. However, very limited study exists to establish the validity of FBG based sensors to evaluate volumetric shrinkage for randomly oriented fibres reinforced composites. The present study aims to fill this research gap and is focussed on establishing the usage of FBG based sensors for evaluating the shrinkage of dental composites reinforced with randomly oriented fibres. Three groups of specimens were prepared by mixing the resin (80% UDMA/20% TEGDMA) with 55% of silane treated BaAlSiO₂ particulate fillers or by adding 5% of micro-sized fibres of diameter 5 µm, and length 250/350 µm along with 50% of silane treated BaAlSiO₂ particulate fillers into the resin. For measurement of polymerisation shrinkage strain, an array of three fibre Bragg grating sensors was embedded at a depth of 1 mm into a circular Teflon mould of diameter 15 mm and depth 2 mm. The results obtained are compared with the traditional method for evaluation of the volumetric shrinkage using density-based measurements. Degree of conversion was measured using FTIR spectroscopy (Spotlight 400 FT-IR from PerkinElmer). It is expected that the average polymerisation shrinkage strain values for dental composites reinforced with micro-sized fibres can directly correlate with the measured degree of conversion values, implying that more C=C double bond conversion to C-C single bond values also leads to higher shrinkage strain within the composite. Moreover, it could be established the photonics approach could help assess the shrinkage at any point of interest in the material, suggesting that fibre-Bragg grating sensors are a suitable means for measuring real-time polymerisation shrinkage strain for randomly fibre reinforced dental composites as well.

Keywords: dental composite, glass fibre, polymerisation shrinkage strain, fibre-Bragg grating sensors

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1635 Artificial Neural Network in Predicting the Soil Response in the Discrete Element Method Simulation

Authors: Zhaofeng Li, Jun Kang Chow, Yu-Hsing Wang


This paper attempts to bridge the soil properties and the mechanical response of soil in the discrete element method (DEM) simulation. The artificial neural network (ANN) was therefore adopted, aiming to reproduce the stress-strain-volumetric response when soil properties are given. 31 biaxial shearing tests with varying soil parameters (e.g., initial void ratio and interparticle friction coefficient) were generated using the DEM simulations. Based on these 45 sets of training data, a three-layer neural network was established which can output the entire stress-strain-volumetric curve during the shearing process from the input soil parameters. Beyond the training data, 2 additional sets of data were generated to examine the validity of the network, and the stress-strain-volumetric curves for both cases were well reproduced using this network. Overall, the ANN was found promising in predicting the soil behavior and reducing repetitive simulation work.

Keywords: artificial neural network, discrete element method, soil properties, stress-strain-volumetric response

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1634 Characterization of Shrinkage-Induced Cracking of Clay Soils

Authors: Ahmad El Hajjar, Joanna Eid, Salima Bouchemella, Tariq Ouahbi, Benoit Duchemin, Said Taibi


In our present society, raw earth presents an alternative as an energy-saving building material for dealing with climate and environmental issues. Nevertheless, it has a sensitivity to water, due to the presence of fines, which has a direct effect on its consistency. This can be expressed during desiccation, by shrinkage deformations resulting in cracking that begins once the internal tensile stresses developed, due to suction, exceed the tensile strength of the material. This work deals with the evolution of the strain of clay samples, from the beginning of shrinkage until the initiation of crack, using the DIC (Digital Image Correlation) technique. In order to understand the origin of cracking, desiccation is studied for different boundary conditions and depending on the intrinsic characteristics of the material. On the other hand, a study of restrained shrinkage is carried out on the ring test to investigate the ultimate tensile strength from which the crack begins in the dough of clay. The purpose of this test is to find the type of reinforcement adapted to thwart in the cracking of the material. A microscopic analysis of the damaged area is necessary to link the macroscopic mechanisms of cracking to the various physicochemical phenomena at the microscopic scale in order to understand the different microstructural mechanisms and their impact on the macroscopic shrinkage.

Keywords: clayey soil, shrinkage, strain, cracking, digital image correlation

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1633 Restrained Shrinkage Behavior of Self Consolidating Concrete

Authors: Boudjelthia Radhwane


Self-compacting concrete (SCC) developed in Japan in the late 80s has enabled the construction industry to reduce demand on the resources, improve the work condition and also reduce the impact of environment by elimination of the need for compaction. The shrinkage of concrete is the main cause of cracking in bridge decks. Bridge decks tend to be restrained from shrinkage, and this restraint along with other factors causes the bridge to crack. The characteristics of SCC under restrained shrinkage are important to understand in order to predict the cracking behavior in actual structures. Restrained shrinkage testing is done in accordance to AASHTO testing protocol. The free shrinkage performance and cracking behavior were reported and compared when changing the sand to aggregate ratio and the water to cement ratio. The results of free shrinkage show that when a mix design has higher free shrinkage, it will crack in restrained shrinkage earlier than a mix with lower free shrinkage.

Keywords: concrete mix, cracking behavior, restrained shrinkage, self compacting concrete

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1632 Softener Washes Affecting the Shrinkage and Appearance of Knitted Garments

Authors: Ezza Nasir, Babar Ramzan


Silicon washes on altered knitted fabrics will provide diverse shrinkage trends. The expectation on shrinkage for various apparel products are also changed. However, the effect of shrinkage in garment is still ambiguous. As a result, analysis of shrinkage after different concentrations of silicon washes can provide a more realistic study. The purpose of this study is to analyze the shrinkage with commercial sewing threads in knitted fabric. Study focuses on the effect of different washes on garment measurement and to study the effect of washes on fabric shrinkage. Four different types of knitted fabric were sewn with same length and width measurements. To study the effect of softener washes on shrinkage of garment through subjective ranking, there were critical dimensions for measurements done on body length and width garment appearance and shrinkage.

Keywords: shrinkage, dimensions, knitted fabric, silicon

Procedia PDF Downloads 350
1631 Effect of Shrinkage on Heat and Mass Transfer Parameters of Solar Dried Potato Samples of Variable Diameter

Authors: Kshanaprava Dhalsamant, Punyadarshini P. Tripathy, Shanker L. Shrivastava


Potato is chosen as the food product for carrying out the natural convection mixed-mode solar drying experiments since they are easily available and globally consumed. The convective heat and mass transfer coefficients along with effective diffusivity were calculated considering both shrinkage and without shrinkage for the potato cylinders of different geometry (8, 10 and 13 mm diameters and a constant length of 50 mm). The convective heat transfer coefficient (hc) without considering shrinkage effect were 24.28, 18.69, 15.89 W/m2˚C and hc considering shrinkage effect were 37.81, 29.21, 25.72 W/m2˚C for 8, 10 and 13 mm diameter samples respectively. Similarly, the effective diffusivity (Deff) without considering shrinkage effect were 3.20×10-9, 4.82×10-9, 2.48×10-8 m2/s and Deff considering shrinkage effect were 1.68×10-9, 2.56×10-9, 1.34×10-8 m2/s for 8, 10 and 13 mm diameter samples respectively and the mass transfer coefficient (hm) without considering the shrinkage effect were 5.16×10-7, 2.93×10-7, 2.59×10-7 m/s and hm considering shrinkage effect were 3.71×10-7, 2.04×10-7, 1.80×10-7 m/s for 8, 10 and 13 mm diameter samples respectively. Increased values of hc were obtained by considering shrinkage effect in all diameter samples because shrinkage results in decreasing diameter with time achieving in enhanced rate of water loss. The average values of Deff determined without considering the shrinkage effect were found to be almost double that with shrinkage effect. The reduction in hm values is due to the fact that with increasing sample diameter, the exposed surface area per unit mass decreases, resulting in a slower moisture removal. It is worth noting that considering shrinkage effect led to overestimation of hc values in the range of 55.72-61.86% and neglecting the shrinkage effect in the mass transfer analysis, the values of Deff and hm are overestimated in the range of 85.02-90.27% and 39.11-45.11%, respectively, for the range of sample diameter investigated in the present study.

Keywords: shrinkage, convective heat transfer coefficient, effectivive diffusivity, convective mass transfer coefficient

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1630 Experimental Study of Different Types of Concrete in Uniaxial Compression Test

Authors: Khashayar Jafari, Mostafa Jafarian Abyaneh, Vahab Toufigh


Polymer concrete (PC) is a distinct concrete with superior characteristics in comparison to ordinary cement concrete. It has become well-known for its applications in thin overlays, floors and precast components. In this investigation, the mechanical properties of PC with different epoxy resin contents, ordinary cement concrete (OCC) and lightweight concrete (LC) have been studied under uniaxial compression test. The study involves five types of concrete, with each type being tested four times. Their complete elastic-plastic behavior was compared with each other through the measurement of volumetric strain during the tests. According to the results, PC showed higher strength, ductility and energy absorption with respect to OCC and LC.

Keywords: polymer concrete, ordinary cement concrete, lightweight concrete, uniaxial compression test, volumetric strain

Procedia PDF Downloads 249
1629 Durability Properties of Foamed Concrete with Fiber Inclusion

Authors: Hanizam Awang, Muhammad Hafiz Ahmad


An experimental study was conducted on foamed concrete with synthetic and natural fibres consisting of AR-glass, polypropylene, steel, kenaf and oil palm fibre. The foamed concrete mixtures produced had a target density of 1000 kg/m3 and a mix ratio of (1:1.5:0.45). The fibres were used as additives. The inclusion of fibre was maintained at a volumetric fraction of 0.25 and 0.4 %. The water absorption, thermal and shrinkage were determined to study the effect of the fibre on the durability properties of foamed concrete. The results showed that AR-glass fibre has the lowest percentage value of drying shrinkage compared to others.

Keywords: foamed concrete, fibres, durability, construction, geological engineering

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1628 Prediction of Deformations of Concrete Structures

Authors: A. Brahma


Drying is a phenomenon that accompanies the hardening of hydraulic materials. It can, if it is not prevented, lead to significant spontaneous dimensional variations, which the cracking is one of events. In this context, cracking promotes the transport of aggressive agents in the material, which can affect the durability of concrete structures. Drying shrinkage develops over a long period almost 30 years although most occurred during the first three years. Drying shrinkage stabilizes when the material is water balance with the external environment. The drying shrinkage of cementitious materials is due to the formation of capillary tensions in the pores of the material, which has the consequences of bringing the solid walls of each other. Knowledge of the shrinkage characteristics of concrete is a necessary starting point in the design of structures for crack control. Such knowledge will enable the designer to estimate the probable shrinkage movement in reinforced or prestressed concrete and the appropriate steps can be taken in design to accommodate this movement. This study is concerned the modelling of drying shrinkage of the hydraulic materials and the prediction of the rate of spontaneous deformations of hydraulic materials during hardening. The model developed takes in consideration the main factors affecting drying shrinkage. There was agreement between drying shrinkage predicted by the developed model and experimental results. In last we show that developed model describe the evolution of the drying shrinkage of high performances concretes correctly.

Keywords: drying, hydraulic concretes, shrinkage, modeling, prediction

Procedia PDF Downloads 228
1627 Is It Important to Measure the Volumetric Mass Density of Nanofluids?

Authors: Z. Haddad, C. Abid, O. Rahli, O. Margeat, W. Dachraoui, A. Mataoui


The present study aims to measure the volumetric mass density of NiPd-heptane nanofluids synthesized using a one-step method known as thermal decomposition of metal-surfactant complexes. The particle concentration is up to 7.55 g/l and the temperature range of the experiment is from 20°C to 50°C. The measured values were compared with the mixture theory and good agreement between the theoretical equation and measurement were obtained. Moreover, the available nanofluids volumetric mass density data in the literature is reviewed.

Keywords: NiPd nanoparticles, nanofluids, volumetric mass density, stability

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1626 Long-Term Deformations of Concrete Structures

Authors: Abdelmalk Brahma


Drying is a phenomenon that accompanies the hardening of hydraulic materials. It can, if it is not prevented, lead to significant spontaneous dimensional variations, which the cracking is one of events. In this context, cracking promotes the transport of aggressive agents in the material, which can affect the durability of concrete structures. Drying shrinkage develops over a long period almost 30 years although most occurred during the first three years. Drying shrinkage stabilizes when the material is water balance with the external environment. The drying shrinkage of cementitious materials is due to the formation of capillary tensions in the pores of the material, which has the consequences of bringing the solid walls of each other. Knowledge of the shrinkage characteristics of concrete is a necessary starting point in the design of structures for crack control. Such knowledge will enable the designer to estimate the probable shrinkage movement in reinforced or prestressed concrete and the appropriate steps can be taken in design to accommodate this movement. This study is concerned the modelling of drying shrinkage of the hydraulic materials and the prediction of the rate of spontaneous deformations of hydraulic materials during hardening. The model developed takes in consideration the main factors affecting drying shrinkage. There was agreement between drying shrinkage predicted by the developed model and experimental results. In last we show that developed model describe the evolution of the drying shrinkage of high performances concretes correctly.

Keywords: drying, hydraulic concretes, shrinkage, modeling, prediction

Procedia PDF Downloads 139
1625 Reduction Shrinkage of Concrete without Use Reinforcement

Authors: Martin Tazky, Rudolf Hela, Lucia Osuska, Petr Novosad


Concrete’s volumetric changes are natural process caused by silicate minerals’ hydration. These changes can lead to cracking and subsequent destruction of cementitious material’s matrix. In most cases, cracks can be assessed as a negative effect of hydration, and in all cases, they lead to an acceleration of degradation processes. Preventing the formation of these cracks is, therefore, the main effort. Once of the possibility how to eliminate this natural concrete shrinkage process is by using different types of dispersed reinforcement. For this application of concrete shrinking, steel and polymer reinforcement are preferably used. Despite ordinarily used reinforcement in concrete to eliminate shrinkage it is possible to look at this specific problematic from the beginning by itself concrete mix composition. There are many secondary raw materials, which are helpful in reduction of hydration heat and also with shrinkage of concrete during curing. The new science shows the possibilities of shrinkage reduction also by the controlled formation of hydration products, which could act by itself morphology as a traditionally used dispersed reinforcement. This contribution deals with the possibility of controlled formation of mono- and tri-sulfate which are considered like degradation minerals. Mono- and tri- sulfate's controlled formation in a cementitious composite can be classified as a self-healing ability. Its crystal’s growth acts directly against the shrinking tension – this reduces the risk of cracks development. Controlled formation means that these crystals start to grow in the fresh state of the material (e.g. concrete) but stop right before it could cause any damage to the hardened material. Waste materials with the suitable chemical composition are very attractive precursors because of their added value in the form of landscape pollution’s reduction and, of course, low cost. In this experiment, the possibilities of using the fly ash from fluidized bed combustion as a mono- and tri-sulphate formation additive were investigated. The experiment itself was conducted on cement paste and concrete and specimens were subjected to a thorough analysis of physicomechanical properties as well as microstructure from the moment of mixing up to 180 days. In cement composites, were monitored the process of hydration and shrinkage. In a mixture with the used admixture of fluidized bed combustion fly ash, possible failures were specified by electronic microscopy and dynamic modulus of elasticity. The results of experiments show the possibility of shrinkage concrete reduction without using traditionally dispersed reinforcement.

Keywords: shrinkage, monosulphates, trisulphates, self-healing, fluidized fly ash

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1624 Prediction of Unsaturated Permeability Functions for Clayey Soil

Authors: F. Louati, H. Trabelsi, M. Jamei


Desiccation cracks following drainage-humidification cycles. With water loss, mainly due to evaporation, suction in the soil increases, producing volumetric shrinkage and tensile stress. When the tensile stress reaches tensile strength, the soil cracks. Desiccation cracks networks can directly control soil hydraulic properties. The aim of this study was for quantifying the hydraulic properties for examples the water retention curve, the saturated hydraulic conductivity, the unsaturated hydraulic conductivity function, the shrinkage dynamics in Tibar soil- clay soil in the Northern of Tunisia. Then a numerical simulation of unsaturated hydraulic properties for a crack network has been attempted. The finite elements code ‘CODE_BRIGHT’ can be used to follow the hydraulic distribution in cracked porous media.

Keywords: desiccation, cracks, permeability, unsaturated hydraulic flow, simulation

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1623 Effect of Addition Rate of Expansive Additive on Autogenous Shrinkage and Delayed Expansion of Ultra-High Strength Mortar

Authors: Yulu Zhang, Atushi Teramoto, Taka-Aki Ohkubo


In this study, the effect of expansive additives on autogenous shrinkage and delayed expansion of ultra-high strength mortar was explored. The specimens made for the study were composed of ultra-high strength mortar, which was mixed with ettringite-lime composite type expansive additive. Two series of experiments were conducted with the specimens. The experimental results confirmed that the autogenous shrinkage of specimens was effectively decreased by increasing the proportion of the expansive additive. On the other hand, for the specimens, which had 7% expansive additive, and were cured for seven days at a constant temperature of 20°C, and then cured for a long time in either in an underwater, moist (Relative humidity: 100%) or dry air (Relative humidity: 60%) environment, excessively large expansion strain occurred. Specifically, typical turtle shell-like swelling expansion cracks were confirmed in the specimens that underwent long-term curing in an underwater and moist environment. According to the result of hydration analysis, the formation of expansive substances, calcium hydroxide and alumina, ferric oxide, tri-sulfate contribute to the occurrence of delayed expansion.

Keywords: ultra-high strength mortar, expansive additive, autogenous shrinkage, delayed expansion

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1622 Evaluation of Rheological Properties, Anisotropic Shrinkage, and Heterogeneous Densification of Ceramic Materials during Liquid Phase Sintering by Numerical-Experimental Procedure

Authors: Hamed Yaghoubi, Esmaeil Salahi, Fateme Taati


The effective shear and bulk viscosity, as well as dynamic viscosity, describe the rheological properties of the ceramic body during the liquid phase sintering process. The rheological parameters depend on the physical and thermomechanical characteristics of the material such as relative density, temperature, grain size, and diffusion coefficient and activation energy. The main goal of this research is to acquire a comprehensive understanding of the response of an incompressible viscose ceramic material during liquid phase sintering process such as stress-strain relations, sintering and hydrostatic stress, the prediction of anisotropic shrinkage and heterogeneous densification as a function of sintering time by including the simultaneous influence of gravity field, and frictional force. After raw materials analysis, the standard hard porcelain mixture as a ceramic body was designed and prepared. Three different experimental configurations were designed including midpoint deflection, sinter bending, and free sintering samples. The numerical method for the ceramic specimens during the liquid phase sintering process are implemented in the CREEP user subroutine code in ABAQUS. The numerical-experimental procedure shows the anisotropic behavior, the complete difference in spatial displacement through three directions, the incompressibility for ceramic samples during the sintering process. The anisotropic shrinkage factor has been proposed to investigate the shrinkage anisotropy. It has been shown that the shrinkage along the normal axis of casting sample is about 1.5 times larger than that of casting direction, the gravitational force in pyroplastic deformation intensifies the shrinkage anisotropy more than the free sintering sample. The lowest and greatest equivalent creep strain occurs at the intermediate zone and around the central line of the midpoint distorted sample, respectively. In the sinter bending test sample, the equivalent creep strain approaches to the maximum near the contact area with refractory support. The inhomogeneity in Von-Misses, pressure, and principal stress intensifies the relative density non-uniformity in all samples, except in free sintering one. The symmetrical distribution of stress around the center of free sintering sample, cause to hinder the pyroplastic deformations. Densification results confirmed that the effective bulk viscosity was well-defined with relative density values. The stress analysis confirmed that the sintering stress is more than the hydrostatic stress from start to end of sintering time so, from both theoretically and experimentally point of view, the sintering process occurs completely.

Keywords: anisotropic shrinkage, ceramic material, liquid phase sintering process, rheological properties, numerical-experimental procedure

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1621 Effect of Drying on the Concrete Structures

Authors: A. Brahma


The drying of hydraulics materials is unavoidable and conducted to important spontaneous deformations. In this study, we show that it is possible to describe the drying shrinkage of the high-performance concrete by a simple expression. A multiple regression model was developed for the prediction of the drying shrinkage of the high-performance concrete. The assessment of the proposed model has been done by a set of statistical tests. The model developed takes in consideration the main parameters of confection and conservation. There was a very good agreement between drying shrinkage predicted by the multiple regression model and experimental results. The developed model adjusts easily to all hydraulic concrete types.

Keywords: hydraulic concretes, drying, shrinkage, prediction, modeling

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1620 Non-Linear Behavior of Granular Materials in Pavement Design

Authors: Mounir Tichamakdj, Khaled Sandjak, Boualem Tiliouine


The design of flexible pavements is currently carried out using a multilayer elastic theory. However, for thin-surface pavements subject to light or medium traffic volumes, the importance of the non-linear stress-strain behavior of unbound granular materials requires the use of more sophisticated numerical models for the structural design of these pavements. The simplified analysis of the nonlinear behavior of granular materials in pavement design will be developed in this study. To achieve this objective, an equivalent linear model derived from a volumetric shear stress model is used to simulate the nonlinear elastic behavior of two unlinked local granular materials often used in pavements. This model is included here to adequately incorporate material non-linearity due to stress dependence and stiffness of the granular layers in the flexible pavement analysis. The sensitivity of the pavement design criteria to the likely variations in asphalt layer thickness and the mineralogical nature of unbound granular materials commonly used in pavement structures are also evaluated.

Keywords: granular materials, linear equivalent model, non-linear behavior, pavement design, shear volumetric strain model

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1619 Dry Relaxation Shrinkage Prediction of Bordeaux Fiber Using a Feed Forward Neural

Authors: Baeza S. Roberto


The knitted fabric suffers a deformation in its dimensions due to stretching and tension factors, transverse and longitudinal respectively, during the process in rectilinear knitting machines so it performs a dry relaxation shrinkage procedure and thermal action of prefixed to obtain stable conditions in the knitting. This paper presents a dry relaxation shrinkage prediction of Bordeaux fiber using a feed forward neural network and linear regression models. Six operational alternatives of shrinkage were predicted. A comparison of the results was performed finding neural network models with higher levels of explanation of the variability and prediction. The presence of different reposes are included. The models were obtained through a neural toolbox of Matlab and Minitab software with real data in a knitting company of Southern Guanajuato. The results allow predicting dry relaxation shrinkage of each alternative operation.

Keywords: neural network, dry relaxation, knitting, linear regression

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1618 Micromechanical Modelling of Ductile Damage with a Cohesive-Volumetric Approach

Authors: Noe Brice Nkoumbou Kaptchouang, Pierre-Guy Vincent, Yann Monerie


The present work addresses the modelling and the simulation of crack initiation and propagation in ductile materials which failed by void nucleation, growth, and coalescence. One of the current research frameworks on crack propagation is the use of cohesive-volumetric approach where the crack growth is modelled as a decohesion of two surfaces in a continuum material. In this framework, the material behavior is characterized by two constitutive relations, the volumetric constitutive law relating stress and strain, and a traction-separation law across a two-dimensional surface embedded in the three-dimensional continuum. Several cohesive models have been proposed for the simulation of crack growth in brittle materials. On the other hand, the application of cohesive models in modelling crack growth in ductile material is still a relatively open field. One idea developed in the literature is to identify the traction separation for ductile material based on the behavior of a continuously-deforming unit cell failing by void growth and coalescence. Following this method, the present study proposed a semi-analytical cohesive model for ductile material based on a micromechanical approach. The strain localization band prior to ductile failure is modelled as a cohesive band, and the Gurson-Tvergaard-Needleman plasticity model (GTN) is used to model the behavior of the cohesive band and derived a corresponding traction separation law. The numerical implementation of the model is realized using the non-smooth contact method (NSCD) where cohesive models are introduced as mixed boundary conditions between each volumetric finite element. The present approach is applied to the simulation of crack growth in nuclear ferritic steel. The model provides an alternative way to simulate crack propagation using the numerical efficiency of cohesive model with a traction separation law directly derived from porous continuous model.

Keywords: ductile failure, cohesive model, GTN model, numerical simulation

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1617 Mechanical Properties and Shrinkage and Expansion Assessment of Rice Husk Ash Concrete and Its Comparison with the Control Concrete

Authors: Hamed Ahmadi Moghadam, Omolbanin Arasteh Khoshbin


The possibility of using of rice husk ash (RHA) of Guilan (a province located in the north of Iran) (RHA) in concrete was studied by performing experiments. Mechanical properties and shrinkage and expansion of concrete containing different percentage of RHA and the control concrete consisting of cement type II were investigated. For studying, a number of cube and prism concrete specimens containing of 5 to 30% of RHA with constant water to binder ratio of 0.4 were casted and the compressive strength, tensile strength, shrinkage and expansion for water curing conditions up to 360 days were measured. The tests results show that the cement replacement of rice husk ash (RHA) caused both the quality and mechanical properties alterations. It is shown that the compressive strength, tensile strength increase also shrinkage and expansion of specimens were increased that should be controlled in mass concrete structures.

Keywords: rice husk ash, mechanical properties, shrinkage and expansion, Pozzolan

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1616 Drying Shrinkage of Magnesium Silicate Hydrate Gel Cements

Authors: T. Zhang, X. Liang, M. Lorin, C. Cheeseman, L. J. Vandeperre


Cracks were observed when the magnesium silicate hydrate gel cement (prepared by 40% MgO/ 60% silica fume) was dried. This drying cracking is believed to be caused when unbound water evaporates from the binder. The shrinkage upon forced drying to 200 °C of mortars made up from a reactive magnesium oxide, silica fume and sand was measured using dilatometry. The magnitude of the drying shrinkage was found to decrease when more sand or less water was added to the mortars and can be as low as 0.16% for a mortar containing 60 wt% sand and a water to cement ratio of 0.5, which is of a similar order of magnitude as observed in Portland cement based mortars and concretes. A simple geometrical interpretation based on packing of the particles in the mortar can explain the observed drying shrinkages and based on this analysis the drying shrinkage of the hydration products at zero added solid is estimated to be 7.3% after 7 days of curing.

Keywords: magnesium silicate hydrate, shrinkage, dilatometry, gel cements

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1615 Time-Dependent Analysis of Composite Steel-Concrete Beams Subjected to Shrinkage

Authors: Rahal Nacer, Beghdad Houda, Tehami Mohamed, Souici Abdelaziz


Although the shrinkage of the concrete causes undesirable parasitic effects to the structure, it can then harm the resistance and the good appearance of the structure. Long term behaviourmodelling of steel-concrete composite beams requires the use of the time variable and the taking into account of all the sustained stress history of the concrete slab constituting the cross section. The work introduced in this article is a theoretical study of the behaviour of composite beams with respect to the phenomenon of concrete shrinkage. While using the theory of the linear viscoelasticity of the concrete, and on the basis of the rate of creep method, in proposing an analytical model, made up by a system of two linear differential equations, emphasizing the effects caused by shrinkage on the resistance of a steel-concrete composite beams. Results obtained from the application of the suggested model to a steel-concrete composite beam are satisfactory.

Keywords: composite beams, shrinkage, time, rate of creep method, viscoelasticity theory

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1614 Crack Width Analysis of Reinforced Concrete Members under Shrinkage Effect by Pseudo-Discrete Crack Model

Authors: F. J. Ma, A. K. H. Kwan


Crack caused by shrinkage movement of concrete is a serious problem especially when restraint is provided. It may cause severe serviceability and durability problems. The existing prediction methods for crack width of concrete due to shrinkage movement are mainly numerical methods under simplified circumstances, which do not agree with each other. To get a more unified prediction method applicable to more sophisticated circumstances, finite element crack width analysis for shrinkage effect should be developed. However, no existing finite element analysis can be carried out to predict the crack width of concrete due to shrinkage movement because of unsolved reasons of conventional finite element analysis. In this paper, crack width analysis implemented by finite element analysis is presented with pseudo-discrete crack model, which combines traditional smeared crack model and newly proposed crack queuing algorithm. The proposed pseudo-discrete crack model is capable of simulating separate and single crack without adopting discrete crack element. And the improved finite element analysis can successfully simulate the stress redistribution when concrete is cracked, which is crucial for predicting crack width, crack spacing and crack number.

Keywords: crack queuing algorithm, crack width analysis, finite element analysis, shrinkage effect

Procedia PDF Downloads 259
1613 New Dynamic Constitutive Model for OFHC Copper Film

Authors: Jin Sung Kim, Hoon Huh


The material properties of OFHC copper film was investigated with the High-Speed Material Micro Testing Machine (HSMMTM) at the high strain rates. The rate-dependent stress-strain curves from the experiment and the Johnson-Cook curve fitting showed large discrepancies as the plastic strain increases since the constitutive model implies no rate-dependent strain hardening effect. A new constitutive model was proposed in consideration of rate-dependent strain hardening effect. The strain rate hardening term in the new constitutive model consists of the strain rate sensitivity coefficients of the yield strength and strain hardening.

Keywords: rate dependent material properties, dynamic constitutive model, OFHC copper film, strain rate

Procedia PDF Downloads 315
1612 Experimental Investigation and Constitutive Modeling of Volume Strain under Uniaxial Strain Rate Jump Test in HDPE

Authors: Rida B. Arieby, Hameed N. Hameed


In this work, tensile tests on high density polyethylene have been carried out under various constant strain rate and strain rate jump tests. The dependency of the true stress and specially the variation of volume strain have been investigated, the volume strain due to the phenomena of damage was determined in real time during the tests by an optical extensometer called Videotraction. A modified constitutive equations, including strain rate and damage effects, are proposed, such a model is based on a non-equilibrium thermodynamic approach called (DNLR). The ability of the model to predict the complex nonlinear response of this polymer is examined by comparing the model simulation with the available experimental data, which demonstrate that this model can represent the deformation behavior of the polymer reasonably well.

Keywords: strain rate jump tests, volume strain, high density polyethylene, large strain, thermodynamics approach

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1611 Flexural Strength Design of RC Beams with Consideration of Strain Gradient Effect

Authors: Mantai Chen, Johnny Ching Ming Ho


The stress-strain relationship of concrete under flexure is one of the essential parameters in assessing ultimate flexural strength capacity of RC beams. Currently, the concrete stress-strain curve in flexure is obtained by incorporating a constant scale-down factor of 0.85 in the uniaxial stress-strain curve. However, it was revealed that strain gradient would improve the maximum concrete stress under flexure and concrete stress-strain curve is strain gradient dependent. Based on the strain-gradient-dependent concrete stress-strain curve, the investigation of the combined effects of strain gradient and concrete strength on flexural strength of RC beams was extended to high strength concrete up to 100 MPa by theoretical analysis. As an extension and application of the authors’ previous study, a new flexural strength design method incorporating the combined effects of strain gradient and concrete strength is developed. A set of equivalent rectangular concrete stress block parameters is proposed and applied to produce a series of design charts showing that the flexural strength of RC beams are improved with strain gradient effect considered.

Keywords: beams, equivalent concrete stress block, flexural strength, strain gradient

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1610 Impact Tensile Mechanical Properties of 316L Stainless Steel at Different Strain Rates

Authors: Jiawei Chen, Jia Qu, Dianwei Ju


316L stainless steel has good mechanical and technological properties, has been widely used in shipbuilding and aerospace manufacturing. In order to understand the effect of strain rate on the yield limit of 316L stainless steel and the constitutive relationship of the materials at different strain rates, this paper used the INSTRON-4505 electronic universal testing machine to study the mechanical properties of the tensile specimen under quasi-static conditions. Meanwhile, the Zwick-Roell RKP450 intelligent oscillometric impact tester was used to test the tensile specimens at different strain rates. Through the above two kinds of experimental researches, the relationship between the true stress-strain and the engineering stress-strain at different strain rates is obtained. The result shows that the tensile yield point of 316L stainless steel increases with the increase of strain rate, and the real stress-strain curve of the 316L stainless steel has a better normalization than that of the engineering stress-strain curve. The real stress-strain curves can be used in the practical engineering of impact stretch to improve its safety.

Keywords: impact stretch, 316L stainless steel, strain rate, real stress-strain, normalization

Procedia PDF Downloads 142
1609 Thermal Radiation Effect on Mixed Convection Boundary Layer Flow over a Vertical Plate with Varying Density and Volumetric Expansion Coefficient

Authors: Sadia Siddiqa, Z. Khan, M. A. Hossain


In this article, the effect of thermal radiation on mixed convection boundary layer flow of a viscous fluid along a highly heated vertical flat plate is considered with varying density and volumetric expansion coefficient. The density of the fluid is assumed to vary exponentially with temperature, however; volumetric expansion coefficient depends linearly on temperature. Boundary layer equations are transformed into convenient form by introducing primitive variable formulations. Solutions of transformed system of equations are obtained numerically through implicit finite difference method along with Gaussian elimination technique. Results are discussed in view of various parameters, like thermal radiation parameter, volumetric expansion parameter and density variation parameter on the wall shear stress and heat transfer rate. It is concluded from the present investigation that increase in volumetric expansion parameter decreases wall shear stress and enhances heat transfer rate.

Keywords: thermal radiation, mixed convection, variable density, variable volumetric expansion coefficient

Procedia PDF Downloads 239