Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 86

Search results for: COMSOL

86 Induction Heating Process Design Using Comsol® Multiphysics Software Version 4.2a

Authors: K. Djellabi, M. E. H. Latreche


Induction heating computer simulation is a powerful tool for process design and optimization, induction coil design, equipment selection, as well as education and business presentations. The authors share their vast experience in the practical use of computer simulation for different induction heating and heat treating processes. In this paper deals with mathematical modeling and numerical simulation of induction heating furnaces with axisymmetric geometries. For the numerical solution, we propose finite element methods combined with boundary (FEM) for the electromagnetic model using COMSOL® Multiphysics Software. Some numerical results for an industrial furnace are shown with high frequency.

Keywords: numerical methods, induction furnaces, induction heating, finite element method, Comsol multiphysics software

Procedia PDF Downloads 335
85 Simulation Model of Biosensor Based on Gold Nanoparticles

Authors: Kholod Hajo


In this study COMSOL Multiphysics was used to design lateral flow biosensors (LFBs) which provide advantages in low cost, simplicity, rapidity, stability and portability thus making LFBs popular in biomedical, agriculture, food and environmental sciences. This study was focused on simulation model of biosensor based on gold nanoparticles (GNPs) designed using software package (COMSOL Multiphysics), the magnitude of the laminar velocity field in the flow cell, concentration distribution in the analyte stream and surface coverage of adsorbed species and average fractional surface coverage of adsorbed analyte were discussed from the model and couples of suggestion was given in order to functionalize GNPs and to increase the accuracy of the biosensor design, all above were obtained acceptable results.

Keywords: model, gold nanoparticles, biosensor, COMSOL Multiphysics

Procedia PDF Downloads 176
84 Simulation Model of Induction Heating in COMSOL Multiphysics

Authors: K. Djellabi, M. E. H. Latreche


The induction heating phenomenon depends on various factors, making the problem highly nonlinear. The mathematical analysis of this problem in most cases is very difficult and it is reduced to simple cases. Another knowledge of induction heating systems is generated in production environments, but these trial-error procedures are long and expensive. The numerical models of induction heating problem are another approach to reduce abovementioned drawbacks. This paper deals with the simulation model of induction heating problem. The simulation model of induction heating system in COMSOL Multiphysics is created. In this work we present results of numerical simulations of induction heating process in pieces of cylindrical shapes, in an inductor with four coils. The modeling of the inducting heating process was made with the software COMSOL Multiphysics Version 4.2a, for the study we present the temperature charts.

Keywords: induction heating, electromagnetic field, inductor, numerical simulation, finite element

Procedia PDF Downloads 217
83 Energy Harvesting with Zinc Oxide Based Nanogenerator: Design and Simulation Using Comsol-4.3 Software

Authors: Akanksha Rohit, Ujjwala Godavarthi, Anshua Mukherjee


Nanotechnology is one of the promising sustainable solutions in the era of miniaturization due to its multidisciplinary nature. The most interesting aspect about nanotechnology is its wide ranging applications from electronics to military and biomedical. It tries to connect individuals more closely to the environment. In this paper, concept of parasitic energy harvesting is used in designing nanogenerators using COMSOL 4.3 software. The output of the nanogenerator is optimized using following constraints: ease of availability of the material, fabrication process and cost of the material. The nanogenerator is optimized using ZnO based nanowires, PMMA as insulator and aluminum and silicon as metal electrodes. The energy harvested from the model can be used to power nanobots, several other biomedical sensors and eventually to replace batteries. Thus, advancements in this field can be very challenging but it is the future of the nano era.

Keywords: zinc oxide, piezoelectric, PMMA, parasitic energy harvesting, renewable energy engineering

Procedia PDF Downloads 252
82 Design and Simulation of MEMS-Based Capacitive Pressure Sensors

Authors: Kirankumar B. Balavalad, Bhagyashree Mudhol, B. G. Sheeparamatti


MEMS sensor have gained popularity in automotive, biomedical, and industrial applications. In this paper, the design and simulation of conventional, slotted, and perforated MEMS capacitive pressure sensor is proposed. Polysilicon material is used as diaphragm material that deflects due to applied pressure. Better sensitivity is the main advantage of conventional pressure sensor as compared with other two sensors and perforated pressure sensor achieves large operating pressure range. The proposed MEMS sensor demonstrated with diaphragm length 50um, gap depth 3um is being modelled. The simulation is carried out for different types of MEMS capacitive pressure sensor using COMSOL Multiphysics and Coventor ware.

Keywords: MEMS, conventional pressure sensor, slotted and perforated diaphragm, COMSOL multiphysics, coventor ware

Procedia PDF Downloads 415
81 Excitation of Guided Waves in Finite Width Plates Using a Numerical Approach

Authors: Wenbo Duan, Hossein Habibi, Vassilios Kappatos, Cem Selcuk, Tat-Hean Gan


Ultrasonic guided waves are often used to remove ice or fouling in different structures, such as ship hulls, wind turbine blades and so on. To achieve maximum sound power output, it is important that multiple transducers are arranged in a particular way so that a desired mode can be excited. The objective of this paper is thus to provide a theoretical basis for generating a particular mode in a finite width rectangular plate which can be used for removing potential ice or fouling on the plate. The number of transducers and their locations with respect to a particular mode will be investigated, and the link between dispersion curves and practical applications will be explored. To achieve this, a semi-analytical finite element (SAFE) method is used to study the dispersion characteristics of all the modes in the ultrasonic frequency range. The detailed modal shapes will be revealed, and from the modal analysis, the particular mode with the strongest yet continuous transverse and axial displacements on the surfaces of the plate will be chosen for the purpose of removing potential ice or fouling on the plate. The modal analysis is followed by providing information on the number, location and amplitude of transducers needed to excite this particular mode. Modal excitation is then implemented in a standard finite element commercial package, namely COMSOL Multiphysics. Wave motion is visualized in COMSOL, and the mode shapes generated in SAFE is found to be consistent with the mode shapes generated in COMSOL.

Keywords: dispersion analysis, finite width plate, guided wave, modal excitation

Procedia PDF Downloads 394
80 Modeling of Oligomerization of Ethylene in a Falling film Reactor for the Production of Linear Alpha Olefins

Authors: Adil A. Mohammed, Seif-Eddeen K. Fateen, Tamer S. Ahmed, Tarek M. Moustafa


Falling film were widely used for gas-liquid absorption and reaction process. Modeling of falling film for oligomerization of ethylene reaction to linear alpha olefins is developed. Although there are many researchers discuss modeling of falling film in many processes, there has been no publish study the simulation of falling film for the oligomerization of ethylene reaction to produce linear alpha olefins. The Comsol multiphysics software was used to simulate the mass transfer with chemical reaction in falling film absorption process. The effect of concentration profile absorption of the products through falling thickness is discussed. The effect of catalyst concentration, catalyst/co-catalyst ratio, and temperature is also studied. For the effect of the temperature, as it increase the concentration of C4 increase. For catalyst concentration and catalyst/co-catalyst ratio as they increases the concentration of C4 increases, till it reached almost constant value.

Keywords: falling film, oligomerization, comsol mutiphysics, linear alpha olefins

Procedia PDF Downloads 383
79 Performance Comparison and Visualization of COMSOL Multiphysics, Matlab, and Fortran for Predicting the Reservoir Pressure on Oil Production in a Multiple Leases Reservoir with Boundary Element Method

Authors: N. Alias, W. Z. W. Muhammad, M. N. M. Ibrahim, M. Mohamed, H. F. S. Saipol, U. N. Z. Ariffin, N. A. Zakaria, M. S. Z. Suardi


This paper presents the performance comparison of some computation software for solving the boundary element method (BEM). BEM formulation is the numerical technique and high potential for solving the advance mathematical modeling to predict the production of oil well in arbitrarily shaped based on multiple leases reservoir. The limitation of data validation for ensuring that a program meets the accuracy of the mathematical modeling is considered as the research motivation of this paper. Thus, based on this limitation, there are three steps involved to validate the accuracy of the oil production simulation process. In the first step, identify the mathematical modeling based on partial differential equation (PDE) with Poisson-elliptic type to perform the BEM discretization. In the second step, implement the simulation of the 2D BEM discretization using COMSOL Multiphysic and MATLAB programming languages. In the last step, analyze the numerical performance indicators for both programming languages by using the validation of Fortran programming. The performance comparisons of numerical analysis are investigated in terms of percentage error, comparison graph and 2D visualization of pressure on oil production of multiple leases reservoir. According to the performance comparison, the structured programming in Fortran programming is the alternative software for implementing the accurate numerical simulation of BEM. As a conclusion, high-level language for numerical computation and numerical performance evaluation are satisfied to prove that Fortran is well suited for capturing the visualization of the production of oil well in arbitrarily shaped.

Keywords: performance comparison, 2D visualization, COMSOL multiphysic, MATLAB, Fortran, modelling and simulation, boundary element method, reservoir pressure

Procedia PDF Downloads 418
78 Analysis of Vertical Hall Effect Device Using Current-Mode

Authors: Kim Jin Sup


This paper presents a vertical hall effect device using current-mode. Among different geometries that have been studied and simulated using COMSOL Multiphysics, optimized cross-shaped model displayed the best sensitivity. The cross-shaped model emerged as the optimum plate to fit the lowest noise and residual offset and the best sensitivity. The symmetrical cross-shaped hall plate is widely used because of its high sensitivity and immunity to alignment tolerances resulting from the fabrication process. The hall effect device has been designed using a 0.18-μm CMOS technology. The simulation uses the nominal bias current of 12μA. The applied magnetic field is from 0 mT to 20 mT. Simulation results achieved in COMSOL and validated with respect to the electrical behavior of equivalent circuit for Cadence. Simulation results of the one structure over the 13 available samples shows for the best geometry a current-mode sensitivity of 6.6 %/T at 20mT. Acknowledgment: This work was supported by Institute for Information & communications Technology Promotion (IITP) grant funded by the Korea government (MSIP) (No. R7117-16-0165, Development of Hall Effect Semiconductor for Smart Car and Device).

Keywords: vertical hall device, current-mode, crossed-shaped model, CMOS technology

Procedia PDF Downloads 211
77 Size Optimization of Microfluidic Polymerase Chain Reaction Devices Using COMSOL

Authors: Foteini Zagklavara, Peter Jimack, Nikil Kapur, Ozz Querin, Harvey Thompson


The invention and development of the Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) technology have revolutionised molecular biology and molecular diagnostics. There is an urgent need to optimise their performance of those devices while reducing the total construction and operation costs. The present study proposes a CFD-enabled optimisation methodology for continuous flow (CF) PCR devices with serpentine-channel structure, which enables the trade-offs between competing objectives of DNA amplification efficiency and pressure drop to be explored. This is achieved by using a surrogate-enabled optimisation approach accounting for the geometrical features of a CF μPCR device by performing a series of simulations at a relatively small number of Design of Experiments (DoE) points, with the use of COMSOL Multiphysics 5.4. The values of the objectives are extracted from the CFD solutions, and response surfaces created using the polyharmonic splines and neural networks. After creating the respective response surfaces, genetic algorithm, and a multi-level coordinate search optimisation function are used to locate the optimum design parameters. Both optimisation methods produced similar results for both the neural network and the polyharmonic spline response surfaces. The results indicate that there is the possibility of improving the DNA efficiency by ∼2% in one PCR cycle when doubling the width of the microchannel to 400 μm while maintaining the height at the value of the original design (50μm). Moreover, the increase in the width of the serpentine microchannel is combined with a decrease in its total length in order to obtain the same residence times in all the simulations, resulting in a smaller total substrate volume (32.94% decrease). A multi-objective optimisation is also performed with the use of a Pareto Front plot. Such knowledge will enable designers to maximise the amount of DNA amplified or to minimise the time taken throughout thermal cycling in such devices.

Keywords: PCR, optimisation, microfluidics, COMSOL

Procedia PDF Downloads 40
76 Metal Layer Based Vertical Hall Device in a Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor Process

Authors: Se-Mi Lim, Won-Jae Jung, Jin-Sup Kim, Jun-Seok Park, Hyung-Il Chae


This paper presents a current-mode vertical hall device (VHD) structure using metal layers in a CMOS process. The proposed metal layer based vertical hall device (MLVHD) utilizes vertical connection among metal layers (from M1 to the top metal) to facilitate hall effect. The vertical metal structure unit flows a bias current Ibias from top to bottom, and an external magnetic field changes the current distribution by Lorentz force. The asymmetric current distribution can be detected by two differential-mode current outputs on each side at the bottom (M1), and each output sinks Ibias/2 ± Ihall. A single vertical metal structure generates only a small amount of hall effect of Ihall due to the short length from M1 to the top metal as well as the low conductivity of the metal, and a series connection between thousands of vertical structure units can solve the problem by providing NxIhall. The series connection between two units is another vertical metal structure flowing current in the opposite direction, and generates negative hall effect. To mitigate the negative hall effect from the series connection, the differential current outputs at the bottom (M1) from one unit merges on the top metal level of the other unit. The proposed MLVHD is simulated in a 3-dimensional model simulator in COMSOL Multiphysics, with 0.35 μm CMOS process parameters. The simulated MLVHD unit size is (W) 10 μm × (L) 6 μm × (D) 10 μm. In this paper, we use an MLVHD with 10 units; the overall hall device size is (W) 10 μm × (L)78 μm × (D) 10 μm. The COMSOL simulation result is as following: the maximum hall current is approximately 2 μA with a 12 μA bias current and 100mT magnetic field; This work was supported by Institute for Information & communications Technology Promotion(IITP) grant funded by the Korea government(MSIP) (No.R7117-16-0165, Development of Hall Effect Semiconductor for Smart Car and Device).

Keywords: CMOS, vertical hall device, current mode, COMSOL

Procedia PDF Downloads 223
75 A Statistical-Algorithmic Approach for the Design and Evaluation of a Fresnel Solar Concentrator-Receiver System

Authors: Hassan Qandil


Using a statistical algorithm incorporated in MATLAB, four types of non-imaging Fresnel lenses are designed; spot-flat, linear-flat, dome-shaped and semi-cylindrical-shaped. The optimization employs a statistical ray-tracing methodology of the incident light, mainly considering effects of chromatic aberration, varying focal lengths, solar inclination and azimuth angles, lens and receiver apertures, and the optimum number of prism grooves. While adopting an equal-groove-width assumption of the Poly-methyl-methacrylate (PMMA) prisms, the main target is to maximize the ray intensity on the receiver’s aperture and therefore achieving higher values of heat flux. The algorithm outputs prism angles and 2D sketches. 3D drawings are then generated via AutoCAD and linked to COMSOL Multiphysics software to simulate the lenses under solar ray conditions, which provides optical and thermal analysis at both the lens’ and the receiver’s apertures while setting conditions as per the Dallas-TX weather data. Once the lenses’ characterization is finalized, receivers are designed based on its optimized aperture size. Several cavity shapes; including triangular, arc-shaped and trapezoidal, are tested while coupled with a variety of receiver materials, working fluids, heat transfer mechanisms, and enclosure designs. A vacuum-reflective enclosure is also simulated for an enhanced thermal absorption efficiency. Each receiver type is simulated via COMSOL while coupled with the optimized lens. A lab-scale prototype for the optimum lens-receiver configuration is then fabricated for experimental evaluation. Application-based testing is also performed for the selected configuration, including that of a photovoltaic-thermal cogeneration system and solar furnace system. Finally, some future research work is pointed out, including the coupling of the collector-receiver system with an end-user power generator, and the use of a multi-layered genetic algorithm for comparative studies.

Keywords: COMSOL, concentrator, energy, fresnel, optics, renewable, solar

Procedia PDF Downloads 70
74 Development and Validation of Thermal Stability in Complex System ABDM has two ASIC by NISA and COMSOL Tools

Authors: A. Oukaira, A. Lakhssassi, O. Ettahri


To make a good thermal management in an ABDM (Adapter Board Detector Module) card, we must first control temperature and its gradient from the first step in the design of integrated circuits ASIC of our complex system. In this paper, our main goal is to develop and validate the thermal stability in order to get an idea of the flow of heat around the ASIC in transient and thus address the thermal issues for integrated circuits at the ABDM card. However, we need heat sources simulations for ABDM card to establish its thermal mapping. This led us to perform simulations at each ASIC that will allow us to understand the thermal ABDM map and find real solutions for each one of our complex system that contains 36 ABDM map, taking into account the different layers around ASIC. To do a transient simulation under NISA, we had to build a function of power modulation in time TIMEAMP. The maximum power generated in the ASIC is 0.6 W. We divided the power uniformly in the volume of the ASIC. This power was applied for 5 seconds to visualize the evolution and distribution of heat around the ASIC. The DBC (Dirichlet Boundary conditions) method was applied around the ABDM at 25°C and just after these simulations in NISA tool we will validate them by COMSOL tool, wich is a numerical calculation software for a modular finite element for modeling a wide variety of physical phenomena characterizing a real problem. It will also be a design tool with its ability to handle 3D geometries for complex systems.

Keywords: ABDM, APD, thermal mapping, complex system

Procedia PDF Downloads 192
73 Development of Vertically Integrated 2D Lake Victoria Flow Models in COMSOL Multiphysics

Authors: Seema Paul, Jesper Oppelstrup, Roger Thunvik, Vladimir Cvetkovic


Lake Victoria is the second largest fresh water body in the world, located in East Africa with a catchment area of 250,000 km², of which 68,800 km² is the actual lake surface. The hydrodynamic processes of the shallow (40–80 m deep) water system are unique due to its location at the equator, which makes Coriolis effects weak. The paper describes a St.Venant shallow water model of Lake Victoria developed in COMSOL Multiphysics software, a general purpose finite element tool for solving partial differential equations. Depth soundings taken in smaller parts of the lake were combined with recent more extensive data to resolve the discrepancies of the lake shore coordinates. The topography model must have continuous gradients, and Delaunay triangulation with Gaussian smoothing was used to produce the lake depth model. The model shows large-scale flow patterns, passive tracer concentration and water level variations in response to river and tracer inflow, rain and evaporation, and wind stress. Actual data of precipitation, evaporation, in- and outflows were applied in a fifty-year simulation model. It should be noted that the water balance is dominated by rain and evaporation and model simulations are validated by Matlab and COMSOL. The model conserves water volume, the celerity gradients are very small, and the volume flow is very slow and irrotational except at river mouths. Numerical experiments show that the single outflow can be modelled by a simple linear control law responding only to mean water level, except for a few instances. Experiments with tracer input in rivers show very slow dispersion of the tracer, a result of the slow mean velocities, in turn, caused by the near-balance of rain with evaporation. The numerical and hydrodynamical model can evaluate the effects of wind stress which is exerted by the wind on the lake surface that will impact on lake water level. Also, model can evaluate the effects of the expected climate change, as manifest in changes to rainfall over the catchment area of Lake Victoria in the future.

Keywords: bathymetry, lake flow and steady state analysis, water level validation and concentration, wind stress

Procedia PDF Downloads 134
72 Controlled Growth of Charge Transfer Complex Nanowire by Physical Vapor Deposition Method Using Dielectrophoretic Force

Authors: Rabaya Basori, Arup K. Raychaudhuri


In recent years, a variety of semiconductor nanowires (NWs) has been synthesized and used as basic building blocks for the development of electronic and optoelectronic nanodevices. Dielectrophoresis (DEP) has been widely investigated as a scalable technique to trap and manipulate polarizable objects. This includes biological cells, nanoparticles, DNA molecules, organic or inorganic NWs and proteins using electric field gradients. In this article, we have used DEP force to localize nanowire growth by physical vapor deposition (PVD) method as well as control of NW diameter on field assisted growth of the NWs of CuTCNQ (Cu-tetracyanoquinodimethane); a metal-organic charge transfer complex material which is well known of resistive switching. We report a versatile analysis platform, based on a set of nanogap electrodes, for the controlled growth of nanowire. Non-uniform electric field and dielectrophoretic force is created in between two metal electrodes, patterned by electron beam lithography process. Suspended CuTCNQ nanowires have been grown laterally between two electrodes in the vicinity of electric field and dielectric force by applying external bias. Growth and diameter dependence of the nanowires on external bias has been investigated in the framework of these two forces by COMSOL Multiphysics simulation. This report will help successful in-situ nanodevice fabrication with constrained number of NW and diameter without any post treatment.

Keywords: nanowire, dielectrophoretic force, confined growth, controlled diameter, comsol multiphysics simulation

Procedia PDF Downloads 118
71 Multi-Size Continuous Particle Separation on a Dielectrophoresis-Based Microfluidics Chip

Authors: Arash Dalili, Hamed Tahmouressi, Mina Hoorfar


Advances in lab-on-a-chip (LOC) devices have led to significant advances in the manipulation, separation, and isolation of particles and cells. Among the different active and passive particle manipulation methods, dielectrophoresis (DEP) has been proven to be a versatile mechanism as it is label-free, cost-effective, simple to operate, and has high manipulation efficiency. DEP has been applied for a wide range of biological and environmental applications. A popular form of DEP devices is the continuous manipulation of particles by using co-planar slanted electrodes, which utilizes a sheath flow to focus the particles into one side of the microchannel. When particles enter the DEP manipulation zone, the negative DEP (nDEP) force generated by the slanted electrodes deflects the particles laterally towards the opposite side of the microchannel. The lateral displacement of the particles is dependent on multiple parameters including the geometry of the electrodes, the width, length and height of the microchannel, the size of the particles and the throughput. In this study, COMSOL Multiphysics® modeling along with experimental studies are used to investigate the effect of the aforementioned parameters. The electric field between the electrodes and the induced DEP force on the particles are modelled by COMSOL Multiphysics®. The simulation model is used to show the effect of the DEP force on the particles, and how the geometry of the electrodes (width of the electrodes and the gap between them) plays a role in the manipulation of polystyrene microparticles. The simulation results show that increasing the electrode width to a certain limit, which depends on the height of the channel, increases the induced DEP force. Also, decreasing the gap between the electrodes leads to a stronger DEP force. Based on these results, criteria for the fabrication of the electrodes were found, and soft lithography was used to fabricate interdigitated slanted electrodes and microchannels. Experimental studies were run to find the effect of the flow rate, geometrical parameters of the microchannel such as length, width, and height as well as the electrodes’ angle on the displacement of 5 um, 10 um and 15 um polystyrene particles. An empirical equation is developed to predict the displacement of the particles under different conditions. It is shown that the displacement of the particles is more for longer and lower height channels, lower flow rates, and bigger particles. On the other hand, the effect of the angle of the electrodes on the displacement of the particles was negligible. Based on the results, we have developed an optimum design (in terms of efficiency and throughput) for three size separation of particles.

Keywords: COMSOL Multiphysics, Dielectrophoresis, Microfluidics, Particle separation

Procedia PDF Downloads 67
70 Numerical Modelling of Immiscible Fluids Flow in Oil Reservoir Rocks during Enhanced Oil Recovery Processes

Authors: Zahreddine Hafsi, Manoranjan Mishra , Sami Elaoud


Ensuring the maximum recovery rate of oil from reservoir rocks is a challenging task that requires preliminary numerical analysis of different techniques used to enhance the recovery process. After conventional oil recovery processes and in order to retrieve oil left behind after the primary recovery phase, water flooding in one of several techniques used for enhanced oil recovery (EOR). In this research work, EOR via water flooding is numerically modeled, and hydrodynamic instabilities resulted from immiscible oil-water flow in reservoir rocks are investigated. An oil reservoir is a porous medium consisted of many fractures of tiny dimensions. For modeling purposes, the oil reservoir is considered as a collection of capillary tubes which provides useful insights into how fluids behave in the reservoir pore spaces. Equations governing oil-water flow in oil reservoir rocks are developed and numerically solved following a finite element scheme. Numerical results are obtained using Comsol Multiphysics software. The two phase Darcy module of COMSOL Multiphysics allows modelling the imbibition process by the injection of water (as wetting phase) into an oil reservoir. Van Genuchten, Brooks Corey and Levrett models were considered as retention models and obtained flow configurations are compared, and the governing parameters are discussed. For the considered retention models it was found that onset of instabilities viz. fingering phenomenon is highly dependent on the capillary pressure as well as the boundary conditions, i.e., the inlet pressure and the injection velocity.

Keywords: capillary pressure, EOR process, immiscible flow, numerical modelling

Procedia PDF Downloads 60
69 Electrohydrodynamic Study of Microwave Plasma PECVD Reactor

Authors: Keltoum Bouherine, Olivier Leroy


The present work is dedicated to study a three–dimensional (3D) self-consistent fluid simulation of microwave discharges of argon plasma in PECVD reactor. The model solves the Maxwell’s equations, continuity equations for charged species and the electron energy balance equation, coupled with Poisson’s equation, and Navier-Stokes equations by finite element method, using COMSOL Multiphysics software. In this study, the simulations yield the profiles of plasma components as well as the charge densities and electron temperature, the electric field, the gas velocity, and gas temperature. The results show that the microwave plasma reactor is outside of local thermodynamic equilibrium.The present work is dedicated to study a three–dimensional (3D) self-consistent fluid simulation of microwave discharges of argon plasma in PECVD reactor. The model solves the Maxwell’s equations, continuity equations for charged species and the electron energy balance equation, coupled with Poisson’s equation, and Navier-Stokes equations by finite element method, using COMSOL Multiphysics software. In this study, the simulations yield the profiles of plasma components as well as the charge densities and electron temperature, the electric field, the gas velocity, and gas temperature. The results show that the microwave plasma reactor is outside of local thermodynamic equilibrium.

Keywords: electron density, electric field, microwave plasma reactor, gas velocity, non-equilibrium plasma

Procedia PDF Downloads 245
68 Optimizing the Design Parameters of Acoustic Power Transfer Model to Achieve High Power Intensity and Compact System

Authors: Ariba Siddiqui, Amber Khan


The need for bio-implantable devices in the field of medical sciences has been increasing day by day; however, the charging of these devices is a major issue. Batteries, a very common method of powering the implants, have a limited lifetime and bulky nature. Therefore, as a replacement of batteries, acoustic power transfer (APT) technology is being accepted as the most suitable technique to wirelessly power the medical implants in the present scenario. The basic model of APT consists of piezoelectric transducers that work on the principle of converse piezoelectric effect at the transmitting end and direct piezoelectric effect at the receiving end. This paper provides mechanistic insight into the parameters affecting the design and efficient working of acoustic power transfer systems. The optimum design considerations have been presented that will help to compress the size of the device and augment the intensity of the pressure wave. A COMSOL model of the PZT (Lead Zirconate Titanate) transducer was developed. The model was simulated and analyzed on a frequency spectrum. The simulation results displayed that the efficiency of these devices is strongly dependent on the frequency of operation, and a wrong choice of the operating frequency leads to the high absorption of acoustic field inside the tissue (medium), poor power strength, and heavy transducers, which in effect influence the overall configuration of the acoustic systems. Considering all the tradeoffs, the simulations were performed again by determining an optimum frequency (900 kHz) that resulted in the reduction of the transducer's thickness to 1.96 mm and augmented the power strength with an intensity of 432 W/m². Thus, the results obtained after the second simulation contribute to lesser attenuation, lightweight systems, high power intensity, and also comply with safety limits provided by the U.S Food and Drug Administration (FDA). It was also found that the chosen operating frequency enhances the directivity of the acoustic wave at the receiver side.

Keywords: acoustic power, bio-implantable, COMSOL, Lead Zirconate Titanate, piezoelectric, transducer

Procedia PDF Downloads 99
67 Reactive Transport Modeling in Carbonate Rocks: A Single Pore Model

Authors: Priyanka Agrawal, Janou Koskamp, Amir Raoof, Mariette Wolthers


Calcite is the main mineral found in carbonate rocks, which form significant hydrocarbon reservoirs and subsurface repositories for CO2 sequestration. The injected CO2 mixes with the reservoir fluid and disturbs the geochemical equilibrium, triggering calcite dissolution. Different combinations of fluid chemistry and injection rate may therefore result in different evolution of porosity, permeability and dissolution patterns. To model the changes in porosity and permeability Kozeny-Carman equation K∝〖(∅)〗^n is used, where K is permeability and ∅ is porosity. The value of n is mostly based on experimental data or pore network models. In pore network models, this derivation is based on accuracy of relation used for conductivity and pore volume change. In fact, at a single pore scale, this relationship is the result of the pore shape development due to dissolution. We have prepared a new reactive transport model for a single pore which simulates the complex chemical reaction of carbonic-acid induced calcite dissolution and subsequent pore-geometry evolution at a single pore scale. We use COMSOL Multiphysics package 5.3 for the simulation. COMSOL utilizes the arbitary-Lagrangian Eulerian (ALE) method for the free-moving domain boundary. We examined the effect of flow rate on the evolution of single pore shape profiles due to calcite dissolution. We used three flow rates to cover diffusion dominated and advection-dominated transport regimes. The fluid in diffusion dominated flow (Pe number 0.037 and 0.37) becomes less reactive along the pore length and thus produced non-uniform pore shapes. However, for the advection-dominated flow (Pe number 3.75), the fast velocity of the fluid keeps the fluid relatively more reactive towards the end of the pore length, thus yielding uniform pore shape. Different pore shapes in terms of inlet opening vs overall pore opening will have an impact on the relation between changing volumes and conductivity. We have related the shape of pore with the Pe number which controls the transport regimes. For every Pe number, we have derived the relation between conductivity and porosity. These relations will be used in the pore network model to get the porosity and permeability variation.

Keywords: single pore, reactive transport, calcite system, moving boundary

Procedia PDF Downloads 268
66 Braille Code Matrix

Authors: Mohammed E. A. Brixi Nigassa, Nassima Labdelli, Ahmed Slami, Arnaud Pothier, Sofiane Soulimane


According to the world health organization (WHO), there are almost 285 million people with visual disability, 39 million of these people are blind. Nevertheless, there is a code for these people that make their life easier and allow them to access information more easily; this code is the Braille code. There are several commercial devices allowing braille reading, unfortunately, most of these devices are not ergonomic and too expensive. Moreover, we know that 90 % of blind people in the world live in low-incomes countries. Our contribution aim is to concept an original microactuator for Braille reading, as well as being ergonomic, inexpensive and lowest possible energy consumption. Nowadays, the piezoelectric device gives the better actuation for low actuation voltage. In this study, we focus on piezoelectric (PZT) material which can bring together all these conditions. Here, we propose to use one matrix composed by six actuators to form the 63 basic combinations of the Braille code that contain letters, numbers, and special characters in compliance with the standards of the braille code. In this work, we use a finite element model with Comsol Multiphysics software for designing and modeling this type of miniature actuator in order to integrate it into a test device. To define the geometry and the design of our actuator, we used physiological limits of perception of human being. Our results demonstrate in our study that piezoelectric actuator could bring a large deflection out-of-plain. Also, we show that microactuators can exhibit non uniform compression. This deformation depends on thin film thickness and the design of membrane arm. The actuator composed of four arms gives the higher deflexion and it always gives a domed deformation at the center of the deviceas in case of the Braille system. The maximal deflection can be estimated around ten micron per Volt (~ 10µm/V). We noticed that the deflection according to the voltage is a linear function, and this deflection not depends only on the voltage the voltage, but also depends on the thickness of the film used and the design of the anchoring arm. Then, we were able to simulate the behavior of the entire matrix and thus display different characters in Braille code. We used these simulations results to achieve our demonstrator. This demonstrator is composed of a layer of PDMS on which we put our piezoelectric material, and then added another layer of PDMS to isolate our actuator. In this contribution, we compare our results to optimize the final demonstrator.

Keywords: Braille code, comsol software, microactuators, piezoelectric

Procedia PDF Downloads 269
65 Critical Analysis of Different Actuation Techniques for a Micro Cantilever

Authors: B. G. Sheeparamatti, Prashant Hanasi, Vanita Abbigeri


The objective of this work is to carry out a critical comparison of different actuation mechanisms like electrostatic, thermal, piezoelectric, and magnetic with reference to a microcantilever. The relevant parameters like force generated, displacement are compared in actuation methods. With these results, they help in choosing the best actuation method for a particular application. In this study, Comsol/Multiphysics software is used. Modeling and simulation are done by considering the microcantilever of same dimensions as an actuator using all the above-mentioned actuation techniques. In addition to their small size, micro actuators consume very little power and are capable of accurate results. In this work, a comparison of actuation mechanisms is done to decide the efficient system in the micro domain.

Keywords: actuation techniques, microswitch, micro actuator, microsystems

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64 Modeling of an Insulin Mircopump

Authors: Ahmed Slami, Med El Amine Brixi Nigassa, Nassima Labdelli, Sofiane Soulimane, Arnaud Pothier


Many people suffer from diabetes, a disease marked by abnormal levels of sugar in the blood; 285 million people have diabetes, 6.6% of the world adult population (in 2010), according to the International Diabetes Federation. Insulin medicament is invented to be injected into the body. Generally, the injection requires the patient to do it manually. However, in many cases he will be unable to inject the drug, saw that among the side effects of hyperglycemia is the weakness of the whole body. The researchers designed a medical device that injects insulin too autonomously by using micro-pumps. Many micro-pumps of concepts have been investigated during the last two decades for injecting molecules in blood or in the body. However, all these micro-pumps are intended for slow infusion of drug (injection of few microliters by minute). Now, the challenge is to develop micro-pumps for fast injections (1 microliter in 10 seconds) with accuracy of the order of microliter. Recently, studies have shown that only piezoelectric actuators can achieve this performance, knowing that few systems at the microscopic level were presented. These reasons lead us to design new smart microsystems injection drugs. Therefore, many technological advances are still to achieve the improvement of materials to their uses, while going through their characterization and modeling action mechanisms themselves. Moreover, it remains to study the integration of the piezoelectric micro-pump in the microfluidic platform features to explore and evaluate the performance of these new micro devices. In this work, we propose a new micro-pump model based on piezoelectric actuation with a new design. Here, we use a finite element model with Comsol software. Our device is composed of two pumping chambers, two diaphragms and two actuators (piezoelectric disks). The latter parts will apply a mechanical force on the membrane in a periodic manner. The membrane deformation allows the fluid pumping, the suction and discharge of the liquid. In this study, we present the modeling results as function as device geometry properties, films thickness, and materials properties. Here, we demonstrate that we can achieve fast injection. The results of these simulations will provide quantitative performance of our micro-pumps. Concern the spatial actuation, fluid rate and allows optimization of the fabrication process in terms of materials and integration steps.

Keywords: COMSOL software, piezoelectric, micro-pump, microfluidic

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63 Optimization of Transmission Loss on a Series-Coupled Muffler by Taguchi Method

Authors: Jing-Fung Lin, Jer-Jia Sheu


In this study, an approach has been developed for the noise reduction of a muffler. The transmission loss (TL) in the muffler is maximized by the use of a double-chamber muffler, and a baffle with a hole is inserted between chambers. Taguchi method is used to optimize the design for the acoustical performance of the muffler. The TL performance is evaluated by COMSOL software. The excellent parameter combination for the maximum TL is attained as high as 35.30 dB in a wide frequency range from 10 Hz to 1400 Hz. The influence sequence of four parameters on TL is determined by the range analysis. The effects of length and expansion ratio of the first chamber on TL performance for the excellent program were discussed. Comparisons of the TL results from different designs are made.

Keywords: acoustics, baffle, chamber, muffler, Taguchi method, transmission loss

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62 Modeling and Validation of Microspheres Generation in the Modified T-Junction Device

Authors: Lei Lei, Hongbo Zhang, Donald J. Bergstrom, Bing Zhang, K. Y. Song, W. J. Zhang


This paper presents a model for a modified T-junction device for microspheres generation. The numerical model is developed using a commercial software package: COMSOL Multiphysics. In order to test the accuracy of the numerical model, multiple variables, such as the flow rate of cross-flow, fluid properties, structure, and geometry of the microdevice are applied. The results from the model are compared with the experimental results in the diameter of the microsphere generated. The comparison shows a good agreement. Therefore the model is useful in further optimization of the device and feedback control of microsphere generation if any.

Keywords: CFD modeling, validation, microsphere generation, modified T-junction

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61 Optimal Design of Polymer Based Piezoelectric Actuator with Varying Thickness and Length Ratios

Authors: Vineet Tiwari, R. K. Dwivedi, Geetika Srivastava


Piezoelectric cantilevers are exploited for their use in sensors and actuators. In this study, a unimorph cantilever beam is considered as a study element with a piezoelectric polymer Polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) layer bonded to a substrate layer. The different substrates like polysilicon, stainless steel and silicon nitride are tried for the study. An effort has been made to optimize and study the effect of the various parameters of the device in order to achieve maximum tip deflection. The variation of the tip displacement of the cantilever with respect to the length ratio of the nonpiezoelectric layer to the piezoelectric layer has been studied. The electric response of this unimorph cantilever beam is simulated with the help of finite element analysis software COMSOL Multiphysics.

Keywords: actuators, cantilever, piezoelectric, sensors, PVDF

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60 Potential Distribution and Electric Field Analysis around a Polluted Outdoor Polymeric Insulator with Broken Sheds

Authors: Adel Kara, Abdelhafid Bayadi, Hocine Terrab


This paper presents a study of electric field distribution along of 72 kV polymeric outdoor insulators with broken sheds. Different cases of damaged insulators are modeled and both of clean and polluted cases. By 3D finite element analysis using the software package COMSOL Multiphysics 4.3b. The obtained results of potential and the electrical field distribution around insulators by 3D simulation proved that finite element computations is useful tool for studying insulation electrical field distribution.

Keywords: electric field distributions, insulator, broken sheds, potential distributions

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59 Design, Simulation and Fabrication of Electro-Magnetic Pulse Welding Coil and Initial Experimentation

Authors: Bharatkumar Doshi


Electro-Magnetic Pulse Welding (EMPW) is a solid state welding process carried out at almost room temperature, in which joining is enabled by high impact velocity deformation. In this process, high voltage capacitor’s stored energy is discharged in an EM coil resulting in a damped, sinusoidal current with an amplitude of several hundred kiloamperes. Due to these transient magnetic fields of few tens of Tesla near the coil is generated. As the conductive (tube) part is positioned in this area, an opposing eddy current is induced in this part. Consequently, high Lorentz forces act on the part, leading to acceleration away from the coil. In case of a tube, it gets compressed under forming velocities of more than 300 meters per second. After passing the joining gap it collides with the second metallic joining rod, leading to the formation of a jet under appropriate collision conditions. Due to the prevailing high pressure, metallurgical bonding takes place. A characteristic feature is the wavy interface resulting from the heavy plastic deformations. In the process, the formation of intermetallic compounds which might deteriorate the weld strength can be avoided, even for metals with dissimilar thermal properties. In order to optimize the process parameters like current, voltage, inductance, coil dimensions, workpiece dimensions, air gap, impact velocity, effective plastic strain, shear stress acting in the welding zone/impact zone etc. are very critical and important to establish. These process parameters could be determined by simulation using Finite Element Methods (FEM) in which electromagnetic –structural couple field analysis is performed. The feasibility of welding could thus be investigated by varying the parameters in the simulation using COMSOL. Simulation results shall be applied in performing the preliminary experiments of welding the different alloy steel tubes and/or alloy steel to other materials. The single turn coil (S.S.304) with field shaper (copper) has been designed and manufactured. The preliminary experiments are performed using existing EMPW facility available Institute for Plasma Research, Gandhinagar, India. The experiments are performed at 22kV charged into 64µF capacitor bank and the energy is discharged into single turn EM coil. Welding of axi-symetric components such as aluminum tube and rod has been proven experimentally using EMPW techniques. In this paper EM coil design, manufacturing, Electromagnetic-structural FEM simulation of Magnetic Pulse Welding and preliminary experiment results is reported.

Keywords: COMSOL, EMPW, FEM, Lorentz force

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58 Static and Dynamical Analysis on Clutch Discs on Different Material and Geometries

Authors: Jairo Aparecido Martins, Estaner Claro Romão


This paper presents the static and cyclic stresses in combination with fatigue analysis resultant of loads applied on the friction discs usually utilized on industrial clutches. The material chosen to simulate the friction discs under load is aluminum. The numerical simulation was done by software COMSOLTM Multiphysics. The results obtained for static loads showed enough stiffness for both geometries and the material utilized. On the other hand, in the fatigue standpoint, failure is clearly verified, what demonstrates the importance of both approaches, mainly dynamical analysis. The results and the conclusion are based on the stresses on disc, counted stress cycles, and fatigue usage factor.

Keywords: aluminum, industrial clutch, static and dynamic loading, numerical simulation

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57 Design and Analysis of an Electro Thermally Symmetrical Actuated Microgripper

Authors: Sh. Foroughi, V. Karamzadeh, M. Packirisamy


This paper presents design and analysis of an electrothermally symmetrical actuated microgripper applicable for performing micro assembly or biological cell manipulation. Integration of micro-optics with microdevice leads to achieve extremely precise control over the operation of the device. Geometry, material, actuation, control, accuracy in measurement and temperature distribution are important factors which have to be taken into account for designing the efficient microgripper device. In this work, analyses of four different geometries are performed by means of COMSOL Multiphysics 5.2 with implementing Finite Element Methods. Then, temperature distribution along the fingertip, displacement of gripper site as well as optical efficiency vs. displacement and electrical potential are illustrated. Results show in addition to the industrial application of this device, the usage of that as a cell manipulator is possible.

Keywords: electro thermal actuator, MEMS, microgripper, MOEMS

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