Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3160

Search results for: host security threats

3160 Analysis of Threats in Interoperability of Medical Devices

Authors: M. Sandhya, R. M. Madhumitha, Sharmila Sankar

Abstract:

Interoperable medical devices (IMDs) face threats due to the increased attack surface accessible by interoperability and the corresponding infrastructure. Initiating networking and coordination functionalities primarily modify medical systems' security properties. Understanding the threats is a vital first step in ultimately crafting security solutions for such systems. The key to this problem is coming up with some common types of threats or attacks with those of security and privacy, and providing this information as a roadmap. This paper analyses the security issues in interoperability of devices and presents the main types of threats that have to be considered to build a secured system.

Keywords: interoperability, threats, attacks, medical devices

Procedia PDF Downloads 230
3159 Secure Content Centric Network

Authors: Syed Umair Aziz, Muhammad Faheem, Sameer Hussain, Faraz Idris

Abstract:

Content centric network is the network based on the mechanism of sending and receiving the data based on the interest and data request to the specified node (which has cached data). In this network, the security is bind with the content not with the host hence making it host independent and secure. In this network security is applied by taking content’s MAC (message authentication code) and encrypting it with the public key of the receiver. On the receiver end, the message is first verified and after verification message is saved and decrypted using the receiver's private key.

Keywords: content centric network, client-server, host security threats, message authentication code, named data network, network caching, peer-to-peer

Procedia PDF Downloads 436
3158 Hierarchical Filtering Method of Threat Alerts Based on Correlation Analysis

Authors: Xudong He, Jian Wang, Jiqiang Liu, Lei Han, Yang Yu, Shaohua Lv

Abstract:

Nowadays, the threats of the internet are enormous and increasing; however, the classification of huge alert messages generated in this environment is relatively monotonous. It affects the accuracy of the network situation assessment, and also brings inconvenience to the security managers to deal with the emergency. In order to deal with potential network threats effectively and provide more effective data to improve the network situation awareness. It is essential to build a hierarchical filtering method to prevent the threats. In this paper, it establishes a model for data monitoring, which can filter systematically from the original data to get the grade of threats and be stored for using again. Firstly, it filters the vulnerable resources, open ports of host devices and services. Then use the entropy theory to calculate the performance changes of the host devices at the time of the threat occurring and filter again. At last, sort the changes of the performance value at the time of threat occurring. Use the alerts and performance data collected in the real network environment to evaluate and analyze. The comparative experimental analysis shows that the threat filtering method can effectively filter the threat alerts effectively.

Keywords: correlation analysis, hierarchical filtering, multisource data, network security

Procedia PDF Downloads 130
3157 SeCloudBPMN: A Lightweight Extension for BPMN Considering Security Threats in the Cloud

Authors: Somayeh Sobati Moghadam

Abstract:

Business processes are crucial for organizations and help businesses to evaluate and optimize their performance and processes against current and future-state business goals. Outsourcing business processes to the cloud becomes popular due to a wide varsity of benefits and cost-saving. However, cloud outsourcing raises enterprise data security concerns, which must be incorporated in Business Process Model and Notation (BPMN). This paper, presents SeCloudBPMN, a lightweight extension for BPMN which extends the BPMN to explicitly support the security threats in the cloud as an outsourcing environment. SeCloudBPMN helps business’s security experts to outsource business processes to the cloud considering different threats from inside and outside the cloud. In this way, appropriate security countermeasures could be considered to preserve data security in business processes outsourcing to the cloud.

Keywords: BPMN, security threats, cloud computing, business processes outsourcing, privacy

Procedia PDF Downloads 101
3156 Security of Internet of Things: Challenges, Requirements and Future Directions

Authors: Amjad F. Alharbi, Bashayer A. Alotaibi, Fahd S. Alotaibi

Abstract:

The emergence of Internet of Things (IoT) technology provides capabilities for a huge number of smart devices, services and people to be communicate with each other for exchanging data and information over existing network. While as IoT is progressing, it provides many opportunities for new ways of communications as well it introduces many security and privacy threats and challenges which need to be considered for the future of IoT development. In this survey paper, an IoT security issues as threats and current challenges are summarized. The security architecture for IoT are presented from four main layers. Based on these layers, the IoT security requirements are presented to insure security in the whole system. Furthermore, some researches initiatives related to IoT security are discussed as well as the future direction for IoT security are highlighted.

Keywords: Internet of Things (IoT), IoT security challenges, IoT security requirements, IoT security architecture

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3155 The Impact of Human Resources Management on the Job Security of Self-Initiated Expatriates after the Brexit

Authors: Yllka Hysaj, Ylberina Hysaj Arifi

Abstract:

Recently, with BREXIT taking place, organizations and employees have been affected in the way of job and employment security. Career-oriented human resources management (HRM) practices are likely to facilitate self-initiated expatriates’ adjustment to the host country. This was related to the career security (job security and employment security), which were missing in their home country and seemed to be important elements to adjust to the host country. The aim of this study is to assess whether the perception of career security by Frances self-initiated expatriates (SIEs) have changed in the wake of the referendum result. Quantitative research method will be used, and the data will be collected through electronic questionnaires. Data will be analyzed through Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS). The study variables will include an adjustment to the host country, HRM practices, employability, and job security. Predicted results consist that career-oriented HRM practices are positively related to the adjustment to the host country, employability, and job security. However, with Brexit, there might be a negative relationship between career-oriented HRM practices and job security.

Keywords: migration, self-initiated expatriates, Brexit, job security

Procedia PDF Downloads 103
3154 Review of Cyber Security in Oil and Gas Industry with Cloud Computing Perspective: Taxonomy, Issues and Future Direction

Authors: Irfan Mohiuddin, Ahmad Al Mogren

Abstract:

In recent years, cloud computing has earned substantial attention in the Oil and Gas Industry and provides services in all the phases of the industry lifecycle. Oil and gas supply infrastructure, in particular, is more vulnerable to accidental, natural and intentional threats because of its widespread distribution. Numerous surveys have been conducted on cloud security and privacy. However, to the best of our knowledge, hardly any survey is carried out that reviews cyber security in all phases with a cloud computing perspective. Moreover, a distinctive classification is performed for all the cloud-based cyber security measures based on the cloud component in use. The classification approach will enable researchers to identify the required technique used to enhance the security in specific cloud components. Also, the limitation of each component will allow the researchers to design optimal algorithms. Lastly, future directions are given to point out the imminent challenges that can pave the way for researchers to further enhance the resilience to cyber security threats in the oil and gas industry.

Keywords: cyber security, cloud computing, safety and security, oil and gas industry, security threats, oil and gas pipelines

Procedia PDF Downloads 68
3153 Security Threats on Wireless Sensor Network Protocols

Authors: H. Gorine, M. Ramadan Elmezughi

Abstract:

In this paper, we investigate security issues and challenges facing researchers in wireless sensor networks and countermeasures to resolve them. The broadcast nature of wireless communication makes Wireless Sensor Networks prone to various attacks. Due to resources limitation constraint in terms of limited energy, computation power and memory, security in wireless sensor networks creates different challenges than wired network security. We will discuss several attempts at addressing the issues of security in wireless sensor networks in an attempt to encourage more research into this area.

Keywords: wireless sensor networks, network security, light weight encryption, threats

Procedia PDF Downloads 366
3152 Forecasting Future Society to Explore Promising Security Technologies

Authors: Jeonghwan Jeon, Mintak Han, Youngjun Kim

Abstract:

Due to the rapid development of information and communication technology (ICT), a substantial transformation is currently happening in the society. As the range of intelligent technologies and services is continuously expanding, ‘things’ are becoming capable of communicating one another and even with people. However, such “Internet of Things” has the technical weakness so that a great amount of such information transferred in real-time may be widely exposed to the threat of security. User’s personal data are a typical example which is faced with a serious security threat. The threats of security will be diversified and arose more frequently because next generation of unfamiliar technology develops. Moreover, as the society is becoming increasingly complex, security vulnerability will be increased as well. In the existing literature, a considerable number of private and public reports that forecast future society have been published as a precedent step of the selection of future technology and the establishment of strategies for competitiveness. Although there are previous studies that forecast security technology, they have focused only on technical issues and overlooked the interrelationships between security technology and social factors are. Therefore, investigations of security threats in the future and security technology that is able to protect people from various threats are required. In response, this study aims to derive potential security threats associated with the development of technology and to explore the security technology that can protect against them. To do this, first of all, private and public reports that forecast future and online documents from technology-related communities are collected. By analyzing the data, future issues are extracted and categorized in terms of STEEP (Society, Technology, Economy, Environment, and Politics), as well as security. Second, the components of potential security threats are developed based on classified future issues. Then, points that the security threats may occur –for example, mobile payment system based on a finger scan technology– are identified. Lastly, alternatives that prevent potential security threats are proposed by matching security threats with points and investigating related security technologies from patent data. Proposed approach can identify the ICT-related latent security menaces and provide the guidelines in the ‘problem – alternative’ form by linking the threat point with security technologies.

Keywords: future society, information and communication technology, security technology, technology forecasting

Procedia PDF Downloads 389
3151 Towards a Security Model against Denial of Service Attacks for SIP Traffic

Authors: Arellano Karina, Diego Avila-Pesántez, Leticia Vaca-Cárdenas, Alberto Arellano, Carmen Mantilla

Abstract:

Nowadays, security threats in Voice over IP (VoIP) systems are an essential and latent concern for people in charge of security in a corporate network, because, every day, new Denial-of-Service (DoS) attacks are developed. These affect the business continuity of an organization, regarding confidentiality, availability, and integrity of services, causing frequent losses of both information and money. The purpose of this study is to establish the necessary measures to mitigate DoS threats, which affect the availability of VoIP systems, based on the Session Initiation Protocol (SIP). A Security Model called MS-DoS-SIP is proposed, which is based on two approaches. The first one analyzes the recommendations of international security standards. The second approach takes into account weaknesses and threats. The implementation of this model in a VoIP simulated system allowed to minimize the present vulnerabilities in 92% and increase the availability time of the VoIP service into an organization.

Keywords: Denial-of-Service SIP attacks, MS-DoS-SIP, security model, VoIP-SIP vulnerabilities

Procedia PDF Downloads 116
3150 Improving Security by Using Secure Servers Communicating via Internet with Standalone Secure Software

Authors: Carlos Gonzalez

Abstract:

This paper describes the use of the Internet as a feature to enhance the security of our software that is going to be distributed/sold to users potentially all over the world. By placing in a secure server some of the features of the secure software, we increase the security of such software. The communication between the protected software and the secure server is done by a double lock algorithm. This paper also includes an analysis of intruders and describes possible responses to detect threats.

Keywords: internet, secure software, threats, cryptography process

Procedia PDF Downloads 225
3149 Mobile Agent Security Using Reference Monitor Based Security Framework

Authors: Sandhya Armoogum

Abstract:

In distributed systems and in open systems such as the Internet, often mobile code has to run on unknown and potentially hostile hosts. Mobile code such as a mobile agent is vulnerable when executing on remote hosts. The mobile agent may be subjected to various attacks such as tampering, inspection, and replay attack by a malicious host. Much research has been done to provide solutions for various security problems, such as authentication of mobile agent and hosts, integrity and confidentiality of the data carried by the mobile agent. Many of such proposed solutions in literature are not suitable for open systems whereby the mobile code arrives and executes on a host which is not known and trusted by the mobile agent owner. In this paper, we propose the adoption of the reference monitor by hosts in an open system for providing trust and security for mobile code execution. A secure protocol for the distribution of the reference monitor entity is described. This reference monitor entity on the remote host may also provide several security services such as authentication and integrity to the mobile code.

Keywords: security, mobile agents, reference monitor, trust

Procedia PDF Downloads 370
3148 Sharing Experience in Authentic Learning for Mobile Security

Authors: Kai Qian, Lixin Tao

Abstract:

Mobile devices such as smartphones are getting more and more popular in our daily lives. The security vulnerability and threat attacks become a very emerging and important research and education topic in computing security discipline. There is a need to have an innovative mobile security hands-on laboratory to provide students with real world relevant mobile threat analysis and protection experience. This paper presents an authentic teaching and learning mobile security approach with smartphone devices which covers most important mobile threats in most aspects of mobile security. Each lab focuses on one type of mobile threats, such as mobile messaging threat, and conveys the threat analysis and protection in multiple ways, including lectures and tutorials, multimedia or app-based demonstration for threats analysis, and mobile app development for threat protections. This authentic learning approach is affordable and easily-adoptable which immerse students in a real world relevant learning environment with real devices. This approach can also be applied to many other mobile related courses such as mobile Java programming, database, network, and any security relevant courses so that can learn concepts and principles better with the hands-on authentic learning experience.

Keywords: mobile computing, Android, network, security, labware

Procedia PDF Downloads 226
3147 Taxonomy of Threats and Vulnerabilities in Smart Grid Networks

Authors: Faisal Al Yahmadi, Muhammad R. Ahmed

Abstract:

Electric power is a fundamental necessity in the 21st century. Consequently, any break in electric power is probably going to affect the general activity. To make the power supply smooth and efficient, a smart grid network is introduced which uses communication technology. In any communication network, security is essential. It has been observed from several recent incidents that adversary causes an interruption to the operation of networks. In order to resolve the issues, it is vital to understand the threats and vulnerabilities associated with the smart grid networks. In this paper, we have investigated the threats and vulnerabilities in Smart Grid Networks (SGN) and the few solutions in the literature. Proposed solutions showed developments in electricity theft countermeasures, Denial of services attacks (DoS) and malicious injection attacks detection model, as well as malicious nodes detection using watchdog like techniques and other solutions.

Keywords: smart grid network, security, threats, vulnerabilities

Procedia PDF Downloads 58
3146 Rethinking the Role of Small States in the Hybrid Era: Shifts in the Cypriot Foreign and Defence Policies, 2004-2019

Authors: Constantinos Adamides, Petros Petrikkos

Abstract:

In the era of growing hybrid threats, small states find themselves in need to re-evaluate existing foreign and defense policies. The pressure to establishing or maintain a status of a reliable partner in the community in which they belong to, vis-à-vis their multilateral relations with other organisations and entities, small states may need to shift their policies in the field to accommodate security needs that are not only pertinent to their security, but also to that of the organisations (bloc) in which they interact. Unlike potential shortcomings in a small state’s mainstream security and defence framework where the threat would be limited to the state itself, in more contemporary times with dominating hybrid threats, the small states’ security shortcomings may also become a security problem for the bloc in which these states belong to. An indicative example is small states like Cyprus and Malta, which belong and 'interact' in the European Union. As a result, the nature of hybrid threats can be utilised to hurt bigger states in a bloc by exploiting the small states’ vulnerabilities and security gaps. Inevitably, both the defensive and foreign policy collaborations of small states with bigger states have been and are constantly re-evaluated to tackle and prevent such problems. In essence, the goal of this ‘re-evaluation’ aims to achieve a twofold goal: The first is the small states’ quest to appear as a reliable partner within the bloc, while the second is to avoid being the weakest security link in the bloc’s defence against hybrid threats. Indeed, the hybrid arena is a security area where they can excel in the bloc, despite the potential and expected conventional military deficiencies. This new environment prompts us to think security from the perspective of small states differently and in relation to their role as members or big organisations. The paper focuses on the case of Cyprus following its accession to the European Union and examines how a country that has had a very focused security orientation –not least due to its ongoing security problems– altered its foreign and defence policies within the European Union to ensure compliance with the rest of the bloc, while at the same time maximizing its role as a security player. Specifically, it examines the methods through which the country shifted its policies as well as the challenges and opportunities that emerged from these security shifts.

Keywords: Cyprus, defence, foreign policy, hybrid threats, ontological security, small states

Procedia PDF Downloads 57
3145 Application of Directed Acyclic Graphs for Threat Identification Based on Ontologies

Authors: Arun Prabhakar

Abstract:

Threat modeling is an important activity carried out in the initial stages of the development lifecycle that helps in building proactive security measures in the product. Though there are many techniques and tools available today, one of the common challenges with the traditional methods is the lack of a systematic approach in identifying security threats. The proposed solution describes an organized model by defining ontologies that help in building patterns to enumerate threats. The concepts of graph theory are applied to build the pattern for discovering threats for any given scenario. This graph-based solution also brings in other benefits, making it a customizable and scalable model.

Keywords: directed acyclic graph, ontology, patterns, threat identification, threat modeling

Procedia PDF Downloads 60
3144 The Adaptive Properties of the Strategic Assurance System of the National Economy Sustainability to the Economic Security Threats

Authors: Badri Gechbaia

Abstract:

Adaptive management as a fundamental element of the concept of the assurance of economy`s sustainability to the economic security of the system-synergetic type has been considered. It has been proved that the adaptive sustainable development is a transitional phase from the extensive one and later on from the rapid growth to the sustainable development. It has been determined that the adaptive system of the strategic assurance of the sustainability of the economy to the economic security threats is formed on the principles of the domination in its complex of the subsystems with weightier adaptive characteristics that negate the destructive influence of external and internal environmental factors on the sustainability of the national economy.

Keywords: adaptive management, adaptive properties, economic security, strategic assurance

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3143 Efficient and Timely Mutual Authentication Scheme for RFID Systems

Authors: Hesham A. El Zouka, Mustafa M. Hosni ka

Abstract:

The Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) technology has a diverse base of applications, but it is also prone to security threats. There are different types of security attacks that limit the range of the RFID applications. For example, deploying the RFID networks in insecure environments could make the RFID system vulnerable to many types of attacks such as spoofing attack, location traceability attack, physical attack and many more. Therefore, security is often an important requirement for RFID systems. In this paper, RFID mutual authentication protocol is implemented based on mobile agent technology and timestamp, which are used to provide strong authentication and integrity assurances to both the RFID readers and their corresponding RFID tags. The integration of mobile agent technology and timestamp provides promising results towards achieving this goal and towards reducing the security threats in RFID systems.

Keywords: RFID, security, authentication protocols, privacy, agent-based architecture, time-stamp, digital signature

Procedia PDF Downloads 178
3142 The Contribution of the Lomé Charter to Combating Trafficking in Persons at Sea: Nigerian and South African Legal Perspective

Authors: Obinna Emmanuel Nkomadu

Abstract:

A major maritime problem in the African continent is the widespread proliferation of threats to maritime security, and one of which is the traffic in persons (TIP) at sea, which victims are sometimes assaulted, injured, killed, and in many cases go missing. The South African and Nigerian law on TIP at sea is the Prevention and Combating of Trafficking in Persons Act and the Trafficking in Persons (Prohibition) Enforcement and Administration Act, respectively. These legislation prohibits TIP at sea but does not provides effective and efficient national coordination structures and international cooperation measures against traffickers who engage on human trafficking on the African maritime domain. As a result of the limitations on the maritime security laws of most African States and the maritime security threats on the continent, the African Union in 2016 adopted the African Charter on Maritime Security and Safety and Development in Africa (Lome Charter). The Lomé Charter provides mechanisms for national and international cooperation on maritime security threats, including TIP at sea. However, the Charter is yet to come into force due to the number of States required to accede or ratify the Charter. This paper identifies gaps on existing instruments on TIP at sea by those States and justify on South Africa and Nigeria should adopt the Charter. The justification flow from analysing relevant international law instruments, as well as legislation on human trafficking.

Keywords: cooperation against trafficking in persons at sea, lomé charter, maritime security, Nigerian legislation on trafficking in persons, South African legislation on trafficking in person, and trafficking in persons at sea

Procedia PDF Downloads 59
3141 Smart Security Concept in the East Mediterranean: Anti Asymmetrical Area Denial (A3D)

Authors: Serkan Tezgel

Abstract:

The two qualities of the sea, as a medium of transportation and as a resource, necessitate maritime security for economic stability and good order at sea. The borderless nature of the sea makes it one of the best platforms to contribute to regional peace and international order. For this reason, the establishment of maritime security in East Mediterranean will enhance the security-peace-democracy triangle in the region. This paper proposes the application of the Smart Security Concept in the East Mediterranean. Smart Security aims to secure critical infrastructure, such as hydrocarbon platforms, against asymmetrical threats. The concept is based on Anti Asymmetrical Area Denial (A3D) which necessitates limiting freedom of action of maritime terrorists and piracy by founding safe and secure maritime areas through sea lines of communication using short range capabilities. Smart Security is a regional maritime cooperation concept for the narrow seas. Cooperation and interoperability are essential attributes of this regional security concept. Therefore, multinational excellence centers such as Multinational Maritime Security Center of Excellence-Aksaz in Turkey, which will determine necessary capabilities and plan/coordinate workshops, training and exercises, are bound to be the principal characteristic of Smart Security concept and similar regional concepts. Smart Security, a crucial enabler of energy and regional security, can provide an enduring approach for operating in the challenging environment of narrow seas and for countering asymmetrical threats.

Keywords: security, cooperation, asymmetrical, area denial

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3140 Towards the Management of Cybersecurity Threats in Organisations

Authors: O. A. Ajigini, E. N. Mwim

Abstract:

Cybersecurity is the protection of computers, programs, networks, and data from attack, damage, unauthorised, unintended access, change, or destruction. Organisations collect, process and store their confidential and sensitive information on computers and transmit this data across networks to other computers. Moreover, the advent of internet technologies has led to various cyberattacks resulting in dangerous consequences for organisations. Therefore, with the increase in the volume and sophistication of cyberattacks, there is a need to develop models and make recommendations for the management of cybersecurity threats in organisations. This paper reports on various threats that cause malicious damage to organisations in cyberspace and provides measures on how these threats can be eliminated or reduced. The paper explores various aspects of protection measures against cybersecurity threats such as handling of sensitive data, network security, protection of information assets and cybersecurity awareness. The paper posits a model and recommendations on how to manage cybersecurity threats in organisations effectively. The model and the recommendations can then be utilised by organisations to manage the threats affecting their cyberspace. The paper provides valuable information to assist organisations in managing their cybersecurity threats and hence protect their computers, programs, networks and data in cyberspace. The paper aims to assist organisations to protect their information assets and data from cyberthreats as part of the contributions toward community engagement.

Keywords: confidential information, cyberattacks, cybersecurity, cyberspace, sensitive information

Procedia PDF Downloads 172
3139 Cyber Security and Risk Assessment of the e-Banking Services

Authors: Aisha F. Bushager

Abstract:

Today we are more exposed than ever to cyber threats and attacks at personal, community, organizational, national, and international levels. More aspects of our lives are operating on computer networks simply because we are living in the fifth domain, which is called the Cyberspace. One of the most sensitive areas that are vulnerable to cyber threats and attacks is the Electronic Banking (e-Banking) area, where the banking sector is providing online banking services to its clients. To be able to obtain the clients trust and encourage them to practice e-Banking, also, to maintain the services provided by the banks and ensure safety, cyber security and risks control should be given a high priority in the e-banking area. The aim of the study is to carry out risk assessment on the e-banking services and determine the cyber threats, cyber attacks, and vulnerabilities that are facing the e-banking area specifically in the Kingdom of Bahrain. To collect relevant data, structured interviews were taken place with e-banking experts in different banks. Then, collected data where used as in input to the risk management framework provided by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), which was the model used in the study to assess the risks associated with e-banking services. The findings of the study showed that the cyber threats are commonly human errors, technical software or hardware failure, and hackers, on the other hand, the most common attacks facing the e-banking sector were phishing, malware attacks, and denial-of-service. The risks associated with the e-banking services were around the moderate level, however, more controls and countermeasures must be applied to maintain the moderate level of risks. The results of the study will help banks discover their vulnerabilities and maintain their online services, in addition, it will enhance the cyber security and contribute to the management and control of risks that are facing the e-banking sector.

Keywords: cyber security, e-banking, risk assessment, threats identification

Procedia PDF Downloads 265
3138 Intrusion Detection and Prevention System (IDPS) in Cloud Computing Using Anomaly-Based and Signature-Based Detection Techniques

Authors: John Onyima, Ikechukwu Ezepue

Abstract:

Virtualization and cloud computing are among the fast-growing computing innovations in recent times. Organisations all over the world are moving their computing services towards the cloud this is because of its rapid transformation of the organization’s infrastructure and improvement of efficient resource utilization and cost reduction. However, this technology brings new security threats and challenges about safety, reliability and data confidentiality. Evidently, no single security technique can guarantee security or protection against malicious attacks on a cloud computing network hence an integrated model of intrusion detection and prevention system has been proposed. Anomaly-based and signature-based detection techniques will be integrated to enable the network and its host defend themselves with some level of intelligence. The anomaly-base detection was implemented using the local deviation factor graph-based (LDFGB) algorithm while the signature-based detection was implemented using the snort algorithm. Results from this collaborative intrusion detection and prevention techniques show robust and efficient security architecture for cloud computing networks.

Keywords: anomaly-based detection, cloud computing, intrusion detection, intrusion prevention, signature-based detection

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3137 Civilian and Military Responses to Domestic Security Threats: A Cross-Case Analysis of Belgium, France, and the United Kingdom

Authors: John Hardy

Abstract:

The domestic security environment in Europe has changed dramatically in recent years. Since January 2015, a significant number of domestic security threats that emerged in Europe were located in Belgium, France and the United Kingdom. While some threats were detected in the planning phase, many also resulted in terrorist attacks. Authorities in all three countries instituted special or emergency measures to provide additional security to their populations. Each country combined an additional policing presence with a specific military operation to contribute to a comprehensive security response to domestic threats. This study presents a cross-case analysis of three countries’ civilian and military responses to domestic security threats in Europe. Each case study features a unique approach to combining civilian and military capabilities in similar domestic security operations during the same time period and threat environment. The research design focuses on five variables relevant to the relationship between civilian and military roles in each security response. These are the distinction between policing and military roles, the legal framework for the domestic deployment of military forces, prior experience in civil-military coordination, the institutional framework for threat assessments, and the level of public support for the domestic use of military forces. These variables examine the influence of domestic social, political, and legal factors on the design of combined civil-military operations in response to domestic security threats. Each case study focuses on a specific operation: Operation Vigilant Guard in Belgium, Operation Sentinel in France, and Operation Temperer in the United Kingdom. The results demonstrate that the level of distinction between policing and military roles and the existence of a clear and robust legal framework for the domestic use force by military personnel significantly influence the design and implementation of civilian and military roles in domestic security operations. The findings of this study indicate that Belgium, France and the United Kingdom experienced different design and implementation challenges for their domestic security operations. Belgium and France initially had less-developed legal frameworks for deploying the military in domestic security operations than the United Kingdom. This was offset by public support for enacting emergency measures and the strength of existing civil-military coordination mechanisms. The United Kingdom had a well-developed legal framework for integrating civilian and military capabilities in domestic security operations. However, its experiences in Ireland also made the government more sensitive to public perceptions regarding the domestic deployment of military forces.

Keywords: counter-terrorism, democracy, homeland security, intelligence, militarization, policing

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3136 Radical Islam and Transnational Security: West Africa and the Asia Pacific in View

Authors: Olumide A. Fafore, Khondlo Mtshali

Abstract:

The beginning of the 21st century saw the emergence of new and global threats to national and transnational security in West Africa and the Asia Pacific regions as a result of the spread of jihadist terrorism across borders, a manifestation of the rise of radical Islam. Extremist and armed Islamic movements influenced by Salafism, the Jihad in Afghanistan and the Muslim Brotherhood are prevalent in Northern Nigeria, Niger, Cameroon, Mali, Chad, Pakistan, Afghanistan, and India. Carrying out attacks across borders, including assassinations, murders, armed robberies, and kidnapping, assisted by open and porous borders and large flow of illegal immigrants across borders. This paper examines the effect of Radical Islam on Transnational security through a review of past literature and the social and security consequences on the people of the regions. Our findings indicate that the activities of armed Islamic movements such as Boko Haram, Ansaru and Al-Qaeda are having a negative impact on the economy, development, and security of the states and people of West Africa and the Asia Pacific. It stresses the importance of regional, transnational and international cooperation, as these threats to national and transnational security can no longer be solved in a national or regional framework.

Keywords: Islamic movements, jihadist terrorism, radical Islam, transnational security

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3135 Illegal Migration and Refugee Crisis as a Threat to National Security, Economic and Social System: The Bulgarian Case

Authors: Jordan Deliversky

Abstract:

Unlike all conventional forms of migration, migration crisis and migratory processes provide pressure to governments and are being expressed as different phenomenon in relation to nature and forms. The objective of this paper is to present the migration and refugee crisis as revealing numerous challenges faced by authorities responsible for the social and economic stability in Bulgaria as well as those providing conditions for reinforcement of the high level of national security in Bulgaria. The analysis is focused on exploring the multiple origins of factors influencing migration processes in Europe, in the light of the measures provided by the Bulgarian state authorities. The main results show that the society itself is facing the challenge of integrating refugees and migrants, so to be able to comply with the principles and values associated with tolerance to social, religious and cultural differences, and not allowing migrants to become marginalized community. Migration pressure creates a number of risks and threats to the Bulgarian national security. Our country has the capacity and resources to meet these potential threats, as a main factor for minimizing the risks to national security is the improvement of coordination and coherence of actions between various actors serving to the security sector.

Keywords: legislation, migrants, refugees, security, terrorism

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3134 Software Quality Assurance in Network Security using Cryptographic Techniques

Authors: Sidra Shabbir, Ayesha Manzoor, Mehreen Sirshar

Abstract:

The use of the network communication has imposed serious threats to the security of assets over the network. Network security is getting more prone to active and passive attacks which may result in serious consequences to data integrity, confidentiality and availability. Various cryptographic techniques have been proposed in the past few years to combat with the concerned problem by ensuring quality but in order to have a fully secured network; a framework of new cryptosystem was needed. This paper discusses certain cryptographic techniques which have shown far better improvement in the network security with enhanced quality assurance. The scope of this research paper is to cover the security pitfalls in the current systems and their possible solutions based on the new cryptosystems. The development of new cryptosystem framework has paved a new way to the widespread network communications with enhanced quality in network security.

Keywords: cryptography, network security, encryption, decryption, integrity, confidentiality, security algorithms, elliptic curve cryptography

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3133 SAFECARE: Integrated Cyber-Physical Security Solution for Healthcare Critical Infrastructure

Authors: Francesco Lubrano, Fabrizio Bertone, Federico Stirano

Abstract:

Modern societies strongly depend on Critical Infrastructures (CI). Hospitals, power supplies, water supplies, telecommunications are just few examples of CIs that provide vital functions to societies. CIs like hospitals are very complex environments, characterized by a huge number of cyber and physical systems that are becoming increasingly integrated. Ensuring a high level of security within such critical infrastructure requires a deep knowledge of vulnerabilities, threats, and potential attacks that may occur, as well as defence and prevention or mitigation strategies. The possibility to remotely monitor and control almost everything is pushing the adoption of network-connected devices. This implicitly introduces new threats and potential vulnerabilities, posing a risk, especially to those devices connected to the Internet. Modern medical devices used in hospitals are not an exception and are more and more being connected to enhance their functionalities and easing the management. Moreover, hospitals are environments with high flows of people, that are difficult to monitor and can somehow easily have access to the same places used by the staff, potentially creating damages. It is therefore clear that physical and cyber threats should be considered, analysed, and treated together as cyber-physical threats. This means that an integrated approach is required. SAFECARE, an integrated cyber-physical security solution, tries to respond to the presented issues within healthcare infrastructures. The challenge is to bring together the most advanced technologies from the physical and cyber security spheres, to achieve a global optimum for systemic security and for the management of combined cyber and physical threats and incidents and their interconnections. Moreover, potential impacts and cascading effects are evaluated through impact propagation models that rely on modular ontologies and a rule-based engine. Indeed, SAFECARE architecture foresees i) a macroblock related to cyber security field, where innovative tools are deployed to monitor network traffic, systems and medical devices; ii) a physical security macroblock, where video management systems are coupled with access control management, building management systems and innovative AI algorithms to detect behavior anomalies; iii) an integration system that collects all the incoming incidents, simulating their potential cascading effects, providing alerts and updated information regarding assets availability.

Keywords: cyber security, defence strategies, impact propagation, integrated security, physical security

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3132 The Potential Threat of Cyberterrorism to the National Security: Theoretical Framework

Authors: Abdulrahman S. Alqahtani

Abstract:

The revolution of computing and networks could revolutionise terrorism in the same way that it has brought about changes in other aspects of life. The modern technological era has faced countries with a new set of security challenges. There are many states and potential adversaries who have the potential and capacity in cyberspace, which makes them able to carry out cyber-attacks in the future. Some of them are currently conducting surveillance, gathering and analysis of technical information, and mapping of networks and nodes and infrastructure of opponents, which may be exploited in future conflicts. This poster presents the results of the quantitative study (survey) to test the validity of the proposed theoretical framework for the cyber terrorist threats. This theoretical framework will help to in-depth understand these new digital terrorist threats. It may also be a practical guide for managers and technicians in critical infrastructure, to understand and assess the threats they face. It might also be the foundation for building a national strategy to counter cyberterrorism. In the beginning, it provides basic information about the data. To purify the data, reliability and exploratory factor analysis, as well as confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) were performed. Then, Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) was utilised to test the final model of the theory and to assess the overall goodness-of-fit between the proposed model and the collected data set.

Keywords: cyberterrorism, critical infrastructure, , national security, theoretical framework, terrorism

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3131 Safety-Security Co-Engineering of Control Systems

Authors: Elena A. Troubitsyna

Abstract:

Designers of modern safety-critical control systems are increasingly relying on networking to provide the systems with advanced functionality and satisfy customer’s needs. However, networking nature of modern control systems also brings new technological challenges associated with ensuring system safety in the presence of openness and hence, potential security threats. In this paper, we propose a methodology that relies on systems-theoretic analysis to enable an integrated analysis of safety and security requirements of controlling software. We demonstrate how to create a safety case – a structured argument about system safety – with explicit representation of both safety and security goals. Our approach provides the designers with a systematic approach to analysing safety and security interdependencies while designing safety-critical control systems.

Keywords: controlling software, integrated analysis, security, safety-security co-engineering

Procedia PDF Downloads 399