Search results for: lateritic soil
2681 Physicochemistry of Pozzolanic Stabilization of a Class A-2-7 Lateritic Soil
Authors: Ahmed O. Apampa, Yinusa A. Jimoh
Abstract:The paper examines the mechanism of pozzolan-soil reactions, using a recent study on the chemical stabilization of a Class A-2-7 (3) lateritic soil, with corn cob ash (CCA) as case study. The objectives are to establish a nexus between cation exchange capacity of the soil, the alkaline forming compounds in CCA and percentage CCA addition to soil beyond which no more improvement in strength properties can be achieved; and to propose feasible chemical reactions to explain the chemical stabilization of the lateritic soil with CCA alone. The lateritic soil, as well as CCA of pozzolanic quality Class C were separately analysed for their metallic oxide composition using the X-Ray Fluorescence technique. The cation exchange capacity (CEC) of the soil and the CCA were computed theoretically using the percentage composition of the base cations Ca2+, Mg2+ K+ and Na2+ as 1.48 meq/100 g and 61.67 meq/100 g respectively, thus indicating a ratio of 0.024 or 2.4%. This figure, taken as the theoretical amount required to just fill up the exchangeable sites of the clay molecules, compares well with the laboratory observation of 1.5% for the optimum level of CCA addition to lateritic soil. The paper went on to present chemical reaction equations between the alkaline earth metals in the CCA and the silica in the lateritic soil to form silicates, thereby proposing an extension of the theory of mechanism of soil stabilization to cover chemical stabilization with pozzolanic ash only. The paper concluded by recommending further research on the molecular structure of soils stabilized with pozzolanic waste ash alone, with a view to confirming the chemical equations advanced in the study.
Keywords: cation exchange capacity, corn cob ash, lateritic soil, soil stabilizationProcedia PDF Downloads 172
2680 Mineral Status of Feeds and Fodder and Its Subsequent Effect on Plasma of Livestock and Its Products in Red Lateritic Zone of West Bengal, India
Authors: S. K. Pyne, M. Mondal, G. Samanta
Abstract:A survey was carried out in red lateritic zone of West Bengal to compare the mineral status in plasma of livestock grazing over red lateritic region. Sufficient number of samples of soil, feeds, fodder and blood were collected from four districts of red lateritic zone namely, West Midnapore, Birbhum, Bankura and Purulia respectively. The samples were analysed for Calcium (Ca), Phosphorus (P), Copper (Cu), Zinc (Zn), Manganese (Mn) and Iron (Fe). Concentration of Cu, Mn and Fe in soil were above the minimum critical level, whereas, Zn deficiency is wide spread in red lateritic soil. Paddy straw is deficient in Ca, P, Zn and Mn in the region. Green fodders are also deficient in P, Cu, Zn. The richness of iron (Fe) in soil, feeds, fodder and tree leaves is the characteristics of this region. Phosphorus is deficient in plasma of all categories of livestock with the exception of bullock. Cu is deficient in plasma of calf. Plasma Mn and Fe were higher (p<0.01) in the animals of red lateritic zone. The study reveals that the overall deficiency of phosphorus in different categories of livestock and there is need of dietary supplementation.
Keywords: mineral, red lateritic zone, grazing livestock, plasmaProcedia PDF Downloads 268
2679 Modeling of Compaction Curves for CCA-Cement Stabilized Lateritic Soils
Authors: O. Ahmed Apampa, Yinusa, A. Jimoh
Abstract:The aim of this study was to develop an appropriate model for predicting the compaction behavior of lateritic soils and corn cob ash (CCA) stabilized lateritic soils. This was done by first adopting an equation earlier developed for fine-grained soils and subsequent adaptation by others and extending it to modified lateritic soil through the introduction of alpha and beta parameters which are polynomial functions of the CCA binder input. The polynomial equations were determined with MATLAB R2011 curve fitting tool, while the alpha and beta parameters were determined by standard linear programming techniques using the Solver function of Microsoft Excel 2010. The model so developed was a good fit with a correlation coefficient R2 value of 0.86. The paper concludes that it is possible to determine the optimum moisture content and the maximum dry density of CCA stabilized soils from the compaction test of the unmodified soil, and recommends that this procedure is extended to other binder stabilized lateritic soils to facilitate quick decision making in roadworks.
Keywords: compaction, corn cob ash, lateritic soil, stabilizationProcedia PDF Downloads 468
2678 Stabilization of Spent Engine Oil Contaminated Lateritic Soil Admixed with Cement Kiln Dust for Use as Road Construction Materials
Authors: Johnson Rotimi Oluremi, A. Adedayo Adegbola, A. Samson Adediran, O. Solomon Oladapo
Abstract:Spent engine oil contains heavy metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons which contribute to chronic health hazards, poor soil aeration, immobilisation of nutrients and lowering of pH in soil. It affects geotechnical properties of lateritic soil thereby constituting geotechnical and foundation problems. This study is therefore based on the stabilization of spent engine oil (SEO) contaminated lateritic soil using cement kiln dust (CKD) as a mean of restoring it to its pristine state. Geotechnical tests which include sieve analysis, atterberg limit, compaction, California bearing ratio and unconfined compressive strength tests were carried out on the natural, SEO contaminated and CKD stabilized SEO contaminated lateritic soil samples. The natural soil classified as A-2-7 (2) by AASHTO classification and GC according to the Unified Soil Classification System changed to A-4 non-plastic soil due to SEO contaminated even under the influence of CKD it remained unchanged. However, the maximum dry density (MDD) of the SEO contaminated soil increased while the optimum moisture content (OMC) behaved vice versa with the increase in the percentages of CKD. Similarly, the bearing strength of the stabilized SEO contaminated soil measured by California Bearing Ratio (CBR) increased with percentage increment in CKD. In conclusion, spent engine oil has a detrimental effect on the geotechnical properties of the lateritic soil sample but which can be remediated using 10% CKD as a stand alone admixture in stabilizing spent engine oil contaminated soil.
Keywords: spent engine oil, lateritic soil, cement kiln dust, stabilization, compaction, unconfined compressive strengthProcedia PDF Downloads 282
2677 Experimental Investigation on Utility and Suitability of Lateritic Soil as a Pavement Material
Authors: J. Hemanth, B. G. Shivaprakash, S. V. Dinesh
Abstract:The locally available Lateritic soil in Dakshina Kanadda and Udupi districts are traditionally being used as building blocks for construction purpose but they do not meet the conventional requirements (L L ≤ 25% & P I ≤6%) and desired four days soaked CBR value to be used as a sub-base course material in pavements. In order to improve its properties to satisfy the Atterberg’s Limits, the soil is blended with sand, cement and quarry dust at various percentages and also to meet the CBR strength requirements, individual and combined gradation of various sized aggregates along with Laterite soil and other filler materials has been done for coarse graded granular sub-base materials (Grading II and Grading III). The effect of additives blended with lateritic soil and aggregates are studied in terms of Atterberg’s limits, compaction, California Bearing Ratio (CBR), and permeability. It has been observed that the addition of sand, cement and quarry dust are found to be effective in improving Atterberg’s limits, CBR values, and permeability values. The obtained CBR and permeability values of Grading III, and Grading II materials found to be sufficient to be used as sub-base course for low volume roads and high volume roads respectively.
Keywords: lateritic soil, sand, quarry dust, gradation, sub-base course, permeabilityProcedia PDF Downloads 253
2676 A Resource Survey of Lateritic Soils and Impact Evaluation toward Community Members Living Nearby the Excavation Pits
Authors: Ratchasak Suvannatsiri
Abstract:The objectives of the research are to find the basic engineering properties of lateritic soil and to predict the impact on community members who live nearby the excavation pits in the area of Amphur Pak Thor, Ratchaburi Province in the western area of Thailand. The research was conducted by collecting soil samples from four excavation pits for basic engineering properties, testing and collecting questionnaire data from 120 community members who live nearby the excavation pits, and applying statistical analysis. The results found that the basic engineering properties of lateritic soil can be classified into silt soil type which is cohesionless as the loess or collapsible soil which is not suitable to be used for a pavement structure for commuting highway because it could lead to structural and functional failure in the long run. In terms of opinion from community members toward the impact, the highest impact was on the dust from excavation activities. The prediction from the logistic regression in terms of impact on community members was at 84.32 which can be adapted and applied onto other areas with the same context as a guideline for risk prevention and risk communication since it could impact the infrastructures and also impact the health of community members.
Keywords: lateritic soil, excavation pits, engineering properties, impact on community membersProcedia PDF Downloads 348
2675 Comparative Study on the Effect of Compaction Energy and Moisture Content on the Strength Properties of Lateritic Soil
Authors: Ahmad Idris, O.A. Uche, Ado Y Abdulfatah
Abstract:Lateritic soils are found in abundance and are the most common types of soils used in construction of roads and embankments in Nigeria. Strength properties of the soils depend on the amount of compaction applied and the amount of water available in the soil at the time of compaction. In this study, the influence of the compactive effort and that of the amount of water in the soil in the determination of the shear strength properties of lateritic soil was investigated. Lateritic soil sample was collected from an existing borrow pit in Kano, Nigeria and its basic characteristics were determined and the soil was classified according to AASHTO classification method. The soil was then compacted under various compactive efforts and at wide range of moisture contents. The maximum dry density (MDD) and optimum moisture content (OMC) at each compactive effort was determined. Unconfined undrained triaxial test was carried out to determine the shear strength properties of the soil under various conditions of moisture and energy. Preliminary results obtained indicated that the soil is an A-7-5 soil. The final results obtained shows that as the compaction energy is increased, both the cohesion and friction angle increased irrespective of the moisture content used in the compaction. However, when the amount of water in the soil was increased and compaction effort kept constant, only the cohesion of the soil increases while the friction angle shows no any pattern of variation. It was also found that the highest values for cohesion and friction angle were obtained when the soil was compacted at the highest energy and at OMC.
Keywords: laterite, OMC, compaction energy, moisture contentProcedia PDF Downloads 346
2674 The Use of Rice Husk Ash as a Stabilizing Agent in Lateritic Clay Soil
Authors: J. O. Akinyele, R. W. Salim, K. O. Oikelome, O. T. Olateju
Abstract:Rice Husk (RH) is the major byproduct in the processing of paddy rice. The management of this waste has become a big challenge to some of the rice producers, some of these wastes are left in open dumps while some are burn in the open space, and these two actions have been contributing to environmental pollution. This study evaluates an alternative waste management of this agricultural product for use as a civil engineering material. The RH was burn in a controlled environment to form Rice Husk Ash (RHA). The RHA was mix with lateritic clay at 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10% proportion by weight. Chemical test was conducted on the open burn and controlled burn RHA with the lateritic clay. Physical test such as particle size distribution, Atterberg limits test, and density test were carried out on the mix material. The chemical composition obtained for the RHA showed that the total percentage compositions of Fe2O3, SiO2 and Al2O3 were found to be above 70% (class “F” pozzolan) which qualifies it as a very good pozzolan. The coefficient of uniformity (Cu) was 8 and coefficient of curvature (Cc) was 2 for the soil sample. The Plasticity Index (PI) for the 0, 2, 4, 6, 8. 10% was 21.0, 18.8, 16.7, 14.4, 12.4 and 10.7 respectively. The work concluded that RHA can be effectively used in hydraulic barriers and as a stabilizing agent in soil stabilization.
Keywords: rice husk ash, pozzolans, paddy rice, lateritic clayProcedia PDF Downloads 268
2673 Lateritic Soils from Ceara, Brazil: Sustainable Use in Constructive Blocks for Social Housing
Authors: Ivelise M. Strozberg, Juliana Sales Frota, Lucas de Oliveira Vale
Abstract:The state of Ceara, located in the northeast region of Brazil, is abundant in lateritic soil which has been usually discarded due to its lack of agricultural potential while materials of similar nature have been used as constituents of housing constructive elements in many parts of the world, such as India and Portugal, for decades. Since many of the semi-arid housing conditions in the state of Ceara fail to meet the minimum criteria regarding comfort and safety requirements, this research proposed to study the Ceara lateritic soil and the possibility of its use as a sustainable building block constituent for social housings, collaborating to the improvement of the region living conditions. In order to achieve this objective, soil samples were collected from five different locations within the specific region, three of which presented lateritic nature, being characterized according to the Unified Soil Classification System and the MCT methodology, which is a Brazilian methodology developed during the 80’s that aimed to better describe and approach tropical soils, its characterization and behavior. Two of these samples were used to build two different miniature block prototypes, which were manually molded, heated at low temperatures -( < 300 ºC) in order to save energy and lessen the CO₂ high emission rate common in traditional burning methods- and then submitted to load tests. Among the soils tested, the one with the highest degree of laterization and greater presence of fines constituted the block with the best performance in terms of flexural strength tensions, presenting resistance gains when heated at increasing temperatures, which can indicate that this type of soil has potential towards being used as constructing material.
Keywords: constructive blocks, lateritic soil, MCT methodology, sustainabilityProcedia PDF Downloads 72
2672 Stabilization of Lateritic Soil Sample from Ijoko with Cement Kiln Dust and Lime
Authors: Akinbuluma Ayodeji Theophilus, Adewale Olutaiwo
Abstract:When building roads and paved surfaces, a strong foundation is always essential. A durable material that can withstand years of traffic while staying trustworthy must be used to build the foundation. A frequent problem in the construction of roads and pavements is the lack of high-quality, long-lasting materials for the pavement structure (base, subbase, and subgrade). Hence, this study examined the stabilization of lateritic soil samples from Ijoko with cement kiln dust and lime. The study adopted the experimental design. Laboratory tests were conducted on classification, swelling potential, compaction, California bearing ratio (CBR), and unconfined compressive tests, among others, were conducted on the laterite sample treated with cement kiln dust (CKD) and lime in incremental order of 2% up to 10% of dry weight soft soil sample. The results of the test showed that the studied soil could be classified as an A-7-6 and CL soil using the American Association of State Highway and transport officials (AASHTO) and the unified soil classification system (USCS), respectively. The plasticity (PI) of the studied soil reduced from 30.5% to 29.9% at the application of CKD. The maximum dry density on the application of CKD reduced from 1.9.7 mg/m3 to 1.86mg/m3, and lime application yielded a reduction from 1.97mg/m3 to 1.88.mg/m3. The swell potential on CKD application was reduced from 0.05 to 0.039%. The study concluded that soil stabilizations are effective and economic way of improving road pavement for engineering benefit. The degree of effectiveness of stabilization in pavement construction was found to depend on the type of soil to be stabilized. The study therefore recommended that stabilized soil mixtures should be used to subbase material for flexible pavement since is a suitable.
Keywords: lateritic soils, sand, cement, stabilization, road pavementProcedia PDF Downloads 26
2671 Effects of Dimensional Sizes of Mould on the Volumetric Shrinkage Strain of Lateric Soil
Authors: John E. Sani, Moses George
Abstract:The paper presents the result of a laboratory study carried out on lateritic soil to determine the effects of dimensional size on the volumetric shrinkage strain (VSS) using three mould sizes i.e. split former mould, proctor mould and California bearing ratio (CBR) mould at three energy levels; British standard light (BSL), West African standard (WAS) and British standard heavy (BSH) respectively. Compactions were done at different molding water content of -2 % to +6 % optimum moisture content (OMC). At -2% to +2% molding water content for the split former mould the volumetric shrinkage strain met the requirement of not more than 4% while at +4% and +6% only the WAS and BSH met the requirement. The proctor mould and the CBR mould on the other hand gave a lower value of volumetric shrinkage strain in all compactive effort and the values are lower than the 4% safe VSS value.
Keywords: lateritic soil, volumetric shrinkage strain, molding water content, compactive effortProcedia PDF Downloads 458
2670 An Evaluation of the Influence of Corn Cob Ash on the Strength Parameters of Lateritic SoiLs
Authors: O. A. Apampa, Y. A. Jimoh
Abstract:The paper reports the investigation of Corn Cob Ash as a chemical stabilizing agent for laterite soils. Corn cob feedstock was obtained from Maya, a rural community in the derived savannah agro-ecological zone of South-Western Nigeria and burnt to ashes of pozzolanic quality. Reddish brown silty clayey sand material characterized as AASHTO A-2-6(3) lateritic material was obtained from a borrow pit in Abeokuta and subjected to strength characterization tests according to BS 1377: 2000. The soil was subsequently mixed with CCA in varying percentages of 0-7.5% at 1.5% intervals. The influence of CCA stabilized soil was determined for the Atterberg limits, compaction characteristics, CBR and the unconfined compression strength. The tests were repeated on laterite cement-soil mixture in order to establish a basis for comparison. The result shows a similarity in the compaction characteristics of soil-cement and soil-CCA. With increasing addition of binder from 1.5% to 7.5%, Maximum Dry Density progressively declined while the OMC steadily increased. For the CBR, the maximum positive impact was observed at 1.5% CCA addition at a value of 85% compared to the control value of 65% for the cement stabilization, but declined steadily thereafter with increasing addition of CCA, while that of soil-cement continued to increase with increasing addition of cement beyond 1.5% though at a relatively slow rate. Similar behavior was observed in the UCS values for the soil-CCA mix, increasing from a control value of 0.4 MN/m2 to 1.0 MN/m2 at 1.5% CCA and declining thereafter, while that for soil-cement continued to increase with increasing cement addition, but at a slower rate. This paper demonstrates that CCA is effective for chemical stabilization of a typical Nigerian AASHTO A-2-6 lateritic soil at maximum stabilizer content limit of 1.5% and therefore recommends its use as a way of finding further application for agricultural waste products and achievement of environmental sustainability in line with the ideals of the millennium development goals because of the economic and technical feasibility of the processing of the cobs from corn.
Keywords: corn cob ash, pozzolan, cement, laterite, stabilizing agent, cation exchange capacityProcedia PDF Downloads 227
2669 Shear Strength Parameters of an Unsaturated Lateritic Soil
Authors: Jeferson Brito Fernades, Breno Padovezi Rocha, Roger Augusto Rodrigues, Heraldo Luiz Giacheti
Abstract:The geotechnical projects demand the appropriate knowledge of soil characteristics and parameters. The determination of geotechnical soil parameters can be done by means of laboratory or in situ tests. In countries with tropical weather, like Brazil, unsaturated soils are very usual. In these soils, the soil suction has been recognized as an important stress state variable, which commands the geo-mechanical behavior. Triaxial and direct shear tests on saturated soils samples allow determine only the minimal soil shear strength, in other words, no suction contribution. This paper briefly describes the triaxial test with controlled suction as well as discusses the influence of suction on the shear strength parameters of a lateritic tropical sandy soil from a Brazilian research site. In this site, a sample pit was excavated to retrieve disturbed and undisturbed soil blocks. The samples extracted from these blocks were tested in laboratory to represent the soil from 1.5, 3.0 and 5.0 m depth. The stress curves and shear strength envelopes determined by triaxial tests varying suction and confining pressure are presented and discussed. The water retention characteristics on this soil complement this analysis. In situ CPT tests were also carried out at this site in different seasons of the year. In this case, the soil suction profile was determined by means of the soil water retention. This extra information allowed assessing how soil suction also affected the CPT data and the shear strength parameters estimative via correlation. The major conclusions of this paper are: the undisturbed soil samples contracted before shearing and the soil shear strength increased hyperbolically with suction; and it was possible to assess how soil suction also influenced CPT test data based on the water content soil profile as well as the water retention curve. This study contributed with a better understanding of the shear strength parameters and the soil variability of a typical unsaturated tropical soil.
Keywords: site characterization, triaxial test, CPT, suction, variabilityProcedia PDF Downloads 339
2668 Partial Replacement of Lateritic Soil with Crushed Rock Sand (Stone Dust) in Compressed Earth Brick Production
Authors: A. M. Jungudo, M. A. Lasan
Abstract:Affordable housing has long been one of the basic necessities of life to man. The ever rising prices of building materials are one of the major causes of housing shortage in many developing countries. Breaching the gap of housing needs in developing countries like Nigeria is an awaiting task longing for attention. This is due to lack of research in the development of local materials that will suit the troubled economies of these countries. The use of earth material to meet the housing needs is a sustainable option and its material is freely available universally. However, people are doubtful of using the earth material due to its modest outlook and uncertain durability. This research aims at enhancing the durability of Compressed Earth Bricks (CEBs) using stone dust as a stabilizer. The result indicates that partial replacement of lateritic soil with stone dust at 30% improves its compressive strength along with abrasive resistance.
Keywords: earth construction, durability, stone dust, sustainableProcedia PDF Downloads 64
2667 Integrated Geotechnical and Geophysical Investigation of a Proposed Construction Site at Mowe, Southwestern Nigeria
Authors: Kayode Festus Oyedele, Sunday Oladele, Adaora Chibundu Nduka
Abstract:The subsurface of a proposed site for building development in Mowe, Nigeria, using Standard Penetration Test (SPT) and Cone Penetrometer Test (CPT) supplemented with Horizontal Electrical Profiling (HEP) was investigated with the aim of evaluating the suitability of the strata for foundation materials. Four SPT and CPT were implemented using 10 tonnes hammer. HEP utilizing Wenner array were performed with inter-electrode spacing of 10 – 60 m along four traverses coincident with each of the SPT and CPT. The HEP data were processed using DIPRO software and textural filtering of the resulting resistivity sections was implemented to enable delineation of hidden layers. Sandy lateritic clay, silty lateritic clay, clay, clayey sand and sand horizons were delineated. The SPT “N” value defined very soft to soft sandy lateritic (<4), stiff silty lateritic clay (7 – 12), very stiff silty clay (12 - 15), clayey sand (15- 20) and sand (27 – 37). Sandy lateritic clay (5-40 kg/cm2) and silty lateritic clay (25 - 65 kg/cm2) were defined from the CPT response. Sandy lateritic clay (220-750 Ωm), clay (< 50 Ωm) and sand (415-5359 Ωm) were delineated from the resistivity sections with two thin layers of silty lateritic clay and clayey sand defined in the texturally filtered resistivity sections. This study concluded that the presence of incompetent thick clayey materials (18 m) beneath the study area makes it unsuitable for shallow foundation. Deep foundation involving piling through the clayey layers to the competent sand at 20 m depth was recommended.
Keywords: cone penetrometer, foundation, lithologic texture, resistivity section, standard penetration testProcedia PDF Downloads 181
2666 Response of Onion to FTM and Inorganic Fertilizers Application on Growth, Yield and Nutrient Uptake in Lateritic Soil of Konkan
Authors: Rupali Thorat, S. B. Dodake, V. N. Palsande, S. D. Patil
Abstract:A field experiment was conducted to study the “Response of onion to FYM and inorganic fertilizers application on growth, yield and nutrient uptake in lateritic soil of Konkan” at the farm of Pangari block of Irrigation of Scheme, Central Experimentation Station, Wakawali during Rabi 2009-10. There were 12 treatment combinations, comprising of 3 levels of NPK fertilizers (C1 ,C2-125 kg N, 62.5 kg P205 and 62.5 kg K20 ha-1 and C3-150 kg N, 75 kg P205 and 75 kg K20 ha-1) and 4 levels of FYM (F1-10 t FYM ha-1, F2 - 15 t FYM ha-1, F3-20 t FYM ha-1, F4-25 t FYM ha-1) replicated thrice using Factorial Randomized Block Design. The observations on plant height, number of leaves, girth of plant, polar and equatorial diameter of bulb as well as dry matter yield, onion bulb yield recorded during the course of field study were subjected to statistical analysis. Similarly nutrient content and uptake, quality parameters of bulb and soil properties were also determined and their data were also analyzed statistically. It is revealed from the study that the growth attributes, dry matter yield, onion bulb yield, nutrient content, nutrient uptake, quality parameters were improved significantly due to application of NPK @ 150:75:75 kg ha-1 along with FYM @ 20 t ha-1(C3F3). Application of NPK @ 150:75:75 kg ha-1 along with FYM @ 20 t ha-1 (C3F3) registered highest onion bulb yield (t ha-1). The quality of onion as well as availability of N, P, K, Fe, Mn, Zn and Cu in the soil was improved due to application of NPK @ 150:75:75 kg ha-1 and FYM @ 20 t ha-1.
Keywords: onion, FYM, yield, nutrient uptake and fertilizerProcedia PDF Downloads 384
2665 Improvement of Deficient Soils in Nigeria Using Bagasse Ash - A Review
Authors: Musa Alhassan, Alhaji Mohammed Mustapha
Abstract:Review of studies carried out on the use of bagasse ash in the improvement of deficient soils in Nigeria, with emphasis on lateritic and black cotton soils is presented. Although, the bagasse ash is mostly used as additive to the conventional soil stabilizer (cement and lime), the studies generally showed improvement of geotechnical properties of the soils either modified or stabilized with the ash. This showed the potentials of using this agricultural waste (bagasse ash) in the improvement of geotechnical properties of deficient soils. Thus suggesting that using this material at large scale level, in geotechnical engineering practice could help in the provision of stable and durable structures, reduce cost of soil improvement and also reduces environmental nuisance caused by the unused waste in Nigeria
Keywords: bagasse ash, black cotton soil, deficient soil, laterite, soil improvementProcedia PDF Downloads 330
2664 Land Degradation Assessment through Spatial Data Integration in Eastern Chotanagpur Plateau, India
Authors: Avijit Mahala
Abstract:Present study is primarily concerned with the physical processes and status of land degradation in a tropical plateau fringe. Chotanagpur plateau is one of the most water erosion related degraded areas of India. The granite gneiss geological formation, low to medium developed soil cover, undulating lateritic uplands, high drainage density, low to medium rainfall (100-140cm), dry tropical deciduous forest cover makes the Silabati River basin a truly representative of the tropical environment. The different physical factors have been taken for land degradation study includes- physiographic formations, hydrologic characteristics, and vegetation cover. Water erosion, vegetal degradation, soil quality decline are the major processes of land degradation in study area. Granite-gneiss geological formation is responsible for developing undulating landforms. Less developed soil profile, low organic matter, poor structure of soil causes high soil erosion. High relief and sloppy areas cause unstable environment. The dissected highland causes topographic hindrance in productivity. High drainage density and frequency in rugged upland and intense erosion in sloppy areas causes high soil erosion of the basin. Decreasing rainfall and increasing aridity (low P/PET) threats water stress condition. Green biomass cover area is also continuously declining. Through overlaying the different physical factors (geological formation, soil characteristics, geomorphological characteristics, etc.) of considerable importance in GIS environment the varying intensities of land degradation areas has been identified. Middle reaches of Silabati basin with highly eroded laterite soil cover areas are more prone to land degradation.
Keywords: land degradation, tropical environment, lateritic upland, undulating landform, aridity, GIS environmentProcedia PDF Downloads 82
2663 Environmental Benefits of Corn Cob Ash in Lateritic Soil Cement Stabilization for Road Works in a Sub-Tropical Region
Authors: Ahmed O. Apampa, Yinusa A. Jimoh
Abstract:The potential economic viability and environmental benefits of using a biomass waste, such as corn cob ash (CCA) as pozzolan in stabilizing soils for road pavement construction in a sub-tropical region was investigated. Corn cob was obtained from Maya in South West Nigeria and processed to ash of characteristics similar to Class C Fly Ash pozzolan as specified in ASTM C618-12. This was then blended with ordinary Portland cement in the CCA:OPC ratios of 1:1, 1:2 and 2:1. Each of these blends was then mixed with lateritic soil of ASHTO classification A-2-6(3) in varying percentages from 0 – 7.5% at 1.5% intervals. The soil-CCA-Cement mixtures were thereafter tested for geotechnical index properties including the BS Proctor Compaction, California Bearing Ratio (CBR) and the Unconfined Compression Strength Test. The tests were repeated for soil-cement mix without any CCA blending. The cost of the binder inputs and optimal blends of CCA:OPC in the stabilized soil were thereafter analyzed by developing algorithms that relate the experimental data on strength parameters (Unconfined Compression Strength, UCS and California Bearing Ratio, CBR) with the bivariate independent variables CCA and OPC content, using Matlab R2011b. An optimization problem was then set up minimizing the cost of chemical stabilization of laterite with CCA and OPC, subject to the constraints of minimum strength specifications. The Evolutionary Engine as well as the Generalized Reduced Gradient option of the Solver of MS Excel 2010 were used separately on the cells to obtain the optimal blend of CCA:OPC. The optimal blend attaining the required strength of 1800 kN/m2 was determined for the 1:2 CCA:OPC as 5.4% mix (OPC content 3.6%) compared with 4.2% for the OPC only option; and as 6.2% mix for the 1:1 blend (OPC content 3%). The 2:1 blend did not attain the required strength, though over a 100% gain in UCS value was obtained over the control sample with 0% binder. Upon the fact that 0.97 tonne of CO2 is released for every tonne of cement used (OEE, 2001), the reduced OPC requirement to attain the same result indicates the possibility of reducing the net CO2 contribution of the construction industry to the environment ranging from 14 – 28.5% if CCA:OPC blends are widely used in soil stabilization, going by the results of this study. The paper concludes by recommending that Nigeria and other developing countries in the sub-tropics with abundant stock of biomass waste should look in the direction of intensifying the use of biomass waste as fuel and the derived ash for the production of pozzolans for road-works, thereby reducing overall green house gas emissions and in compliance with the objectives of the United Nations Framework on Climate Change.
Keywords: corn cob ash, biomass waste, lateritic soil, unconfined compression strength, CO2 emissionProcedia PDF Downloads 316
2662 Stabilization of Clay Soil Using A-3 Soil
Authors: Mohammed Mustapha Alhaji, Sadiku Salawu
Abstract:A clay soil which classified under A-7-6 soil according to AASHTO soil classification system and CH according to the unified soil classification system was stabilized using A-3 soil (AASHTO soil classification system). The clay soil was replaced with 0%, 10%, 20% to 100% A-3 soil, compacted at both the BSL and BSH compaction energy level and using unconfined compressive strength as evaluation criteria. The MDD of the compactions at both the BSL and BSH compaction energy levels showed increase in MDD from 0% A-3 soil replacement to 40% A-3 soil replacement after which the values reduced to 100% A-3 soil replacement. The trend of the OMC with varied A-3 soil replacement is similar to that of MDD but in a reversed order. The OMC reduced from 0% A-3 soil replacement to 40% A-3 soil replacement after which the values increased to 100% A-3 soil replacement. This trend was attributed to the observed reduction in the void ratio from 0% A-3 soil replacement to 40% A-3 soil replacement after which the void ratio increased to 100% A-3 soil replacement. The maximum UCS for clay at varied A-3 soil replacement increased from 272 and 770kN/m2 for BSL and BSH compaction energy level at 0% A-3 soil replacement to 295 and 795kN/m2 for BSL and BSH compaction energy level respectively at 10% A-3 soil replacement after which the values reduced to 22 and 60kN/m2 for BSL and BSH compaction energy level respectively at 70% A-3 soil replacement. Beyond 70% A-3 soil replacement, the mixture cannot be moulded for UCS test.
Keywords: A-3 soil, clay minerals, pozzolanic action, stabilizationProcedia PDF Downloads 297
2661 Subsurface Exploration for Soil Geotechnical Properties and its Implications for Infrastructure Design and Construction in Victoria Island, Lagos, Nigeria
Authors: Sunday Oladele, Joseph Oluwagbeja Simeon
Abstract:Subsurface exploration, integrating methods of geotechnics and geophysics, of a planned construction site in the coastal city of Lagos, Nigeria has been carried out with the aim of characterizing the soil properties and their implication for the proposed infrastructural development. Six Standard Penetration Tests (SPT), fourteen Dutch Cone Penetrometer Tests (DCPT) and 2D Electrical Resistivity Imaging employing Dipole-dipole and Pole-dipole arrays were implemented on the site. The topsoil (0 - 4m) consists of highly compacted sandy lateritic clay(10 to 5595Ωm) to 1.25m in some parts and dense sand in other parts to 5.50m depth. This topsoil was characterized as a material of very high shear strength (≤ 150kg/m2) and allowable bearing pressure value of 54kN/m2 to 85kN/m2 and a safety factor of 2.5. Soft amorphous peat/peaty clay (0.1 to 11.4Ωm), 3-6m thick, underlays the lateritic clay to about 18m depth. Grey, medium dense to very dense sand (0.37 to 2387Ωm) with occasional gravels underlies the peaty clay down to 30m depth. Within this layer, the freshwater bearing zones are characterized by high resistivity response (83 to 2387Ωm), while the clayey sand/saline water intruded sand produced subdued resistivity output (0.37 to 40Ωm). The overall ground-bearing pressure for the proposed structure would be 225kN/m2. Bored/cast-in-place pile at 18.00m depth with any of these diameters and respective safe working loads 600mm/1,140KN, 800mm/2,010KN and 1000mm/3,150KN is recommended for the proposed multi-story structure.
Keywords: subsurface exploration, Geotechnical properties, resistivity imaging, pileProcedia PDF Downloads 8
2660 Chelator-assisted Phytoextraction of Nickel from Nickeliferous Lateritic Soil by Phyllanthus sp. nov.
Authors: Grecco M. Ante, Princess Rochelle O. Gan
Abstract:Plants that can absorb greater than 10,000 µg Ni/g dry mass in their stems and leaves are termed as ‘hypernickelophores’. Chelators are chemicals that make the metals in the soil more soluble, making them a potential enhancer for phytoextraction. This study aims to observe the effect of different concentrations of the chelating agent ethylene diamine tetraacetate (EDTA) on the metal uptake (or rate of phytoextraction) of Nickel by Phyllanthus sp. nov. The plant is found to be a hyperickelophore in normal conditions. The addition of EDTA increased the metal uptake of the plant. The increasing amount of the chelating agent causes a decrease in the phytoextraction of the plant but moves the onset of its peak of maximum nickel content in its tissue to an earlier time. The chelator-assisted phytoextraction of nickel by Phyllanthus sp. nov. is proven to be an efficient auxiliary mining operation for nickel laterite mines.
Keywords: phytomining, Phyllanthus sp. nov., EDTA, nickel, lateriteProcedia PDF Downloads 388
2659 In-situ and Laboratory Characterization of Fiji Lateritic Soils
Authors: Faijal Ali, Darga Kumar N., Ravikant Singh, Rajnil Lal
Abstract:Fiji has three major landforms such as plains, low mountains, and hills. The low land soils are formed on beach sand. Fiji soils contain high concentration of iron (III), aluminum oxides and hydroxides. The soil possesses reddish or yellowish colour. The characterization of lateritic soils collected from different locations along the national highway in Viti Levu, Fiji Islands. The research has been carried out mainly to understand the physical and strength properties to assess their suitability for the highway and building construction. In this paper, the field tests such as dynamic cone penetrometer test, field vane shear, field density and laboratory tests such as unconfined compression stress, compaction, grain size analysis and Atterberg limits are conducted. The test results are analyzed and presented. From the results, it is revealed that the soils are having more percentage of silt and clay which is more than 80% and 5 to 15% of fine to medium sand is noticed. The dynamic cone penetrometer results up to 3m depth had similar penetration resistance. For the first 1m depth, the rate of penetration is found 300mm per 3 to 4 blows. In all the sites it is further noticed that the rate of penetration at depths beyond 1.5 m is decreasing for the same number of blows as compared to the top soil. From the penetration resistance measured through dynamic cone penetrometer test, the California bearing ratio and allowable bearing capacities are 4 to 5% and 50 to 100 kPa for the top 1m layer and below 1m these values are increasing. The California bearing ratio of these soils for below 1m depth is in the order of 10% to 20%. The safe bearing capacity of these soils below 1m and up to 3m depth is varying from 150 kPa to 250 kPa. The field vane shear was measured within a depth of 1m from the surface and the values were almost similar varying from 60 kPa to 120 kPa. The liquid limit and plastic limits of these soils are in the range of 40 to 60% and 20 to 25%. Overall it is found that the top 1m soil along the national highway in majority places possess a soft to medium stiff behavior with low to medium bearing capacity as well low California bearing ratio values. It is recommended to ascertain these soils behavior in terms of geotechnical parameters before taking up any construction activity.
Keywords: California bearing ratio, dynamic cone penetrometer test, field vane shear, unconfined compression stress.Procedia PDF Downloads 128
2658 Effects of Organic Amendments on Primary Nutrients (N, P and K) in a Sandy Soil
Authors: Nejib Turki, Karima Kouki Khalfallah
Abstract:The effect of six treatments of organic amendments were evaluated on a sandy soil in the region of Soukra in Tunisia. T1: cattle manure 55 t.ha-1, T2: commercial compost from Germany to 1 t.ha-1, T3: a mixture of 27.5 t.ha-1 of T1 with 0.5 t. ha-1 of T2, T4: commercial compost from France 2 t.ha-1, T5: a Tunisian commercial compost to 10 t.ha-1 and T0: control without treatment. The nitrogen in the soil increase to 0.029 g.kg-1 of soil treatment for the T1 and 0.021 g. kg-1 of soil treatment for the T3. The highest content of P2O5 has been registered by the T3 treatment that 0.44 g kg-1 soil with respect to the control (T0), which shows a content of 0.36 g.kg-1 soil. The soil was initially characterized by a potassium content of 0.8 g kg-1 soil, K2O exchangeable rate varied between 0.63 g.Kg-1 and 0.71 g.kg-1 soil respectively T2 and T1.
Keywords: compost, organic amendement, Ntot, P2O5, K2OProcedia PDF Downloads 549
2657 A Review of Soil Stabilization Techniques
Authors: Amin Chegenizadeh, Mahdi Keramatikerman
Abstract:Soil stabilization is a crucial issue that helps to remove of risks associated with the soil failure. As soil has applications in different industries such as construction, pavement and railways, the means of stabilizing soil are varied. This paper will focus on the techniques of stabilizing soils. It will do so by gathering useful information on the state of the art in the field of soil stabilization, investigating both traditional and advanced methods. To inquire into the current knowledge, the existing literature will be divided into categories addressing the different techniques.
Keywords: review, soil, stabilization, techniquesProcedia PDF Downloads 443
2656 Effects of an Added Foaming Agent on Hydro-Mechanical Properties of Soil
Authors: Moez Selmi, Mariem Kacem, Mehrez Jamei, Philippe Dubujet
Abstract:Earth pressure balance (EPB) tunnel boring machines are designed for digging in different types of soil, especially clay soils. This operation requires the treatment of soil by lubricants to facilitate the procedure of excavation. A possible use of this soil is limited by the effect of treatment on the hydro-mechanical properties of the soil. This work aims to study the effect of a foaming agent on the hydro-mechanical properties of clay soil. The injection of the foam agent in the soil leads to create a soil matrix in which they are incorporated gas bubbles. The state of the foam in the soil is scalable thanks to the degradation of the gas bubbles in the soil.
Keywords: EPB, clay soils, foam agent, hydro-mechanical properties, degradationProcedia PDF Downloads 286
2655 Mechanical Properties of a Soil Stabilized With a Portland Cement
Authors: Ahmed Emad Ahmed, Mostafa El Abd, Ahmed Wakeb, Moahmmed Eissa
Abstract:Soil modification and reinforcing aims to increase soil shear strength and stiffness. In this report, different amounts of cement were added to the soil to explore its effect on shear strength and penetration using 3 tests. The first test is proctor compaction test which was conducted to determine the optimal moisture content and maximum dry density. The second test was direct shear test which was conducted to measure shear strength of soil. The third experiment was California bearing ratio test which was done to measure the penetration in soil. Each test was done different amount of times using different amounts of cement. The results from every test show that cement improve soil shear strength properties and stiffness.
Keywords: soil stabilized, soil, mechanical properties of soil, soil stabilized with a portland cementProcedia PDF Downloads 36
2654 Soil Respiration Rate of Laurel-Leaved and Cryptomeria japonica Forests
Authors: Ayuko Itsuki, Sachiyo Aburatani
Abstract:We assessed the ecology of the organic and mineral soil layers of laurel-leaved (BB-1) and Cryptomeria japonica (BB-2 and Pw) forests in the Kasugayama Hill Primeval Forest (Nara, Japan). The soil respiration rate was higher in the deeper horizons (F and H) of organic layers than in those of mineral soil layers, suggesting organic layers may be where active microbial metabolism occurs. Respiration rates in the soil of BB-1, BB-2 and Pw forests were closely similar at 5 and 10°C. However, the soil respiration rate increased in proportion to temperatures of 15°C or above. We therefore consider the activity of soil microorganisms to markedly decrease at temperatures below 10°C. At a temperature of 15°C or above, the soil respiration rate in the BB-1 organic layers was higher than in those of the BB-2 and Pw organic layers, due to differences in forest vegetation that appeared to influence several salient soil properties, particularly pH and the carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) content of the F and H horizons.
Keywords: forest soil, mineralization rate, heterotroph, soil respiration rateProcedia PDF Downloads 238
2653 Response of Six Organic Soil Media on the Germination, Seedling Vigor Performance of Jack Fruit Seeds in Chitwan Nepal
Authors: Birendra Kumar Bhattachan
Abstract:Organic soil media plays an important role for seed germination, growing, and producing organic jack fruits as the source of food such as vitamin A, C, and others for human health. An experiment was conducted to find out the appropriate organic soil medias to induce germination and seedling vigor of jack fruit seeds at the farm of Agriculture and Forestry University (AFU) Chitwan Nepal during June 2022 to October 2022. The organic soil medias used as treatments were as 1. soil collected under the Molingia tree; 2. soil, FYM and RH (2:1;1); 3. soil, FYM (1:1); 4. sand, FYM and RH (2:1:1), 5, sand, soil, FYM and RH (1:1:1:1) and 6. sand, soil and RH (1:2:1) under Completely Randomized Design (CRD) with four replications. Significantly highest germination of 88% was induced by soil media, followed by media of soil and FYM (!:1) i.e. 63% and the media of soil, FYM and RH (2:1;1) and the least media was sand, soil, FYM and RH (1:1:1:) to induce germination of 28%. Significantly highest seedling length of 73 cm was produced by soil media followed by the media soil, sand, and RH (1:2:1), i.e. 72 cm and the media soil, sand, FYM, and RH (1:1:1:1) and the least media was soil, FYM and RH (2:1:1) to produce 62 cm seedling length, Similarly, significantly highest seedling vigor of 6257 was produced by soil media followed by the media soil and FYM (1:1) i.e. 4253 and the least was the media sand, soil, FYM and RH (1:1:1:1) to produce seedling vigor of1916. Based on this experiment, it was concluded that soil media collected under the Moringia tree could induce the highest germinating capacity of jack fruit seeds and then seedling vigor.
Keywords: jack fruit seed, soil media, farm yard manure, sand media, rice huskProcedia PDF Downloads 107
2652 The Effect of Raindrop Kinetic Energy on Soil Erodibility
Authors: A. Moussouni, L. Mouzai, M. Bouhadef
Abstract:Soil erosion is a very complex phenomenon, resulting from detachment and transport of soil particles by erosion agents. The kinetic energy of raindrop is the energy available for detachment and transport by splashing rain. The soil erodibility is defined as the ability of soil to resist to erosion. For this purpose, an experimental study was conducted in the laboratory using rainfall simulator to study the effect of the kinetic energy of rain (Ec) on the soil erodibility (K). The soil used was a sandy agricultural soil of 62.08% coarse sand, 19.14% fine sand, 6.39% fine silt, 5.18% coarse silt and 7.21% clay. The obtained results show that the kinetic energy of raindrops evolves as a power law with soil erodibility.
Keywords: erosion, runoff, raindrop kinetic energy, soil erodibility, rainfall intensity, raindrop fall velocityProcedia PDF Downloads 390