Search results for: ferritic steels
181 Load Relaxation Behavior of Ferritic Stainless Steels
Authors: Seok Hong Min, Tae Kwon Ha
Abstract:High-temperature deformation behavior of ferritic stainless steels such as STS 409L, STS 430J1L, and STS 429EM has been investigated in this study. Specimens with fully annealed microstructure were obtained by heat treatment. A series of load relaxation tests has been conducted on these samples at temperatures ranging from 200 to 900oC to construct flow curves in the strain rate range from 10-6 s-1 to 10-3 s-1. Strain hardening was not observed at high temperatures above 800oC in any stainless steels. Load relaxation behavior at the temperature was closely related with high-temperature mechanical properties such as the thermal fatigue and tensile behaviors. Load drop ratio of 436L stainless steel was much higher than that of the other steels. With increasing temperature, strength and load drop ratio of ferritic stainless steels showed entirely different trends.
Keywords: ferritic stainless steel, high temperature deformation, load relaxation, microstructure, strain rate sensitivityProcedia PDF Downloads 277
180 Thermal Fatigue Behavior of 400 Series Ferritic Stainless Steels
Authors: Seok Hong Min, Tae Kwon Ha
Abstract:In this study, thermal fatigue properties of 400 series ferritic stainless steels have been evaluated in the temperature ranges of 200-800oC and 200-900oC. Systematic methods for control of temperatures within the predetermined range and measurement of load applied to specimens as a function of temperature during thermal cycles have been established. Thermal fatigue tests were conducted under fully constrained condition, where both ends of specimens were completely fixed. It has been revealed that load relaxation behavior at the temperatures of thermal cycle was closely related with the thermal fatigue property. Thermal fatigue resistance of 430J1L stainless steel is found to be superior to the other steels.
Keywords: ferritic stainless steel, automotive exhaust, thermal fatigue, microstructure, load relaxationProcedia PDF Downloads 279
179 Static Strain Aging in Ferritic and Austenitic Stainless Steels
Authors: Songul Kurucay, Mustafa Acarer, Harun Sepet
Abstract:Static strain aging occurs when metallic materials are subjected to deformation and then heat treated at low temperatures such as 150-200oC. Static strain aging occurs in BCC metals and results and increasing in yield and tensile strength and decreasing ductility due to carbon and/or nitrogen atoms locking dislocations. The locked dislocations increase yield and tensile strength. In this study, static strain aging behaviors of ferritic and austenitic stainless steel were investigated. Ferritic stainless steel was prestained at %5, %10 and %15 and then aged at 150oC and 200oC for 30 minutes. Austenitic stainless steel was also prestained at %20 and %30 and then heat treated at 200, 400 and 600oC for 30 minutes. After the heat treatment, the tensile test was performed to determine the effect of prestain and heat treatment on the steels. Hardness measurements and detailed microstructure characterization were also done. While AISI 430 ferritic stainless steel sample which was prestained at 15% and aged at 200oC, showed the highest increasing in the yield strength, AISI 304 austenitic stainless steel which was prestained at 30% and aged at 600oC, has the highest yield strength. Microstructure photographs also support the mechanical test results.
Keywords: austenitic stainless steel, ferritic stainless steel, static strain aging, tensile strengthProcedia PDF Downloads 372
178 Processing and Characterization of Oxide Dispersion Strengthened (ODS) Fe-14Cr-3W-0.5Ti-0.3Y₂O₃ (14YWT) Ferritic Steel
Authors: Farha Mizana Shamsudin, Shahidan Radiman, Yusof Abdullah, Nasri Abdul Hamid
Abstract:Oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) ferritic steels are amongst the most promising candidates for large scale structural materials to be applied in next generation fission and fusion nuclear power reactors. This kind of material is relatively stable at high temperature, possess remarkable mechanical properties and comparatively good resistance from neutron radiation damage. The superior performance of ODS ferritic steels over their conventional properties is attributed to the high number density of nano-sized dispersoids that act as nucleation sites and stable sinks for many small helium bubbles resulting from irradiation, and also as pinning points to dislocation movement and grain growth. ODS ferritic steels are usually produced by powder metallurgical routes involving mechanical alloying (MA) process of Y2O3 and pre-alloyed or elemental metallic powders, and then consolidated by hot isostatic pressing (HIP) or hot extrusion (HE) techniques. In this study, Fe-14Cr-3W-0.5Ti-0.3Y₂O₃ (designated as 14YWT) was produced by mechanical alloying process and followed by hot isostatic pressing (HIP) technique. Crystal structure and morphology of this sample were identified and characterized by using X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) respectively. The magnetic measurement of this sample at room temperature was carried out by using a vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). FESEM micrograph revealed a homogeneous microstructure constituted by fine grains of less than 650 nm in size. The ultra-fine dispersoids of size between 5 nm to 19 nm were observed homogeneously distributed within the BCC matrix. The EDS mapping reveals that the dispersoids contain Y-Ti-O nanoclusters and from the magnetization curve plotted by VSM, this sample approaches the behavior of soft ferromagnetic materials. In conclusion, ODS Fe-14Cr-3W-0.5Ti-0.3Y₂O₃ (14YWT) ferritic steel was successfully produced by HIP technique in this present study.
Keywords: hot isostatic pressing, magnetization, microstructure, ODS ferritic steelProcedia PDF Downloads 227
177 The Effect of Material Properties and Volumetric Changes in Phase Transformation to the Final Residual Stress of Welding Process
Authors: Djarot B. Darmadi
Abstract:The wider growing Finite Element Method (FEM) application is caused by its benefits of cost saving and environment friendly. Also, by using FEM a deep understanding of certain phenomenon can be achieved. This paper observed the role of material properties and volumetric change when Solid State Phase Transformation (SSPT) takes place in residual stress formation due to a welding process of ferritic steels through coupled Thermo-Metallurgy-Mechanical (TMM) analysis. The correctness of FEM residual stress prediction was validated by experiment. From parametric study of the FEM model, it can be concluded that the material properties change tend to over-predicts residual stress in the weld center whilst volumetric change tend to underestimates it. The best final result is the compromise of both by incorporates them in the model which has a better result compared to a model without SSPT.
Keywords: residual stress, ferritic steels, SSPT, coupled-TMMProcedia PDF Downloads 203
176 Critical Study on the Sensitivity of Corrosion Fatigue Crack Growth Rate to Cyclic Waveform and Microstructure in Marine Steel
Authors: V. C. Igwemezie, A. N. Mehmanparast
Abstract:The primary focus of this work is to understand how variations in the microstructure and cyclic waveform affect the corrosion fatigue crack growth (CFCG) in steel, especially in the Paris region of the da/dN vs. ΔK curve. This work is important because it provides fundamental information on the modelling, design, selection, and use of steels for various engineering applications in the marine environment. The corrosion fatigue tests data on normalized and thermomechanical control process (TMCP) ferritic-pearlitic steels by the authors were compared with several studies on different microstructures in the literature. The microstructures of these steels are radically different and general comparative fatigue crack growth resistance performance study on the effect of microstructure in these materials are very scarce and where available are limited to few studies. The results, for purposes of engineering application, in this study show less dependency of fatigue crack growth rate (FCGR) on yield strength, tensile strength, ductility, frequency and stress ratio in the range 0.1 – 0.7. The nature of the steel microstructure appears to be a major factor in determining the rate at which fatigue cracks propagate in the entire da/dN vs. ΔK sigmoidal curve. The study also shows that the sine wave shape is the most damaging fatigue waveform for ferritic-pearlitic steels. This tends to suggest that the test under sine waveform would be a conservative approach, regardless of the waveform for design of engineering structures.
Keywords: BS7910, corrosion-fatigue crack growth rate, cyclic waveform, microstructure, steelProcedia PDF Downloads 77
175 Influence of Thermal Ageing on Microstructural Features and Mechanical Properties of Reduced Activation Ferritic/Martensitic Grades
Authors: Athina Puype, Lorenzo Malerba, Nico De Wispelaere, Roumen Petrov, Jilt Sietsma
Abstract:Reduced Activation Ferritic/Martensitic (FM) steels like EUROFER are of interest for first wall application in the future demonstration (DEMO) fusion reactor. Depending on the final design codes for the DEMO reactor, the first wall material will have to function in low-temperature mode or high-temperature mode, i.e. around 250-300°C of above 550°C respectively. However, the use of RAFM steels is limited up to a temperature of about 550°C. For the low-temperature application, the material suffers from irradiation embrittlement, due to a shift of ductile-to-brittle transition temperature (DBTT) towards higher temperatures upon irradiation. The high-temperature response of the material is equally insufficient for long-term use in fusion reactors, due to the instability of the matrix phase and coarsening of the precipitates at prolonged high-temperature exposure. The objective of this study is to investigate the influence of thermal ageing for 1000 hrs and 4000 hrs on microstructural features and mechanical properties of lab-cast EUROFER. Additionally, the ageing behavior of the lab-cast EUROFER is compared with the ageing behavior of standard EUROFER97-2 and T91. The microstructural features were investigated with light optical microscopy (LOM), electron back-scattered diffraction (EBSD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Additionally, hardness measurements, tensile tests at elevated temperatures and Charpy V-notch impact testing of KLST-type MCVN specimens were performed to study the microstructural features and mechanical properties of four different F/M grades, i.e. T91, EUROFER97-2 and two lab-casted EUROFER grades. After ageing for 1000 hrs, the microstructures exhibit similar martensitic block sizes independent on the grain size before ageing. With respect to the initial coarser microstructures, the aged microstructures displayed a dislocation structure which is partially fragmented by polygonization. On the other hand, the initial finer microstructures tend to be more stable up to 1000hrs resulting in similar grain sizes for the four different steels. Increasing the ageing time to 4000 hrs, resulted in an increase of lath thickness and coarsening of M23C6 precipitates leading to a deterioration of tensile properties.
Keywords: ageing experiments, EUROFER, ferritic/martensitic steels, mechanical properties, microstructure, T91Procedia PDF Downloads 199
174 Experimental Investigation on Effects of Carrier Solvent and Oxide Fluxes in Activated TIG Welding of Reduced Activation Ferritic/Martensitic Steel
Authors: Jay J. Vora, Vishvesh J. Badheka
Abstract:This work attempts to investigate the effect of oxide fluxes on 6mm thick Reduced Activation ferritic/martensitic steels (RAFM) during Activated TIG (A-TIG) welding. Six different fluxes Al₂O₃, Co₃O₄, CuO, HgO, MoO₃, and NiO were mixed with methanol for conversion into paste and bead-on-plate experiments were then carried out. This study, systematically investigates the influence of oxide-based ﬂux powder and carrier solvent composition on the weld bead shape, geometric shape of weld bead and dominant depth enhancing mechanism in tungsten inert gas (TIG) welding of reduced activation ferritic/martensitic (RAFM) steel. It was inferred from the study that flux Co₃O₄ and MoO₃ imparted full and secure (more than 6mm) penetration with methanol owing to dual mechanism of reversed Marangoni and arc construction. The use of methanol imparted good spreadabilty and coverability and ultimately higher peak temperatures were observed with its use owing to stronger depth enhancing mechanisms than use of acetone with same oxide fluxes and welding conditions.
Keywords: A-TIG, flux, oxides, penetration, RAFM, temperature, weldingProcedia PDF Downloads 157
173 Designing, Processing and Isothermal Transformation of Al-Si High Carbon Ultrafine High Strength Bainitic Steel
Authors: Mohamed K. El-Fawkhry, Ahmed Shash, Ahmed Ismail Zaki Farahat, Sherif Ali Abd El Rahman, Taha Mattar
Abstract:High-carbon, silicon-rich steels are commonly suggested to obtain very fine bainitic microstructure at low temperature ranged from 200 to 300°C. Thereby, the resulted microstructure consists of slender of bainitic-ferritic plates interwoven with retained austenite. The advanced strength and ductility package of this steel is much dependent on the fineness of bainitic ferrite, as well as the retained austenite phase. In this article, Aluminum to Silicon ratio, and the isothermal transformation temperature have been adopted to obtain ultra high strength high carbon steel. Optical and SEM investigation of the produced steels have been performed. XRD has been used to track the retained austenite development as a result of the change in the chemical composition of developed steels and heat treatment process. Mechanical properties in terms of hardness and microhardness of obtained phases and structure were investigated. It was observed that the increment of aluminum to silicon ratio has a great effect in promoting the bainitic transformation, in tandem with improving the stability and the fineness of retained austenite. Such advanced structure leads to enhancement in the whole mechanical properties of the high carbon steel.
Keywords: high-carbon steel, silicon-rich steels, fine bainitic microstructure, retained austenite, isothermal transformationProcedia PDF Downloads 293
172 Performance Study of Experimental Ferritic Alloy with High Content of Molybdenum in Corrosive Environment of Soybean Methyl Biodiesel
Authors: Maurício N. Kleinberg, Ana P. R. N. Barroso, Frederico R. Silva, Natasha l. Gomes, Rodrigo F. Guimarães, Marcelo M. V. Parente, Jackson Q. Malveira
Abstract:Increased production of biofuels, especially biodiesel, as an option to replace the diesel derived from oil is already a reality in countries seeking a renewable and environmentally friendly fuel, as is the case in Brazil. However, it is known that the use of fuels, renewable or not, implies that it is in contact with various metallic materials which may cause corrosion. In the search for more corrosion resistant materials has been experimentally observed that the addition of molybdenum in ferritic steels increases their protective character without significantly burdening the cost of production. In order to evaluate the effect of adding molybdenum, samples of commercial steel (austenitic, ferritic and carbon steel) and the experimental ferritic alloy with a high molybdenum content (5.3%) were immersed separately into biodiesel derived from transesterification of soy oil to monitor the corrosion process of these metal samples, and in parallel to analyze the oxidative degradation of biodiesel itself. During the immersion time of 258 days, biodiesel samples were taken for analysis of acidity, kinematic viscosity, density and refraction. Likewise, the metal samples were taken from the biodiesel to be weighed and microstructurally analyzed by light microscopy. The results obtained at the end of 258 days shown that biodiesel presented a considerable increase on the values of the studied parameters for all the samples. However, this increase was not able to produce significant mass loss in metallic samples. As regards the microstructural analysis, it showed the onset of surface oxidation on the carbon steel sample. As for the other samples, no significant surface changes were shown. These results are consistent with literature for short immersion times. It is concluded that the increase in the values of the studied parameters is not significant yet, probably due to the low time of immersion and exposure of the samples. Thus, it is necessary to continue the tests so that the objectives of this work are achieved.
Keywords: biodiesel, corrosion, immersion, experimental alloyProcedia PDF Downloads 382
171 The Role of Phase Morphology on the Corrosion Fatigue Mechanism in Marine Steel
Authors: Victor Igwemezie, Ali Mehmanparast
Abstract:The correct knowledge of corrosion fatigue mechanism in marine steel is very important. This is because it enables the design, selection, and use of steels for offshore applications. It also supports realistic corrosion fatigue life prediction of marine structures. A study has been conducted to increase the understanding of corrosion fatigue mechanism in marine steels. The materials investigated are normalized and advanced S355 Thermomechanical control process (TMCP) steels commonly used in the design of offshore wind turbine support structures. The experimental study was carried out by conducting corrosion fatigue tests under conditions pertinent to offshore wind turbine operations, using the state of the art facilities. A careful microstructural study of the crack growth path was conducted using metallurgical optical microscope (OM), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy (EDX). The test was conducted on three subgrades of S355 steel: S355J2+N, S355G8+M and S355G10+M and the data compared with similar studies in the literature. The result shows that the ferrite-pearlite morphology primarily controls the corrosion-fatigue crack growth path in marine steels. A corrosion fatigue mechanism which relies on the hydrogen embrittlement of the grain boundaries and pearlite phase is used to explain the crack propagation behaviour. The crack growth trend in the Paris region of the da/dN vs. ΔK curve is used to explain the dependency of the corrosion-fatigue crack growth rate on the ferrite-pearlite morphology.
Keywords: corrosion-fatigue mechanism, fatigue crack growth rate, ferritic-pearlitic steel, microstructure, phase morphologyProcedia PDF Downloads 103
170 Effect of Hot Rolling Conditions on Magnetic Properties of Fe-3%Si Non-Grain Oriented Electrical Steels
Authors: Emre Alan, Yusuf Yamanturk, Gokay Bas
Abstract:Non-grain oriented electrical steels are high silicon containing steels in which the direction of magnetism is intended the same in any direction of the material. Major applications of non-grain-oriented electrical steels are electrical motors, generators, etc. where low magnetic losses are required. Selection of proper hot rolling process parameters is an important factor in order to produce a material that has desired magnetic properties. In this study, the effect of finishing and coiling temperatures on magnetic properties of Fe-3%Si non-grain oriented electrical steels will be investigated. Additionally, the effect of slab reheating temperature at same entry finishing temperature will be investigated by means of reduction in roughing mill pass number from 1-5 to 1-3.
Keywords: electrical steels, hot rolling, magnetic properties, roughing millProcedia PDF Downloads 224
169 Effect of Martensite Content and Its Morphology on Mechanical Properties of Microalloyed Dual Phase Steel
Authors: M. K. Manoj, V. Pancholi, S. K. Nath
Abstract:Microalloyed dual phase steels have been prepared by intercritical austenitisation (ICA) treatment of normalized steel at different temperature and time. Water quenching wad carried to obtain different martensite volume fraction (MVF) in DP steels. DP steels and normalized steels have been characterized by optical and scanning electron microscopy, Vickers hardness measurements and tensile properties determination. The effect of MVF and martensite morphology on mechanical properties and fracture behavior of microalloyed dual phase steels have been explained in the present work.
Keywords: dual phase steel, martensite morphology, hardness, tensile strengthProcedia PDF Downloads 266
168 Effect of Thermal Treatment on Mechanical Properties of Reduced Activation Ferritic/Martensitic Eurofer Steel Grade
Authors: Athina Puype, Lorenzo Malerba, Nico De Wispelaere, Roumen Petrov, Jilt Sietsma
Abstract:Reduced activation ferritic/martensitic (RAFM) steels like EUROFER97 are primary candidate structural materials for first wall application in the future demonstration (DEMO) fusion reactor. Existing steels of this type obtain their functional properties by a two-stage heat treatment, which consists of an annealing stage at 980°C for thirty minutes followed by quenching and an additional tempering stage at 750°C for two hours. This thermal quench and temper (Q&T) treatment creates a microstructure of tempered martensite with, as main precipitates, M23C6 carbides, with M = Fe, Cr and carbonitrides of MX type, e.g. TaC and VN. The resulting microstructure determines the mechanical properties of the steel. The ductility is largely determined by the tempered martensite matrix, while the resistance to mechanical degradation, determined by the spatial and size distribution of precipitates and the martensite crystals, plays a key role in the high temperature properties of the steel. Unfortunately, the high temperature response of EUROFER97 is currently insufficient for long term use in fusion reactors, due to instability of the matrix phase and coarsening of the precipitates at prolonged high temperature exposure. The objective of this study is to induce grain refinement by appropriate modifications of the processing route in order to increase the high temperature strength of a lab-cast EUROFER RAFM steel grade. The goal of the work is to obtain improved mechanical behavior at elevated temperatures with respect to conventionally heat treated EUROFER97. A dilatometric study was conducted to study the effect of the annealing temperature on the mechanical properties after a Q&T treatment. The microstructural features were investigated with scanning electron microscopy (SEM), electron back-scattered diffraction (EBSD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Additionally, hardness measurements, tensile tests at elevated temperatures and Charpy V-notch impact testing of KLST-type MCVN specimens were performed to study the mechanical properties of the furnace-heated lab-cast EUROFER RAFM steel grade. A significant prior austenite grain (PAG) refinement was obtained by lowering the annealing temperature of the conventionally used Q&T treatment for EUROFER97. The reduction of the PAG results in finer martensitic constituents upon quenching, which offers more nucleation sites for carbide and carbonitride formation upon tempering. The ductile-to-brittle transition temperature (DBTT) was found to decrease with decreasing martensitic block size. Additionally, an increased resistance against high temperature degradation was accomplished in the fine grained martensitic materials with smallest precipitates obtained by tailoring the annealing temperature of the Q&T treatment. It is concluded that the microstructural refinement has a pronounced effect on the DBTT without significant loss of strength and ductility. Further investigation into the optimization of the processing route is recommended to improve the mechanical behavior of RAFM steels at elevated temperatures.
Keywords: ductile-to-brittle transition temperature (DBTT), EUROFER, reduced activation ferritic/martensitic (RAFM) steels, thermal treatmentsProcedia PDF Downloads 229
167 Nitriding of Super-Ferritic Stainless Steel by Plasma Immersion Ion Implantation in Radio Frequency and Microwave Plasma System
Authors: H. Bhuyan, S. Mändl, M. Favre, M. Cisternas, A. Henriquez, E. Wyndham, M. Walczak, D. Manova
Abstract:The 470 Li-24 Cr and 460Li-21 Cr are two alloys belonging to the next generation of super-ferritic nickel free stainless steel grades, containing titanium (Ti), niobium (Nb) and small percentage of carbon (C) and nitrogen (N). The addition of Ti and Nb improves in general the corrosion resistance while the low interstitial content of C and N assures finer precipitates and greater ductility compared to conventional ferritic grades. These grades are considered an economic alternative to AISI 316L and 304 due to comparable or superior corrosion. However, since 316L and 304 can be nitrided to improve the mechanical surface properties like hardness and wear; it is hypothesize that the tribological properties of these super-ferritic stainless steels grades can also be improved by plasma nitriding. Thus two sets of plasma immersion ion implantation experiments have been carried out, one with a high pressure capacitively coupled radio frequency plasma at PUC Chile and the other using a low pressure microwave plasma at IOM Leipzig, in order to explore further improvements in the mechanical properties of 470 Li-24 Cr and 460Li-21 Cr steel. Nitrided and unnitrided substrates have been subsequently investigated using different surface characterization techniques including secondary ion mass spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive x-ray analysis, Vickers hardness, wear resistance, as well as corrosion test. In most of the characterizations no major differences have been observed for nitrided 470 Li-24 Cr and 460Li-21 Cr. Due to the ion bombardment, an increase in the surface roughness is observed for higher treatment temperature, independent of the steel types. The formation of chromium nitride compound takes place only at a treatment temperature around 4000C-4500C, or above. However, corrosion properties deteriorate after treatment at higher temperatures. The physical characterization results show up to 25 at.% of nitrogen for a diffusion zone of 4-6 m, and a 4-5 times increase in hardness for different experimental conditions. The samples implanted with temperature higher than 400 °C presented a wear resistance around two orders of magnitude higher than the untreated substrates. The hardness is apparently affected by the different roughness of the samples and their different profile of nitrogen.
Keywords: ion implantation, plasma, RF and microwave plasma, stainless steelProcedia PDF Downloads 376
166 Effect of Carbon Amount of Dual-Phase Steels on Deformation Behavior Using Acoustic Emission
Authors: Ramin Khamedi, Isa Ahmadi
Abstract:In this study acoustic emission (AE) signals obtained during deformation and fracture of two types of ferrite-martensite dual phase steels (DPS) specimens have been analyzed in frequency domain. For this reason two low carbon steels with various amounts of carbon were chosen, and intercritically heat treated. In the introduced method, identifying the mechanisms of failure in the various phases of DPS is done. For this aim, AE monitoring has been used during tensile test of several DPS with various volume fraction of the martensite (VM) and attempted to relate the AE signals and failure mechanisms in these steels. Different signals, which referred to 2-3 micro-mechanisms of failure due to amount of carbon and also VM have been seen. By Fast Fourier Transformation (FFT) of signals in distinct locations, an excellent relationship between peak frequencies in these areas and micro-mechanisms of failure were seen. The results were verified by microscopic observations (SEM).
Keywords: acoustic emission, dual phase steels, deformation, failure, fractureProcedia PDF Downloads 342
165 Alloying Effect on Hot Workability of M42 High Speed Steel
Authors: Jung-Ho Moon, Tae Kwon Ha
Abstract:In the present study, the effect of Si, Al, Ti, Zr, and Nb addition on the microstructure and hot workability of cast M42 tool steels, basically consisting of 1.0C, 0.2Mn, 3.8Cr, 1.5W, 8.5Co, 9.2Mo, and 1.0V in weight percent has been investigated. Tool steels containing Si of 0.25 and 0.5 wt.%, Al of 0.06 and 0.12 wt.%, Ti of 0.3 wt.%, Zr of 0.3 wt.%, and Nb of 0.3 wt.% were cast into ingots of 140 mm´ 140 mm´ 330 mm by vacuum induction melting. After solution treatment at 1150°C for 1.5 hrs. followed by furnace cooling, hot rolling at 1180 °C was conducted on the ingots. Addition of titanium, zirconium and niobium was found to retard the decomposition of the eutectic carbides and result in the deterioration of hot workability of the tool steels, while addition of aluminium and silicon showed relatively well decomposed carbide structure and resulted in sound hot rolled plates.
Keywords: high speed steels, alloying elements, eutectic carbides, microstructure, hot workabilityProcedia PDF Downloads 284
164 Production of Spherical Cementite within Bainitic Matrix Microstructures in High Carbon Powder Metallurgy Steels
Authors: O. Altuntaş, A. Güral
Abstract:The hardness-microstructure relationships of spherical cementite in bainitic matrix obtained by a different heat treatment cycles carried out to high carbon powder metallurgy (P/M) steel were investigated. For this purpose, 1.5 wt.% natural graphite powder admixed in atomized iron powders and the mixed powders were compacted under 700 MPa at room temperature and then sintered at 1150 °C under a protective argon gas atmosphere. The densities of the green and sintered samples were measured via the Archimedes method. A density of 7.4 g/cm3 was obtained after sintering and a density of 94% was achieved. The sintered specimens having primary cementite plus lamellar pearlitic structures were fully quenched from 950 °C temperature and then over-tempered at 705 °C temperature for 60 minutes to produce spherical-fine cementite particles in the ferritic matrix. After by this treatment, these samples annealed at 735 °C temperature for 3 minutes were austempered at 300 °C salt bath for a period of 1 to 5 hours. As a result of this process, it could be able to produced spherical cementite particle in the bainitic matrix. This microstructure was designed to improve wear and toughness of P/M steels. The microstructures were characterized and analyzed by SEM and micro and macro hardness.
Keywords: powder metallurgy steel, bainite, cementite, austempering and spheroidization heat treatmentProcedia PDF Downloads 95
163 The Determination of the Phosphorous Solubility in the Iron by the Function of the Other Components
Authors: Andras Dezső, Peter Baumli, George Kaptay
Abstract:The phosphorous is the important components in the steels, because it makes the changing of the mechanical properties and possibly modifying the structure. The phosphorous can be create the Fe3P compounds, what is segregated in the ferrite grain boundary in the intervals of the nano-, or microscale. This intermetallic compound is decreasing the mechanical properties, for example it makes the blue brittleness which means that the brittle created by the segregated particles at 200 ... 300°C. This work describes the phosphide solubility by the other components effect. We make calculations for the Ni, Mo, Cu, S, V, C, Si, Mn, and the Cr elements by the Thermo-Calc software. We predict the effects by approximate functions. The binary Fe-P system has a solubility line, which has a determinating equation. The result is below: lnwo = -3,439 – 1.903/T where the w0 means the weight percent of the maximum soluted concentration of the phosphorous, and the T is the temperature in Kelvin. The equation show that the P more soluble element when the temperature increasing. The nickel, molybdenum, vanadium, silicon, manganese, and the chromium make dependence to the maximum soluted concentration. These functions are more dependent by the elements concentration, which are lower when we put these elements in our steels. The copper, sulphur and carbon do not make effect to the phosphorous solubility. We predict that all of cases the maximum solubility concentration increases when the temperature more and more high. Between 473K and 673 K, in the phase diagram, these systems contain mostly two or three phase eutectoid, and the singe phase, ferritic intervals. In the eutectoid areas the ferrite, the iron-phosphide, and the metal (III)-phospide are in the equilibrium. In these modelling we predicted that which elements are good for avoid the phosphide segregation or not. These datas are important when we make or choose the steels, where the phosphide segregation stopping our possibilities.
Keywords: phosphorous, steel, segregation, thermo-calc softwareProcedia PDF Downloads 342
162 Study of Intergranular Corrosion in Austenitic Stainless Steels Using Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy
Authors: Satish Kolli, Adriana Ferancova, David Porter, Jukka Kömi
Abstract:Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) has been used to detect sensitization in austenitic stainless steels that are heat treated in the temperature regime 600-820 °C to produce different degrees of sensitization in the material. The tests were conducted at five different DC potentials in the transpassive region. The quantitative determination of degree of sensitization has been done using double loop electrochemical potentiokinetic reactivation tests (DL-EPR). The correlation between EIS Nyquist diagrams and DL-EPR degree of sensitization values has been studied. The EIS technique can be used as a qualitative tool in determining the intergranular corrosion in austenitic stainless steels that are heat treated at a given temperature.
Keywords: electrochemical technique, intergranular corrosion, sensitization, stainless steelsProcedia PDF Downloads 114
161 Effect of Alloying Elements and Hot Forging/Rolling Reduction Ratio on Hardness and Impact Toughness of Heat Treated Low Alloy Steels
Authors: Mahmoud M. Tash
Abstract:The present study was carried out to investigate the effect of alloying elements and thermo-mechanical treatment (TMT) i.e. hot rolling and forging with different reduction ratios on the hardness (HV) and impact toughness (J) of heat-treated low alloy steels. An understanding of the combined effect of TMT and alloying elements and by measuring hardness, impact toughness, resulting from different heat treatment following TMT of the low alloy steels, it is possible to determine which conditions yielded optimum mechanical properties and high strength to weight ratio. Experimental Correlations between hot work reduction ratio, hardness and impact toughness for thermo-mechanically heat treated low alloy steels are analyzed quantitatively, and both regression and mathematical hardness and impact toughness models are developed.
Keywords: hot forging, hot rolling, heat treatment, hardness (HV), impact toughness (J), microstructure, low alloy steelsProcedia PDF Downloads 450
160 Component Test of Martensitic/Ferritic Steels and Nickel-Based Alloys and Their Welded Joints under Creep and Thermo-Mechanical Fatigue Loading
Authors: Daniel Osorio, Andreas Klenk, Stefan Weihe, Andreas Kopp, Frank Rödiger
Abstract:Future power plants currently face high design requirements due to worsening climate change and environmental restrictions, which demand high operational flexibility, superior thermal performance, minimal emissions, and higher cyclic capability. The aim of the paper is, therefore, to investigate the creep and thermo-mechanical material behavior of improved materials experimentally and welded joints at component scale under near-to-service operating conditions, which are promising for application in highly efficient and flexible future power plants. These materials promise an increase in flexibility and a reduction in manufacturing costs by providing enhanced creep strength and, therefore, the possibility for wall thickness reduction. At the temperature range between 550°C and 625°C, the investigation focuses on the in-phase thermo-mechanical fatigue behavior of dissimilar welded joints of conventional materials (ferritic and martensitic material T24 and T92) to nickel-based alloys (A617B and HR6W) by means of membrane test panels. The temperature and external load are varied in phase during the test, while the internal pressure remains constant. At the temperature range between 650°C and 750°C, it focuses on the creep behavior under multiaxial stress loading of similar and dissimilar welded joints of high temperature resistant nickel-based alloys (A740H, A617B, and HR6W) by means of a thick-walled-component test. In this case, the temperature, the external axial load, and the internal pressure remain constant during testing. Numerical simulations are used for the estimation of the axial component load in order to induce a meaningful damage evolution without causing a total component failure. Metallographic investigations after testing will provide support for understanding the damage mechanism and the influence of the thermo-mechanical load and multiaxiality on the microstructure change and on the creep and TMF- strength.
Keywords: creep, creep-fatigue, component behaviour, weld joints, high temperature material behaviour, nickel-alloys, high temperature resistant steelsProcedia PDF Downloads 37
159 Effect of Preoxidation on the Effectiveness of Gd₂O₃ Nanoparticles Applied as a Source of Active Element in the Crofer 22 APU Coated with a Protective-conducting Spinel Layer
Authors: Łukasz Mazur, Kamil Domaradzki, Maciej Bik, Tomasz Brylewski, Aleksander Gil
Abstract:Interconnects used in solid oxide fuel and electrolyzer cells (SOFCₛ/SOECs) serve several important functions, and therefore interconnect materials must exhibit certain properties. Their thermal expansion coefficient needs to match that of the ceramic components of these devices – the electrolyte, anode and cathode. Interconnects also provide structural rigidity to the entire device, which is why interconnect materials must exhibit sufficient mechanical strength at high temperatures. Gas-tightness is also a prerequisite since they separate gas reagents, and they also must provide very good electrical contact between neighboring cells over the entire operating time. High-chromium ferritic steels meets these requirements to a high degree but are affected by the formation of a Cr₂O₃ scale, which leads to increased electrical resistance. The final criterion for interconnect materials is chemical inertness in relation to the remaining cell components. In the case of ferritic steels, this has proved difficult due to the formation of volatile and reactive oxyhydroxides observed when Cr₂O3 is exposed to oxygen and water vapor. This process is particularly harmful on the cathode side in SOFCs and the anode side in SOECs. To mitigate this, protective-conducting ceramic coatings can be deposited on an interconnect's surface. The area-specific resistance (ASR) of a single interconnect cannot exceed 0.1 m-2 at any point of the device's operation. The rate at which the CrO₃ scale grows on ferritic steels can be reduced significantly via the so-called reactive element effect (REE). Research has shown that the deposition of Gd₂O₃ nanoparticles on the surface of the Crofer 22 APU, already modified using a protective-conducting spinel layer, further improves the oxidation resistance of this steel. However, the deposition of the manganese-cobalt spinel layer is a rather complex process and is performed at high temperatures in reducing and oxidizing atmospheres. There was thus reason to believe that this process may reduce the effectiveness of Gd₂O₃ nanoparticles added as an active element source. The objective of the present study was, therefore, to determine any potential impact by introducing a preoxidation stage after the nanoparticle deposition and before the steel is coated with the spinel. This should have allowed the nanoparticles to incorporate into the interior of the scale formed on the steel. Different samples were oxidized for 7000 h in air at 1073 K under quasi-isothermal conditions. The phase composition, chemical composition, and microstructure of the oxidation products formed on the samples were determined using X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy combined with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. A four-point, two-probe DC method was applied to measure ASR. It was found that coating deposition does indeed reduce the beneficial effect of Gd₂O₃ addition, since the smallest mass gain and the lowest ASR value were determined for the sample for which the additional preoxidation stage had been performed. It can be assumed that during this stage, gadolinium incorporates into and segregates at grain boundaries in the thin Cr₂O₃ that is forming. This allows the Gd₂O₃ nanoparticles to be a more effective source of the active element.
Keywords: interconnects, oxide nanoparticles, reactive element effect, SOEC, SOFCProcedia PDF Downloads 15
158 Microstructural Evidences for Exhaustion Theory of Low Temperature Creep in Martensitic Steels
Authors: Nagarjuna Remalli, Robert Brandt
Abstract:Down-sizing of combustion engines in automobiles are prevailed owing to required increase in efficiency. This leads to a stress increment on valve springs, which affects their intended function due to an increase in relaxation. High strength martensitic steels are used for valve spring applications. Recent investigations unveiled that low temperature creep (LTC) in martensitic steels obey a logarithmic creep law. The exhaustion theory links the logarithmic creep behavior to an activation energy which is characteristic for any given time during creep. This activation energy increases with creep strain due to barriers of low activation energies exhausted during creep. The assumption of the exhaustion theory is that the material is inhomogeneous in microscopic scale. According to these assumptions it is anticipated that small obstacles (e. g. ε–carbides) having a wide range of size distribution are non-uniformly distributed in the materials. X-ray diffraction studies revealed the presence of ε–carbides in high strength martensitic steels. In this study, high strength martensitic steels that are crept in the temperature range of 75 – 150 °C were investigated with the aid of a transmission electron microscope for the evidence of an inhomogeneous distribution of obstacles having different size to examine the validation of exhaustion theory.
Keywords: creep mechanisms, exhaustion theory, low temperature creep, martensitic steelsProcedia PDF Downloads 186
157 Dissimilar Welding Of New High Oxidation Material – Thor™ 115 With Vm-12 Shc
Authors: Michal Urzynicok, Krzysztof Kwiecinski
Abstract:The development of materials used in the power generation industry for the production of boilers and their parts is characterized by high steam parameters, which present new challenges. Implementation of new combinations of alloying elements that lead to the best possible mechanical properties, including creep resistance, greatly affects new steels' weldability. All new grades have to undergo many different examinations, in regards to bending and welding, in order to enable the development of fabrication technologies, ensuring failure-free production and assembly of boiler components. 12% Cr martensitic steels like THOR™ 115 or VM-12 SHC are characterized by high oxidation resistance in high-temperature environments. At the moment, VM-12 SHC can be found in many boilers where both headers and superheater coils were produced. As this material is very difficult to obtain, a search for a proper replacement has begun. A new creep strength-enhanced ferritic steel for service in supercritical and ultra-supercritical boiler applications was developed by Tenaris in Italy and it is designated as Thor™115 (Tenaris High Oxidation Resistance). As high demand in power plants occurred to replace some parts of existing installations fabricated from VM12-SHC with other alternatives, a new development of welding procedures has begun to prepare fabricators for the challenges of joining old components with new THOR™ 115 material. This paper covers the first research of welding of dissimilar joints made out of VM12-SHC and THOR™ 115.
Keywords: thor, vm12, dissimilar welding, weldabilityProcedia PDF Downloads 97
156 Modeling of Nitrogen Solubility in Stainless Steel
Authors: Saeed Ghali, Hoda El-Faramawy, Mamdouh Eissa, Michael Mishreky
Abstract:Scale-resistant austenitic stainless steel, X45CrNiW 18-9, has been developed, and modified steels produced through partial and total nickel replacement by nitrogen. These modified steels were produced in a 10 kg induction furnace under different nitrogen pressures and were cast into ingots. The produced modified stainless steels were forged, followed by air cooling. The phases of modified stainless steels have been investigated using the Schaeffler diagram, dilatometer, and microstructure observations. Both partial and total replacement of nickel using 0.33-0.50% nitrogen are effective in producing fully austenitic stainless steels. The nitrogen contents were determined and compared with those calculated using the Institute of Metal Science (IMS) equation. The results showed great deviations between the actual nitrogen contents and predicted values through IMS equation. So, an equation has been derived based on chemical composition, pressure, and temperature at 1600oC. [N%] = 0.0078 + 0.0406*X, where X is a function of chemical composition and nitrogen pressure. The derived equation has been used to calculate the nitrogen content of different steels using published data. The results reveal the difficulty of deriving a general equation for the prediction of nitrogen content covering different steel compositions. So, it is necessary to use a narrow composition range.
Keywords: solubility, nitrogen, stainless steel, SchaefflerProcedia PDF Downloads 6
155 An Experimental Modeling of Steel Surfaces Wear in Injection of Plastic Materials with SGF
Authors: L. Capitanu, V. Floresci, L. L. Badita
Abstract:Starting from the idea that the greatest pressure and velocity of composite melted is in the die nozzle, was an experimental nozzle with wear samples of sizes and weights which can be measured with precision as good. For a larger accuracy of measurements, we used a method for radiometric measuring, extremely accurate. Different nitriding steels have been studied as nitriding treatments, as well as some special steels and alloyed steels. Besides these, there have been preliminary attempts made to describe and checking corrosive action of thermoplastics on metals.
Keywords: plastics, composites with short glass fibres, moulding, wear, experimental modelling, glass fibres content influenceProcedia PDF Downloads 182
154 Activation Parameters of the Low Temperature Creep Controlling Mechanism in Martensitic Steels
Abstract:Martensitic steels with an ultimate tensile strength beyond 2000 MPa are applied in the powertrain of vehicles due to their excellent fatigue strength and high creep resistance. However, the creep controlling mechanism in martensitic steels at ambient temperatures up to 423 K is not evident. The purpose of this study is to review the low temperature creep (LTC) behavior of martensitic steels at temperatures from 363 K to 523 K. Thus, the validity of a logarithmic creep law is reviewed and the stress and temperature dependence of the creep parameters α and β are revealed. Furthermore, creep tests are carried out, which include stepped changes in temperature or stress, respectively. On one hand, the change of the creep rate due to a temperature step provides information on the magnitude of the activation energy of the LTC controlling mechanism and on the other hand, the stress step approach provides information on the magnitude of the activation volume. The magnitude, the temperature dependency, and the stress dependency of both material specific activation parameters may deliver a significant contribution to the disclosure of the nature of the LTC rate controlling mechanism.
Keywords: activation parameters, creep mechanisms, high strength steels, low temperature creepProcedia PDF Downloads 110
153 Austenite Transformation in Duplex Stainless Steels under Fast Cooling Rates
Authors: L. O. Luengas, E. V. Morales, L. F. G. De Souza, I. S. Bott
Abstract:Duplex Stainless Steels are well known for its good mechanical properties, and corrosion resistance. However, when submitted to heating, these features can be lost since the good properties are strongly dependent on the austenite-ferrite phase ratio which has to be approximately 1:1 to keep the phase balance. In a welded joint, the transformation kinetics at the heat affected zone (HAZ) is a function of the cooling rates applied which in turn are dependent on the heat input. The HAZ is usually ferritized at these temperatures, and it has been argued that small variations of the chemical composition can play a role in the solid state transformation sequence of ferrite to austenite during cooling. The δ → γ transformation has been reported to be massive and diffusionless due to the fast cooling rate, but it is also considered a diffusion controlled transformation. The aim of this work is to evaluate the effect of different heat inputs on the HAZ of two duplex stainless steels UNS S32304 and S32750, obtained by physical simulation.
Keywords: duplex stainless steels, HAZ, microstructural characterization, physical simulationProcedia PDF Downloads 221
152 Aging Effect on Mechanical Behavior of Duplex Stainless Steel
Authors: Jeonho Moon, Tae Kwon Ha
Abstract:In the present study, the effect of Si, Al, Ti, Zr, and Nb addition on the microstructure and hot workability of cast M42 tool steels, basically consisting of 1.0 C, 0.2 Mn, 3.8 Cr, 1.5 W, 8.5 Co, 9.2 Mo, and 1.0 V in weight percent has been investigated. Tool steels containing Si of 0.25 and 0.5 wt.%, Al of 0.06 and 0.12 wt.%, Ti of 0.3 wt.%, Zr of 0.3 wt.%, and Nb of 0.3wt.% were cast into ingots of 140 mm x 140 mm x 330 mm by vacuum induction melting. After solution treatment at 1150 °C for 1.5 hr followed by furnace cooling, hot rolling at 1180 °C was conducted on the ingots. Addition of titanium, zirconium and niobium was found to retard the decomposition of the eutectic carbides and result in the deterioration of hot workability of the tool steels, while addition of aluminum and silicon showed relatively well decomposed carbide structure and resulted in sound hot rolled plates.
Keywords: duplex stainless steel, alloying elements, eutectic carbides, microstructure, hot workabilityProcedia PDF Downloads 350