Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 4823

Search results for: return air flow chamber

4823 A Measurement Device of Condensing Flow Rate, an Order of MilliGrams per Second

Authors: Hee Joon Lee


There are many difficulties in measuring a small flow rate of an order of milli grams per minute (LPM) or less using a conventional flowmeter. Therefore, a flow meter with minimal loss and based on a new concept was designed as part of this paper. A chamber was manufactured with a level transmitter and an on-off control valve. When the level of the collected condensed water reaches the top of the chamber, the valve opens to allow the collected water to drain back into the tank. To allow the water to continue to drain when the signal is lost, the valve is held open for a few seconds by a time delay switch and then closed. After an examination, the condensing flow rate was successfully measured with the uncertainty of ±5.7% of the full scale for the chamber.

Keywords: chamber, condensation, flow meter, milli-grams

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4822 Combustion and Emission Characteristics in a Can-Type Combustion Chamber

Authors: Selvakuma Kumaresh, Man Young Kim


Combustion phenomenon will be accomplished effectively by the development of low emission combustor. One of the significant factors influencing the entire Combustion process is the mixing between a swirling angular jet (Primary Air) and the non-swirling inner jet (fuel). To study this fundamental flow, the chamber had to be designed in such a manner that the combustion process to sustain itself in a continuous manner and the temperature of the products is sufficiently below the maximum working temperature in the turbine. This study is used to develop the effective combustion with low unburned combustion products by adopting the concept of high swirl flow and motility of holes in the secondary chamber. The proper selection of a swirler is needed to reduce emission which can be concluded from the emission of Nox and CO2. The capture of CO2 is necessary to mitigate CO2 emissions from natural gas. Thus the suppression of unburned gases is a meaningful objective for the development of high performance combustor without affecting turbine blade temperature.

Keywords: combustion, emission, can-type combustion chamber, CFD, motility of holes, swirl flow

Procedia PDF Downloads 224
4821 Experimental and Computational Investigation of Flow Field and Thermal Behavior of a Mechanical Seal

Authors: Hossein Shokouhmand, Masoomeh Shadab, Rohallah Torabi


Turbulent flow inside the seal chamber of a pump operating at nearly high Reynolds number is investigated. A comparison of a 3-D computational model for flow and thermal analysis of a mechanical seal with experimental thermal results is presented. The computational model adequately predicts the flow field in the seal chamber and thermal characteristics with the rotating and stationary rings and the twister flow around the seal parts by solving N-S and energy equations in ANSYS-CFX software. The Reynolds stress model (RSM) is applied as a turbulence model for this purpose. Experimental work is discussed which quantifies the temperature of five different points of the working fluid in chamber, mass flow at inlet and the fluid pressure at inlet and outlet. Experimental measurements are combined with computational modeling to obtain local and average heat transfer characteristics. Numerical results of three cases including different flush rates are reported.

Keywords: mechanical seal, CFD_CFX, reynolds stress model, flow field, heat transfer analysis, stream line, heat transfer coefficient, heat flux, nusselt

Procedia PDF Downloads 339
4820 Numerical Analysis of Swirling Chamber Using Improved Delayed Detached Eddy Simulation Turbulence Model

Authors: Hamad M. Alhajeri


Swirling chamber is a promising cooling method for heavily thermally loaded parts like turbine blades due to the additional circumferential velocity and therefore improved turbulent mixing of the fluid. This paper investigates numerically the effect of turbulence model on the heat convection of the swirling chamber. Grid independence analysis is conducted to obtain the proper grid dimension. The work validated with experimental data available in the literature. Flow analysis using improved delayed detached eddy simulation turbulence model and Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes k-ɛ turbulence model is carried. The flow characteristic near the exit is reformed when improved delayed detached eddy simulation model used.

Keywords: gas turbine, Nusselt number, flow characteristics, heat transfer

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4819 Effect of Downstream Pressure in Tuning the Flow Control Orifices of Pressure Fed Reaction Control System Thrusters

Authors: Prakash M.N, Mahesh G, Muhammed Rafi K.M, Shiju P. Nair


Introduction: In launch vehicle missions, Reaction Control thrusters are being used for the three-axis stabilization of the vehicle during the coasting phases. A pressure-fed propulsion system is used for the operation of these thrusters due to its less complexity. In liquid stages, these thrusters are designed to draw propellant from the same tank used for the main propulsion system. So in order to regulate the propellant flow rates of these thrusters, flow control orifices are used in feed lines. These orifices are calibrated separately as per the flow rate requirement of individual thrusters for the nominal operating conditions. In some missions, it was observed that the thrusters were operated at higher thrust than nominal. This point was addressed through a series of cold flow and hot tests carried out in-ground and this paper elaborates the details of the same. Discussion: In order to find out the exact reason for this phenomenon, two flight configuration thrusters were identified and hot tested in the ground with calibrated orifices and feed lines. During these tests, the chamber pressure, which is directly proportional to the thrust, is measured. In both cases, chamber pressures higher than the nominal by 0.32bar to 0.7bar were recorded. The increase in chamber pressure is due to an increase in the oxidizer flow rate of both the thrusters. Upon further investigation, it is observed that the calibration of the feed line is done with ambient pressure downstream. But in actual flight conditions, the orifices will be subjected to operate with 10 to 11bar pressure downstream. Due to this higher downstream pressure, the flow through the orifices increases and thereby, the thrusters operate with higher chamber pressure values. Conclusion: As part of further investigatory tests, two numbers of fresh thrusters were realized. Orifice tuning of these thrusters was carried out in three different ways. In the first trial, the orifice tuning was done by simulating 1bar pressure downstream. The second trial was done with the injector assembled downstream. In the third trial, the downstream pressure equal to the flight injection pressure was simulated downstream. Using these calibrated orifices, hot tests were carried out in simulated vacuum conditions. Chamber pressure and flow rate values were exactly matching with the prediction for the second and third trials. But for the first trial, the chamber pressure values obtained in the hot test were more than the prediction. This clearly shows that the flow is detached in the 1st trial and attached for the 2nd & 3rd trials. Hence, the error in tuning the flow control orifices is pinpointed as the reason for this higher chamber pressure observed in flight.

Keywords: reaction control thruster, propellent, orifice, chamber pressure

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4818 Conjugate Heat Transfer Analysis of a Combustion Chamber using ANSYS Computational Fluid Dynamics to Estimate the Thermocouple Positioning in a Chamber Wall

Authors: Muzna Tariq, Ihtzaz Qamar


In most engineering cases, the working temperatures inside a combustion chamber are high enough that they lie beyond the operational range of thermocouples. Furthermore, design and manufacturing limitations restrict the use of internal thermocouples in many applications. Heat transfer inside a combustion chamber is caused due to interaction of the post-combustion hot fluid with the chamber wall. Heat transfer that involves an interaction between the fluid and solid is categorized as Conjugate Heat Transfer (CHT). Therefore, to satisfy the needs of CHT, CHT Analysis is performed by using ANSYS CFD tool to estimate theoretically precise thermocouple positions at the combustion chamber wall where excessive temperatures (beyond thermocouple range) can be avoided. In accordance with these Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) results, a combustion chamber is designed, and a prototype is manufactured with multiple thermocouple ports positioned at the specified distances so that the temperature of hot gases can be measured on the chamber wall where the temperatures do not exceed the thermocouple working range.

Keywords: computational fluid dynamics, conduction, conjugate heat transfer, convection, fluid flow, thermocouples

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4817 CFD Simulation of the Inlet Pressure Effects on the Cooling Capacity Enhancement for Vortex Tube with Couple Vortex Chambers

Authors: Nader Pourmahmoud, Amir Hassanzadeh


This article investigates the effects of inlet pressure in a newly introduced vortex tube which has been equipped with an additional vortex chamber. A 3-D compressible turbulent flow computation has been carried out toward analysis of complex flow field in this apparatus. Numerical results of flows are derived by utilizing the standard k-ε turbulence model for analyzing high rotating complex flow field. The present research has focused on cooling effect and given a characteristics curve for minimum cool temperature. In addition, the effect of inlet pressure for both chambers has been studied in details. To be presented numerical results show that the effect of inlet pressure in second chamber has more important role in improving the performance of the vortex tube than first one. By increasing the pressure in the second chamber, cold outlet temperature reaches a higher decrease. When both chambers are fed with high pressure fluid, best operation condition of vortex tube occurs. However, it is not possible to feed both chambers with high pressure due to the conditions of working environment.

Keywords: energy separation, inlet pressure, numerical simulation, vortex chamber, vortex tube

Procedia PDF Downloads 275
4816 Modeling and Design of a Solar Thermal Open Volumetric Air Receiver

Authors: Piyush Sharma, Laltu Chandra, P. S. Ghoshdastidar, Rajiv Shekhar


Metals processing operations such as melting and heat treatment of metals are energy-intensive, requiring temperatures greater than 500oC. The desired temperature in these industrial furnaces is attained by circulating electrically-heated air. In most of these furnaces, electricity produced from captive coal-based thermal power plants is used. Solar thermal energy could be a viable heat source in these furnaces. A retrofitted solar convective furnace (SCF) concept, which uses solar thermal generated hot air, has been proposed. Critical to the success of a SCF is the design of an open volumetric air receiver (OVAR), which can heat air in excess of 800oC. The OVAR is placed on top of a tower and receives concentrated solar radiation from a heliostat field. Absorbers, mixer assembly, and the return air flow chamber (RAFC) are the major components of an OVAR. The absorber is a porous structure that transfers heat from concentrated solar radiation to ambient air, referred to as primary air. The mixer ensures uniform air temperature at the receiver exit. Flow of the relatively cooler return air in the RAFC ensures that the absorbers do not fail by overheating. In an earlier publication, the detailed design basis, fabrication, and characterization of a 2 kWth open volumetric air receiver (OVAR) based laboratory solar air tower simulator was presented. Development of an experimentally-validated, CFD based mathematical model which can ultimately be used for the design and scale-up of an OVAR has been the major objective of this investigation. In contrast to the published literature, where flow and heat transfer have been modeled primarily in a single absorber module, the present study has modeled the entire receiver assembly, including the RAFC. Flow and heat transfer calculations have been carried out in ANSYS using the LTNE model. The complex return air flow pattern in the RAFC requires complicated meshes and is computational and time intensive. Hence a simple, realistic 1-D mathematical model, which circumvents the need for carrying out detailed flow and heat transfer calculations, has also been proposed. Several important results have emerged from this investigation. Circumferential electrical heating of absorbers can mimic frontal heating by concentrated solar radiation reasonably well in testing and characterizing the performance of an OVAR. Circumferential heating, therefore, obviates the need for expensive high solar concentration simulators. Predictions suggest that the ratio of power on aperture (POA) and mass flow rate of air (MFR) is a normalizing parameter for characterizing the thermal performance of an OVAR. Increasing POA/MFR increases the maximum temperature of air, but decreases the thermal efficiency of an OVAR. Predictions of the 1-D mathematical are within 5% of ANSYS predictions and computation time is reduced from ~ 5 hours to a few seconds.

Keywords: absorbers, mixer assembly, open volumetric air receiver, return air flow chamber, solar thermal energy

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4815 Analysis of Vortical Structures Generated by the Swirler of Combustion Chamber

Authors: Vladislav A. Nazukin, Valery G. Avgustinovich, Vakhtang V. Tsatiashvili


The most important part of modern lean low NOx combustors is a premixer where swirlers are often used for intensification of mixing processes and further formation of required flow pattern in combustor liner. Swirling flow leads to formation of complex eddy structures causing flow perturbations. It is able to cause combustion instability. Therefore, at design phase, it is necessary to pay great attention to aerodynamics of premixers. Analysis based on unsteady CFD modeling of swirling flow in production combustor swirler showed presence of large number of different eddy structures that can be conditionally divided into three types relative to its location of origin and a propagation path. Further, features of each eddy type were subsequently defined. Comparison of calculated and experimental pressure fluctuations spectrums verified correctness of computations.

Keywords: DES simulation, swirler, vortical structures, combustion chamber

Procedia PDF Downloads 247
4814 Investigation and Perfection of Centrifugal Compressor Stages by CFD Methods

Authors: Y. Galerkin, L. Marenina


Stator elements «Vane diffuser + crossover + return channel» of stages with different specific speed were investigated by CFD calculations. The regime parameter was introduced to present efficiency and loss coefficient performance of all elements together. Flow structure demonstrated advantages and disadvantages of design. Flow separation in crossovers was eliminated by its shape modification. Efficiency increased visibly. Calculated CFD performances are in acceptable correlation with predicted ones by engineering design method. The information obtained is useful for design method better calibration.

Keywords: vane diffuser, return channel, crossover, efficiency, loss coefficient, inlet flow angle

Procedia PDF Downloads 337
4813 Combustion Chamber Sizing for Energy Recovery from Furnace Process Gas: Waste to Energy

Authors: Balram Panjwani, Bernd Wittgens, Jan Erik Olsen, Stein Tore Johansen


The Norwegian ferroalloy industry is a world leader in sustainable production of ferrosilicon, silicon and manganese alloys with the lowest global specific energy consumption. One of the byproducts during the metal reduction process is energy rich off-gas and usually this energy is not harnessed. A novel concept for sustainable energy recovery from ferroalloy off-gas is discussed. The concept is founded on the idea of introducing a combustion chamber in the off-gas section in which energy rich off-gas mainly consisting of CO will be combusted. This will provide an additional degree of freedom for optimizing energy recovery. A well-controlled and high off-gas temperature will assure a significant increase in energy recovery and reduction of emissions to the atmosphere. Design and operation of the combustion chamber depend on many parameters, including the total power capacity of the combustion chamber, sufficient residence time for combusting the complex Poly Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH), NOx, as well as converting other potential pollutants. The design criteria for the combustion chamber have been identified and discussed and sizing of the combustion chamber has been carried out considering these design criteria. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) has been utilized extensively for sizing the combustion chamber. The results from our CFD simulations of the flow in the combustion chamber and exploring different off-gas fuel composition are presented. In brief, the paper covers all aspect which impacts the sizing of the combustion chamber, including insulation thickness, choice of insulating material, heat transfer through extended surfaces, multi-staging and secondary air injection.

Keywords: CFD, combustion chamber, arc furnace, energy recovery

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4812 Flow Duration Curve Method to Evaluate Environmental Flow: Case Study of Gharasou River, Ardabil, Iran

Authors: Mehdi Fuladipanah, Mehdi Jorabloo


Water flow management is one of the most important parts of river engineering. Non-uniformity distribution of rainfall and various flow demand with unreasonable flow management will be caused destroyed of river ecosystem. Then, it is very serious to determine ecosystem flow requirement. In this paper, flow duration curve indices method which has hydrological based was used to evaluate environmental flow in Gharasou River, Ardabil, Iran. Using flow duration curve, Q90 and Q95 for different return periods were calculated. Their magnitude were determined as 1-day, 3-day, 7-day, and 30 day. According the second method, hydraulic alteration indices often had low and medium range. In order to maintain river at an acceptable ecological condition, minimum daily discharge of index Q95 is 0.7 m3.s-1.

Keywords: ardabil, environmental flow, flow duration curve, Gharasou river

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4811 Fundamental Research Dissension between Hot and Cold Chamber High Pressure Die Casting

Authors: Sahil Kumar, Surinder Pal, Rahul Kapoor


This paper is focused on to define the basic difference between hot and cold chamber high pressure die casting process which is not fully defined in a research before paper which we have studied. The pressure die casting is basically defined into two types (1) Hot chamber Die Casting (2) Cold chamber Die Casting. Cold chamber die casting is used for casting alloys that require high pressure and have a high melting temperature, such as brass, aluminum, magnesium, copper based alloys and other high melting point nonferrous alloys. Hot chamber die casting is suitable for casting zinc, tin, lead, and low melting point alloys. In hot chamber die casting machine, the molten metal is an integral pan of the machine. It mainly consists of hot chamber and gooseneck type metal container made of cast iron. This machine is mainly used for low melting alloys and alloys of metals like zinc, lead etc. Metals and alloys having a high melting point and those which are having an affinity for iron cannot be cast by this machine, which could otherwise attack the shot sleeve and damage the machine.

Keywords: hot chamber die casting, cold chamber die casting, metals and alloys, casting technology

Procedia PDF Downloads 481
4810 A Sliding Mesh Technique and Compressibility Correction Effects of Two-Equation Turbulence Models for a Pintle-Perturbed Flow Analysis

Authors: J. Y. Heo, H. G. Sung


Numerical simulations have been performed for assessment of compressibility correction of two-equation turbulence models suitable for large scale separation flows perturbed by pintle strokes. In order to take into account pintle movement, a sliding mesh method was applied. The chamber pressure, mass flow rate, and thrust have been analyzed, and the response lag and sensitivity at the chamber and nozzle were estimated for a movable pintle. The nozzle performance for pintle reciprocating as its insertion and extraction processes, were analyzed to better understand the dynamic performance of the pintle nozzle.

Keywords: pintle, sliding mesh, turbulent model, compressibility correction

Procedia PDF Downloads 366
4809 Hydrological Method to Evaluate Environmental Flow: Case Study of Gharasou River, Ardabil

Authors: Mehdi Fuladipanah, Mehdi Jorabloo


Water flow management is one of the most important parts of river engineering. Non-uniformity distribution of rainfall and various flow demand with unreasonable flow management will be caused destroyed of the river ecosystem. Then, it is severe to determine ecosystem flow requirement. In this paper, Flow duration curve indices method which has hydrological based was used to evaluate environmental flow in Gharasou River, Ardabil, Iran. Using flow duration curve, Q90 and Q95 for different return periods were calculated. Their magnitude was determined as 1-day, 3-day, 7-day, and 30 days. According to the second method, hydraulic alteration indices often had low and medium range. To maintain river at an acceptable ecological condition, minimum daily discharge of index Q95 is 0.7 m^3.s^-1.

Keywords: Gharasou River, water flow management, non-uniformity distribution, ecosystem flow requirement, hydraulic alteration

Procedia PDF Downloads 175
4808 Evaluation of Particle Settling in Flow Chamber

Authors: Abdulrahman Alenezi, B. Stefan


Abstract— The investigation of fluids containing particles or filaments includes a category of complex fluids and is vital in both theory and application. The forecast of particle behaviors plays a significant role in the existing technology as well as future technology. This paper focuses on the prediction of the particle behavior through the investigation of the particle disentrainment from a pipe on a horizontal air stream. This allows for examining the influence of the particle physical properties on its behavior when falling on horizontal air stream. This investigation was conducted on a device located at the University of Greenwich's Medway Campus. Two materials were selected to carry out this study: Salt and Glass Beads particles. The shape of the Slat particles is cubic where the shape of the Glass Beads is almost spherical. The outcome from the experimental work were presented in terms of distance travelled by the particles according to their diameters as After that, the particles sizes were measured using Laser Diffraction device and used to determine the drag coefficient and the settling velocity.

Keywords: flow experiment, drag coefficient, Particle Settling, Flow Chamber

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4807 Simulation and Analysis of Different Parameters in Hydraulic Circuit Due to Leakage

Authors: J.Das, Gyan Wrat


Leakage is the main gradual failure in the fluid power system, which is usually caused by the impurity in the oil and wear of matching surfaces between parts and lead to the change of the gap value. When leakage occurs in the system, the oil will flow from the high pressure chamber into the low pressure chamber through the gap, causing the reduction of system flow as well as the loss of system pressure, resulting in the decreasing of system efficiency. In the fluid power system, internal leakage may occur in various components such as gear pump, reversing valve and hydraulic cylinder, and affect the system work performance. Therefore, component leakage in the fluid power system is selected as the study to characterize the leakage and the effect of leakage on the system. Effect of leakage on system pressure and cylinder displacement can be obtained using pressure sensors and the displacement sensor. The leakage can be varied by changing the orifice using a flow control valve. Hydraulic circuit for leakage will be developed in Matlab/Simulink environment and simulations will be done by changing different parameters.

Keywords: leakage causes, effect, analysis, MATLAB simulation, hydraulic circuit

Procedia PDF Downloads 291
4806 Numerical Study of Developing Laminar Forced Convection Flow of Water/CuO Nanofluid in a Circular Tube with a 180 Degrees Curve

Authors: Hamed K. Arzani, Hamid K. Arzani, S.N. Kazi, A. Badarudin


Numerical investigation into convective heat transfer of CuO-Water based nanofluid in a pipe with return bend under laminar flow conditions has been done. The impacts of Reynolds number and the volume concentration of nanoparticles on the flow and the convective heat transfer behaviour are investigated. The results indicate that the increase in Reynolds number leads to the enhancement of average Nusselt number, and the increase in specific heat in the presence of the nanofluid results in improvement in heat transfer. Also, the presence of the secondary flow in the curve plays a key role in increasing the average Nusselt number and it appears higher than the inlet and outlet tubes. However, the pressure drop curve increases significantly in the tubes with the increase in nanoparticles concentration.

Keywords: laminar forced convection, curve pipe, return bend, nanufluid, CFD

Procedia PDF Downloads 187
4805 Design, Modeling, Fabrication, and Testing of a Scaled down Hybrid Rocket Engine

Authors: Pawthawala Nancy Manish, Syed Alay Hashim


A hybrid rocket is a rocket engine which uses propellants in two different states of matter- one is in solid and the other either gas or liquid. A hybrid rocket exhibit advantages over both liquid rockets and solid rockets especially in terms of simplicity, stop-start-restart capabilities, safety and cost. This paper deals the design and development of a hybrid rocket having paraffin wax as solid fuel and liquid oxygen as oxidizer. Due to variation of pressure in combustion chamber there is significantly change in mass flow rate, burning rate and uneven regression along the length of the grain. This project describes the working model of a hybrid propellant rocket motor. We have designed a hybrid rocket thrust chamber based on the predetermined combustion chamber pressure and the properties of hybrid propellant. This project is all ready in working condition with normal oxygen injector. Now we have planned to modify the injector design to improve the combustion property. We will use spray type injector for injecting the oxidizer. This idea will increase the performance followed by the regression rate of the solid fuel. By employing mass conservation law, oxygen mass flux, oxidizer/fuel ratio and regression rate the thrust coefficient can be obtained for our current design. CATIA V5 R20 is our design software for the complete setup. This project is fully based on experimental evaluation and the collection of combustion and flow parameters. The thrust chamber is made of stainless steel and the duration of test is around 15-20 seconds (Maximum). These experiments indicates that paraffin based fuel provides the opportunity to satisfy a broad range of mission requirements for the next generation of the hybrid rocket system.

Keywords: burning rate, liquid oxygen, mass flow rate, paraffin wax and sugar

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4804 Aspects Concerning Flame Propagation of Various Fuels in Combustion Chamber of Four Valve Engines

Authors: Zoran Jovanovic, Zoran Masonicic, S. Dragutinovic, Z. Sakota


In this paper, results concerning flame propagation of various fuels in a particular combustion chamber with four tilted valves were elucidated. Flame propagation was represented by the evolution of spatial distribution of temperature in various cut-planes within combustion chamber while the flame front location was determined by dint of zones with maximum temperature gradient. The results presented are only a small part of broader on-going scrutinizing activity in the field of multidimensional modeling of reactive flows in combustion chambers with complicated geometries encompassing various models of turbulence, different fuels and combustion models. In the case of turbulence two different models were applied i.e. standard k-ε model of turbulence and k-ξ-f model of turbulence. In this paper flame propagation results were analyzed and presented for two different hydrocarbon fuels, such as CH4 and C8H18. In the case of combustion all differences ensuing from different turbulence models, obvious for non-reactive flows are annihilated entirely. Namely the interplay between fluid flow pattern and flame propagation is invariant as regards turbulence models and fuels applied. Namely the interplay between fluid flow pattern and flame propagation is entirely invariant as regards fuel variation indicating that the flame propagation through unburned mixture of CH4 and C8H18 fuels is not chemically controlled.

Keywords: automotive flows, flame propagation, combustion modelling, CNG

Procedia PDF Downloads 141
4803 A Hybrid Combustion Chamber Design for Diesel Engines

Authors: R. Gopakumar, G. Nagarajan


Both DI and IDI systems possess inherent advantages as well as disadvantages. The objective of the present work is to obtain maximum advantages of both systems by implementing a hybrid design. A hybrid combustion chamber design consists of two combustion chambers viz., the main combustion chamber and an auxiliary combustion chamber. A fuel injector supplies major quantity of fuel to the auxiliary chamber. Due to the increased swirl motion in auxiliary chamber, mixing becomes more efficient which contributes to reduction in soot/particulate emissions. Also, by increasing the fuel injection pressure, NOx emissions can be reduced. The main objective of the hybrid combustion chamber design is to merge the positive features of both DI and IDI combustion chamber designs, which provides increased swirl motion and improved thermal efficiency. Due to the efficient utilization of fuel, low specific fuel consumption can be ensured. This system also aids in increasing the power output for same compression ratio and injection timing as compared with the conventional combustion chamber designs. The present system also reduces heat transfer and fluid dynamic losses which are encountered in IDI diesel engines. Since the losses are reduced, overall efficiency of the engine increases. It also minimizes the combustion noise and NOx emissions in conventional DI diesel engines.

Keywords: DI, IDI, hybrid combustion, diesel engines

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4802 Aerodynamic Designing of Supersonic Centrifugal Compressor Stages

Authors: Y. Galerkin, A. Rekstin, K. Soldatova


Universal modeling method well proven for industrial compressors was applied for design of the high flow rate supersonic stage. Results were checked by ANSYS CFX and NUMECA Fine Turbo calculations. The impeller appeared to be very effective at transonic flow velocities. Stator elements efficiency is acceptable at design Mach numbers too. Their loss coefficient versus inlet flow angle performances correlates well with Universal modeling prediction. The impeller demonstrated ability of satisfactory operation at design flow rate. Supersonic flow behavior in the impeller inducer at the shroud blade to blade surface Φdes deserves additional study.

Keywords: centrifugal compressor stage, supersonic impeller, inlet flow angle, loss coefficient, return channel, shock wave, vane diffuser

Procedia PDF Downloads 375
4801 Flame Kernel Growth and Related Effects of Spark Plug Electrodes: Fluid Motion Interaction in an Optically Accessible DISI Engine

Authors: A. Schirru, A. Irimescu, S. Merola, A. d’Adamo, S. Fontanesi


One of the aspects that are usually neglected during the design phase of an engine is the effect of the spark plug on the flow field inside the combustion chamber. Because of the difficulties in the experimental investigation of the mutual interaction between flow alteration and early flame kernel convection effect inside the engine combustion chamber, CFD-3D simulation is usually exploited in such cases. Experimentally speaking, a particular type of engine has to be used in order to directly observe the flame propagation process. In this study, a double electrode spark plug was fitted into an optically accessible engine and a high-speed camera was used to capture the initial stages of the combustion process. Both the arc and the kernel phases were observed. Then, a morphologic analysis was carried out and the position of the center of mass of the flame, relative to the spark plug position, was calculated. The crossflow orientation was chosen for the spark plug and the kernel growth process was observed for different air-fuel ratios. It was observed that during a normal cycle the flow field between the electrodes tends to transport the arc deforming it. Because of that, the kernel growth phase takes place away from the electrodes and the flame propagates with a preferential direction dictated by the flow field.

Keywords: Combustion, Optically Accessible Engine, Spark-Ignition Engine, Sparl Orientation, Kernel Growth

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4800 The Influence of the Moving Speeds of DNA Droplet on Polymerase Chain Reaction

Authors: Jyh Jyh Chen, Fu H. Yang, Chen W. Wang, Yu M. Lin


In this work, a reaction chamber is reciprocated among three temperature regions by using an oscillatory thermal cycling machine. Three cartridge heaters are collocated to heat three aluminum blocks in order to achieve PCR requirements in the reaction chamber. The effects of various chamber moving speeds among different temperature regions on the chamber temperature profiles are presented. To solve the evaporation effect of the sample in the PCR experiment, the mineral oil and the cover lid are used. The influences of various extension times on DNA amplification are also demonstrated. The target fragments of the amplification are 385-bp and 420-bp. The results show when the forward speed is set at 6 mm/s and the backward speed is 2.4 mm/s, the temperature required for the experiment can be achieved. It is successful to perform the amplification of DNA fragments in our device.

Keywords: oscillatory, polymerase chain reaction, reaction chamber, thermal cycling machine

Procedia PDF Downloads 300
4799 Design of Low-Emission Catalytically Stabilized Combustion Chamber Concept

Authors: Annapurna Basavaraju, Andreas Marn, Franz Heitmeir


The Advisory Council for Aeronautics Research in Europe (ACARE) is cognizant for the overall reduction of NOx emissions by 80% in its vision 2020. Moreover small turbo engines have higher fuel specific emissions compared to large engines due to their limited combustion chamber size. In order to fulfill these requirements, novel combustion concepts are essential. This motivates to carry out the research on the current state of art, catalytic stabilized combustion chamber using hydrogen in small jet engines which are designed and investigated both numerically and experimentally during this project. Catalytic combustion concepts can also be adopted for low caloric fuels and are therefore not constrained to only hydrogen. However, hydrogen has high heating value and has the major advantage of producing only the nitrogen oxides as pollutants during the combustion, thus eliminating the interest on other emissions such as Carbon monoxides etc. In the present work, the combustion chamber is designed based on the ‘Rich catalytic Lean burn’ concept. The experiments are conducted for the characteristic operating range of an existing engine. This engine has been tested successfully at Institute of Thermal Turbomachinery and Machine Dynamics (ITTM), Technical University Graz. One of the facts that the efficient combustion is a result of proper mixing of fuel-air mixture, considerable significance is given to the selection of appropriate mixer. This led to the design of three diverse configurations of mixers and is investigated experimentally and numerically. Subsequently the best mixer would be equipped in the main combustion chamber and used throughout the experimentation. Furthermore, temperatures and pressures would be recorded at various locations inside the combustion chamber and the exhaust emissions will also be analyzed. The instrumented combustion chamber would be inspected at the engine relevant inlet conditions for nine different sets of catalysts at the Hot Flow Test Facility (HFTF) of the institute.

Keywords: catalytic combustion, gas turbine, hydrogen, mixer, NOx emissions

Procedia PDF Downloads 219
4798 Wall Heat Flux Mapping in Liquid Rocket Combustion Chamber with Different Jet Impingement Angles

Authors: O. S. Pradeep, S. Vigneshwaran, K. Praveen Kumar, K. Jeyendran, V. R. Sanal Kumar


The influence of injector attitude on wall heat flux plays an important role in predicting the start-up transient and also determining the combustion chamber wall durability of liquid rockets. In this paper comprehensive numerical studies have been carried out on an idealized liquid rocket combustion chamber to examine the transient wall heat flux during its start-up transient at different injector attitude. Numerical simulations have been carried out with the help of a validated 2d axisymmetric, double precision, pressure-based, transient, species transport, SST k-omega model with laminar finite rate model for governing turbulent-chemistry interaction for four cases with different jet intersection angles, viz., 0o, 30o, 45o, and 60o. We concluded that the jets intersection angle is having a bearing on the time and location of the maximum wall-heat flux zone of the liquid rocket combustion chamber during the start-up transient. We also concluded that the wall heat flux mapping in liquid rocket combustion chamber during the start-up transient is a meaningful objective for the chamber wall material selection and the lucrative design optimization of the combustion chamber for improving the payload capability of the rocket.  

Keywords: combustion chamber, injector, liquid rocket, rocket engine wall heat flux

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4797 Bacterio-Algal Microbial Fuel Cells for Sustainable Power Production, Wastewater Treatment, and Desalination

Authors: Ann D. Christy, Beenish Saba


The Microbial fuel Cell (MFC) is a successful integrated technology for power production and wastewater treatment. MFCs are recognized for their dual function, but research in this field is still ongoing to increase efficiency and power output. One such effort is successful integration of phototrophic and autotrophic microorganisms to create bacterio-algal MFCs for sustainable electricity production along with wastewater treatment and algal biomass production. An MFC is typically configured with an anaerobic anodic chamber containing exoelectrogenic microorganisms separated by a cation exchange membrane from an adjacent aerobic cathodic chamber. The two electrodes are connected by an external circuit. This conventional MFC can be converted into a phototrophic MFC by introducing photosynthetic microorganisms into the cathode chamber. This study examines adding a third desalination chamber to a two-chamber bacterio-algal MFC. Successful results have been observed from these three-chamber MFCs demonstrating wastewater treatment in the anodic chamber, phototrophic algal growth in the cathodic chamber, and desalination in the middle chamber. The present article will summarize successful results of the bacterio-algal fuel cells and offer insights about the mechanisms involved. Tables summarizing the input substrate along with optimized operational conditions and output performance in terms of power production and efficiencies of water and wastewater treatment will be presented. The negative impacts and challenges will be discussed, along with possible future research directions. Results suggest that the three chamber bacterio-algal desalination cell has potential as a feasible technology for power production, wastewater treatment and desalination, but it needs further investigation under optimized conditions.

Keywords: bacterio-algal MFC, three chamber, microbial fuel cell, wastewater treatment and desalination

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4796 Performing a Chamber Theatre Adaptation of Nick Joaquin's 'the Summer Solstice'

Authors: Allen B. Baylosis


Chamber Theatre has been one of the least articulated staging devices in the field of theatre and performance studies. This creative exploratory-descriptive study responds to this gap by employing the staging technique in a Chamber Theatre production based on Nick Joaquin’s The Summer Solstice. Specifically, this study opts to understand three processes involved in the Chamber Theatre creative thesis production of The Summer Solstice as performance: performance of the theatre-maker, performance of the spect-actors, and performance of the spectators. For this purpose, the theatre-maker describes the creative process of transforming The Summer Solstice text to a Chamber Theatre production—from text to staging. The theatre-maker also analyzes the performers’ experiences and the spectators’ responses as they participate in a Chamber Theatre performance. In doing so, the theatre-maker collects qualitative data from seventeen (17) performers and qualitative feedback from twenty (20) spectators. For the mode of data analysis, this study employed Ranciere’s concept on the Emancipated Spectator (2008) and Schechner’s Performance Theory (1988). The study’s findings examine how the theatre-maker, the performers, and the spectators become distant viewers of their respective restored behavior performances. Through these viewed performances, this study implies that it is possible to ascertain a reasonable definition of purpose for Chamber Theatre. Hence, despite the existence of other modern staging devices in the field of theatre and performance studies, this study concludes that Chamber Theatre remains to be a relevant staging technique.

Keywords: adaptation of text, chamber theatre, experimental theater, oral interpretation

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4795 Empirical Research on Rate of Return, Interest Rate and Mudarabah Deposit

Authors: Inten Meutia, Emylia Yuniarti


The objective of this study is to analyze the effects of interest rate, the rate of return of Islamic banks on the amount of mudarabah deposits in Islamic banks. In analyzing the effect of rate of return in the Islamic banks and interest rate risk in the conventional banks, the 1-month Islamic deposit rate of return and 1 month fixed deposit interest rate of a total Islamic deposit are considered. Using data covering the period from January 2010 to Sepember 2013, the study applies the regression analysis to analyze the effect between variable and independence t-test to analyze the mean difference between rate of return and rate of interest. Regression analysis shows that rate of return have significantly negative influence on mudarabah deposits, while interest rate have negative influence but not significant. The result of independent t test shows that the interest rate is not different from the rate of return in Islamic Bank. It supports the hyphotesis that rate of return in Islamic banking mimic rate of interest in conventional bank. The results of the study have important implications on the risk management practices of the Islamic banks in Indonesia.

Keywords: conventional bank, interest rate, Islamic bank, rate of return

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4794 Study of Acoustic Resonance of Model Liquid Rocket Combustion Chamber and Its Suppression

Authors: Vimal O. Kumar, C. K. Muthukumaran, P. Rakesh


Liquid rocket engine (LRE) combustion chamber is subjected to pressure oscillation during the combustion process. The combustion noise (acoustic noise) is a broad band, small amplitude, high frequency component pressure oscillation. They constitute only a minor fraction ( < 1%) of the entire combustion process. However, this high frequency oscillation is huge concern during the design phase of LRE combustion chamber as it would cause catastrophic failure of the chamber. Depends on the chamber geometry, certain frequencies form standing wave pattern, and they resonate with high amplitude and are known as Eigen modes. These Eigen modes could cause failures unless it is suppressed to be within safe limits. These modes are categorized into radial, tangential, and azimuthal modes, and their structure inside the combustion chamber is of interest to the researchers. In the present proposal, experimental as well as numerical simulation will be performed to obtain the frequency-amplitude characteristics of the model combustion chamber for different baffle configuration. The main objective of this study is to find effect of baffle configuration that would provide better suppression of acoustic modes. The experimental study aims at measuring the frequency amplitude characteristics at certain points in the chamber wall. The experimental measurement will be also used for scheme used in numerical simulation. In addition to experiments, numerical simulation would provide detailed structure of the Eigenmodes exhibited and their level of suppression with the aid of different baffle configurations.

Keywords: baffle, instability, liquid rocket engine, pressure response of chamber

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