Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 39

Search results for: absorbers

39 Electromagnetic Radiation Absorbers on the Basis of Fibrous Materials with the Content of Allotropic Carbon Forms

Authors: Elena S. Belousova, Olga V. Boiprav

Abstract:

A technique for incorporating particles of allotropic forms of carbon into a fibrous material has been developed. It can be used for the manufacture of composite electromagnetic radiation absorbers. The frequency characteristics of electromagnetic radiation reflection and transmission coefficients in the microwave range of absorbers on the basis of powdered carbon black, activated carbon, shungite, graphite, manufactured in accordance with the developed technique, have been studied.

Keywords: carbon, graphite, electromagnetic radiation absorber, shungite

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38 Reflection Performance of Truncated Pyramidal and Truncated Wedge Microwave Absorber Using Sugarcane Bagasse (SCB)

Authors: Liyana Zahid, Mohd Fareq Abd Malek, Ee Meng Cheng, Wei Wen Liu, Yeng Seng Lee, Muhammad Nadeem Iqbal, Fwen Hoon Wee

Abstract:

One of the parameters that affect the performance of microwave absorbers is the shape of the absorbers. This paper shows the performance (reflection loss) of truncated pyramidal and truncated wedge microwave absorbers in the range frequency between 8.2 to 12.4 GHz (X-Band) in simulation. The material used is sugarcane bagasse (SCB) which is one of the new materials that used to fabricate the microwave absorber. The complex permittivity was measured using Agilent dielectric probe technique. The designs were simulated using CST Microwave Studio Software. The reflection losses between these two shapes were compared.

Keywords: microwave absorber, reflection loss, sugarcane bagasse (SCB), X-Band

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37 An Ab Initio Study of Delafossite Transparent Conductive Oxides Cu(In, Ga)O2 and Absorbers Films Cu(In, Ga)S2 in Solar-Cell

Authors: Mokdad Sakhri, Youcef Bouhadda

Abstract:

Thin film chalcopyrite technology is thus nowadays a solid candidate for photovoltaic cells. The currently used window layer for the solar cell Cu(In,Ga)S2 is our interest point in this work. For this purpose, we have performed a first-principles study of structural, electronic and optical properties for both delafossite transparent conductive oxides Cu (In, Ga)O2 and absorbers films Cu(In,Ga)S2. The calculations have been carried out within the local density functional (LDA) and generalized gradient approximations (GGA) combined with the hubbard potential using norm-conserving pseudopotentials and a plane-wave basis with ABINIT code. We have found the energy gap is :1.6, 2.53, 3.6, 3.8 eV for CuInS2, CuGaS2, CuInO2 and CuGaO2 respectively. The results are in good agreement with experimental results.

Keywords: ABINIT code, DFT, electronic and optical properties, solar-cell absorbers, delafossite transparent conductive oxides

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36 The Effects of Spatial Dimensions and Relocation and Dimensions of Sound Absorbers in a Space on the Objective Parameters of Sound

Authors: Mustafa Kavraz

Abstract:

This study investigated the differences in the objective parameters of sound depending on the changes in the lengths of the lateral surfaces of a space and on the replacement of the sound absorbers that are placed on these surfaces. To this end, three models of room were chosen. The widths and heights of these rooms were the same but the lengths of the rooms were changed. The smallest room was 8 m. wide and 10 m. long. The lengths of the other two rooms were 15 m. and 20 m. For each model, the differences in the objective parameters of sound were determined by keeping all the material in the space intact and by changing only the positions of the sound absorbers that were placed on the walls. The sound absorbers that were used on the walls were of two different sizes. The sound absorbers that were placed on the walls were 4 m and 8 m. long and story-height (3 m.). In all model room types, the sound absorbers were placed on the long walls in three different ways: at the end of the long walls where the long walls meet the front wall; at the end of the long walls where the long walls meet the back wall; and in the middle part of the long walls. Except for the specially placed sound absorbers, the ground, wall and ceiling surfaces were covered with three different materials. There were no constructional elements such as doors and windows on the walls. On the surfaces, the materials specified in the Odeon 10 material library were used as coating material. Linoleum was used as flooring material, painted plaster as wall coating material and gypsum boards as ceiling covering (2 layers with a total of 32 mm. thickness). These were preferred due to the fact that they are the commonly used materials for these purposes. This study investigated the differences in the objective parameters of sound depending on the changes in the lengths of the lateral surfaces of a space and on the replacement of the sound absorbers that are placed on these surfaces. To this end, three models of room were chosen. The widths and heights of these rooms were the same but the lengths of the rooms were changed. The smallest room was 8 m. wide and 10 m. long. The lengths of the other two rooms were 15 m. and 20 m. For each model, the differences in the objective parameters of sound were determined by keeping all the material in the space intact and by changing only the positions of the sound absorbers that were placed on the walls. The sound absorbers that were used on the walls were of two different sizes. The sound absorbers that were placed on the walls were 4 m and 8 m. long and story-height (3 m.). In all model room types, the sound absorbers were placed on the long walls in three different ways: at the end of the long walls where the long walls meet the front wall; at the end of the long walls where the long walls meet the back wall; and in the middle part of the long walls. Except for the specially placed sound absorbers, the ground, wall and ceiling surfaces were covered with three different materials. There were no constructional elements such as doors and windows on the walls. On the surfaces, the materials specified in the Odeon 10 material library were used as coating material. Linoleum was used as flooring material, painted plaster as wall coating material and gypsum boards as ceiling covering (2 layers with a total of 32 mm. thickness). These were preferred due to the fact that they are the commonly used materials for these purposes.

Keywords: sound absorber, room model, objective parameters of sound, jnd

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35 Engineering Optimization of Flexible Energy Absorbers

Authors: Reza Hedayati, Meysam Jahanbakhshi

Abstract:

Elastic energy absorbers which consist of a ring-liked plate and springs can be a good choice for increasing the impact duration during an accident. In the current project, an energy absorber system is optimized using four optimizing methods Kuhn-Tucker, Sequential Linear Programming (SLP), Concurrent Subspace Design (CSD), and Pshenichny-Lim-Belegundu-Arora (PLBA). Time solution, convergence, Programming Length and accuracy of the results were considered to find the best solution algorithm. Results showed the superiority of PLBA over the other algorithms.

Keywords: Concurrent Subspace Design (CSD), Kuhn-Tucker, Pshenichny-Lim-Belegundu-Arora (PLBA), Sequential Linear Programming (SLP)

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34 Bidirectional Pendulum Vibration Absorbers with Homogeneous Variable Tangential Friction: Modelling and Design

Authors: Emiliano Matta

Abstract:

Passive resonant vibration absorbers are among the most widely used dynamic control systems in civil engineering. They typically consist in a single-degree-of-freedom mechanical appendage of the main structure, tuned to one structural target mode through frequency and damping optimization. One classical scheme is the pendulum absorber, whose mass is constrained to move along a curved trajectory and is damped by viscous dashpots. Even though the principle is well known, the search for improved arrangements is still under way. In recent years this investigation inspired a type of bidirectional pendulum absorber (BPA), consisting of a mass constrained to move along an optimal three-dimensional (3D) concave surface. For such a BPA, the surface principal curvatures are designed to ensure a bidirectional tuning of the absorber to both principal modes of the main structure, while damping is produced either by horizontal viscous dashpots or by vertical friction dashpots, connecting the BPA to the main structure. In this paper, a variant of BPA is proposed, where damping originates from the variable tangential friction force which develops between the pendulum mass and the 3D surface as a result of a spatially-varying friction coefficient pattern. Namely, a friction coefficient is proposed that varies along the pendulum surface in proportion to the modulus of the 3D surface gradient. With such an assumption, the dissipative model of the absorber can be proven to be nonlinear homogeneous in the small displacement domain. The resulting homogeneous BPA (HBPA) has a fundamental advantage over conventional friction-type absorbers, because its equivalent damping ratio results independent on the amplitude of oscillations, and therefore its optimal performance does not depend on the excitation level. On the other hand, the HBPA is more compact than viscously damped BPAs because it does not need the installation of dampers. This paper presents the analytical model of the HBPA and an optimal methodology for its design. Numerical simulations of single- and multi-story building structures under wind and earthquake loads are presented to compare the HBPA with classical viscously damped BPAs. It is shown that the HBPA is a promising alternative to existing BPA types and that homogeneous tangential friction is an effective means to realize systems provided with amplitude-independent damping.

Keywords: amplitude-independent damping, homogeneous friction, pendulum nonlinear dynamics, structural control, vibration resonant absorbers

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33 Advanced Energy Absorbers Used in Blast Resistant Systems

Authors: Martina Drdlová, Michal Frank, Radek Řídký, Jaroslav Buchar, Josef Krátký

Abstract:

The main aim of the presented experiments is to improve behaviour of sandwich structures under dynamic loading, such as crash or explosion. This paper describes experimental investigation on the response of new advanced materials to low and high velocity load. Blast wave energy absorbers were designed using two types of porous lightweight raw particle materials based on expanded glass and ceramics with dimensions of 0.5-1 mm, combined with polymeric binder. The effect of binder amount on the static and dynamic properties of designed materials was observed. Prism shaped specimens were prepared and loaded to obtain physico-mechanical parameters – bulk density, compressive and flexural strength under quasistatic load, the dynamic response was determined using Split Hopkinson Pressure bar apparatus. Numerical investigation of the material behaviour in sandwich structure was performed using implicit/explicit solver LS-Dyna. As the last step, the developed material was used as the interlayer of blast resistant litter bin, and it´s functionality was verified by real field blast tests.

Keywords: blast energy absorber, SHPB, expanded glass, expanded ceramics

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32 Experimental Investigation of Folding of Rubber-Filled Circular Tubes on Energy Absorption Capacity

Authors: MohammadSadegh SaeediFakher, Jafar Rouzegar, Hassan Assaee

Abstract:

In this research, mechanical behavior and energy absorption capacity of empty and rubber-filled brazen circular tubes under quasi-static axial loading are investigated, experimentally. The brazen tubes were cut out of commercially available brazen circular tubes with the same length and diameter. Some of the specimens were filled with rubbers with three different shores and also, an empty tube was prepared. The specimens were axially compressed between two rigid plates in a quasi-static process using a Zwick testing machine. Load-displacement diagrams and energy absorption of the tested tubes were extracted from experimental data. The results show that filling the brazen tubes with rubber causes those to absorb more energy and the energy absorption of specimens are increased by increasing the shore of rubbers. In comparison to the empty tube, the first fold for the rubber-filled tubes occurs at lower load and it can be concluded that the rubber-filled tubes are better energy absorbers than the empty tubes. Also, in contrast with the empty tubes, the tubes that were filled with lower rubber shore deform asymmetrically.

Keywords: axial compression, quasi-static loading, folding, energy absorbers, rubber-filled tubes

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31 Effects of Free-Hanging Horizontal Sound Absorbers on the Cooling Performance of Thermally Activated Building Systems

Authors: L. Marcos Domínguez, Nils Rage, Ongun B. Kazanci, Bjarne W. Olesen

Abstract:

Thermally Activated Building Systems (TABS) have proven to be an energy-efficient solution to provide buildings with an optimal indoor thermal environment. This solution uses the structure of the building to store heat, reduce the peak loads, and decrease the primary energy demand. TABS require the heated or cooled surfaces to be as exposed as possible to the indoor space, but exposing the bare concrete surfaces has a diminishing effect on the acoustic qualities of the spaces in a building. Acoustic solutions capable of providing optimal acoustic comfort and allowing the heat exchange between the TABS and the room are desirable. In this study, the effects of free-hanging units on the cooling performance of TABS and the occupants’ thermal comfort was measured in a full-scale TABS laboratory. Investigations demonstrate that the use of free-hanging sound absorbers are compatible with the performance of TABS and the occupant’s thermal comfort, but an appropriate acoustic design is needed to find the most suitable solution for each case. The results show a reduction of 11% of the cooling performance of the TABS when 43% of the ceiling area is covered with free-hanging horizontal sound absorbers, of 23% for 60% ceiling coverage ratio and of 36% for 80% coverage. Measurements in actual buildings showed an increase of the room operative temperature of 0.3 K when 50% of the ceiling surface is covered with horizontal panels and of 0.8 to 1 K for a 70% coverage ratio. According to numerical simulations using a new TRNSYS Type, the use of comfort ventilation has a considerable influence on the thermal conditions in the room; if the ventilation is removed, then the operative temperature increases by 1.8 K for a 60%-covered ceiling.

Keywords: acoustic comfort, concrete core activation, full-scale measurements, thermally activated building systems, TRNSys

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30 Design and Analysis for a 4-Stage Crash Energy Management System for Railway Vehicles

Authors: Ziwen Fang, Jianran Wang, Hongtao Liu, Weiguo Kong, Kefei Wang, Qi Luo, Haifeng Hong

Abstract:

A 4-stage crash energy management (CEM) system for subway rail vehicles used by Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority (MBTA) in the USA is developed in this paper. The 4 stages of this new CEM system include 1) energy absorbing coupler (draft gear and shear bolts), 2) primary energy absorbers (aluminum honeycomb structured box), 3) secondary energy absorbers (crush tube), and 4) collision post and corner post. A sliding anti-climber and a fixed anti-climber are designed at the front of the vehicle cooperating with the 4-stage CEM to maximize the energy to be absorbed and minimize the damage to passengers and crews. In order to investigate the effectiveness of this CEM system, both finite element (FE) methods and crashworthiness test have been employed. The whole vehicle consists of 3 married pairs, i.e., six cars. In the FE approach, full-scale railway car models are developed and different collision cases such as a single moving car impacting a rigid wall, two moving cars into a rigid wall, two moving cars into two stationary cars, six moving cars into six stationary cars and so on are investigated. The FE analysis results show that the railway vehicle incorporating this CEM system has a superior crashworthiness performance. In the crashworthiness test, a simplified vehicle front end including the sliding anti-climber, the fixed anti-climber, the primary energy absorbers, the secondary energy absorber, the collision post and the corner post is built and impacted to a rigid wall. The same test model is also analyzed in the FE and the results such as crushing force, stress, and strain of critical components, acceleration and velocity curves are compared and studied. FE results show very good comparison to the test results.

Keywords: railway vehicle collision, crash energy management design, finite element method, crashworthiness test

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29 Development of Al Foam by a Low-Cost Salt Replication Method for Industrial Applications

Authors: B. Soni, S. Biswas

Abstract:

Metal foams of Al find diverse applications in several industrial sectors such as in automotive and sports equipment industry as impact, acoustic and vibration absorbers, the aerospace industry as structural components in turbines and spatial cones, in the naval industry as low frequency vibration absorbers, and in construction industry as sound barriers inside tunnels, as fire proof materials and structure protection systems against explosions and even in heat exchangers, orthopedic components, and decorative items. Here, we report on the development of Al foams by a low cost and convenient technique of salt replication method with efficient control over size, geometry and distribution of the pores. Sodium bicarbonate was used as the foaming agent to form the porous refractory salt pattern. The mixed refractory salt slurry was microwave dried followed by sintering for selected time periods. Molten Al was infiltrated into the salt pattern in an inert atmosphere at a pressure of 2 bars. The final products were obtained by leaching out the refractory salt pattern. Mechanical properties of the derived samples were studied with a universal testing machine. The results were analyzed in correlation with their microstructural features evaluated with a scanning electron microscope (SEM).

Keywords: metal foam, Al, salt replication method, mechanical properties, SEM

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28 Modeling and Design of a Solar Thermal Open Volumetric Air Receiver

Authors: Piyush Sharma, Laltu Chandra, P. S. Ghoshdastidar, Rajiv Shekhar

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Metals processing operations such as melting and heat treatment of metals are energy-intensive, requiring temperatures greater than 500oC. The desired temperature in these industrial furnaces is attained by circulating electrically-heated air. In most of these furnaces, electricity produced from captive coal-based thermal power plants is used. Solar thermal energy could be a viable heat source in these furnaces. A retrofitted solar convective furnace (SCF) concept, which uses solar thermal generated hot air, has been proposed. Critical to the success of a SCF is the design of an open volumetric air receiver (OVAR), which can heat air in excess of 800oC. The OVAR is placed on top of a tower and receives concentrated solar radiation from a heliostat field. Absorbers, mixer assembly, and the return air flow chamber (RAFC) are the major components of an OVAR. The absorber is a porous structure that transfers heat from concentrated solar radiation to ambient air, referred to as primary air. The mixer ensures uniform air temperature at the receiver exit. Flow of the relatively cooler return air in the RAFC ensures that the absorbers do not fail by overheating. In an earlier publication, the detailed design basis, fabrication, and characterization of a 2 kWth open volumetric air receiver (OVAR) based laboratory solar air tower simulator was presented. Development of an experimentally-validated, CFD based mathematical model which can ultimately be used for the design and scale-up of an OVAR has been the major objective of this investigation. In contrast to the published literature, where flow and heat transfer have been modeled primarily in a single absorber module, the present study has modeled the entire receiver assembly, including the RAFC. Flow and heat transfer calculations have been carried out in ANSYS using the LTNE model. The complex return air flow pattern in the RAFC requires complicated meshes and is computational and time intensive. Hence a simple, realistic 1-D mathematical model, which circumvents the need for carrying out detailed flow and heat transfer calculations, has also been proposed. Several important results have emerged from this investigation. Circumferential electrical heating of absorbers can mimic frontal heating by concentrated solar radiation reasonably well in testing and characterizing the performance of an OVAR. Circumferential heating, therefore, obviates the need for expensive high solar concentration simulators. Predictions suggest that the ratio of power on aperture (POA) and mass flow rate of air (MFR) is a normalizing parameter for characterizing the thermal performance of an OVAR. Increasing POA/MFR increases the maximum temperature of air, but decreases the thermal efficiency of an OVAR. Predictions of the 1-D mathematical are within 5% of ANSYS predictions and computation time is reduced from ~ 5 hours to a few seconds.

Keywords: absorbers, mixer assembly, open volumetric air receiver, return air flow chamber, solar thermal energy

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27 Nonlinear Passive Shunt for Electroacoustic Absorbers Using Nonlinear Energy Sink

Authors: Diala Bitar, Emmanuel Gourdon, Claude H. Lamarque, Manuel Collet

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Acoustic absorber devices play an important role reducing the noise at the propagation and reception paths. An electroacoustic absorber consists of a loudspeaker coupled to an electric shunt circuit, where the membrane is playing the role of an absorber/reflector of sound. Although the use of linear shunt resistors at the transducer terminals, has shown to improve the performances of the dynamical absorbers, it is nearly efficient in a narrow frequency band. Therefore, and since nonlinear phenomena are promising for their ability to absorb the vibrations and sound on a larger frequency range, we propose to couple a nonlinear electric shunt circuit at the loudspeaker terminals. Then, the equivalent model can be described by a 2 degrees of freedom system, consisting of a primary linear oscillator describing the dynamics of the loudspeaker membrane, linearly coupled to a cubic nonlinear energy sink (NES). The system is analytically treated for the case of 1:1 resonance, using an invariant manifold approach at different time scales. The proposed methodology enables us to detect the equilibrium points and fold singularities at the first slow time scales, providing a predictive tool to design the nonlinear circuit shunt during the energy exchange process. The preliminary results are promising; a significant improvement of acoustic absorption performances are obtained.

Keywords: electroacoustic absorber, multiple-time-scale with small finite parameter, nonlinear energy sink, nonlinear passive shunt

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26 Investigation of Multiple Dynamic Vibration Absorbers' Performance in Overhead Transmission Lines

Authors: Pedro F. D. Oliveira, Rangel S. Maia, Aline S. Paula

Abstract:

As the electric energy consumption grows, the necessity of energy transmission lines increases. One of the problems caused by an oscillatory response to dynamical loads (such as wind effects) in transmission lines is the cable fatigue. Thus, the dynamical behavior of transmission cables understanding and its control is extremely important. The socioeconomic damage caused by a failure in these cables can be quite significant, from large economic losses to energy supply interruption in large regions. Dynamic Vibration Absorbers (DVA) are oscillatory elements used to mitigate the vibration of a primary system subjected to harmonic excitation. The positioning of Stockbridge (DVA for overhead transmission lines) plays an important role in mitigating oscillations of transmission lines caused by airflows. Nowadays, the positioning is defined by technical standards or commercial software. The aim of this paper is to conduct an analysis of multiple DVAs performances in cable conductors of overhead transmission lines. The cable is analyzed by a finite element method and the model is calibrated by experimental results. DVAs performance is analyzed by evaluating total cable energy, and a study of multiple DVAs positioning is conducted. The results are compared to the existing regulations showing situations where proper positioning, different from the standard, can lead to better performance of the DVA. Results also show situations where the use of multiple DVAs is appropriate.

Keywords: dynamical vibration absorber, finite element method, overhead transmission lines, structural dynamics

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25 Effect of Fermentation on the Bioavailability of Some Fruit Extracts

Authors: Kubra Ozkan, Osman Sagdic

Abstract:

To better understand the benefits of these fresh and fermented fruits on human health, the consequences of human metabolism and the bioavailability must be known. In this study, brine with 10% salt content, sugar, and vinegar (5% acetic acid) was added to fruits (Prunus domestica L. and Prunus amygdalus Batsch) in different formulations. Samples were stored at 20±2˚C for their fermentation for 21 days. The effects of in vitro digestion were determined on the bioactive compounds in fresh and fermented fruits ((Prunus domestica L. and Prunus amygdalus Batsch). Total phenolic compounds, total flavonoid compounds and antioxidant capacities of post gastric (PG), IN (with small intestinal absorbers) and OUT (without small intestine absorbers) samples obtained as gastric and intestinal digestion in vitro were measured. Bioactive compounds and antioxidant capacity were determined by spectrophotometrically. Antioxidant capacity was tested by the CUPRAC methods, the total phenolic content (TPC) was determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu method, the total flavonoid content (TFC) determined by Aluminium trichloride (AlCl3) method. While the antioxidant capacity of fresh Prunus domestica L. and Prunus amygdalus Batsch samples were 2.21±0.05 mg TEAC/g, 4.39±0.02mg TEAC/g; these values for fermented fruits were found 2.37±0.08mg TEAC/g, 5.38±0.07mg TEAC/g respectively. While the total phenolic contents of fresh fruits namely, Prunus domestica L. and Prunus amygdalus Batsch samples were 0.51±0.01mg GAE/g, 5.56±0.01mg GAE/g; these values for fermented fruits were found as 0.52±0.01mg GAE/g, 6.81±0.03mg GAE/g, respectively. While the total flavonoid amounts of fresh Prunus domestica L. and Prunus amygdalus Batsch samples were 0.19±0.01mg CAE/g, 2.68±0.02mg CAE/g, these values for fermented fruits were found 0.20±0.01mg CAE/g, 2.93±0.02mg CAE/g, respectively. This study showed that phenolic, flavonoid compounds and antioxidant capacities of the samples were increased during the fermantation process. As a result of digestion, the amounts of bioactive components decreased in the stomach and intestinal environment. The bioavailability values of the phenolic compounds in fresh and fermented Prunus domestica L. fruits are 40.89% and 43.28%, respectively. The bioavailability values of the phenolic compounds in fresh and fermented Prunus amygdalus Batsch fruits 4.27% and 3.82%, respectively. The bioavailability values of the flavonoid compounds in fresh and fermented Prunus domestica L. fruits are 5.32% and 19.98%, respectively. The bioavailability values of the flavonoid compounds in fresh and fermented Prunus amygdalus Batsch fruits 2.22% and 1.53%, respectively. The bioavailability values of antioxidant capacity in fresh and fermented Prunus domestica L. fruits are 33.06% and 33.51, respectively. The bioavailability values of antioxidant capacity in fresh and fermented Prunus amygdalus Batsch fruits 14.50% and 15.31%, respectively. Fermentation process; Prunus amygdalus Batsch decreased bioavailability while Prunus domestica increased bioavailability. When two fruits are compared; Prunus domestica bioavailability is more than Prunus amygdalus Batsch.

Keywords: bioactivity, bioavailability, fermented, fruit, nutrition

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24 An Investigation on the Energy Absorption of Sandwich Panels With Aluminium Foam Core under Perforation Test

Authors: Minoo Tavakoli, Mojtaba Zebarjad, Golestanipour

Abstract:

Metallic sandwich structures with aluminum foam core are good energy absorbers. In this paper, perforation test were carried out on different samples to study energy absorption. In the experiments, effect of several parameters, i.e. skin thickness and thickness of foam core, on the energy absorption, delamination zone of back faces and deformation strain(φ) are discussed. Results show that increasing plates thickness will results in more absorbed energy and delamination. Moreover, thickening foam core has the same effect.

Keywords: sandwich panel, aluminium foam, perforation, energy absorption

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23 Solutions for Comfort and Safety on Vibrations Resulting from the Action of the Wind on the Building in the Form of Portico with Four Floors

Authors: G. B. M. Carvalho, V. A. C. Vale, E. T. L. Cöuras Ford

Abstract:

With the aim of increasing the levels of comfort and security structures, the study of dynamic loads on buildings has been one of the focuses in the area of control engineering, civil engineering and architecture. Thus, this work presents a study based on simulation of the dynamics of buildings in the form of portico subjected to wind action, besides presenting an action of passive control, using for this the dynamics of the structure, consequently representing a system appropriated on environmental issues. These control systems are named the dynamic vibration absorbers.

Keywords: dynamic vibration absorber, structure, comfort, safety, wind behavior, structure

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22 X-Ray Analysis and Grain Size of CuInx Ga1-X Se2 Solar Cells

Authors: A. I. Al-Bassam, A. M. El-Nggar

Abstract:

Polycrystalline Cu In I-x GaxSe2 thin films have been fabricated. Some physical properties such as lattice parameters, crystal structure and microstructure of Cu In I-x GaxSe2 were determined using X-ray diffractometry and scanning electron microscopy. X-ray diffraction analysis showed that the films with x ≥ 0.5 have a chalcopyrite structure and the films with x ≤ 0.5 have a zinc blende structure. The lattice parameters were found to vary linearly with composition over a wide range from x = 0 to x =1.0. The variation of lattice parameters with composition was found to obey Vegard's law. The variation of the c/a with composition was also linear. The quality of a wide range of Cu In I-xGaxSe2 thin film absorbers from CuInSe to CuGaSe was evaluated by Photoluminescence (PL) measurements.

Keywords: grain size, polycrystalline, solar cells, lattice parameters

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21 3D Writing on Photosensitive Glass-Ceramics

Authors: C. Busuioc, S. Jinga, E. Pavel

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Optical lithography is a key technique in the development of sub-5 nm patterns for the semiconductor industry. We have already reported that the best results obtained with respect to direct laser writing process on active media, such as glass-ceramics, are achieved only when the energy of the laser radiation is absorbed in discrete quantities. Further, we need to clarify the role of active centers concentration in silver nanocrystals natural generation, as well as in fluorescent rare-earth nanostructures formation. As a consequence, samples with different compositions were prepared. SEM, AFM, TEM and STEM investigations were employed in order to demonstrate that few nm width lines can be written on fluorescent photosensitive glass-ceramics, these being efficient absorbers. Moreover, we believe that the experimental data will lead to the best choice in terms of active centers amount, laser power and glass-ceramic matrix.

Keywords: glass-ceramics, 3D laser writing, optical disks, data storage

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20 Study on Fabrication of Surface Functional Micro and Nanostructures by Femtosecond Laser

Authors: Shengzhu Cao, Hui Zhou, Gan Wu, Lanxi Wanhg, Kaifeng Zhang, Rui Wang, Hu Wang

Abstract:

The functional micro and nanostructures, which can endow material surface with unique properties such as super-absorptance, hydrophobic and drag reduction. Recently, femtosecond laser ablation has been demonstrated to be a promising technology for surface functional micro and nanostructures fabrication. In this paper, using femtosecond laser ablation processing technique, we fabricated functional micro and nanostructures on Ti and Al alloy surfaces, test results showed that processed surfaces have 82%~96% absorptance over a broad wavelength range from ultraviolet to infrared. The surface function properties, which determined by micro and nanostructures, could be modulated by variation laser parameters. These functional surfaces may find applications in such areas as photonics, plasmonics, spaceborne devices, thermal radiation sources, solar energy absorbers and biomedicine.

Keywords: surface functional, micro and nanostructures, femtosecond laser, ablation

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19 Low Cost Technique for Measuring Luminance in Biological Systems

Authors: N. Chetty, K. Singh

Abstract:

In this work, the relationship between the melanin content in a tissue and subsequent absorption of light through that tissue was determined using a digital camera. This technique proved to be simple, cost effective, efficient and reliable. Tissue phantom samples were created using milk and soy sauce to simulate the optical properties of melanin content in human tissue. Increasing the concentration of soy sauce in the milk correlated to an increase in melanin content of an individual. Two methods were employed to measure the light transmitted through the sample. The first was direct measurement of the transmitted intensity using a conventional lux meter. The second method involved correctly calibrating an ordinary digital camera and using image analysis software to calculate the transmitted intensity through the phantom. The results from these methods were then graphically compared to the theoretical relationship between the intensity of transmitted light and the concentration of absorbers in the sample. Conclusions were then drawn about the effectiveness and efficiency of these low cost methods.

Keywords: tissue phantoms, scattering coefficient, albedo, low-cost method

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18 Vibration Mitigation in Partially Liquid-Filled Vessel Using Passive Energy Absorbers

Authors: Maor Farid, Oleg Gendelman

Abstract:

The following study deals with fluid vibration of a liquid in a partially filled vessel under periodic ground excitation. This external excitation might lead to hidraulic impact applied on the vessel inner walls. In order to model these sloshing dynamic regimes, several equivalent mechanical models were suggested in the literature, such as series of pendula or mass-spring systems that are able to impact the inner tank walls. In the following study, we use the latter methodology, use parameter values documented in literature corresponding to cylindrical tanks and consider structural elasticity of the tank. The hydraulic impulses are modeled by the high-exponent potential function. Additional system parameters are found with the help of Finite-Element (FE) analysis. Model-driven stress assessment method is developed. Finally, vibration mitigation performances of both tuned mass damper (TMD) and nonlinear energy sink (NES) are examined.

Keywords: nonlinear energy sink (NES), reduced-order modelling, liquid sloshing, vibration mitigation, vibro-impact dynamics

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17 Safety Risks of Gaseous Toxic Compounds Released from Li Batteries

Authors: Jan Karl, Ondrej Suchy, Eliska Fiserova, Milan Ruzicka

Abstract:

The evolving electromobility and all the electronics also bring an increase of danger with used Li-batteries. Li-batteries have been used in many industries, and currently many types of the batteries are available. Batteries have different compositions that affect their behavior. In the field of Li-battery safety, there are some areas of little discussion, such as extinguishing of fires caused by Li-batteries as well as toxicity of gaseous compounds released from Li batteries, transport or storage. Technical Institute of Fire Protection, which is a part of Fire Brigades of the Czech Republic, is dealing with the safety of Li batteries. That is the reason why we are dealing with toxicity of gaseous compounds released under conditions of fire, mechanical damage, overcharging and other emergencies that may occur. This is necessary for protection of intervening of fire brigade units, people in the vicinity and other envirnomental consequences. In this work, different types of batteries (Li-ion, Li-Po, LTO, LFP) with different kind of damage were tested, and the toxicity and total amount of released gases were studied. These values were evaluated according to their environmental hazard. FTIR spectroscopy was used for the evaluation of toxicity. We used a FTIR gas cell for continuous measurement. The total amount of released gases was determined by collecting the total gas phase through the absorbers and then determining the toxicants absorbed into the solutions. Based on the obtained results, it is possible to determine the protective equipment necessary for the event of an emergency with a Li-battery, to define the environmental load and the immediate danger in an emergency.

Keywords: Li-battery, toxicity, gaseous toxic compounds, FTIR spectroscopy

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16 Aluminum Based Hexaferrite and Reduced Graphene Oxide a Suitable Microwave Absorber for Microwave Application

Authors: Sanghamitra Acharya, Suwarna Datar

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Extensive use of digital and smart communication createsprolong expose of unwanted electromagnetic (EM) radiations. This harmful radiation creates not only malfunctioning of nearby electronic gadgets but also severely affects a human being. So, a suitable microwave absorbing material (MAM) becomes a necessary urge in the field of stealth and radar technology. Initially, Aluminum based hexa ferrite was prepared by sol-gel technique and for carbon derived composite was prepared by the simple one port chemical reduction method. Finally, composite films of Poly (Vinylidene) Fluoride (PVDF) are prepared by simple gel casting technique. Present work demands that aluminum-based hexaferrite phase conjugated with graphene in PVDF matrix becomes a suitable candidate both in commercially important X and Ku band. The structural and morphological nature was characterized by X-Ray diffraction (XRD), Field emission-scanning electron microscope (FESEM) and Raman spectra which conforms that 30-40 nm particles are well decorated over graphene sheet. Magnetic force microscopy (MFM) and conducting force microscopy (CFM) study further conforms the magnetic and conducting nature of composite. Finally, shielding effectiveness (SE) of the composite film was studied by using Vector network analyzer (VNA) both in X band and Ku band frequency range and found to be more than 30 dB and 40 dB, respectively. As prepared composite films are excellent microwave absorbers.

Keywords: carbon nanocomposite, microwave absorbing material, electromagnetic shielding, hexaferrite

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15 Vibration Absorption Strategy for Multi-Frequency Excitation

Authors: Der Chyan Lin

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Since the early introduction by Ormondroyd and Den Hartog, vibration absorber (VA) has become one of the most commonly used vibration mitigation strategies. The strategy is most effective for a primary plant subjected to a single frequency excitation. For continuous systems, notable advances in vibration absorption in the multi-frequency system were made. However, the efficacy of the VA strategy for systems under multi-frequency excitation is not well understood. For example, for an N degrees-of-freedom (DOF) primary-absorber system, there are N 'peak' frequencies of large amplitude vibration per every new excitation frequency. In general, the usable range for vibration absorption can be greatly reduced as a result. Frequency modulated harmonic excitation is a commonly seen multi-frequency excitation example: f(t) = cos(ϖ(t)t) where ϖ(t)=ω(1+α sin⁡(δt)). It is known that f(t) has a series expansion given by the Bessel function of the first kind, which implies an infinity of forcing frequencies in the frequency modulated harmonic excitation. For an SDOF system of natural frequency ωₙ subjected to f(t), it can be shown that amplitude peaks emerge at ω₍ₚ,ₖ₎=(ωₙ ± 2kδ)/(α ∓ 1),k∈Z; i.e., there is an infinity of resonant frequencies ω₍ₚ,ₖ₎, k∈Z, making the use of VA strategy ineffective. In this work, we propose an absorber frequency placement strategy for SDOF vibration systems subjected to frequency-modulated excitation. An SDOF linear mass-spring system coupled to lateral absorber systems is used to demonstrate the ideas. Although the mechanical components are linear, the governing equations for the coupled system are nonlinear. We show using N identical absorbers, for N ≫ 1, that (a) there is a cluster of N+1 natural frequencies around every natural absorber frequency, and (b) the absorber frequencies can be moved away from the plant's resonance frequency (ω₀) as N increases. Moreover, we also show the bandwidth of the VA performance increases with N. The derivations of the clustering and bandwidth widening effect will be given, and the superiority of the proposed strategy will be demonstrated via numerical experiments.

Keywords: Bessel function, bandwidth, frequency modulated excitation, vibration absorber

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14 Modelling and Simulation of Natural Gas-Fired Power Plant Integrated to a CO2 Capture Plant

Authors: Ebuwa Osagie, Chet Biliyok, Yeung Hoi

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Regeneration energy requirement and ways to reduce it is the main aim of most CO2 capture researches currently being performed and thus, post-combustion carbon capture (PCC) option is identified to be the most suitable for the natural gas-fired power plants. From current research and development (R&D) activities worldwide, two main areas are being examined in order to reduce the regeneration energy requirement of amine-based PCC, namely: (a) development of new solvents with better overall performance than 30wt% monoethanolamine (MEA) aqueous solution, which is considered as the base-line solvent for solvent-based PCC, (b) Integration of the PCC Plant to the power plant. In scaling-up a PCC pilot plant to the size required for a commercial-scale natural gas-fired power plant, process modelling and simulation is very essential. In this work, an integrated process made up of a 482MWe natural gas-fired power plant, an MEA-based PCC plant which is developed and validated has been modelled and simulated. The PCC plant has four absorber columns and a single stripper column, the modelling and simulation was performed with Aspen Plus® V8.4. The gas turbine, the heat recovery steam generator and the steam cycle were modelled based on a 2010 US DOE report, while the MEA-based PCC plant was modelled as a rate-based process. The scaling of the amine plant was performed using a rate based calculation in preference to the equilibrium based approach for 90% CO2 capture. The power plant was integrated to the PCC plant in three ways: (i) flue gas stream from the power plant which is divided equally into four stream and each stream is fed into one of the four absorbers in the PCC plant. (ii) Steam draw-off from the IP/LP cross-over pipe in the steam cycle of the power plant used to regenerate solvent in the reboiler. (iii) Condensate returns from the reboiler to the power plant. The integration of a PCC plant to the NGCC plant resulted in a reduction of the power plant output by 73.56 MWe and the net efficiency of the integrated system is reduced by 7.3 % point efficiency. A secondary aim of this study is the parametric studies which have been performed to assess the impacts of natural gas on the overall performance of the integrated process and this is achieved through investigation of the capture efficiencies.

Keywords: natural gas-fired, power plant, MEA, CO2 capture, modelling, simulation

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13 Experimental and Theoretical Mass Transfer Studies of Pure Carbondioxide Absorption in Sodium Hydroxide in Millichannels

Authors: A. Durgadevi, S. Pushpavanam

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For the past several decades, CO2 levels have been dramatically increasing in the atmosphere due to the man-made emissions such as fossil fuel-fired power plants. With the increase in CO2 emissions, CO2 concentration in the atmosphere has increased resulting in global warming. This shows the need to study different ways to capture the emitted CO2 directly from the exhausts of power plants or atmosphere. There are several ways to remove CO2, such as absorption into a liquid solvent, adsorption into a solid, cryogenic separation, permeation through membranes and photochemical conversion. In most industries, the absorption of CO2 in chemical solvents (in absorption towers) is used for CO2 capture. In these towers, the mass transfer along with chemical reactions take place between the gas and liquid phase. This helps in the separation of CO2 from other gases. It is important to understand these processes in detail. These flow patterns are difficult to maintain in large scale industrial absorbers. So to get accurate information controlled gas-liquid absorption experiments are carried out in milli-channels in this work under controlled atmosphere. The absorption experiments of CO2 in varying concentrations of sodium hydroxide solution are carried out in T-junction glass milli-channels with a circular cross section (inner diameter of 2mm). The gas and liquid flow rates are controlled by a mass flow controller (MFC) and a Harvard syringe pump respectively. The slug flow in the channel is recorded using a camera and the videos are analysed. The gas slug of pure CO2 is found to decrease in size along the length of the channel due to absorption of gas in the liquid. This is also captured with the model developed and the mass transfer characteristics are studied. The pressure drop across the channel is determined by sum of the pressure drops from the gas slugs and the liquid plugs. A dimensionless correlation for the mass transfer coefficient is developed in terms of Sherwood number and compared with the existing correlations in the literature. They are found to be in close agreement with each other. In this case, due to the presence of chemical reaction, the enhancement of mass transfer is obtained. This is quantified with the help of an enhancement factor.

Keywords: absorption, enhancement factor, mass transfer coefficient, Sherwood number

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12 Response Regimes and Vibration Mitigation in Equivalent Mechanical Model of Strongly Nonlinear Liquid Sloshing

Authors: Maor Farid, Oleg Gendelman

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Equivalent mechanical model of liquid sloshing in partially-filled cylindrical vessel is treated in the cases of free oscillations and of horizontal base excitation. The model is designed to cover both the linear and essentially nonlinear sloshing regimes. The latter fluid behaviour might involve hydraulic impacts interacting with the inner walls of the tank. These impulsive interactions are often modeled by high-power potential and dissipation functions. For the sake of analytical description, we use the traditional approach by modeling the impacts with velocity-dependent restitution coefficient. This modelling is similar to vibro-impact nonlinear energy sink (VI NES) which was recently explored for its vibration mitigation performances and nonlinear response regimes. Steady-state periodic regimes and chaotic strongly modulated responses (CSMR) are detected. Those dynamical regimes were described by the system's slow motion on the slow invariant manifold (SIM). There is a good agreement between the analytical results and numerical simulations. Subsequently, Finite-Element (FE) method is used to determine and verify the model parameters and to identify dominant dynamical regimes, natural modes and frequencies. The tank failure modes are identified and critical locations are identified. Mathematical relation is found between degrees-of-freedom (DOFs) motion and the mechanical stress applied in the tank critical section. This is the prior attempt to take under consideration large-amplitude nonlinear sloshing and tank structure elasticity effects for design, regulation definition and resistance analysis purposes. Both linear (tuned mass damper, TMD) and nonlinear (nonlinear energy sink, NES) passive energy absorbers contribution to the overall system mitigation is firstly examined, in terms of both stress reduction and time for vibration decay.

Keywords: nonlinear energy sink (NES), reduced-order modelling, liquid sloshing, vibration mitigation, vibro-impact dynamics

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11 Simplified Modelling of Visco-Elastic Fluids for Use in Recoil Damping Systems

Authors: Prasad Pokkunuri

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Visco-elastic materials combine the stress response properties of both solids and fluids and have found use in a variety of damping applications – both vibrational and acoustic. Defense and automotive applications, in particular, are subject to high impact and shock loading – for example: aircraft landing gear, firearms, and shock absorbers. Field responsive fluids – a class of smart materials – are the preferred choice of energy absorbents because of their controllability. These fluids’ stress response can be controlled by the application of a magnetic or electric field, in a closed loop. Their rheological properties – elasticity, plasticity, and viscosity – can be varied all the way from that of a liquid such as water to a hard solid. This work presents a simplified model to study the impulse response behavior of such fluids for use in recoil damping systems. The well-known Burger’s equation, in conjunction with various visco-elastic constitutive models, is used to represent fluid behavior. The Kelvin-Voigt, Upper Convected Maxwell (UCM), and Oldroyd-B constitutive models are implemented in this study. Using these models in a one-dimensional framework eliminates additional complexities due to geometry, pressure, body forces, and other source terms. Using a finite difference formulation to numerically solve the governing equation(s), the response to an initial impulse is studied. The disturbance is confined within the problem domain with no-inflow, no-outflow boundary conditions, and its decay characteristics studied. Visco-elastic fluids typically involve a time-dependent stress relaxation which gives rise to interesting behavior when subjected to an impulsive load. For particular values of viscous damping and elastic modulus, the fluid settles into a stable oscillatory state, absorbing and releasing energy without much decay. The simplified formulation enables a comprehensive study of different modes of system response, by varying relevant parameters. Using the insights gained from this study, extension to a more detailed multi-dimensional model is considered.

Keywords: Burgers Equation, Impulse Response, Recoil Damping Systems, Visco-elastic Fluids

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10 High Efficiency Solar Thermal Collectors Utilization in Process Heat: A Case Study of Textile Finishing Industry

Authors: Gökçen A. Çiftçioğlu, M. A. Neşet Kadırgan, Figen Kadırgan

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Solar energy, since it is available every day, is seen as one of the most valuable renewable energy resources. Thus, the energy of sun should be efficiently used in various applications. The most known applications that use solar energy are heating water and spaces. High efficiency solar collectors need appropriate selective surfaces to absorb the heat. Selective surfaces (Selektif-Sera) used in this study are applied to flat collectors, which are produced by a roll to roll cost effective coating of nano nickel layers, developed in Selektif Teknoloji Co. Inc. Efficiency of flat collectors using Selektif-Sera absorbers are calculated in collaboration with Institute for Solar Technik Rapperswil, Switzerland. The main cause of high energy consumption in industry is mostly caused from low temperature level processes. There is considerable effort in research to minimize the energy use by renewable energy sources such as solar energy. A feasibility study will be presented to obtain the potential of solar thermal energy utilization in the textile industry using these solar collectors. For the feasibility calculations presented in this study, textile dyeing and finishing factory located at Kahramanmaras is selected since the geographic location was an important factor. Kahramanmaras is located in the south east part of Turkey thus has a great potential to have solar illumination much longer. It was observed that, the collector area is limited by the available area in the factory, thus a hybrid heating generating system (lignite/solar thermal) was preferred in the calculations of this study to be more realistic. During the feasibility work, the calculations took into account the preheating process, where well waters heated from 15 °C to 30-40 °C by using the hot waters in heat exchangers. Then the preheated water was heated again by high efficiency solar collectors. Economic comparison between the lignite use and solar thermal collector use was provided to determine the optimal system that can be used efficiently. The optimum design of solar thermal systems was studied depending on the optimum collector area. It was found that the solar thermal system is more economic and efficient than the merely lignite use. Return on investment time is calculated as 5.15 years.

Keywords: energy, renewable energy, selective surface, solar collector

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