Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 414

Search results for: interference

414 Grammatical Interference in Russian-Spanish Bilingualism

Authors: Olga A. Gnatyuk

Abstract:

The article is devoted to the phenomenon of interference that occurs in the case of the Russian-Spanish language contact. The questions of the definition of the term and levels, as well as prerequisites of interference occurrence, are considered. Interference, which is an essential part of bilingualism, may become apparent at different linguistic levels. Interference is especially evident in oral speech. The article reviews some examples of grammatical interference in Russian-Spanish bilingualism of Russian immigrants living in Spain. According to the results of the research, some cases of mother-tongue interference in Russian-Speaking Spanish language learners’ speech were revealed. Special attention is paid to such key spheres of grammatical interference as articles, personal pronouns, gender, and number of nouns. In the research, the drop of a link-verb, as well as its usage in some incorrect form, are observed in Russian immigrants’ speech. Conclusions are drawn that in the Spanish language, interference errors appear because of a consequence of both the absence in the Russian language of certain phenomena and categories of the Spanish language and the discrepancy of the linguistic systems of the two languages.

Keywords: bilingualism, interference, grammatical interference, Russian language, Spanish language

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413 RNA Interference Technology as a Veritable Tool for Crop Improvement and Breeding for Biotic Stress Resistance

Authors: M. Yusuf

Abstract:

The recent discovery of the phenomenon of RNA interference has led to its application in various aspects of plant improvement. Crops can be modified by engineering novel RNA interference pathways that create small RNA molecules to alter gene expression in crops or plant pests. RNA interference can generate new crop quality traits or provide protection against insects, nematodes and pathogens without introducing new proteins into food and feed products. This is an advantage in contrast with conventional procedures of gene transfer. RNA interference has been used to develop crop varieties resistant to diseases, pathogens and insects. Male sterility has been engineered in plants using RNA interference. Better quality crops have been developed through the application of RNA interference etc. The objective of this paper is to highlight the application of RNA interference in crop improvement and to project its potential future use to solve problems of agricultural production in relation to plant breeding.

Keywords: RNA interference, application, crop Improvement, agricultural production

Procedia PDF Downloads 306
412 Continuous Wave Interference Effects on Global Position System Signal Quality

Authors: Fang Ye, Han Yu, Yibing Li

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Radio interference is one of the major concerns in using the global positioning system (GPS) for civilian and military applications. Interference signals are produced not only through all electronic systems but also illegal jammers. Among different types of interferences, continuous wave (CW) interference has strong adverse impacts on the quality of the received signal. In this paper, we make more detailed analysis for CW interference effects on GPS signal quality. Based on the C/A code spectrum lines, the influence of CW interference on the acquisition performance of GPS receivers is further analysed. This influence is supported by simulation results using GPS software receiver. As the most important user parameter of GPS receivers, the mathematical expression of bit error probability is also derived in the presence of CW interference, and the expression is consistent with the Monte Carlo simulation results. The research on CW interference provides some theoretical gist and new thoughts on monitoring the radio noise environment and improving the anti-jamming ability of GPS receivers.

Keywords: GPS, CW interference, acquisition performance, bit error probability, Monte Carlo

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411 Nonlinear Power Measurement Algorithm of the Input Mix Components of the Noise Signal and Pulse Interference

Authors: Alexey V. Klyuev, Valery P. Samarin, Viktor F. Klyuev, Andrey V. Klyuev

Abstract:

A power measurement algorithm of the input mix components of the noise signal and pulse interference is considered. The algorithm efficiency analysis has been carried out for different interference to signal ratio. Algorithm performance features have been explored by numerical experiment results.

Keywords: noise signal, pulse interference, signal power, spectrum width, detection

Procedia PDF Downloads 206
410 Cognitive Relaying in Interference Limited Spectrum Sharing Environment: Outage Probability and Outage Capacity

Authors: Md Fazlul Kader, Soo Young Shin

Abstract:

In this paper, we consider a cognitive relay network (CRN) in which the primary receiver (PR) is protected by peak transmit power $\bar{P}_{ST}$ and/or peak interference power Q constraints. In addition, the interference effect from the primary transmitter (PT) is considered to show its impact on the performance of the CRN. We investigate the outage probability (OP) and outage capacity (OC) of the CRN by deriving closed-form expressions over Rayleigh fading channel. Results show that both the OP and OC improve by increasing the cooperative relay nodes as well as when the PT is far away from the SR.

Keywords: cognitive relay, outage, interference limited, decode-and-forward (DF)

Procedia PDF Downloads 383
409 Data Collection with Bounded-Sized Messages in Wireless Sensor Networks

Authors: Min Kyung An

Abstract:

In this paper, we study the data collection problem in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) adopting the two interference models: The graph model and the more realistic physical interference model known as Signal-to-Interference-Noise-Ratio (SINR). The main issue of the problem is to compute schedules with the minimum number of timeslots, that is, to compute the minimum latency schedules, such that data from every node can be collected without any collision or interference to a sink node. While existing works studied the problem with unit-sized and unbounded-sized message models, we investigate the problem with the bounded-sized message model, and introduce a constant factor approximation algorithm. To the best known of our knowledge, our result is the first result of the data collection problem with bounded-sized model in both interference models.

Keywords: data collection, collision-free, interference-free, physical interference model, SINR, approximation, bounded-sized message model, wireless sensor networks

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408 Reduction of Multiple User Interference for Optical CDMA Systems Using Successive Interference Cancellation Scheme

Authors: Tawfig Eltaif, Hesham A. Bakarman, N. Alsowaidi, M. R. Mokhtar, Malek Harbawi

Abstract:

In Commonly, it is primary problem that there is multiple user interference (MUI) noise resulting from the overlapping among the users in optical code-division multiple access (OCDMA) system. In this article, we aim to mitigate this problem by studying an interference cancellation scheme called successive interference cancellation (SIC) scheme. This scheme will be tested on two different detection schemes, spectral amplitude coding (SAC) and direct detection systems (DS), using partial modified prime (PMP) as the signature codes. It was found that SIC scheme based on both SAC and DS methods had a potential to suppress the intensity noise, that is to say, it can mitigate MUI noise. Furthermore, SIC/DS scheme showed much lower bit error rate (BER) performance relative to SIC/SAC scheme for different magnitude of effective power. Hence, many more users can be supported by SIC/DS receiver system.

Keywords: optical code-division multiple access (OCDMA), successive interference cancellation (SIC), multiple user interference (MUI), spectral amplitude coding (SAC), partial modified prime code (PMP)

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407 The Communicative Nature of Linguistic Interference in Learning and Teaching of Slavic Languages

Authors: Kseniia Fedorova

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The article is devoted to interlinguistic homonymy and enantiosemy analysis. These phenomena belong to the process of linguistic interference, which leads to violation of the communicative utterances integrity and causes misunderstanding between foreign interlocutors - native speakers of different Slavic languages. More attention is paid to investigation of non-typical speech situations, which occurred spontaneously or created by somebody intentionally being based on described phenomenon mechanism. The classification of typical students' mistakes connected with the paradox of interference is being represented in the article. The survey contributes to speech act theory, contemporary linguodidactics, translation science and comparative lexicology of Slavonic languages.

Keywords: adherent enantiosemy, interference, interslavonic homonymy, speech act

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406 Determination of Critical Period for Weed Control in the Second Crop Forage Maize (454 Cultivar)

Authors: Farhad Farahvash, Parya Mobaseri

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Weeds control based on their critical period leads to less production costs and risks of wide chemical application of weeds control methods. The present study considered effect of weeds control time (weeds interference after 20, 40 and 60 days, weeds full control, weeds interference and weeds control after 20, 40 and 60 days) on growth and yield of forage maize 454. The experiment based on full-randomized blocks design with three replications was conducted at research farm of Islamic Azad University of Tabriz located at 15th km of East Tabriz in 2013. According to the results, weeds interference after 40 and 60 days as well as weeds control after 20 days prevented from decrease of maize biomass resulted from weeds presence while weeds interference after 20 days, weeds interference and weeds control after 40 and 60 days led respectively to 41.2%, 35%, 25% and 32.5% decrease of forage maize biomass. The weeds-influenced decrease was manifested at different parts of the plant depending on presence period of weeds. Decrease of fresh weight of ear and fresh weight of leaf and stem was observed due to weeds interference after 20 days and weeds interference. If weeds are controlled after 60 days, decrease of ear weight and fresh weight of stem will lead to biomass decrease. Also, if weeds are controlled after 40 days, decrease of fresh weight of maize stems will result in biomass decrease. Ear traits were affected by weeds control treatment. Being affected by treatments of weeds interference after 20 days, weeds non-interference, weeds control after 40 and 60 days, ear length was shortened 29.9 %, 41.4 %, 27.6 % and 37.2 %, respectively. The stem diameter demonstrated a significant decrease although it was only affected by treatments of weeds interference and weeds control after 60 days. Considering results of the present study, generally, it is suggested to control weeds during initial 20-60 days of maize growth in order to prevent undesirable effect of weeds on growth, production and production biomass of maize and decrease of production costs.

Keywords: maize, competition, weed, biomass

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405 Game-Theory-Based on Downlink Spectrum Allocation in Two-Tier Networks

Authors: Yu Zhang, Ye Tian, Fang Ye Yixuan Kang

Abstract:

The capacity of conventional cellular networks has reached its upper bound and it can be well handled by introducing femtocells with low-cost and easy-to-deploy. Spectrum interference issue becomes more critical in peace with the value-added multimedia services growing up increasingly in two-tier cellular networks. Spectrum allocation is one of effective methods in interference mitigation technology. This paper proposes a game-theory-based on OFDMA downlink spectrum allocation aiming at reducing co-channel interference in two-tier femtocell networks. The framework is formulated as a non-cooperative game, wherein the femto base stations are players and frequency channels available are strategies. The scheme takes full account of competitive behavior and fairness among stations. In addition, the utility function reflects the interference from the standpoint of channels essentially. This work focuses on co-channel interference and puts forward a negative logarithm interference function on distance weight ratio aiming at suppressing co-channel interference in the same layer network. This scenario is more suitable for actual network deployment and the system possesses high robustness. According to the proposed mechanism, interference exists only when players employ the same channel for data communication. This paper focuses on implementing spectrum allocation in a distributed fashion. Numerical results show that signal to interference and noise ratio can be obviously improved through the spectrum allocation scheme and the users quality of service in downlink can be satisfied. Besides, the average spectrum efficiency in cellular network can be significantly promoted as simulations results shown.

Keywords: femtocell networks, game theory, interference mitigation, spectrum allocation

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404 Proactive Pure Handoff Model with SAW-TOPSIS Selection and Time Series Predict

Authors: Harold Vásquez, Cesar Hernández, Ingrid Páez

Abstract:

This paper approach cognitive radio technic and applied pure proactive handoff Model to decrease interference between PU and SU and comparing it with reactive handoff model. Through the study and analysis of multivariate models SAW and TOPSIS join to 3 dynamic prediction techniques AR, MA ,and ARMA. To evaluate the best model is taken four metrics: number failed handoff, number handoff, number predictions, and number interference. The result presented the advantages using this type of pure proactive models to predict changes in the PU according to the selected channel and reduce interference. The model showed better performance was TOPSIS-MA, although TOPSIS-AR had a higher predictive ability this was not reflected in the interference reduction.

Keywords: cognitive radio, spectrum handoff, decision making, time series, wireless networks

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403 The Effects of Three Levels of Contextual Inference among adult Athletes

Authors: Abdulaziz Almustafa

Abstract:

Considering the critical role permanence has on predictions related to the contextual interference effect on laboratory and field research, this study sought to determine whether the paradigm of the effect depends on the complexity of the skill during the acquisition and transfer phases. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of contextual interference CI by extending previous laboratory and field research with adult athletes through the acquisition and transfer phases. Male (n=60) athletes age 18-22 years-old, were chosen randomly from Eastern Province Clubs. They were assigned to complete blocked, random, or serial practices. Analysis of variance with repeated measures MANOVA indicated that, the results did not support the notion of CI. There were no significant differences in acquisition phase between blocked, serial and random practice groups. During the transfer phase, there were no major differences between the practice groups. Apparently, due to the task complexity, participants were probably confused and not able to use the advantages of contextual interference. This is another contradictory result to contextual interference effects in acquisition and transfer phases in sport settings. One major factor that can influence the effect of contextual interference is task characteristics as the nature of level of difficulty in sport-related skill.

Keywords: contextual interference, acquisition, transfer, task difficulty

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402 Work-Home Interference and Emotional Exhaustion: The Role of Psychological Detachment, Relaxation and Technology-Assisted Supplemental Work

Authors: Nidhi S. Bisht

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The study examines the role of work-home interference, on enhancing emotional exhaustion in the branch officers of private MFIs in India. Additionally, the moderating role of recovery experiences and technology-assisted supplemental work (TASW) were studied. With the increasing expectations to perform job related tasks at home, technology-assisted supplemental work (TASW) was hypothesized to positively moderate the relationship between work-home interference and emotional exhaustion. Further, it was expected that recovery experiences-psychological detachment, relaxation will help to recover and unwind from work and negatively moderate the relationship between work-home interference and emotional exhaustion. Results of SEM-analyses largely offered support for the hypotheses. These findings increase our insight in the processes leading to increased emotional exhaustion and suggest that employees can protect themselves from emotional exhaustion by keeping a tab on technology-assisted supplemental work and facilitating recovery experiences.

Keywords: emotional exhaustion, India, microfinance institutions (MFIs), work-home interference

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401 Mitigation of Interference in Satellite Communications Systems via a Cross-Layer Coding Technique

Authors: Mario A. Blanco, Nicholas Burkhardt

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An important problem in satellite communication systems which operate in the Ka and EHF frequency bands consists of the overall degradation in link performance of mobile terminals due to various types of degradations in the link/channel, such as fading, blockage of the link to the satellite (especially in urban environments), intentional as well as other types of interference, etc. In this paper, we focus primarily on the interference problem, and we develop a very efficient and cost-effective solution based on the use of fountain codes. We first introduce a satellite communications (SATCOM) terminal uplink interference channel model that is classically used against communication systems that use spread-spectrum waveforms. We then consider the use of fountain codes, with focus on Raptor codes, as our main mitigation technique to combat the degradation in link/receiver performance due to the interference signal. The performance of the receiver is obtained in terms of average probability of bit and message error rate as a function of bit energy-to-noise density ratio, Eb/N0, and other parameters of interest, via a combination of analysis and computer simulations, and we show that the use of fountain codes is extremely effective in overcoming the effects of intentional interference on the performance of the receiver and associated communication links. We then show this technique can be extended to mitigate other types of SATCOM channel degradations, such as those caused by channel fading, shadowing, and hard-blockage of the uplink signal.

Keywords: SATCOM, interference mitigation, fountain codes, turbo codes, cross-layer

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400 A Fast Algorithm for Electromagnetic Compatibility Estimation for Radio Communication Network Equipment in a Complex Electromagnetic Environment

Authors: C. Temaneh-Nyah

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Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) is the ability of a Radio Communication Equipment (RCE) to operate with a desired quality of service in a given Electromagnetic Environment (EME) and not to create harmful interference with other RCE. This paper presents an algorithm which improves the simulation speed of estimating EMC of RCE in a complex EME, based on a stage by stage frequency-energy criterion of filtering. This algorithm considers different interference types including: Blocking and intermodulation. It consist of the following steps: simplified energy criterion where filtration is based on comparing the free space interference level to the industrial noise, frequency criterion which checks whether the interfering emissions characteristic overlap with the receiver’s channels characteristic and lastly the detailed energy criterion where the real channel interference level is compared to the noise level. In each of these stages, some interference cases are filtered out by the relevant criteria. This reduces the total number of dual and different combinations of RCE involved in the tedious detailed energy analysis and thus provides an improved simulation speed.

Keywords: electromagnetic compatibility, electromagnetic environment, simulation of communication network

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399 On Virtual Coordination Protocol towards 5G Interference Mitigation: Modelling and Performance Analysis

Authors: Bohli Afef

Abstract:

The fifth-generation (5G) wireless systems is featured by extreme densities of cell stations to overcome the higher future demand. Hence, interference management is a crucial challenge in 5G ultra-dense cellular networks. In contrast to the classical inter-cell interference coordination approach, which is no longer fit for the high density of cell-tiers, this paper proposes a novel virtual coordination based on the dynamic common cognitive monitor channel protocol to deal with the inter-cell interference issue. A tractable and flexible model for the coverage probability of a typical user is developed through the use of the stochastic geometry model. The analyses of the performance of the suggested protocol are illustrated both analytically and numerically in terms of coverage probability.

Keywords: ultra dense heterogeneous networks, dynamic common channel protocol, cognitive radio, stochastic geometry, coverage probability

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398 Research and Development of Intelligent Cooling Channels Design System

Authors: Q. Niu, X. H. Zhou, W. Liu

Abstract:

The cooling channels of injection mould play a crucial role in determining the productivity of moulding process and the product quality. It’s not a simple task to design high quality cooling channels. In this paper, an intelligent cooling channels design system including automatic layout of cooling channels, interference checking and assembly of accessories is studied. Automatic layout of cooling channels using genetic algorithm is analyzed. Through integrating experience criteria of designing cooling channels, considering the factors such as the mould temperature and interference checking, the automatic layout of cooling channels is implemented. The method of checking interference based on distance constraint algorithm and the function of automatic and continuous assembly of accessories are developed and integrated into the system. Case studies demonstrate the feasibility and practicality of the intelligent design system.

Keywords: injection mould, cooling channel, intelligent design, automatic layout, interference checking

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397 Effect of the Interference of Political Elected Members on the Performance of Public Schools

Authors: Farhat Ullah

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It is very unfortunate that in Pakistani public schools political interference is on its peak. The present study tries to find out the effect of the interference of political elected members in the affairs of public schools. The objectives of the study were to find out, the degree of interference of political members in public school, the positive and negative effects of political members, influence in public schools, students, and its administrators. This study was quantitative in nature. All the public schools in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa were the population of this study. A sample of 400 teachers and 100 schools heads were selected for this study. A survey questionnaire consisted of 50 items related to objectives, was used for this study. The questionnaire consisted of five options based on Likert scale. Data were collected by the researcher himself from the respondents. Data were analyzed using chi square test. It was concluded from the analysis of data that recently the political members are involved in the process of school activities, which had badly affected the freedom and autonomy of school administrators. Mostly teachers are transferred from schools on political influence, which had created uncertainty among the schools teachers. Further, the student’s academic performance was also affected badly. It is recommended that schools must be free from political involvement for the smooth running of schools.

Keywords: public schools, politics, interference, performance

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396 Investigating the Invalidity of the Law of Energy Conservation Based on Waves Interference Phenomenon Inside a Ringed Waveguide

Authors: M. Yusefzad

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Law of energy conservation is one of the fundamental laws of physics. Energy is conserved, and the total amount of energy is constant. It can be transferred from one object to another and changed from one state to another. However, in the case of wave interference, this law faces important contradictions. Based on the presented mathematical relationship in this paper, it seems that validity of this law depends on the path of energy wave, like light, in which it is located. In this paper, by using some fundamental concepts in physics like the constancy of the electromagnetic wave speed in a specific media and wave theory of light, it will be shown that law of energy conservation is not valid in every condition and in some circumstances, it is possible to increase energy of a system with a determined amount of energy without any input.

Keywords: power, law of energy conservation, electromagnetic wave, interference, Maxwell’s equations

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395 Inter-Cell-Interference Mitigation Scheme in Wireless Communication System

Authors: Jae-Hyun Ro, Yong-Jun Kim, Eui-Hak Lee, Hyoung-Kyu Song

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Mobile communication has been developing very rapidly since it appeared. However, although mobile communication market has been rapidly developing, many mobile users are not offered good quality of service (QoS) due to increment of the amount of data traffic. Recently, femtocell is very hot issue in mobile communication because femtocell can solve the problems of data traffic and offer better QoS to mobile users. However, the deployment of femtocell in existing macrocell coverage area is not so simple due to the influence of inter-cell-interference (ICI) with existing macrocell. Thus, this paper proposes femtocell scheme which is able to reduce the influence of ICI to deploy femtocell easily.

Keywords: CDD, femtocell, interference, macrocell, OFDM

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394 Information Theoretic Approach for Beamforming in Wireless Communications

Authors: Syed Khurram Mahmud, Athar Naveed, Shoaib Arif

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Beamforming is a signal processing technique extensively utilized in wireless communications and radars for desired signal intensification and interference signal minimization through spatial selectivity. In this paper, we present a method for calculation of optimal weight vectors for smart antenna array, to achieve a directive pattern during transmission and selective reception in interference prone environment. In proposed scheme, Mutual Information (MI) extrema are evaluated through an energy constrained objective function, which is based on a-priori information of interference source and desired array factor. Signal to Interference plus Noise Ratio (SINR) performance is evaluated for both transmission and reception. In our scheme, MI is presented as an index to identify trade-off between information gain, SINR, illumination time and spatial selectivity in an energy constrained optimization problem. The employed method yields lesser computational complexity, which is presented through comparative analysis with conventional methods in vogue. MI based beamforming offers enhancement of signal integrity in degraded environment while reducing computational intricacy and correlating key performance indicators.

Keywords: beamforming, interference, mutual information, wireless communications

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393 A Pole Radius Varying Notch Filter with Transient Suppression for Electrocardiogram

Authors: Ramesh Rajagopalan, Adam Dahlstrom

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Noise removal techniques play a vital role in the performance of electrocardiographic (ECG) signal processing systems. ECG signals can be corrupted by various kinds of noise such as baseline wander noise, electromyographic interference, and power-line interference. One of the significant challenges in ECG signal processing is the degradation caused by additive 50 or 60 Hz power-line interference. This work investigates the removal of power line interference and suppression of transient response for filtering noise corrupted ECG signals. We demonstrate the effectiveness of Infinite Impulse Response (IIR) notch filter with time varying pole radius for improving the transient behavior. The temporary change in the pole radius of the filter diminishes the transient behavior. Simulation results show that the proposed IIR filter with time varying pole radius outperforms traditional IIR notch filters in terms of mean square error and transient suppression.

Keywords: notch filter, ECG, transient, pole radius

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392 Aggregation Scheduling Algorithms in Wireless Sensor Networks

Authors: Min Kyung An

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In Wireless Sensor Networks which consist of tiny wireless sensor nodes with limited battery power, one of the most fundamental applications is data aggregation which collects nearby environmental conditions and aggregates the data to a designated destination, called a sink node. Important issues concerning the data aggregation are time efficiency and energy consumption due to its limited energy, and therefore, the related problem, named Minimum Latency Aggregation Scheduling (MLAS), has been the focus of many researchers. Its objective is to compute the minimum latency schedule, that is, to compute a schedule with the minimum number of timeslots, such that the sink node can receive the aggregated data from all the other nodes without any collision or interference. For the problem, the two interference models, the graph model and the more realistic physical interference model known as Signal-to-Interference-Noise-Ratio (SINR), have been adopted with different power models, uniform-power and non-uniform power (with power control or without power control), and different antenna models, omni-directional antenna and directional antenna models. In this survey article, as the problem has proven to be NP-hard, we present and compare several state-of-the-art approximation algorithms in various models on the basis of latency as its performance measure.

Keywords: data aggregation, convergecast, gathering, approximation, interference, omni-directional, directional

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391 Combined Localization, Beamforming, and Interference Threshold Estimation in Underlay Cognitive System

Authors: Omar Nasr, Yasser Naguib, Mohamed Hafez

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This paper aims at providing an innovative solution for blind interference threshold estimation in an underlay cognitive network to be used in adaptive beamforming by secondary user Transmitter and Receiver. For the task of threshold estimation, blind detection of modulation and SNR are used. For the sake of beamforming several localization algorithms are compared to settle on best one for cognitive environment. Beamforming algorithms as LCMV (Linear Constraint Minimum Variance) and MVDR (Minimum Variance Distortion less) are also proposed and compared. The idea of just nulling the primary user after knowledge of its location is discussed against the idea of working under interference threshold.

Keywords: cognitive radio, underlay, beamforming, MUSIC, MVDR, LCMV, threshold estimation

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390 Ultraviolet Lasing from Vertically-Aligned ZnO Nanowall Array

Authors: Masahiro Takahashi, Kosuke Harada, Shihomi Nakao, Mitsuhiro Higashihata, Hiroshi Ikenoue, Daisuke Nakamura, Tatsuo Okada

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Zinc oxide (ZnO) is one of the light emitting materials in ultraviolet (UV) region. In addition, ZnO nanostructures are also attracting increasing research interest as building blocks for UV optoelectronic applications. We have succeeded in synthesizing vertically-aligned ZnO nanostructures by laser interference patterning, which is catalyst-free and non-contact technique. In this study, vertically-aligned ZnO nanowall arrays were synthesized using two-beam interference. The maximum height and average thickness of the ZnO nanowalls were about 4.5 µm and 200 nm, respectively. UV lasing from a piece of the ZnO nanowall was obtained under the third harmonic of a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser excitation, and the estimated threshold power density for lasing was about 150 kW/cm2. Furthermore, UV lasing from the vertically-aligned ZnO nanowall was also achieved. The results indicate that ZnO nanowalls can be applied to random laser.

Keywords: zinc oxide, nanowall, interference laser, UV lasing

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389 Prediction of Conducted EMI Noise in a Converter

Authors: Jon Cobb, Nasir

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Due to higher switching frequencies, the conducted Electromagnetic interference (EMI) noise is generated in a converter. It degrades the performance of a switching converter. Therefore, it is an essential requirement to mitigate EMI noise of high performance converter. Moreover, it includes two types of emission such as common mode (CM) and differential mode (DM) noise. CM noise is due to parasitic capacitance present in a converter and DM noise is caused by switching current. However, there is dire need to understand the main cause of EMI noise. Hence, we propose a novel method to predict conducted EMI noise of different converter topologies during early stage. This paper also presents the comparison of conducted electromagnetic interference (EMI) noise due to different SMPS topologies. We also make an attempt to develop an EMI noise model for a converter which allows detailed performance analysis. The proposed method is applied to different converter, as an example, and experimental results are verified the novel prediction technique.

Keywords: EMI, electromagnetic interference, SMPS, switch-mode power supply, common mode, CM, differential mode, DM, noise

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388 Coordinated Interference Canceling Algorithm for Uplink Massive Multiple Input Multiple Output Systems

Authors: Messaoud Eljamai, Sami Hidouri

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Massive multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) is an emerging technology for new cellular networks such as 5G systems. Its principle is to use many antennas per cell in order to maximize the network's spectral efficiency. Inter-cellular interference remains a fundamental problem. The use of massive MIMO will not derogate from the rule. It improves performances only when the number of antennas is significantly greater than the number of users. This, considerably, limits the networks spectral efficiency. In this paper, a coordinated detector for an uplink massive MIMO system is proposed in order to mitigate the inter-cellular interference. The proposed scheme combines the coordinated multipoint technique with an interference-cancelling algorithm. It requires the serving cell to send their received symbols, after processing, decision and error detection, to the interfered cells via a backhaul link. Each interfered cell is capable of eliminating intercellular interferences by generating and subtracting the user’s contribution from the received signal. The resulting signal is more reliable than the original received signal. This allows the uplink massive MIMO system to improve their performances dramatically. Simulation results show that the proposed detector improves system spectral efficiency compared to classical linear detectors.

Keywords: massive MIMO, COMP, interference canceling algorithm, spectral efficiency

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387 The Effectiveness of Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing as Modulation Technique

Authors: Mohamed O. Babana

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In wireless channel multipath is the propagation phenomena where the transmitted signal arrive at the receiver side with many of paths, the signal at these paths arrive with different time delay the results is random signal fading due to intersymbols interference(ISI). This paper deals with identification of orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) technology, and how it is used to overcome intersymbol interference due to multipath. Also investigates the effect of Additive White Gaussian Noise Channel (AWGN) on OFDM using multi-level modulation of Phase Shift Keying (PSK), computer simulation to calculate the bit error rate (BER) under AWGN channel is applied. A comparison study is carried out to obtain the Bit Error Rate performance for OFDM to identify the best multi-level modulation of PSK.

Keywords: intersymbol interference(ISI), bit error rate(BER), modulation, multiplexing, simulation

Procedia PDF Downloads 245
386 Packaging in the Design Synthesis of Novel Aircraft Configuration

Authors: Paul Okonkwo, Howard Smith

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A study to estimate the size of the cabin and major aircraft components as well as detect and avoid interference between internally placed components and the external surface, during the conceptual design synthesis and optimisation to explore the design space of a BWB, was conducted. Sizing of components follows the Bradley cabin sizing and rubber engine scaling procedures to size the cabin and engine respectively. The interference detection and avoidance algorithm relies on the ability of the Class Shape Transform parameterisation technique to generate polynomial functions of the surfaces of a BWB aircraft configuration from the sizes of the cabin and internal objects using few variables. Interference detection is essential in packaging of non-conventional configuration like the BWB because of the non-uniform airfoil-shaped sections and resultant varying internal space. The unique configuration increases the need for a methodology to prevent objects from being placed in locations that do not sufficiently enclose them within the geometry.

Keywords: packaging, optimisation, BWB, parameterisation, aircraft conceptual design

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385 Analysis of Interpolation Factor in Pulse Shaping Filter on MRC for CDMA 2000 Systems

Authors: Pankaj Verma, Gagandeep Singh Walia, Padma Devi, H. P. Singh

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Code Division Multiple Access 2000 operates on various RF channel bandwidths 1.2288 or 3.6864 Mcps. CDMA offers high bandwidth and wireless broadband services but the efficiency gets decreased because of many interfering factors like fading, interference, scattering, diffraction, refraction, reflection etc. To reduce the spectral bandwidth is one of the major concerns in modern day technology and this is achieved by pulse shaping filter. This paper investigates the effect of diversity (MRC), interpolation factor in Root Raised Cosine (RRC) filter for the QPSK and BPSK modulation schemes. It is made possible to send information with minimum inter symbol interference and within limited bandwidth with proper pulse shaping technique. Bit error rate (BER) performance is analyzed by applying diversity technique by varying the interpolation factor for Binary Phase Shift Keying (BPSK) and Quadrature Phase Shift Keying (QPSK). Interpolation factor increases the original sampling rate of a sequence to a higher rate and reduces the interference and diversity reduces the fading.

Keywords: CDMA2000, root raised cosine, roll off factor, ISI, diversity, interference, fading

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