Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1099

Search results for: Martin Höst

1099 Research on Load Balancing Technology for Web Service Mobile Host

Authors: Yao Lu, Xiuguo Zhang, Zhiying Cao

Abstract:

In this paper, Load Balancing idea is used in the Web service mobile host. The main idea of Load Balancing is to establish a one-to-many mapping mechanism: An entrance-mapping request to plurality of processing node in order to realize the dividing and assignment processing. Because the mobile host is a resource constrained environment, there are some Web services which cannot be completed on the mobile host. When the mobile host resource is not enough to complete the request, Load Balancing scheduler will divide the request into a plurality of sub-requests and transfer them to different auxiliary mobile hosts. Auxiliary mobile host executes sub-requests, and then, the results will be returned to the mobile host. Service request integrator receives results of sub-requests from the auxiliary mobile host, and integrates the sub-requests. In the end, the complete request is returned to the client. Experimental results show that this technology adopted in this paper can complete requests and have a higher efficiency.

Keywords: Dinic, load balancing, mobile host, web service

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1098 An Analysis of Illocutioary Act in Martin Luther King Jr.'s Propaganda Speech Entitled 'I Have a Dream'

Authors: Mahgfirah Firdaus Soberatta

Abstract:

Language cannot be separated from human life. Humans use language to convey ideas, thoughts, and feelings. We can use words for different things for example like asserted, advising, promise, give opinions, hopes, etc. Propaganda is an attempt which seeks to obtain stable behavior to adopt everyone to his everyday life. It also controls the thoughts and attitudes of individuals in social settings permanent. In this research, the writer will discuss about the speech act in a propaganda speech delivered by Martin Luther King Jr. in Washington at Lincoln Memorial on August 28, 1963. 'I Have a Dream' is a public speech delivered by American civil rights activist MLK, he calls from an end to racism in USA. In this research, the writer uses Searle theory to analyze the types of illocutionary speech act that used by Martin Luther King Jr. in his propaganda speech. In this research, the writer uses a qualitative method described in descriptive, because the research wants to describe and explain the types of illocutionary speech acts used by Martin Luther King Jr. in his propaganda speech. The findings indicate that there are five types of speech acts in Martin Luther King Jr. speech. MLK also used direct speech and indirect speech in his propaganda speech. However, direct speech is the dominant speech act that MLK used in his propaganda speech. It is hoped that this research is useful for the readers to enrich their knowledge in a particular field of pragmatic speech acts.

Keywords: speech act, propaganda, Martin Luther King Jr., speech

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1097 Species Composition of Alticinae Newman, 1834 (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae): Distribution and Host Plants in Eastern Upper Plains (Setif, Algeria)

Authors: M. Bounechada, M. Fenni, S. Bouharati, S. E. Doumandji

Abstract:

The study was taken in Setif region (36° 11' 29 N and 5° 24' 34 E) located at the north-eastern of Algeria. This paper recorded and discusses zoogeography and host plant relationships of Setifian species Alticinae subfamily. A total of 50 species belonging to Alticinae subfamily of Chrysomelidae which is the economically important familty, were recorded from differentes localities of Setif region. They are included in 10 genera. Genera Longitarsus Berthold, 1827 is less species-rich than the other Alticinae genera captured. It represens about 38% of the all species collected. Cruciferae and Compositae were the mostly prefered host plant families representing Alticinae species. For each species we mentioned the collecting sites, geographical distribution and the host plants.

Keywords: Algeria, Alticinae, Chrysomelidae, Coleoptera, distribution, host plants, species composition, Setif

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1096 Critical Role of Lipid Rafts in Influenza a Virus Binding to Host Cell

Authors: Dileep Kumar Verma, Sunil Kumar Lal

Abstract:

Influenza still remains one of the most challenging diseases posing significant threat to public health causing seasonal epidemics and pandemics. Influenza A Virus (IAV) surface protein hemagglutinin is known to play an important role in viral attachment to the host sialic acid receptors and concentrate in lipid rafts for efficient viral fusion. Selective nature of Influenza A virus to utilize rafts micro-domain for efficient virus assembly and budding has been explored in depth. However, the detailed mechanism of IAV binding to host cell membrane and entry into the host remains elusive. In the present study we investigated the role of lipid rafts in early life cycle events of IAV. Role of host lipid rafts was studied using raft disruption method by extraction of cholesterol by Methyl-β-Cyclodextrin. Using GM1, a well-known lipid raft marker, we were able to observe co-localization of IAV on lipid rafts on the host cell membrane. This experiment suggests a direct involvement of lipid rafts in the initiation of the IAV life cycle. Upon disruption of lipid rafts by Methyl-b-cyclodextrin, we observed a significant reduction in IAV binding on the host cell surface indicating a significant decrease in virus attachment to coherent membrane rafts. Our results provide proof that host lipid rafts and their constituents play an important role in the adsorption of IAV. This study opens a new avenues in IAV virus-host interactions to combat infection at a very early steps of the viral lifecycle.

Keywords: lipid raft, adsorption, cholesterol, methyl-β-cyclodextrin, GM1

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1095 Host Cell Membrane Lipid Rafts Are Required for Influenza A Virus Adsorption to Host Cell Surface

Authors: Dileep K. Verma, Sunil K. Lal

Abstract:

Influenza still remains one of the most challenging diseases posing significant threat to public health causing seasonal epidemics and pandemics. Previous studies suggest that influenza hemagglutinin is essential for viral attachment to host sialic acid receptors and concentrate in lipid rafts for efficient viral fusion. Studies also reported selective nature of Influenza virus to utilize rafts micro-domain for efficient virus assembly and budding. However, the detailed mechanism of Influenza A Virus (IAV) binding to host cell membrane and entry inside the host remains elusive. In the present study, we investigated if host membrane lipid rafts play any significant role in early life cycle events of influenza A virus. Role of host lipid rafts was studied using raft disruption method by extraction of cholesterol and Methyl-β-Cyclodextrin was used to remove membrane cholesterol. We observed co-localization of Influenza A Virus to lipid rafts by visualization of known lipid raft marker GM1 on host cell membrane. Co-localization suggest direct involvement of these micro-domain in initiation of IAV life cycle. We found significant reduction in influenza A virus adsorption in raft disrupted target host cells indicating poor binding and attachment in absence of coherent membrane rafts. Taken together, the results of present study provide evidence for critical involvement of host lipid rafts and its constituents in adsorption process of Influenza A Virus and suggests crucial involvement in other early events of IAV life cycle. The present study opens a new domain to study influenza virus-host interaction and to combat flu at the very early steps of viral life cycle.

Keywords: lipid raft, adsorption, cholesterol, methyl-β-cyclodextrin, GM1

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1094 Host-Guest Interaction in a Homestay Setting a Study Based on Homestays in Sabah and Sarawak, Malaysia

Authors: Lau Sing Yew

Abstract:

The purpose of this research is to investigate and analyse the host-guests interaction in a homestay setting with the sub context of cultural exchange and cultural differences between both parties. The research were carried out in Malaysia, specifically in the state of Sabah and Sarawak which are more well-known for its’ rural tourism and homestay programs. The research problem addressed here is on the suitability of the homestay setting as a platform for intercultural communication between the host and foreign tourists. The key issues that were discussed include ‘cultural representations’, ‘touristic representations’ and ‘social representations’ which contoured the image that tourists form about destinations and local communities while debating on the benefits and disbenefits of cultural exchange. These issues were deliberated through observation and interviews and it was found that the homestay setting in Malaysia though there are varied types available acts as a suitable platform to encourage intercultural interaction between tourists and local communities.

Keywords: homestay program, Malaysia, host-guest interactions, cultural representations

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1093 RNAseq Reveals Hypervirulence-Specific Host Responses to M. tuberculosis Infection

Authors: Gina Leisching, Ray-Dean Pietersen, Carel Van Heerden, Paul Van Helden, Ian Wiid, Bienyameen Baker

Abstract:

The distinguishing factors that characterize the host response to infection with virulent Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb) are largely confounding. We present an infection study with two genetically closely related M.tb strains that have vastly different pathogenic characteristics. The early host response to infection with these detergent-free cultured strains was analyzed through RNAseq in an attempt to provide information on the subtleties which may ultimately contribute to the virulent phenotype. Murine bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs) were infected with either a hyper- (R5527) or hypovirulent (R1507) Beijing M. tuberculosis clinical isolate. RNAseq revealed 69 differentially expressed host genes in BMDMs during comparison of these two transcriptomes. Pathway analysis revealed activation of the stress-induced and growth inhibitory Gadd45 signaling pathway in hypervirulent infected BMDMs. Upstream regulators of interferon activation such as and IRF3 and IRF7 were predicted to be upregulated in hypovirulent-infected BMDMs. Additional analysis of the host immune response through ELISA and qPCR included the use of human THP-1 macrophages where a robust proinflammatory response was observed after infection with the hypervirulent strain. RNAseq revealed two early-response genes (IER3 and SAA3) and two host-defence genes (OASL1 and SLPI) that were significantly upregulated by the hypervirulent strain. The role of these genes under M.tb infection conditions are largely unknown but here we provide validation of their presence with use of qPCR and Western blot. Further analysis into their biological role under infection with virulent M.tb is required.

Keywords: host-response, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, RNAseq, virulence

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1092 Secure Content Centric Network

Authors: Syed Umair Aziz, Muhammad Faheem, Sameer Hussain, Faraz Idris

Abstract:

Content centric network is the network based on the mechanism of sending and receiving the data based on the interest and data request to the specified node (which has cached data). In this network, the security is bind with the content not with the host hence making it host independent and secure. In this network security is applied by taking content’s MAC (message authentication code) and encrypting it with the public key of the receiver. On the receiver end, the message is first verified and after verification message is saved and decrypted using the receiver's private key.

Keywords: content centric network, client-server, host security threats, message authentication code, named data network, network caching, peer-to-peer

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1091 Postmodernism and Metanarrative: Deconstruction of Narrative in a Song of Ice and Fire Fantasy TV Series

Authors: Narjes Azimi

Abstract:

It has been a while that narrative and storytelling turned to be the inevitable part of media. The narrative has so many aspects and among those entire aspects, the fantasy genre is consciously challenging one as fantasy readers are used to reading narratives like good versus evil plot. This paper will analyze the ASOIF TV series as a Meta narrative cultural production that deconstructs the elements of a traditional narrative. This study will shade on a grand narrative perspective from poststructuralism point of view. The theoretical framework is structuralism and post structuralism. Lyotard and Barthes are two main poststructuralists and focus of the study. Lyotard grand narrative elements will analyze in this research study. Fantasy genre generated a number of outstanding authors that explore innovative perspectives. Among all these leading authors George R.R Martin is one of the best. George R. R. Martin’s Fantasy a Song of Ice and Fire picturized the brutal world that seven kingdoms struggling for the power. Since 2011 this production has been followed and watched by millions of audiences all around the world. The methodology is the textual analysis of selected scenes. Martin’s distinctive fantasy style which makes it different from other fantasies, yet this shift does not negate how the previous fantasy writers represent the mentioned concepts of war, and etc., but Martin’ fantasy and left the mature audiences full of uncertainty.

Keywords: narrative theory, metanarrative, deconstruction, post-structuralism, Lyotard, Barthes

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1090 The Impact of Human Resources Management on the Job Security of Self-Initiated Expatriates after the Brexit

Authors: Yllka Hysaj, Ylberina Hysaj Arifi

Abstract:

Recently, with BREXIT taking place, organizations and employees have been affected in the way of job and employment security. Career-oriented human resources management (HRM) practices are likely to facilitate self-initiated expatriates’ adjustment to the host country. This was related to the career security (job security and employment security), which were missing in their home country and seemed to be important elements to adjust to the host country. The aim of this study is to assess whether the perception of career security by Frances self-initiated expatriates (SIEs) have changed in the wake of the referendum result. Quantitative research method will be used, and the data will be collected through electronic questionnaires. Data will be analyzed through Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS). The study variables will include an adjustment to the host country, HRM practices, employability, and job security. Predicted results consist that career-oriented HRM practices are positively related to the adjustment to the host country, employability, and job security. However, with Brexit, there might be a negative relationship between career-oriented HRM practices and job security.

Keywords: migration, self-initiated expatriates, Brexit, job security

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1089 Acculturation Profiles of Syrian Refugees in Turkey

Authors: Abdurrahim Guler

Abstract:

Immigrants who came to a new country experience some socio-cultural difficulties which are different from theirs. The study aims to investigate how Syrian Refugees manage their life in Turkey and the relationship between acculturation profiles and demographic background of Syrian refugees who came to Turkey after civil war has intensified in Syria. Data are collected from 280 adult Syrian refugees who were born in Syria. The study adopts bi-dimensional acculturation approach stating that both heritage and dominant host cultures can live together. Results suggest that demographic backgrounds, religion, and religiosity are significantly linked to both heritage and dominant host culture. Syrian refugees who are not affiliated with Islam are found to significantly preserve their ethnic/heritage culture. Generally, Syrian refugees are more willing to integrate Turkish society but not to assimilate. The results also confirmed acculturation process as a bi-dimensional, not a zero-sum game since we found a significant positive correlation between the heritage and the dominant host cultures which assume the independence and orthogonal of involvements in the dominant host and heritage cultures.

Keywords: acculturation, demographic backgrounds, heritage culture, religion, Syrian refugees

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1088 Identifying the Host Substrates for the Mycobacterial Virulence Factor Protein Kinase G

Authors: Saha Saradindu, Das Payel, Somdeb BoseDasgupta

Abstract:

Tuberculosis caused by Mycobacteria tuberculosis is a dreadful disease and more so with the advent of extreme and total drug-resistant species. Mycobacterial pathogenesis is an ever-changing paradigm from phagosome maturation block to phagosomal escape into macrophage cytosol and finally acid tolerance and survival inside the lysosome. Mycobacteria are adept at subverting the host immune response by highjacking host cell signaling and secreting virulence factors. One such virulence factor is a ser/thr kinase; Protein kinase G (PknG), which is known to prevent phagosome maturation. The host substrates of PknG, allowing successful pathogenesis still remain an enigma. Hence we carried out a comparative phosphoproteomic screen and identified a number of substrates phosphorylated by PknG. We characterized some of these substrates in vivo and in vitro and observed that PknG mediated phosphorylation of these substrates leads to reduced TNFa production as well as decreased response to TNFa induced macrophage necroptosis, thus enabling mycobacterial survival and proliferation.

Keywords: mycobacteria, Protein kinase G, phosphoproteomics, necroptosis

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1087 Population Growth of Bracon hebetor Say. under the Influence of Various Lepidopteran Host

Authors: Mohammad Muslim, M. Shafiq Ansari, Fazil Hasan

Abstract:

Bracon hebetor Say (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) is considered as a highly cosmopolitan ecto-parasitoid of various species of order Lepidoptera. To study the influence of lepidopteran hosts on population growth of B. hebetor, the newly mated gravid females were released on various host and the eggs laid by such females on respective host were counted and a single egg was allow to develop on single host larvae. The experiment was conducted at 27 ± 1°C, 65 ± 5% RH and 14L: 10D hr in Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD) chamber. Upon hatching the tiny larvae of parasitoid pierced the body of insect host, enter into them and consumed the internal body contents of paralyzed host larvae. Present findings showed that B. hebetor took ~36 days to complete its survivorship on Corcyra cephalonica and Galleria mellonella. However, on Spodoptera littoralis the survivorship decreased to 24 days. Nevertheless, development of H. hebetor’s immature was significantly prolonged on S. littoralis and S. litura compared to other insect hosts tested. Female of B. hebetor took longer time to lay eggs on C. cephalonica and G. mellonella than other hosts tested in this study. Longevity of male and female is significantly prolonged on C. cephalonica and G. mellonella compared to others insect hosts tested. Population growth parameters like mx Ro, rm, Tc, and τ was considerably highest on C. cephalonica and lowest on S. littoralis. Based on the demographic studies C. cephalonica and H. armegera were proved to be the most suitable host for the mass rearing of B. hebetor. Nevertheless, results of present investigation could be utilized to improve the mass-breeding program of B. hebetor, so that sufficient number of B. hebetor’s adults could be provided time to time for the effective control of lepidopteran pests of various economically important crops.

Keywords: Bracon hebetor, lepidopteran hosts, demography, biology, development

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1086 Brevicoryne brassicae Compatibility with Maize in Multiple Cropping System

Authors: Zunnu Raen Akhtar

Abstract:

Brevicoryne brassicae, aphid feeds on cabbage and Brassica sp. as preferred host. Brassica plants usually ripen when maize starts growing in multiple cropping systems. Experiment was conducted to observe suitability of B. brassicae by rearing it on maize as host. In a tritrophic eco-system, predator coccinellids can be found in the fields of brassica and maize. This experiment emphasized on issue of aphids growing incidence in a cropping system. Brassica is sown and harvested earlier than maize and is attacked by aphids, while maize is also attacked by aphids. Five mortality tests were conducted of B. brassicae fed on maize. Out of five mortality tests, 3 tests were conducted using 1st instar, while in two mortality tests, 2nd instars of aphids were used. Mortality tests revealed that first instar mortality was quite high on the second day, while in second instar larvae mortality was delayed up to third to the fourth day. These experiments reveal that aphids can use maize as substitute host at later instars as compared to young ones. These experiments can be foundation for studying further crop-insect interaction and sampling techniques used for this purpose.

Keywords: host suitability, B. brassicae, maize, tritrophic interaction

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1085 Fabrication of Coatable Polarizer by Guest-Host System for Flexible Display Applications

Authors: Rui He, Seung-Eun Baik, Min-Jae Lee, Myong-Hoon Lee

Abstract:

The polarizer is one of the most essential optical elements in LCDs. Currently, the most widely used polarizers for LCD is the derivatives of the H-sheet polarizer. There is a need for coatable polarizers which are much thinner and more stable than H-sheet polarizers. One possible approach to obtain thin, stable, and coatable polarizers is based on the use of highly ordered guest-host system. In our research, we aimed to fabricate coatable polarizer based on highly ordered liquid crystalline monomer and dichroic dye ‘guest-host’ system, in which the anisotropic absorption of light could be achieved by aligning a dichroic dye (guest) in the cooperative motion of the ordered liquid crystal (host) molecules. Firstly, we designed and synthesized a new reactive liquid crystalline monomer containing polymerizable acrylate groups as the ‘host’ material. The structure was confirmed by 1H-NMR and IR spectroscopy. The liquid crystalline behavior was studied by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and polarized optical microscopy (POM). It was confirmed that the monomers possess highly ordered smectic phase at relatively low temperature. Then, the photocurable ‘guest-host’ system was prepared by mixing the liquid crystalline monomer, dichroic dye and photoinitiator. Coatable polarizers were fabricated by spin-coating above mixture on a substrate with alignment layer. The in-situ photopolymerization was carried out at room temperature by irradiating UV light, resulting in the formation of crosslinked structure that stabilized the aligned dichroic dye molecules. Finally, the dichroic ratio (DR), order parameter (S) and polarization efficiency (PE) were determined by polarized UV/Vis spectroscopy. We prepared the coatable polarizers by using different type of dichroic dyes to meet the requirement of display application. The results reveal that the coatable polarizers at a thickness of 8μm exhibited DR=12~17 and relatively high PE (>96%) with the highest PE=99.3%, which possess potential for the LCD or flexible display applications.

Keywords: coatable polarizer, display, guest-host, liquid crystal

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1084 The Olympic Games’ Effect on National Company Growth

Authors: Simon Strande Henriksen

Abstract:

When a city and country decide to undertake an Olympic Games, they do so with the notion that hosting the Olympics will provide direct financial benefits to the city, country, and national companies. Like many activities, the Olympic Games tend to be more popular when it is warm, and the athletes are known, and therefore this paper will only focus on the two latest Olympic Summer Games. Cities and countries continue to invest billions of dollars in infrastructure to secure the role of being Olympic hosts. The multiple investments expect to provide both economic growth and a lasting legacy for the citizens. This study aims to determine whether host country companies experience superior economic impact from the Olympics. Building on existing work within the Olympic field of research, it asks: Do companies in host countries of the Olympic Summer Games experience a superior increase in operating revenue and return on assets compared to other comparable countries? In this context, comparable countries are the two candidates following the host city in the bidding procedure. Based on methods used by scholars, a panel data regression was conducted on revenue growth rate and return on assets, to determine if host country companies see a positive relation with hosting the Olympic Games. Combined with an analysis of motivation behind hosting the Olympics, the regression showed no significant positive relations across all analyses, besides in one instance. Indications of a relationship between company performance and economic motivation were found to be present. With the results indicating a limited effect on company growth, it is recommended that prospective host cities and countries carefully consider possible implications the role of being an Olympic host might have on national companies.

Keywords: cross-country analysis, mega-event, multiple regression, quantitative analysis

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1083 The Effect of Yb3+ Concentration on Spectroscopic properties of Strontium Cerate Doped with Tm3+ and Yb3+

Authors: Yeon Woo Seo, Haeyoung Choi, Jung Hyun Jeong

Abstract:

Recently, the UC phosphors have attracted much attention owing to their wide applicability in areas such as biological fluorescence labeling, three-dimensional color displays, temperature sensor, solar cells, white light emitting diodes (WLEDs), fiber optic communication, anti-counterfeiting and other areas. The UC efficiency is mainly dependent on the host lattice and the interaction between the host lattice and doped ions. Up to date, various host matrices, such as oxides, fluorides, vanadates and phosphates, have been investigated as efficient UC luminescent hosts. Recently, oxide materials with low phonon energy have been investigated as the host matrices of UC materials due to their high chemical durability and physical stability. A series of Sr2CeO4: Tm3+/Yb3+ phosphors with different concentrations of Yb3+ ions have been successfully prepared using the high-energy ball milling method. In this study, we reported the UC luminescent properties of Tm3+/Yb3+ ions co-doped Sr2CeO4 phosphors under an excitation wavelength of 975 nm. Furthermore, the structural and morphological characteristics, as well as the UC luminescence mechanism were investigated in detail. The X-ray diffraction patterns confirmed their orthorhombic structure. Under 975 nm excitation, the emission peaks were observed at 478 nm (blue) and 652 nm (red), corresponding to the 1G4 → 3H6 and 1G4 → 3F4 transitions of Tm3+, respectively. The optimized doping concentration of Yb3+ ion was 10 mol%.

Keywords: Strontium Cerate, up-conversion, luminescence, Tm3+, Yb3+

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1082 Production of Recombinant Human Serum Albumin in Escherichia coli: A Crucial Biomolecule for Biotechnological and Healthcare Applications

Authors: Ashima Sharma, Tapan K. Chaudhuri

Abstract:

Human Serum Albumin (HSA) is one of the most demanded therapeutic protein with immense biotechnological applications. The current source of HSA is human blood plasma. Blood is a limited and an unsafe source as it possesses the risk of contamination by various blood derived pathogens. This issue led to exploitation of various hosts with the aim to obtain an alternative source for the production of the rHSA. But, till now no host has been proven to be effective commercially for rHSA production because of their respective limitations. Thus, there exists an indispensable need to promote non-animal derived rHSA production. Of all the host systems, Escherichia coli is one of the most convenient hosts which has contributed in the production of more than 30% of the FDA approved recombinant pharmaceuticals. E. coli grows rapidly and its culture reaches high cell density using inexpensive and simple substrates. The fermentation batch turnaround number for E. coli culture is 300 per year, which is far greater than any of the host systems available. Therefore, E. coli derived recombinant products have more economical potential as fermentation processes are cheaper compared to the other expression hosts available. Despite of all the mentioned advantages, E. coli had not been successfully adopted as a host for rHSA production. The major bottleneck in exploiting E. coli as a host for rHSA production was aggregation i.e. majority of the expressed recombinant protein was forming inclusion bodies (more than 90% of the total expressed rHSA) in the E. coli cytosol. Recovery of functional rHSA form inclusion body is not preferred because it is tedious, time consuming, laborious and expensive. Because of this limitation, E. coli host system was neglected for rHSA production for last few decades. Considering the advantages of E. coli as a host, the present work has targeted E. coli as an alternate host for rHSA production through resolving the major issue of inclusion body formation associated with it. In the present study, we have developed a novel and innovative method for enhanced soluble and functional production of rHSA in E.coli (~60% of the total expressed rHSA in the soluble fraction) through modulation of the cellular growth, folding and environmental parameters, thereby leading to significantly improved and enhanced -expression levels as well as the functional and soluble proportion of the total expressed rHSA in the cytosolic fraction of the host. Therefore, in the present case we have filled in the gap in the literature, by exploiting the most well studied host system Escherichia coli which is of low cost, fast growing, scalable and ‘yet neglected’, for the enhancement of functional production of HSA- one of the most crucial biomolecule for clinical and biotechnological applications.

Keywords: enhanced functional production of rHSA in E. coli, recombinant human serum albumin, recombinant protein expression, recombinant protein processing

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1081 Molecular Characterization of Arginine Sensing Response in Unravelling Host-Pathogen Interactions in Leishmania

Authors: Evanka Madan, Madhu Puri, Dan Zilberstein, Rohini Muthuswami, Rentala Madhubala

Abstract:

The extensive interaction between the host and pathogen metabolic networks decidedly shapes the outcome of infection. Utilization of arginine by the host and pathogen is critical for determining the outcome of pathogenic infection. Infections with L. donovani, an intracellular parasite, will lead to an extensive competition of arginine between the host and the parasite donovani infection. One of the major amino acid (AA) sensing signaling pathways in mammalian cells are the mammalian target of rapamycin complex I (mTORC1) pathway. mTORC1, as a sensor of nutrient, controls numerous metabolic pathways. Arginine is critical for mTORC1 activation. SLC38A9 is the arginine sensor for the mTORC1, being activated during arginine sufficiency. L. donovani transport arginine via a high-affinity transporter (LdAAP3) that is rapidly up-regulated by arginine deficiency response (ADR) in intracellular amastigotes. This study, to author’s best knowledge, investigates the interaction between two arginine sensing systems that act in the same compartment, the lysosome. One is important for macrophage defense, and the other is essential for pathogen virulence. We hypothesize that the latter modulates lysosome arginine to prevent host defense response. The work presented here identifies an upstream regulatory role of LdAAP3 in regulating the expression of SLC38A9-mTORC1 pathway, and consequently, their function in L. donovani infected THP-1 cells cultured in 0.1 mM and 1.5 mM arginine. It was found that in physiological levels of arginine (0.1 mM), infecting THP-1 with Leishmania leads to increased levels of SLC38A9 and mTORC1 via an increase in the expression of RagA. However, the reversal was observed with LdAAP3 mutants, reflecting the positive regulatory role of LdAAP3 on the host SLC38A9. At the molecular level, upon infection, mTORC1 and RagA were found to be activated at the surface of phagolysosomes which was found to form a complex with phagolysosomal localized SLC38A9. To reveal the relevance of SLC38A9 under physiological levels of arginine, endogenous SLC38A9 was depleted and a substantial reduction in the expression of host mTORC1, its downstream active substrate, p-P70S6K1 and parasite LdAAP3, was observed, thereby showing that silencing SLC38A9 suppresses ADR. In brief, to author’s best knowledge, these results reveal an upstream regulatory role of LdAAP3 in manipulating SLC38A9 arginine sensing in host macrophages. Our study indicates that intra-macrophage survival of L. donovani depends on the availability and transport of extracellular arginine. An understanding of the sensing pathway of both parasite and host will open a new perspective on the molecular mechanism of host-parasite interaction and consequently, as a treatment for Leishmaniasis.

Keywords: arginine sensing, LdAAP3, L. donovani, mTORC1, SLC38A9, THP-1

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1080 Facial Biometric Privacy Using Visual Cryptography: A Fundamental Approach to Enhance the Security of Facial Biometric Data

Authors: Devika Tanna

Abstract:

'Biometrics' means 'life measurement' but the term is usually associated with the use of unique physiological characteristics to identify an individual. It is important to secure the privacy of digital face image that is stored in central database. To impart privacy to such biometric face images, first, the digital face image is split into two host face images such that, each of it gives no idea of existence of the original face image and, then each cover image is stored in two different databases geographically apart. When both the cover images are simultaneously available then only we can access that original image. This can be achieved by using the XM2VTS and IMM face database, an adaptive algorithm for spatial greyscale. The algorithm helps to select the appropriate host images which are most likely to be compatible with the secret image stored in the central database based on its geometry and appearance. The encryption is done using GEVCS which results in a reconstructed image identical to the original private image.

Keywords: adaptive algorithm, database, host images, privacy, visual cryptography

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1079 Genome-Wide Identification of Genes Resistance to Nitric Oxide in Vibrio parahaemolyticus

Authors: Yantao Li, Jun Zheng

Abstract:

Food poison caused by consumption of contaminated food, especially seafood, is one of most serious public health threats worldwide. Vibrio parahaemolyticus is emerging bacterial pathogen and the leading cause of human gastroenteritis associated with food poison, especially in the southern coastal region of China. To successfully cause disease in host, bacterial pathogens need to overcome the host-derived stresses encountered during infection. One of the toxic chemical species elaborated by the host is nitric oxide (NO). NO is generated by acidified nitrite in the stomach and by enzymes of the inducible NO synthase (iNOS) in the host cell, and is toxic to bacteria. Bacterial pathogens have evolved some mechanisms to battle with this toxic stress. Such mechanisms include genes to sense NO produced from immune system and activate others to detoxify NO toxicity, and genes to repair the damage caused by toxic reactive nitrogen species (RNS) generated during NO toxic stress. However, little is known about the NO resistance in V. parahaemolyticus. In this study, a transposon coupled with next generation sequencing (Tn-seq) technology will be utilized to identify genes for NO resistance in V. parahaemolyticus. Our strategy will include construction the saturating transposon insertion library, transposon library challenging with NO, next generation sequencing (NGS), bioinformatics analysis and verification of the identified genes in vitro and in vivo.

Keywords: vibrio parahaemolyticus, nitric oxide, tn-seq, virulence

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1078 Importance-Performance Analysis of Volunteer Tourism in Ethiopia: Host and Guest Case Study

Authors: Zita Fomukong Andam

Abstract:

With a general objective of evaluating the importance and Performance attributes of Volunteer Tourism in Ethiopia and also specifically intending to rank out the importance to evaluate the competitive performance of Ethiopia to host volunteer tourists, laying them in a four quadrant grid and conduct the IPA Iso-Priority Line comparison of Volunteer Tourism in Ethiopia. From hosts and guests point of view, a deeper research discourse was conducted with a randomly selected 384 guests and 165 hosts in Ethiopia. Findings of the discourse through an exploratory research design on both the hosts and the guests confirm that attributes of volunteer tourism generally and marginally fall in the South East quadrant of the matrix where their importance is relatively higher than their performance counterpart, also referred as ‘Concentrate Here’ quadrant. The fact that there are more items in this particular place in both the host and guest study, where they are highly important, but their relative performance is low, strikes a message that the country has more to do. Another focus point of this study is mapping the scores of attributes regarding the guest and host importance and performance against the Iso-Priority Line. Results of Iso-Priority Line Analysis of the IPA of Volunteer Tourism in Ethiopia from the Host’s Perspective showed that there are no attributes where their importance is exactly the same as their performance. With this being found, the fact that this research design inhabits many characters of exploratory nature, it is not confirmed research output. This paper reserves from prescribing anything to the applied world before further confirmatory research is conducted on the issue and rather calls the scientific community to augment this study through comprehensive, exhaustive, extensive and extended works of inquiry in order to get a refined set of recommended items to the applied world.

Keywords: volunteer tourism, competitive performance importance-performance analysis, Ethiopian tourism

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1077 A Background Subtraction Based Moving Object Detection Around the Host Vehicle

Authors: Hyojin Lim, Cuong Nguyen Khac, Ho-Youl Jung

Abstract:

In this paper, we propose moving object detection method which is helpful for driver to safely take his/her car out of parking lot. When moving objects such as motorbikes, pedestrians, the other cars and some obstacles are detected at the rear-side of host vehicle, the proposed algorithm can provide to driver warning. We assume that the host vehicle is just before departure. Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM) based background subtraction is basically applied. Pre-processing such as smoothing and post-processing as morphological filtering are added.We examine “which color space has better performance for detection of moving objects?” Three color spaces including RGB, YCbCr, and Y are applied and compared, in terms of detection rate. Through simulation, we prove that RGB space is more suitable for moving object detection based on background subtraction.

Keywords: gaussian mixture model, background subtraction, moving object detection, color space, morphological filtering

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1076 The Design and Modeling of Intelligent Learners Assistance System (ILASS)

Authors: Jelili Kunle Adedeji, Toeb Akorede Akinbola

Abstract:

The problem of vehicle mishap as a result of miscalculation, recklessness, or malfunction of some part in a vehicle is acknowledged to be a global issue. In most of the cases, it results into death or life injuries, all over the world; the issue becomes a nightmare to the stakeholders on how to curb mishaps on our roads due to these endemic factors. Hence this research typically examined the design of a device, specifically for learners that can lead to a society of intelligent vehicles (traffic) without withdrawing the driving authority from them, unlike pre-existing systems. Though ILASS shears a lot of principle with existing advance drivers assistance systems, yet there are two fundamental differences between ILASS system and existing systems. Firstly ILASS is meant to accept continuous input from the throttle at all time such that the devices will not constraint the driving process unnecessarily and ensure a change of speed at any point in time. Secondly, it made use of a variable threshold distance between the host vehicle and front vehicle which can be set by the host driver under the constraint of road maintenance agency, who communicates the minimum possible threshold for a different lane to the host vehicle. The results obtained from the simulation of the ILASS system concluded that ILASS is a good solution to road accidents, particularly road accident which occurs as a result of driving at high speed.

Keywords: front-vehicle, host-speed, threshold-distance, ILASS

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1075 Host Range and Taxonomy of Hairy Caterpillars (Erebidae: Lepidoptera) in Different Cropping Ecosystems

Authors: Mallikarjun Warad, C. M. Kalleshwaraswamy, P. R. Shashank

Abstract:

Studies were conducted to record the occurrence of different species of hairy caterpillar on different host plants in and around Shivamogga, Karnataka, India. Twelve genera of hairy caterpillars belonging to Arctiinae and Lymantriinae were recorded on different host plants and reared to adults in laboratory on their respective hosts. The Porthesia sp. feed on castor, Creatonotus gangis on cocoa, Perina nuda on fig, Pericalia ricini on pigeon pea, Utetheisa pulchella on sunhemp and Euproctis sp. on paddy and banana. Illustrations of immature and adults were made to associate them. Along with this, light traps were also set during the rainy season, to capture adults of hairy caterpillars. An illustrated identification key was provided for easy and accurate identification of adult of hairy caterpillars based on their morphological (male genitalial) characters. The study through a light on the existence of sexual dimorphism, polyphagous nature and diapause are the major hindrance in taxonomic identification. Hence, attempts were made to address these issues in the study.

Keywords: Erebidae, hairy caterpillars, male genitalia, taxonomy

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1074 Mobile Agent Security Using Reference Monitor Based Security Framework

Authors: Sandhya Armoogum

Abstract:

In distributed systems and in open systems such as the Internet, often mobile code has to run on unknown and potentially hostile hosts. Mobile code such as a mobile agent is vulnerable when executing on remote hosts. The mobile agent may be subjected to various attacks such as tampering, inspection, and replay attack by a malicious host. Much research has been done to provide solutions for various security problems, such as authentication of mobile agent and hosts, integrity and confidentiality of the data carried by the mobile agent. Many of such proposed solutions in literature are not suitable for open systems whereby the mobile code arrives and executes on a host which is not known and trusted by the mobile agent owner. In this paper, we propose the adoption of the reference monitor by hosts in an open system for providing trust and security for mobile code execution. A secure protocol for the distribution of the reference monitor entity is described. This reference monitor entity on the remote host may also provide several security services such as authentication and integrity to the mobile code.

Keywords: security, mobile agents, reference monitor, trust

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1073 Investor Beware - Significance of Investor Conduct under the Fair and Equitable Treatment Standard

Authors: Damayanti Sen

Abstract:

The Fair and Equitable Treatment standard has emerged as a core tenet of a formulated legal structure aimed at encouraging investment through the granting of a secure and stable environment for the investor in the Host State. As an absolute, non-contingent standard, it constitutes an independent and reliable system for the protection of the investor and is frequently invoked and applied in investor-state dispute settlement under bilateral and multilateral investment treaties. Thus far, the standard has been examined principally as a measure for determining the responsibility of host countries towards investors and investments. The conduct of investor in applying the Fair and Equitable Treatment Standard is relatively unexplored. Such an assessment may be necessary in light of the development of new defenses to demands of host governments to confine the application of the standard in order to ensure a proper balance between the protection of investors and the inherent right of a State to regulate economic conduct within its borders. This paper explores the implications of including considerations of investor conduct in the determination of whether an act of the host country’s administrative and/or judicial authorities has breached the fair and equitable treatment principle. The need for such defenses are of special concern for governments of developing countries, whose limited resources can affect their ability to provide an effective evaluation of the nature of the proposed investment, and, subsequently, to ensure that the expected benefits are realized. On the basis of conceptual analysis, and emerging international judicial and arbitral case law, this paper suggests that investor duties such as, the avoidance of unconscionable conduct, the reasonable assessment of investment risk in the host country, and a duty to operate an investment reasonably are leading to a new limit upon the fair and equitable treatment standard- one that can be succinctly captured in the phrase “Caveat Investor”.

Keywords: BITs, FET Standard, investor behavior, arbitral case law

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1072 City Image of Rio De Janeiro as the Host City of 2016 Olympic Games

Authors: Luciana Brandao Ferreira, Janaina de Moura Engracia Giraldi, Fabiana Gondim Mariutti, Marina Toledo de Arruda Lourencao

Abstract:

Developing countries, such as BRICS (Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa) are hosting sports mega-events to promote socio-economic development and image enhancement. Thus, this paper aims to verify the image of Rio de Janeiro, in Brazil, as the host city of 2016 Olympic Games, considering the main cognitive and affective image dimensions. The research design uses exploratory factorial analysis to find the most important factors highlighted in the city image dimensions. The data were collected by structured questionnaires with an international respondents sample (n=274) with high international travel experience. The results show that Rio’s image as a sport mega-event host city has two main factors in each dimension: Cognitive ('General Infrastructure'; 'Services and Attractions') and Affective ('Positive Feelings'; 'Negative Feelings'). The most important factor related to cognitive dimension was 'Services and Attractions' which is more related to tourism activities. In the affective dimension 'Positive Feelings' was the most important factor, which means a good result considering that is a city in an emerging country with many unmet social demands.

Keywords: Rio de Janeiro, 2016 olympic games, host city image, cognitive image dimension, affective image dimension

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1071 Antifungal Susceptibility of Saprolegnia parasitica Isolated from Rainbow Trout and Its Host Pathogen Interaction in Zebrafish Disease Model

Authors: Sangyeop Shin, D. C. M. Kulatunga, S. H. S. Dananjaya, Chamilani Nikapitiya, Jehee Lee, Mahanama De Zoysa

Abstract:

Saprolegniasis is one of the most devastating fungal diseases in freshwater fish which is caused by species in the genus Saprolegnia including Saprolegnia parasitica. In this study, we isolated the strain of S. parasitica from diseased rainbow trout in Korea. Morphological and molecular based identification confirmed that isolated fungi belong to the member of S. parasitica, supported by its typical fungal features including cotton-like whitish mycelium, zoospores (primary and secondary) and phylogenetic analysis with internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region. Pathogenicity of isolated S. parasitica was developed in embryo, larvae, juvenile and adult zebrafish as a disease model. Up regulation of host genes encoding ZfTnf-α, Zfc-Rel, ZfIl-12, ZfLyz-c, Zfβ-def, and ZfHsp-70 was identified in zebrafish larvae after experimental challenge of S. parasitica showing the host immune responses against the S. parasitica. Survival of the juveniles upon fungal infection might be due to the increased immune protection in the host. Investigation of antifungal susceptibility of S. parasitica with natural lawsone (2-hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone) revealed the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and percentage inhibition of radial growth (PIRG %) as 200 µg/mL and 31.8%, respectively. Lawsone was able to change the membrane permeability, and cause irreversible damage and disintegration to the cellular membranes of S. parasitica which might have effect on fungi growth inhibition. Moreover, the mycelium exposed to lawsone (MIC level) changed the transcriptional responses of S. parasitica genes. Overall results indicate that lawsone could be a potential and novel anti-S. parasitica agent for controlling S. parasitica infection.

Keywords: host-pathogen interactions, lawsone, rainbow trout, Saprolegnia parasitica, Saprolegniasis, zebrafish

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1070 Impact of Totiviridae L-A dsRNA Virus on Saccharomyces Cerevisiae Host: Transcriptomic and Proteomic Approach

Authors: Juliana Lukša, Bazilė Ravoitytė, Elena Servienė, Saulius Serva

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Totiviridae L-A virus is a persistent Saccharomyces cerevisiae dsRNA virus. It encodes the major structural capsid protein Gag and Gag-Pol fusion protein, responsible for virus replication and encapsulation. These features also enable the copying of satellite dsRNAs (called M dsRNAs) encoding a secreted toxin and immunity to it (known as killer toxin). Viral capsid pore presumably functions in nucleotide uptake and viral mRNA release. During cell division, sporogenesis, and cell fusion, the virions remain intracellular and are transferred to daughter cells. By employing high throughput RNA sequencing data analysis, we describe the influence of solely L-A virus on the expression of genes in three different S. cerevisiae hosts. We provide a new perception into Totiviridae L-A virus-related transcriptional regulation, encompassing multiple bioinformatics analyses. Transcriptional responses to L-A infection were similar to those induced upon stress or availability of nutrients. It also delves into the connection between the cell metabolism and L-A virus-conferred demands to the host transcriptome by uncovering host proteins that may be associated with intact virions. To better understand the virus-host interaction, we applied differential proteomic analysis of virus particle-enriched fractions of yeast strains that harboreither complete killer system (L-A-lus and M-2 virus), M-2 depleted orvirus-free. Our analysis resulted in the identification of host proteins, associated with structural proteins of the virus (Gag and Gag-Pol). This research was funded by the European Social Fund under the No.09.3.3-LMT-K-712-19-0157“Development of Competences of Scientists, other Researchers, and Students through Practical Research Activities” measure.

Keywords: totiviridae, killer virus, proteomics, transcriptomics

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