Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 100

Search results for: CMOS

100 High Power Low Loss CMOS SPDT Antenna Switch for LTE-A Front End Module

Authors: Ki-Jin Kim, Suk-Hui LEE, Sanghoon Park, K. H. Ahn


A high power, low loss asymmetric single pole double through(SPDT) antenna switch for LTE-A Front-End Module(FEM) is presented in this paper by using CMOS technology. For the usage of LTE-A applications, low loss and high linearity are the key features which are very challenging works under CMOS process. To enhance insertion loss(IL) and power handling capability, this paper adopts asymmetric Transmitter (TX) and RX (Receiver) structure, floating body technique, multi-stacked structure, and feed forward capacitor technique. The designed SPDT switch shows TX IL 0.34 dB, RX IL 0.73 dB, P1dB 38.9 dBm at 0.9 GHz and TX IL 0.37 dB, RX IL 0.95 dB, P1dB 39.1 dBm at 2.5 GHz respectively.

Keywords: CMOS switch, SPDT switch, high power CMOS switch, LTE-A FEM

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99 The Design of PFM Mode DC-DC Converter with DT-CMOS Switch

Authors: Jae-Chang Kwak, Yong-Seo Koo


The high efficiency power management IC (PMIC) with switching device is presented in this paper. PMIC is controlled with PFM control method in order to have high power efficiency at high current level. Dynamic Threshold voltage CMOS (DT-CMOS) with low on-resistance is designed to decrease conduction loss. The threshold voltage of DT-CMOS drops as the gate voltage increase, resulting in a much higher current handling capability than standard MOSFET. PFM control circuits consist of a generator, AND gate and comparator. The generator is made to have 1.2MHz oscillation voltage. The DC-DC converter based on PFM control circuit and low on-resistance switching device is presented in this paper.

Keywords: DT-CMOS, PMIC, PFM, DC-DC converter

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98 Design of CMOS CFOA Based on Pseudo Operational Transconductance Amplifier

Authors: Hassan Jassim Motlak


A novel design technique employing CMOS Current Feedback Operational Amplifier (CFOA) is presented. The feature of consumption whivh has a very low power in designing pseudo-OTA is used to decreasing the total power consumption of the proposed CFOA. This design approach applies pseudo-OTA as input stage cascaded with buffer stage. Moreover, the DC input offset voltage and harmonic distortion (HD) of the proposed CFOA are very low values compared with the conventional CMOS CFOA due to symmetrical input stage. P-Spice simulation results using 0.18µm MIETEC CMOS process parameters using supply voltage of ±1.2V and 50μA biasing current. The P-Spice simulation shows excellent improvement of the proposed CFOA over existing CMOS CFOA. Some of these performance parameters, for example, are DC gain of 62. dB, open-loop gain-bandwidth product of 108 MHz, slew rate (SR+) of +71.2V/µS, THD of -63dB and DC consumption power (PC) of 2mW.

Keywords: pseudo-OTA used CMOS CFOA, low power CFOA, high-performance CFOA, novel CFOA

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97 Design and Simulation a Low Phase Noise CMOS LC VCO for IEEE802.11a WLAN Applications

Authors: Hooman Kaabi, Raziyeh Karkoub


This work proposes a structure of AMOS-varactors. A 5GHz LC-VCO designed in TSMC 0.18μm CMOS to improve phase noise and tuning range performance. The tuning range is from 5.05GHZ to 5.88GHz.The phase noise is -154.9dBc/Hz at 1MHz offset from the carrier. It meets the requirements for IEEE 802.11a WLAN standard.

Keywords: CMOS LC VCO, spiral inductor, varactor, phase noise, tuning range

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96 A CMOS Capacitor Array for ESPAR with Fast Switching Time

Authors: Jin-Sup Kim, Se-Hwan Choi, Jae-Young Lee


A 8-bit CMOS capacitor array is designed for using in electrically steerable passive array radiator (ESPAR). The proposed capacitor array shows the fast response time in rising and falling characteristics. Compared to other works in silicon-on-insulator (SOI) or silicon-on-sapphire (SOS) technologies, it shows a comparable tuning range and switching time with low power consumption. Using the 0.18um CMOS, the capacitor array features a tuning range of 1.5 to 12.9 pF at 2.4GHz. Including the 2X4 decoder for control interface, the Chip size is 350um X 145um. Current consumption is about 80 nA at 1.8 V operation.

Keywords: CMOS capacitor array, ESPAR, SOI, SOS, switching time

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95 A Fault-Tolerant Full Adder in Double Pass CMOS Transistor

Authors: Abdelmonaem Ayachi, Belgacem Hamdi


This paper presents a fault-tolerant implementation for adder schemes using the dual duplication code. To prove the efficiency of the proposed method, the circuit is simulated in double pass transistor CMOS 32nm technology and some transient faults are voluntary injected in the Layout of the circuit. This fully differential implementation requires only 20 transistors which mean that the proposed design involves 28.57% saving in transistor count compared to standard CMOS technology.

Keywords: digital electronics, integrated circuits, full adder, 32nm CMOS tehnology, double pass transistor technology, fault toleance, self-checking

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94 0.13-μm CMOS Vector Modulator for Wireless Backhaul System

Authors: J. S. Kim, N. P. Hong


In this paper, a CMOS vector modulator designed for wireless backhaul system based on 802.11ac is presented. A poly phase filter and sign select switches yield two orthogonal signal paths. Two variable gain amplifiers with strongly reduced phase shift of only ±5 ° are used to weight these paths. It has a phase control range of 360 ° and a gain range of -10 dB to 10 dB. The current drawn from a 1.2 V supply amounts 20.4 mA. Using a 0.13 mm technology, the chip die area amounts 1.47x0.75 mm².

Keywords: CMOS, phase shifter, backhaul, 802.11ac

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93 Design and Characterization of a CMOS Process Sensor Utilizing Vth Extractor Circuit

Authors: Rohana Musa, Yuzman Yusoff, Chia Chieu Yin, Hanif Che Lah


This paper presents the design and characterization of a low power Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS) process sensor. The design is targeted for implementation using Silterra’s 180 nm CMOS process technology. The proposed process sensor employs a voltage threshold (Vth) extractor architecture for detection of variations in the fabrication process. The process sensor generates output voltages in the range of 401 mV (fast-fast corner) to 443 mV (slow-slow corner) at nominal condition. The power dissipation for this process sensor is 6.3 µW with a supply voltage of 1.8V with a silicon area of 190 µm X 60 µm. The preliminary result of this process sensor that was fabricated indicates a close resemblance between test and simulated results.

Keywords: CMOS process sensor, PVT sensor, threshold extractor circuit, Vth extractor circuit

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92 Inverter Based Gain-Boosting Fully Differential CMOS Amplifier

Authors: Alpana Agarwal, Akhil Sharma


This work presents a fully differential CMOS amplifier consisting of two self-biased gain boosted inverter stages, that provides an alternative to the power hungry operational amplifier. The self-biasing avoids the use of external biasing circuitry, thus reduces the die area, design efforts, and power consumption. In the present work, regulated cascode technique has been employed for gain boosting. The Miller compensation is also applied to enhance the phase margin. The circuit has been designed and simulated in 1.8 V 0.18 µm CMOS technology. The simulation results show a high DC gain of 100.7 dB, Unity-Gain Bandwidth of 107.8 MHz, and Phase Margin of 66.7o with a power dissipation of 286 μW and makes it suitable candidate for the high resolution pipelined ADCs.

Keywords: CMOS amplifier, gain boosting, inverter-based amplifier, self-biased inverter

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91 Performance Analysis of 180 nm Low Voltage Low Power CMOS OTA for High Frequency Application

Authors: D. J. Dahigaonkar, D. G. Wakde


The performance analysis of low voltage low power CMOS OTA is presented in this paper. The differential input single output OTA is simulated in 180nm CMOS process technology. The simulation results indicate high bandwidth of the order of 7.04GHz with 0.766mW power consumption and transconductance of -71.20dB. The total harmonic distortion for 100mV input at a frequency of 1MHz is found to be 2.3603%. In addition to this, to establish comparative analysis of designed OTA and analyze effect of technology scaling, the differential input single output OTA is further simulated using 350nm CMOS process technology and the comparative analysis is presented in this paper.

Keywords: Operational Transconductance Amplifier, Total Harmonic Distortions, low voltage/low power, power dissipation

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90 Design of a High Performance T/R Switch for 2.4 GHz RF Wireless Transceiver in 0.13 µm CMOS Technology

Authors: Mohammad Arif Sobhan Bhuiyan, Mamun Bin Ibne Reaz


The rapid advancement of CMOS technology, in the recent years, has led the scientists to fabricate wireless transceivers fully on-chip which results in smaller size and lower cost wireless communication devices with acceptable performance characteristics. Moreover, the performance of the wireless transceivers rigorously depends on the performance of its first block T/R switch. This article proposes a design of a high performance T/R switch for 2.4 GHz RF wireless transceivers in 0.13 µm CMOS technology. The switch exhibits 1- dB insertion loss, 37.2-dB isolation in transmit mode and 1.4-dB insertion loss, 25.6-dB isolation in receive mode. The switch has a power handling capacity (P1dB) of 30.9-dBm. Besides, by avoiding bulky inductors and capacitors, the size of the switch is drastically reduced and it occupies only (0.00296) mm2 which is the lowest ever reported in this frequency band. Therefore, simplicity and low chip area of the circuit will trim down the cost of fabrication as well as the whole transceiver.

Keywords: CMOS, ISM band, SPDT, t/r switch, transceiver

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89 A Low-Power, Low-Noise and High-Gain 58~66 GHz CMOS Receiver Front-End for Short-Range High-Speed Wireless Communications

Authors: Yo-Sheng Lin, Jen-How Lee, Chien-Chin Wang


A 60-GHz receiver front-end using standard 90-nm CMOS technology is reported. The receiver front-end comprises a wideband low-noise amplifier (LNA), and a double-balanced Gilbert cell mixer with a current-reused RF single-to-differential (STD) converter, an LO Marchand balun and a baseband amplifier. The receiver front-end consumes 34.4 mW and achieves LO-RF isolation of 60.7 dB, LO-IF isolation of 45.3 dB and RF-IF isolation of 41.9 dB at RF of 60 GHz and LO of 59.9 GHz. At IF of 0.1 GHz, the receiver front-end achieves maximum conversion gain (CG) of 26.1 dB at RF of 64 GHz and CG of 25.2 dB at RF of 60 GHz. The corresponding 3-dB bandwidth of RF is 7.3 GHz (58.4 GHz to 65.7 GHz). The measured minimum noise figure was 5.6 dB at 64 GHz, one of the best results ever reported for a 60 GHz CMOS receiver front-end. In addition, the measured input 1-dB compression point and input third-order inter-modulation point are -33.1 dBm and -23.3 dBm, respectively, at 60 GHz. These results demonstrate the proposed receiver front-end architecture is very promising for 60 GHz direct-conversion transceiver applications.

Keywords: CMOS, 60 GHz, direct-conversion transceiver, LNA, down-conversion mixer, marchand balun, current-reused

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88 Modeling and Simulation of a CMOS-Based Analog Function Generator

Authors: Madina Hamiane


Modelling and simulation of an analogy function generator is presented based on a polynomial expansion model. The proposed function generator model is based on a 10th order polynomial approximation of any of the required functions. The polynomial approximations of these functions can then be implemented using basic CMOS circuit blocks. In this paper, a circuit model is proposed that can simultaneously generate many different mathematical functions. The circuit model is designed and simulated with HSPICE and its performance is demonstrated through the simulation of a number of non-linear functions.

Keywords: modelling and simulation, analog function generator, polynomial approximation, CMOS transistors

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87 Designing and Simulation of a CMOS Square Root Analog Multiplier

Authors: Milad Kaboli


A new CMOS low voltage current-mode four-quadrant analog multiplier based on the squarer circuit with voltage output is presented. The proposed circuit is composed of a pair of current subtractors, a pair differential-input V-I converters and a pair of voltage squarers. The circuit was simulated using HSPICE simulator in standard 0.18 μm CMOS level 49 MOSIS (BSIM3 V3.2 SPICE-based). Simulation results show the performance of the proposed circuit and experimental results are given to confirm the operation. This topology of multiplier results in a high-frequency capability with low power consumption. The multiplier operates for a power supply ±1.2V. The simulation results of analog multiplier demonstrate a THD of 0.65% in 10MHz, a −3dB bandwidth of 1.39GHz, and a maximum power consumption of 7.1mW.

Keywords: analog processing circuit, WTA, LTA, low voltage

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86 Voltage Controlled Ring Oscillator for RF Applications in 0.18 µm CMOS Technology

Authors: Mohammad Arif Sobhan Bhuiyan, Zainal Abidin Nordin, Mamun Bin Ibne Reaz


A compact and power efficient high performance Voltage Controlled Oscillator (VCO) is a must in analog and digital circuits especially in the communication system, but the best trade-off among the performance parameters is a challenge for researchers. In this paper, a design of a compact 3-stage differential voltage controlled ring oscillator (VCRO) with low phase noise, low power and higher tuning bandwidth is proposed in 0.18 µm CMOS technology. The VCRO is designed with symmetric load and positive feedback techniques to achieve higher gain and minimum delay. The proposed VCRO can operate at tuning range of 3.9-5.0 GHz at 1.6 V supply voltage. The circuit consumes only 1.0757 mW of power and produces -129 dbc/Hz. The total active area of the proposed VCRO is only 11.74 x 37.73 µm2. Such a VCO can be the best choice for compact and low-power RF applications.

Keywords: CMOS, VCO, VCRO, oscillator

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85 An Approach for Modeling CMOS Gates

Authors: Spyridon Nikolaidis


A modeling approach for CMOS gates is presented based on the use of the equivalent inverter. A new model for the inverter has been developed using a simplified transistor current model which incorporates the nanoscale effects for the planar technology. Parametric expressions for the output voltage are provided as well as the values of the output and supply current to be compatible with the CCS technology. The model is parametric according the input signal slew, output load, transistor widths, supply voltage, temperature and process. The transistor widths of the equivalent inverter are determined by HSPICE simulations and parametric expressions are developed for that using a fitting procedure. Results for the NAND gate shows that the proposed approach offers sufficient accuracy with an average error in propagation delay about 5%.

Keywords: CMOS gate modeling, inverter modeling, transistor current mode, timing model

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84 A CMOS-Integrated Hall Plate with High Sensitivity

Authors: Jin Sup Kim, Min Seo


An improved cross-shaped hall plate with high sensitivity is described in this paper. Among different geometries that have been simulated and measured using Helmholtz coil. The paper describes the physical hall plate design and implementation in a 0.18-µm CMOS technology. In this paper, the biasing is a constant voltage mode. In the voltage mode, magnetic field is converted into an output voltage. The output voltage is typically in the order of micro- to millivolt and therefore, it must be amplified before being transmitted to the outside world. The study, design and performance optimization of hall plate has been carried out with the COMSOL Multiphysics. It is used to estimate the voltage distribution in the hall plate with and without magnetic field and to optimize the geometry. The simulation uses the nominal bias current of 1mA. The applied magnetic field is in the range from 0 mT to 20 mT. Measured results of the one structure over the 10 available samples show for the best sensitivity of 2.5 %/T at 20mT.

Keywords: cross-shaped hall plate, sensitivity, CMOS technology, Helmholtz coil

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83 Design and Implementation of A 10-bit SAR ADC with A Programmable Reference

Authors: Hasmayadi Abdul Majid, Yuzman Yusoff, Noor Shelida Salleh


This paper presents the development of a single-ended 38.5 kS/s 10-bit programmable reference SAR ADC which is realized in MIMOS’s 0.35 µm CMOS process. The design uses a resistive DAC, a dynamic comparator with pre-amplifier and a SAR digital logic to create 10 effective bits ADC. A programmable reference circuitry allows the ADC to operate with different input range from 0.6 V to 2.1 V. A single ended 38.5 kS/s 10-bit programmable reference SAR ADC was proposed and implemented in a 0.35 µm CMOS technology and consumed less than 7.5 mW power with a 3 V supply.

Keywords: successive approximation register analog-to-digital converter, SAR ADC, resistive DAC, programmable reference

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82 Low Power CMOS Amplifier Design for Wearable Electrocardiogram Sensor

Authors: Ow Tze Weng, Suhaila Isaak, Yusmeeraz Yusof


The trend of health care screening devices in the world is increasingly towards the favor of portability and wearability, especially in the most common electrocardiogram (ECG) monitoring system. This is because these wearable screening devices are not restricting the patient’s freedom and daily activities. While the demand of low power and low cost biomedical system on chip (SoC) is increasing in exponential way, the front end ECG sensors are still suffering from flicker noise for low frequency cardiac signal acquisition, 50 Hz power line electromagnetic interference, and the large unstable input offsets due to the electrode-skin interface is not attached properly. In this paper, a high performance CMOS amplifier for ECG sensors that suitable for low power wearable cardiac screening is proposed. The amplifier adopts the highly stable folded cascode topology and later being implemented into RC feedback circuit for low frequency DC offset cancellation. By using 0.13 µm CMOS technology from Silterra, the simulation results show that this front end circuit can achieve a very low input referred noise of 1 pV/√Hz and high common mode rejection ratio (CMRR) of 174.05 dB. It also gives voltage gain of 75.45 dB with good power supply rejection ratio (PSSR) of 92.12 dB. The total power consumption is only 3 µW and thus suitable to be implemented with further signal processing and classification back end for low power biomedical SoC.

Keywords: CMOS, ECG, amplifier, low power

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81 Design and Implementation of a 94 GHz CMOS Double-Balanced Up-Conversion Mixer for 94 GHz Imaging Radar Sensors

Authors: Yo-Sheng Lin, Run-Chi Liu, Chien-Chu Ji, Chih-Chung Chen, Chien-Chin Wang


A W-band double-balanced mixer for direct up-conversion using standard 90 nm CMOS technology is reported. The mixer comprises an enhanced double-balanced Gilbert cell with PMOS negative resistance compensation for conversion gain (CG) enhancement and current injection for power consumption reduction and linearity improvement, a Marchand balun for converting the single LO input signal to differential signal, another Marchand balun for converting the differential RF output signal to single signal, and an output buffer amplifier for loading effect suppression, power consumption reduction and CG enhancement. The mixer consumes low power of 6.9 mW and achieves LO-port input reflection coefficient of -17.8~ -38.7 dB and RF-port input reflection coefficient of -16.8~ -27.9 dB for frequencies of 90~100 GHz. The mixer achieves maximum CG of 3.6 dB at 95 GHz, and CG of 2.1±1.5 dB for frequencies of 91.9~99.4 GHz. That is, the corresponding 3 dB CG bandwidth is 7.5 GHz. In addition, the mixer achieves LO-RF isolation of 36.8 dB at 94 GHz. To the authors’ knowledge, the CG, LO-RF isolation and power dissipation results are the best data ever reported for a 94 GHz CMOS/BiCMOS up-conversion mixer.

Keywords: CMOS, W-band, up-conversion mixer, conversion gain, negative resistance compensation, output buffer amplifier

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80 Characterization of CuO Incorporated CMOS Dielectric for Fast Switching System

Authors: Nissar Mohammad Karim, Norhayati Soin


To ensure fast switching in high-K incorporated Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS) transistors, the results on the basis of d (NBTI) by incorporating SiO2 dielectric with aged samples of CuO sol-gels have been reported. Precursor ageing has been carried out for 4 days. The minimum obtained refractive index is 1.0099 which was found after 3 hours of adhesive UV curing. Obtaining a low refractive index exhibits a low dielectric constant and hence a faster system.

Keywords: refractive index, Sol-Gel, precursor aging, aging

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79 0.13-µm Complementary Metal-Oxide Semiconductor Vector Modulator for Beamforming System

Authors: J. S. Kim


This paper presents a 0.13-µm Complementary Metal-Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS) vector modulator for beamforming system. The vector modulator features a 360° phase and gain range of -10 dB to 10 dB with a root mean square phase and amplitude error of only 2.2° and 0.45 dB, respectively. These features make it a suitable for wireless backhaul system in the 5 GHz industrial, scientific, and medical (ISM) bands. It draws a current of 20.4 mA from a 1.2 V supply. The total chip size is 1.87x1.34 mm².

Keywords: CMOS, vector modulator, beamforming, 802.11ac

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78 Characterizing of CuO Incorporated CMOS Dielectric for Fast Switching System

Authors: Nissar Mohammad Karim, Norhayati Soin


To ensure fast switching in high-K incorporated Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS) transistors, the results on the basis of d (NBTI) by incorporating SiO2 dielectric with aged samples of CuO sol-gels have been reported. Precursor ageing has been carried out for 4 days. The minimum obtained refractive index is 1.0099 which was found after 3 hours of adhesive UV curing. Obtaining a low refractive index exhibits a low dielectric constant and hence a faster system.

Keywords: refractive index, sol-gel, precursor ageing, metallurgical and materials engineering

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77 Design of Low Power FSK Receiver

Authors: M. Aeysha Parvin, J. Asha, J. Jenifer


This letter presents a novel frequency-shift keying(FSK) receiver using PLL-based FSK demodulator, thereby achieving high sensitivity and low power consumption. The proposed receiver comprises a power amplifier, mixer, 3-stage ring oscillator, PLL based demodulator. Moreover, the proposed receiver is fabricated using 0.12µm CMOS process and consumes 0.7Mw. Measurement results demonstrate that the proposed receiver has a sensitivity of -93dbm with 1Mbps data rate in receiving a 2.4 GHz FSK signal.

Keywords: CMOS FSK receiver, phase locked loop (PLL), 3-stage ring oscillator, FSK signal

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76 2 Stage CMOS Regulated Cascode Distributed Amplifier Design Based On Inductive Coupling Technique in Submicron CMOS Process

Authors: Kittipong Tripetch, Nobuhiko Nakano


This paper proposes one stage and two stage CMOS Complementary Regulated Cascode Distributed Amplifier (CRCDA) design based on Inductive and Transformer coupling techniques. Usually, Distributed amplifier is based on inductor coupling between gate and gate of MOSFET and between drain and drain of MOSFET. But this paper propose some new idea, by coupling with differential primary windings of transformer between gate and gate of MOSFET first stage and second stage of regulated cascade amplifier and by coupling with differential secondary windings transformer of MOSFET between drain and drain of MOSFET first stage and second stage of regulated cascade amplifier. This paper also proposes polynomial modeling of Silicon Transformer passive equivalent circuit from Nanyang Technological University which is used to extract frequency response of transformer. Cadence simulation results are used to verify validity of transformer polynomial modeling which can be used to design distributed amplifier without Cadence. 4 parameters of scattering matrix of 2 port of the propose circuit is derived as a function of 4 parameters of impedance matrix.

Keywords: CMOS regulated cascode distributed amplifier, silicon transformer modeling with polynomial, low power consumption, distribute amplification technique

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75 Design and Simulation of 3-Transistor Active Pixel Sensor Using MATLAB Simulink

Authors: H. Alheeh, M. Alameri, A. Al Tarabsheh


There has been a growing interest in CMOS-based sensors technology in cameras as they afford low-power, small-size, and cost-effective imaging systems. This article describes the CMOS image sensor pixel categories and presents the design and the simulation of the 3-Transistor (3T) Active Pixel Sensor (APS) in MATLAB/Simulink tool. The analysis investigates the conversion of the light into an electrical signal for a single pixel sensing circuit, which consists of a photodiode and three NMOS transistors. The paper also proposes three modes for the pixel operation; reset, integration, and readout modes. The simulations of the electrical signals for each of the studied modes of operation show how the output electrical signals are correlated to the input light intensities. The charging/discharging speed for the photodiodes is also investigated. The output voltage for different light intensities, including in dark case, is calculated and showed its inverse proportionality with the light intensity.

Keywords: APS, CMOS image sensor, light intensities photodiode, simulation

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74 Dual-Rail Logic Unit in Double Pass Transistor Logic

Authors: Hamdi Belgacem, Fradi Aymen


In this paper we present a low power, low cost differential logic unit (LU). The proposed LU receives dual-rail inputs and generates dual-rail outputs. The proposed circuit can be used in Arithmetic and Logic Units (ALU) of processor. It can be also dedicated for self-checking applications based on dual duplication code. Four logic functions as well as their inverses are implemented within a single Logic Unit. The hardware overhead for the implementation of the proposed LU is lower than the hardware overhead required for standard LU implemented with standard CMOS logic style. This new implementation is attractive as fewer transistors are required to implement important logic functions. The proposed differential logic unit can perform 8 Boolean logical operations by using only 16 transistors. Spice simulations using a 32 nm technology was utilized to evaluate the performance of the proposed circuit and to prove its acceptable electrical behaviour.

Keywords: differential logic unit, double pass transistor logic, low power CMOS design, low cost CMOS design

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73 Microfabrication of Three-Dimensional SU-8 Structures Using Positive SPR Photoresist as a Sacrificial Layer for Integration of Microfluidic Components on Biosensors

Authors: Su Yin Chiam, Qing Xin Zhang, Jaehoon Chung


Complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) integrated circuits (ICs) have obtained increased attention in the biosensor community because CMOS technology provides cost-effective and high-performance signal processing at a mass-production level. In order to supply biological samples and reagents effectively to the sensing elements, there are increasing demands for seamless integration of microfluidic components on the fabricated CMOS wafers by post-processing. Although the PDMS microfluidic channels replicated from separately prepared silicon mold can be typically aligned and bonded onto the CMOS wafers, it remains challenging owing the inherently limited aligning accuracy ( > ± 10 μm) between the two layers. Here we present a new post-processing method to create three-dimensional microfluidic components using two different polarities of photoresists, an epoxy-based negative SU-8 photoresist and positive SPR220-7 photoresist. The positive photoresist serves as a sacrificial layer and the negative photoresist was utilized as a structural material to generate three-dimensional structures. Because both photoresists are patterned using a standard photolithography technology, the dimensions of the structures can be effectively controlled as well as the alignment accuracy, moreover, is dramatically improved (< ± 2 μm) and appropriately can be adopted as an alternative post-processing method. To validate the proposed processing method, we applied this technique to build cell-trapping structures. The SU8 photoresist was mainly used to generate structures and the SPR photoresist was used as a sacrificial layer to generate sub-channel in the SU8, allowing fluid to pass through. The sub-channel generated by etching the sacrificial layer works as a cell-capturing site. The well-controlled dimensions enabled single-cell capturing on each site and high-accuracy alignment made cells trapped exactly on the sensing units of CMOS biosensors.

Keywords: SU-8, microfluidic, MEMS, microfabrication

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72 Low Power, Highly Linear, Wideband LNA in Wireless SOC

Authors: Amir Mahdavi


In this paper a highly linear CMOS low noise amplifier (LNA) for ultra-wideband (UWB) applications is proposed. The proposed LNA uses a linearization technique to improve second and third-order intercept points (IIP3). The linearity is cured by repealing the common-mode section of all intermodulation components from the cascade topology current with optimization of biasing current use symmetrical and asymmetrical circuits for biasing. Simulation results show that maximum gain and noise figure are 6.9dB and 3.03-4.1dB over a 3.1–10.6 GHz, respectively. Power consumption of the LNA core and IIP3 are 2.64 mW and +4.9dBm respectively. The wideband input impedance matching of LNA is obtained by employing a degenerating inductor (|S11|<-9.1 dB). The circuit proposed UWB LNA is implemented using 0.18 μm based CMOS technology.

Keywords: highly linear LNA, low-power LNA, optimal bias techniques

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71 An 8-Bit, 100-MSPS Fully Dynamic SAR ADC for Ultra-High Speed Image Sensor

Authors: F. Rarbi, D. Dzahini, W. Uhring


In this paper, a dynamic and power efficient 8-bit and 100-MSPS Successive Approximation Register (SAR) Analog-to-Digital Converter (ADC) is presented. The circuit uses a non-differential capacitive Digital-to-Analog (DAC) architecture segmented by 2. The prototype is produced in a commercial 65-nm 1P7M CMOS technology with 1.2-V supply voltage. The size of the core ADC is 208.6 x 103.6 µm2. The post-layout noise simulation results feature a SNR of 46.9 dB at Nyquist frequency, which means an effective number of bit (ENOB) of 7.5-b. The total power consumption of this SAR ADC is only 1.55 mW at 100-MSPS. It achieves then a figure of merit of 85.6 fJ/step.

Keywords: CMOS analog to digital converter, dynamic comparator, image sensor application, successive approximation register

Procedia PDF Downloads 277