Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 31

Search results for: WLAN

31 Performance Evaluation of Vertical Handover on Silom Line BTS

Authors: Silumpa Suboonsan, Suwat Pattaramalai


In this paper, the performance of internet usage by using Vertical Handover (VHO) between cellular network and wireless local area network (WLAN) on Silom line Bangkok Mass Transit System (BTS) is evaluated. In the evaluation model, there is the WLAN on every BTS station and there are cellular base stations along the BTS path. The maximum data rates for cellular network are 7.2, 14.4, 42, and 100Mbps and for WLAN are 54, 150, and 300Mbps. The simulation are based on users using internet, watching VDOs and browsing web pages, on the BTS train from first station to the last station (full time usage) and on the BTS train for traveling some number of stations (random time). The results shows that VHO system has throughput a lot more than using only cellular network when the data rate of WLAN is more than one of cellular network. Lastly, the number of watching HD VDO and Full HD VDO is higher on VHO system on both regular time and rush hour of BTS travelling.

Keywords: vertical handover, WLAN, cellular, silom line BTS

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30 Study of the Vertical Handoff in Heterogeneous Networks and Implement Based on Opnet

Authors: Wafa Benaatou, Adnane Latif


In this document we studied more in detail the Performances of the vertical handover in the networks WLAN, WiMAX, UMTS before studying of it the Procedure of Handoff Vertical, the whole buckled by simulations putting forward the performances of the handover in the heterogeneous networks. The goal of Vertical Handover is to carry out several accesses in real-time in the heterogeneous networks. This makes it possible a user to use several networks (such as WLAN UMTS and WiMAX) in parallel, and the system to commutate automatically at another basic station, without disconnecting itself, as if there were no cut and with little loss of data as possible.

Keywords: vertical handoff, WLAN, UMTS, WIMAX, heterogeneous

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29 Design of Compact Dual-Band Planar Antenna for WLAN Systems

Authors: Anil Kumar Pandey


A compact planar monopole antenna with dual-band operation suitable for wireless local area network (WLAN) application is presented in this paper. The antenna occupies an overall area of 18 ×12 mm2. The antenna is fed by a coplanar waveguide (CPW) transmission line and it combines two folded strips, which radiates at 2.4 and 5.2 GHz. In the proposed antenna, by optimally selecting the antenna dimensions, dual-band resonant modes with a much wider impedance matching at the higher band can be produced. Prototypes of the obtained optimized design have been simulated using EM solver. The simulated results explore good dual-band operation with -10 dB impedance bandwidths of 50 MHz and 2400 MHz at bands of 2.4 and 5.2 GHz, respectively, which cover the 2.4/5.2/5.8 GHz WLAN operating bands. Good antenna performances such as radiation patterns and antenna gains over the operating bands have also been observed. The antenna with a compact size of 18×12×1.6 mm3 is designed on an FR4 substrate with a dielectric constant of 4.4.

Keywords: CPW antenna, dual-band, electromagnetic simulation, wireless local area network (WLAN)

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28 A Compact Wearable Slot Antenna for LTE and WLAN Applications

Authors: Haider K. Raad


In this paper, a compact wide-band, ultra-thin and flexible slot antenna intended for wearable applications is presented. The presented antenna is designed to provide Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN) and Long Term Evolution (LTE) connectivity. The presented design exhibits a relatively wide bandwidth (1600-3500 MHz below -6 dB impedance bandwidth limit). The antenna is positioned on a 33 mm x 30 mm flexible substrate with a thickness of 50 µm. Antenna properties, such as the far-field radiation patterns, scattering parameter S11 are provided. The presented compact, thin and flexible design along with excellent radiation characteristics are deemed suitable for integration into flexible and wearable devices.

Keywords: wearable electronics, slot Antenna, LTE, WLAN

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27 Examples of Techniques and Algorithms Used in Wlan Security

Authors: Vahid Bairami Rad


Wireless communications offer organizations and users many benefits such as portability and flexibility, increased productivity, and lower installation costs. Wireless networks serve as the transport mechanism between devices and among devices and the traditional wired networks (enterprise networks and the internet). Wireless networks are many and diverse but are frequently categorized into three groups based on their coverage range: WWAN, WLAN, and WPAN. WWAN, representing wireless wide area networks, includes wide coverage area technologies such as 2G cellular, Cellular Digital Packet Data (CDPD), Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM), and Mobitex. WLAN, representing wireless local area networks, includes 802.11, Hyper lan, and several others. WPAN, represents wireless personal area network technologies such as Bluetooth and Infrared. The security services are provided largely by the WEP (Wired Equivalent Privacy) protocol to protect link-level data during wireless transmission between clients and access points. That is, WEP does not provide end-to-end security but only for the wireless portion of the connection.

Keywords: wireless lan, wired equivalent privacy, wireless network security, wlan security

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26 Dual Band Antenna Design with Compact Radiator for 2.5/5.2/5.8 Ghz Wlan Application Using Genetic Algorithm

Authors: Ramnath Narhete, Saket Pandey, Puran Gour


This paper presents of dual-band planner antenna with a compact radiator for 2.4/5.2/5.8 proposed by optimizing its resonant frequency, Bandwidth of operation and radiation frequency using the genetic algorithm. The antenna consists L-shaped and E-shaped radiating element to generate two resonant modes for dual band operation. The above techniques have been successfully used in many applications. Dual band antenna with the compact radiator for 2.4/5.2/5.8 GHz WLAN application design and radiator size only width 8mm and a length is 11.3 mm. The antenna can we used for various application in the field of communication. Genetic algorithm will be used to design the antenna and impedance matching network.

Keywords: genetic algorithm, dual-band E, dual-band L, WLAN, compact radiator

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25 Design and Simulation a Low Phase Noise CMOS LC VCO for IEEE802.11a WLAN Applications

Authors: Hooman Kaabi, Raziyeh Karkoub


This work proposes a structure of AMOS-varactors. A 5GHz LC-VCO designed in TSMC 0.18μm CMOS to improve phase noise and tuning range performance. The tuning range is from 5.05GHZ to 5.88GHz.The phase noise is -154.9dBc/Hz at 1MHz offset from the carrier. It meets the requirements for IEEE 802.11a WLAN standard.

Keywords: CMOS LC VCO, spiral inductor, varactor, phase noise, tuning range

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24 Impact of Capture Effect on Receiver Initiated Collision Detection with Sequential Resolution in WLAN

Authors: Sethu Lekshmi, Shahanas, Prettha P.


All existing protocols in wireless networks are mainly based on Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision avoidance. By applying collision detection in wireless networks, the time spent on collision can be reduced and thus improves system throughput. However in a real WLAN scenario due to the use of nonlinear modulation techniques only receiver can decided whether a packet loss take place, even there are multiple transmissions. In this proposed method, the receiver or Access Point detects the collision when multiple data packets are transmitted from different wireless stations. Whenever the receiver detects a collision, it transmits a jamming signal to all the transmitting stations so that they can immediately stop their on-going transmissions. We also provide preferential access to all collided packet to reduce unfairness and to increase system throughput by reducing contention. However, this preferential access will not block the channel for the long time. Here, an in-band transmission is considered in which both the data frames and control frames are transmitted in the same channel. We also provide a simple mathematical model for the proposed protocol and give the simulation result of WLAN scenario under various capture thresholds.

Keywords: 802.11, WLAN, capture effect, collision detection, collision resolution, receiver initiated

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23 A Compact Ultra-Wide Band Antenna with C-Shaped Slot for WLAN Notching

Authors: Maryam Rasool, Farhan Munir, Fahad Nawaz, Saad Ahmad


A patch antenna operating in the Ultra-Wide Band of frequency (3.1 GHz – 10.6 GHz) is designed with enhanced security from interference from other applications by incorporating the notching technique. Patch antennas in the Ultra-Wide Band are becoming widely famous due to their low power, light weight and high data rate capability. Micro strip patch antenna’s patch can be altered to increase its bandwidth and introduce UWB character in it. The designed antenna is a patch antenna consisting of a conductive sheet of metal mounted over a large sheet of metal called the ground plane with a substrate separating the two. Notched bands are public safety WLAN, WLAN and FSS. Different techniques used to implement the UWB antenna were individually implemented and there results were examined. V shaped patch was then chosen and modified to an arrow shaped patch to give the optimized results operating on the entire UWB region with considerable return loss. The frequency notch prevents the operation of the antenna at a particular range of frequency, hence minimizing interference from other systems. There are countless techniques for introducing the notch but we have used inverted C-shaped slots in the UWB patch to get the notch characteristics as output and also wavelength resonators to introduce notch in UWB band. The designed antenna is simulated in High Frequency Structural Simulator (HFSS) 13.0 by Ansoft.

Keywords: HFSS, Notch, UWB, WLAN

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22 Performance Analysis of Routing Protocols for WLAN Based Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs)

Authors: Noman Shabbir, Roheel Nawaz, Muhammad N. Iqbal, Junaid Zafar


This paper focuses on the performance evaluation of routing protocols in WLAN based Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs). A comparative analysis of routing protocols such as Ad-hoc On-demand Distance Vector Routing System (AODV), Dynamic Source Routing (DSR) and Optimized Link State Routing (OLSR) is been made against different network parameters like network load, end to end delay and throughput in small, medium and large-scale sensor network scenarios to identify the best performing protocol. Simulation results indicate that OLSR gives minimum network load in all three scenarios while AODV gives the best throughput in small scale network but in medium and large scale networks, DSR is better. In terms of delay, OLSR is more efficient in small and medium scale network while AODV is slightly better in large networks.


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21 Compact 3-D Co-Planar Waveguide Fed Dual-Port Ultrawideband-Multiple-Input and Multiple-Output Antenna with WLAN Band-Notched Characteristics

Authors: Asim Quddus


A miniaturized three dimensional co-planar waveguide (CPW) two-port MIMO antenna, exhibiting high isolation and WLAN band-notched characteristics is presented in this paper for ultrawideband (UWB) communication applications. The microstrip patch antenna operates as a single UWB antenna element. The proposed design is a cuboid-shaped structure having compact size of 35 x 27 x 45 mm³. Radiating as well as decoupling structure is placed around cuboidal polystyrene sheet. The radiators are 27 mm apart, placed Face-to-Face in vertical direction. Decoupling structure is placed on the side walls of polystyrene. The proposed antenna consists of an oval shaped radiating patch. A rectangular structure with fillet edges is placed on ground plan to enhance the bandwidth. The proposed antenna exhibits a good impedance match (S11 ≤ -10 dB) over frequency band of 2 GHz – 10.6 GHz. A circular slotted structure is employed as a decoupling structure on substrate, and it is placed on the side walls of polystyrene to enhance the isolation between antenna elements. Moreover, to achieve immunity from WLAN band distortion, a modified, inverted crescent shaped slotted structure is etched on radiating patches to achieve band-rejection characteristics at WLAN frequency band 4.8 GHz – 5.2 GHz. The suggested decoupling structure provides isolation better than 15 dB over the desired UWB spectrum. The envelope correlation coefficient (ECC) and gain for the MIMO antenna are analyzed as well. Finite Element Method (FEM) simulations are carried out in Ansys High Frequency Structural Simulator (HFSS) for the proposed design. The antenna is realized on a Rogers RT/duroid 5880 with thickness 1 mm, relative permittivity ɛr = 2.2. The proposed antenna achieves a stable omni-directional radiation patterns as well, while providing rejection at desired WLAN band. The S-parameters as well as MIMO parameters like ECC are analyzed and the results show conclusively that the design is suitable for portable MIMO-UWB applications.

Keywords: 3-D antenna, band-notch, MIMO, UWB

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20 Analyzing the Impact of DCF and PCF on WLAN Network Standards 802.11a, 802.11b, and 802.11g

Authors: Amandeep Singh Dhaliwal


Networking solutions, particularly wireless local area networks have revolutionized the technological advancement. Wireless Local Area Networks (WLANs) have gained a lot of popularity as they provide location-independent network access between computing devices. There are a number of access methods used in Wireless Networks among which DCF and PCF are the fundamental access methods. This paper emphasizes on the impact of DCF and PCF access mechanisms on the performance of the IEEE 802.11a, 802.11b and 802.11g standards. On the basis of various parameters viz. throughput, delay, load etc performance is evaluated between these three standards using above mentioned access mechanisms. Analysis revealed a superior throughput performance with low delays for 802.11g standard as compared to 802.11 a/b standard using both DCF and PCF access methods.

Keywords: DCF, IEEE, PCF, WLAN

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19 Multiband Multipolarized Planar Antenna for WLAN/WiMAX Applications

Authors: Sanjeeva Reddy, D. Vakula


A single layer, multi-band triangular patch antenna is proposed for WLAN/WiMAX applications with different polarization requirements. This probe feed patch is integrated with arc shaped slit to achieve circular polarized (CP) and linearly polarized (LP) radiation characteristics. The main contribution of antenna is to resonate the frequencies of 2.4 GHz with CP and 3.5 GHz, 5.28 GHz with LP. The design procedure of antenna is described and the performance is validated using measurements. Size of antenna is also reduced and provides stable gain at all resonant frequencies. Proposed structure also provides better enhancement in terms of 10-dB impedance bandwidth, achieved gain of 5.1, 5.6, and 2.9 dBi at respective bands.

Keywords: circular polarization, arc shaped slit, multi band antenna, triangular patch antenna, axial ratio

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18 A Dual Band Microstrip Patch Antenna for WLAN and WiMAX Applications

Authors: P. Krachodnok


In this paper, the design of a multiple U-slotted microstrip patch antenna with frequency selective surface (FSS) as a superstrate for WLAN and WiMAX applications is presented. The proposed antenna is designed by using substrate FR4 having permittivity of 4.4 and air substrate. The characteristics of the antenna are designed and evaluated the performance of modelled antenna using CST Microwave studio. The proposed antenna dual resonant frequency has been achieved in the band of 2.37-2.55 GHz and 3.4-3.6 GHz. Because of the impact of FSS superstrate, it is found that the bandwidths have been improved from 6.12% to 7.35 % and 3.7% to 5.7% at resonant frequencies 2.45 GHz and 3.5 GHz, respectively. The maximum gain at the resonant frequency of 2.45 and 3.5 GHz are 9.3 and 11.33 dBi, respectively.

Keywords: multi-slotted antenna, microstrip patch antenna, frequency selective surface, artificial magnetic conduction

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17 Swastika Shape Multiband Patch Antenna for Wireless Applications on Low Cost Substrate

Authors: Md. Samsuzzaman, M. T. Islam, J. S. Mandeep, N. Misran


In this article, a compact simple structure modified Swastika shape patch multiband antenna on a substrate of available low cost polymer resin composite material is designed for Wi-Fi and WiMAX applications. The substrate material consists of an epoxy matrix reinforced by woven glass. The designed micro-strip line fed compact antenna comprises of a planar wide square slot ground with four slits and Swastika shape radiation patch with a rectangular slot. The effect of the different substrate materials on the reflection coefficients of the proposed antennas was also analyzed. It can be clearly seen that the proposed antenna provides a wider bandwidth and acceptable return loss value compared to other reported materials. The simulation results exhibits that the antenna has an impedance bandwidth with -10 dB return loss at 3.01-3.89 GHz and 4.88-6.10 GHz which can cover both the WLAN, WiMAX and public safety WLAN bands. The proposed swastika shape antenna was designed and analyzed by using a finite element method based simulator HFSS and designed on a low cost FR4 (polymer resin composite material) printed circuit board. The electrical performances and superior frequency characteristics make the proposed material antenna desirable for wireless communications.

Keywords: epoxy resin polymer, multiband, swastika shaped, wide slot, WLAN/WiMAX

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16 Gradient Index Metalens for WLAN Applications

Authors: Akram Boubakri, Fethi Choubeni, Tan Hoa Vuong, Jacques David


The control of electromagnetic waves is a key aim of several researches over the past decade. In this regard, Metamaterials have shown a strong ability to manipulate the electromagnetic waves on a subwavelength scales thanks to its unconventional properties that are not available in natural materials such as negative refraction index, super imaging and invisibility cloaking. Metalenses were used to avoid some drawbacks presented by conventional lenses since focusing with conventional lenses suffered from the limited resolution because they were only able to focus the propagating wave component. Nevertheless, Metalenses were able to go beyond the diffraction limit and enhance the resolution not only by collecting the propagating waves but also by restoring the amplitude of evanescent waves that decay rapidly when going far from the source and that contains the finest details of the image. Metasurfaces have many mechanical advantages over three-dimensional metamaterial structures especially the ease of fabrication and a smaller required volume. Those structures have been widely used for antenna performance improvement and to build flat metalenses. In this work, we showed that a well-designed metasurface lens operating at the frequency of 5.9GHz, has efficiently enhanced the radiation characteristics of a patch antenna and can be used for WLAN applications (IEEE 802.11 a). The proposed metasurface lens is built with a geometrically modified unit cells which lead to a change in the response of the lens at different position and allow the control of the wavefront beam of the incident wave thanks to the gradient refractive index.

Keywords: focusing, gradient index, metasurface, metalens, WLAN Applications

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15 Isolation Enhancement of Compact Dual-Band Printed Multiple Input Multiple Output Antenna for WLAN Applications

Authors: Adham M. Salah, Tariq A. Nagem, Raed A. Abd-Alhameed, James M. Noras


Recently, the demand for wireless communications systems to cover more than one frequency band (multi-band) with high data rate has been increased for both fixed and mobile services. Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO) technology is one of the significant solutions for attaining these requirements and to achieve the maximum channel capacity of the wireless communications systems. The main issue associated with MIMO antennas especially in portable devices is the compact space between the radiating elements which leads to limit the physical separation between them. This issue exacerbates the performance of the MIMO antennas by increasing the mutual coupling between the radiating elements. In other words, the mutual coupling will be stronger if the radiating elements of the MIMO antenna are closer. This paper presents a low–profile dual-band (2×1) MIMO antenna that works at 2.4GHz, 5.3GHz and 5.8GHz for wireless local area networks (WLAN) applications. A neutralization line (NL) technique for enhancing the isolation has been used by introducing a strip line with a length of λg/4 at the isolation frequency (2.4GHz) between the radiating elements. The overall dimensions of the antenna are 33.5 x 36 x 1.6 mm³. The fabricated prototype shows a good agreement between the simulated and measured results. The antenna impedance bandwidths are 2.38–2.75 GHz and 4.4–6 GHz for the lower and upper band respectively; the reflection coefficient and mutual coupling are better than -25 dB in both lower and higher bands. The MIMO antenna performance characteristics are reported in terms of the scattering parameters, envelope correlation coefficient (ECC), total active reflection coefficient, capacity loss, antenna gain, and radiation patterns. Analysis of these characteristics indicates that the design is appropriate for the WLAN terminal applications.

Keywords: ECC, neutralization line, MIMO antenna, multi-band, mutual coupling, WLAN

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14 Design of Multiband Microstrip Antenna Using Stepped Cut Method for WLAN/WiMAX and C/Ku-Band Applications

Authors: Ahmed Boutejdar, Bishoy I. Halim, Soumia El Hani, Larbi Bellarbi, Amal Afyf


In this paper, a planar monopole antenna for multi band applications is proposed. The antenna structure operates at three operating frequencies at 3.7, 6.2, and 13.5 GHz which cover different communication frequency ranges. The antenna consists of a quasi-modified rectangular radiating patch with a partial ground plane and two parasitic elements (open-loop-ring resonators) to serve as coupling-bridges. A stepped cut at lower corners of the radiating patch and the partial ground plane are used, to achieve the multiband features. The proposed antenna is manufactured on the FR4 substrate and is simulated and optimized using High Frequency Simulation System (HFSS). The antenna topology possesses an area of 30.5 x 30 x 1.6 mm3. The measured results demonstrate that the candidate antenna has impedance bandwidths for 10 dB return loss and operates from 3.80 – 3.90 GHz, 4.10 – 5.20 GHz, 11.2 – 11.5 GHz and from 12.5 – 14.0 GHz, which meet the requirements of the wireless local area network (WLAN), worldwide interoperability for microwave access (WiMAX), C- (Uplink) and Ku- (Uplink) band applications. Acceptable agreement is obtained between measurement and simulation results. Experimental results show that the antenna is successfully simulated and measured, and the tri-band antenna can be achieved by adjusting the lengths of the three elements and it gives good gains across all the operation bands.

Keywords: planar monopole antenna, FR4 substrate, HFSS, WLAN, WiMAX, C and Ku

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13 Relay Node Selection Algorithm for Cooperative Communications in Wireless Networks

Authors: Sunmyeng Kim


IEEE 802.11a/b/g standards support multiple transmission rates. Even though the use of multiple transmission rates increase the WLAN capacity, this feature leads to the performance anomaly problem. Cooperative communication was introduced to relieve the performance anomaly problem. Data packets are delivered to the destination much faster through a relay node with high rate than through direct transmission to the destination at low rate. In the legacy cooperative protocols, a source node chooses a relay node only based on the transmission rate. Therefore, they are not so feasible in multi-flow environments since they do not consider the effect of other flows. To alleviate the effect, we propose a new relay node selection algorithm based on the transmission rate and channel contention level. Performance evaluation is conducted using simulation, and shows that the proposed protocol significantly outperforms the previous protocol in terms of throughput and delay.

Keywords: cooperative communications, MAC protocol, relay node, WLAN

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12 Intelligent Indoor Localization Using WLAN Fingerprinting

Authors: Gideon C. Joseph


The ability to localize mobile devices is quite important, as some applications may require location information of these devices to operate or deliver better services to the users. Although there are several ways of acquiring location data of mobile devices, the WLAN fingerprinting approach has been considered in this work. This approach uses the Received Signal Strength Indicator (RSSI) measurement as a function of the position of the mobile device. RSSI is a quantitative technique of describing the radio frequency power carried by a signal. RSSI may be used to determine RF link quality and is very useful in dense traffic scenarios where interference is of major concern, for example, indoor environments. This research aims to design a system that can predict the location of a mobile device, when supplied with the mobile’s RSSIs. The developed system takes as input the RSSIs relating to the mobile device, and outputs parameters that describe the location of the device such as the longitude, latitude, floor, and building. The relationship between the Received Signal Strengths (RSSs) of mobile devices and their corresponding locations is meant to be modelled; hence, subsequent locations of mobile devices can be predicted using the developed model. It is obvious that describing mathematical relationships between the RSSIs measurements and localization parameters is one option to modelling the problem, but the complexity of such an approach is a serious turn-off. In contrast, we propose an intelligent system that can learn the mapping of such RSSIs measurements to the localization parameters to be predicted. The system is capable of upgrading its performance as more experiential knowledge is acquired. The most appealing consideration to using such a system for this task is that complicated mathematical analysis and theoretical frameworks are excluded or not needed; the intelligent system on its own learns the underlying relationship in the supplied data (RSSI levels) that corresponds to the localization parameters. These localization parameters to be predicted are of two different tasks: Longitude and latitude of mobile devices are real values (regression problem), while the floor and building of the mobile devices are of integer values or categorical (classification problem). This research work presents artificial neural network based intelligent systems to model the relationship between the RSSIs predictors and the mobile device localization parameters. The designed systems were trained and validated on the collected WLAN fingerprint database. The trained networks were then tested with another supplied database to obtain the performance of trained systems on achieved Mean Absolute Error (MAE) and error rates for the regression and classification tasks involved therein.

Keywords: indoor localization, WLAN fingerprinting, neural networks, classification, regression

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11 2.4 GHz 0.13µM Multi Biased Cascode Power Amplifier for ISM Band Wireless Applications

Authors: Udayan Patankar, Shashwati Bhagat, Vilas Nitneware, Ants Koel


An ISM band power amplifier is a type of electronic amplifier used to convert a low-power radio-frequency signal into a larger signal of significant power, typically used for driving the antenna of a transmitter. Due to drastic changes in telecommunication generations may lead to the requirements of improvements. Rapid changes in communication lead to the wide implementation of WLAN technology for its excellent characteristics, such as high transmission speed, long communication distance, and high reliability. Many applications such as WLAN, Bluetooth, and ZigBee, etc. were evolved with 2.4GHz to 5 GHz ISM Band, in which the power amplifier (PA) is a key building block of RF transmitters. There are many manufacturing processes available to manufacture a power amplifier for desired power output, but the major problem they have faced is about the power it consumed for its proper working, as many of them are fabricated on the GaN HEMT, Bi COMS process. In this paper we present a CMOS Base two stage cascode design of power amplifier working on 2.4GHz ISM frequency band. To lower the costs and allow full integration of a complete System-on-Chip (SoC) we have chosen 0.13µm low power CMOS technology for design. While designing a power amplifier, it is a real task to achieve higher power efficiency with minimum resources. This design showcase the Multi biased Cascode methodology to implement a two-stage CMOS power amplifier using ADS and LTSpice simulating tool. Main source is maximum of 2.4V which is internally distributed into different biasing point VB driving and VB driven as required for distinct stages of two stage RF power amplifier. It shows maximum power added efficiency near about 70.195% whereas its Power added efficiency calculated at 1 dB compression point is 44.669 %. Biased MOSFET is used to reduce total dc current as this circuit is designed for different wireless applications comes under 2.4GHz ISM Band.

Keywords: RFIC, PAE, RF CMOS, impedance matching

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10 On the Performance Analysis of Coexistence between IEEE 802.11g and IEEE 802.15.4 Networks

Authors: Chompunut Jantarasorn, Chutima Prommak


This paper presents an intensive measurement studying of the network performance analysis when IEEE 802.11g Wireless Local Area Networks (WLAN) coexisting with IEEE 802.15.4 Wireless Personal Area Network (WPAN). The measurement results show that the coexistence between both networks could increase the Frame Error Rate (FER) of the IEEE 802.15.4 networks up to 60% and it could decrease the throughputs of the IEEE 802.11g networks up to 55%.

Keywords: wireless performance analysis, coexistence analysis, IEEE 802.11g, IEEE 802.15.4

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9 Assessment of Cytogenetic Damage as a Function of Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Radiations Exposure Measured by Electric Field Strength: A Gender Based Study

Authors: Ramanpreet, Gursatej Gandhi


Background: Dependence on electromagnetic radiations involved in communication and information technologies has incredibly increased in the personal and professional world. Among the numerous radiations, sources are fixed site transmitters, mobile phone base stations, and power lines beside indoor devices like cordless phones, WiFi, Bluetooth, TV, radio, microwave ovens, etc. Rather there is the continuous emittance of radiofrequency radiations (RFR) even to those not using the devices from mobile phone base stations. The consistent and widespread usage of wireless devices has build-up electromagnetic fields everywhere. In fact, the radiofrequency electromagnetic field (RF-EMF) has insidiously become a part of the environment and like any contaminant may pose to be health-hazardous requiring assessment. Materials and Methods: In the present study, cytogenetic damage was assessed using the Buccal Micronucleus Cytome (BMCyt) assay as a function of radiation exposure after Institutional Ethics Committee clearance of the study and written voluntary informed consent from the participants. On a pre-designed questionnaire, general information lifestyle patterns (diet, physical activity, smoking, drinking, use of mobile phones, internet, Wi-Fi usage, etc.) genetic, reproductive (pedigrees) and medical histories were recorded. For this, 24 hour-personal exposimeter measurements (PEM) were recorded for unrelated 60 healthy adults (40 cases residing in the vicinity of mobile phone base stations since their installation and 20 controls residing in areas with no base stations). The personal exposimeter collects information from all the sources generating EMF (TETRA, GSM, UMTS, DECT, and WLAN) as total RF-EMF uplink and downlink. Findings: The cases (n=40; 23-90 years) and the controls (n=20; 19-65 years) matched for alcohol drinking, smoking habits, and mobile and cordless phone usage. The PEM in cases (149.28 ± 8.98 mV/m) revealed significantly higher (p=0.000) electric field strength compared to the recorded value (80.40 ± 0.30 mV/m) in controls. The GSM 900 uplink (p=0.000), GSM 1800 downlink (p=0.000),UMTS (both uplink; p=0.013 and downlink; p=0.001) and DECT (p=0.000) electric field strength were significantly elevated in the cases as compared to controls. The electric field strength in the cases was significantly from GSM1800 (52.26 ± 4.49mV/m) followed by GSM900 (45.69 ± 4.98mV/m), UMTS (25.03 ± 3.33mV/m), DECT (18.02 ± 2.14mV/m) and was least from WLAN (8.26 ± 2.35mV/m). The higher significantly (p=0.000) increased exposure to the cases was from GSM (97.96 ± 6.97mV/m) in comparison to UMTS, DECT, and WLAN. The frequencies of micronuclei (1.86X, p=0.007), nuclear buds (2.95X, p=0.002) and cell death parameter (condensed chromatin cells) were significantly (1.75X, p=0.007) elevated in cases compared to that in controls probably as a function of radiofrequency radiation exposure. Conclusion: In the absence of other exposure(s), any cytogenetic damage if unrepaired is a cause of concern as it can cause malignancy. Larger sample size with the clinical assessment will prove more insightful of such an effect.

Keywords: Buccal micronucleus cytome assay, cytogenetic damage, electric field strength, personal exposimeter

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8 The Maximum Throughput Analysis of UAV Datalink 802.11b Protocol

Authors: Inkyu Kim, SangMan Moon


This IEEE 802.11b protocol provides up to 11Mbps data rate, whereas aerospace industry wants to seek higher data rate COTS data link system in the UAV. The Total Maximum Throughput (TMT) and delay time are studied on many researchers in the past years This paper provides theoretical data throughput performance of UAV formation flight data link using the existing 802.11b performance theory. We operate the UAV formation flight with more than 30 quad copters with 802.11b protocol. We may be predicting that UAV formation flight numbers have to bound data link protocol performance limitations.

Keywords: UAV datalink, UAV formation flight datalink, UAV WLAN datalink application, UAV IEEE 802.11b datalink application

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7 Design and Implementation of Campus Wireless Networking for Sharing Resources in Federal Polytechnic Bauchi, Bauchi State, Nigeria

Authors: Hassan Abubakar


This paper will serve as a guide to good design and implementation of wireless networking for campus institutions in Nigeria. It can be implemented throughout the primary, secondary and tertiary institutions. This paper describe the some technical functions, standard configurations and layouts of the 802.11 wireless LAN(Local Area Network) that can be implemented across the campus network. The paper also touches upon the wireless infrastructure standards involved with enhanced services, such as voice over wireless and wireless guest hotspot. The paper also touch the benefits derived from implementing campus wireless network and share some lights on how to arrive at the success in increasing the performance of wireless and using the campus wireless to share resources like software applications, printer and documents.

Keywords: networking, standards, wireless local area network (WLAN), radio frequency (RF), campus

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6 Utilization of Secure Wireless Networks as Environment for Learning and Teaching in Higher Education

Authors: Mohammed A. M. Ibrahim


This paper investigate the utilization of wire and wireless networks to be platform for distributed educational monitoring system. Universities in developing countries suffer from a lot of shortages(staff, equipment, and finical budget) and optimal utilization of the wire and wireless network, so universities can mitigate some of the mentioned problems and avoid the problems that maybe humble the education processes in many universities by using our implementation of the examinations system as a test-bed to utilize the network as a solution to the shortages for academic staff in Taiz University. This paper selects a two areas first one quizzes activities is only a test bed application for wireless network learning environment system to be distributed among students. Second area is the features and the security of wireless, our tested application implemented in a promising area which is the use of WLAN in higher education for leering environment.

Keywords: networking wire and wireless technology, wireless network security, distributed computing, algorithm, encryption and decryption

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5 Data Rate Based Grouping Scheme for Cooperative Communications in Wireless LANs

Authors: Sunmyeng Kim


IEEE 802.11a/b/g standards provide multiple transmission rates, which can be changed dynamically according to the channel condition.Cooperative communications we reintroduced to improve the overallperformance of wireless LANs with the help of relay nodes with higher transmission rates. The cooperative communications are based on the fact that the transmission is much faster when sending data packets to a destination node through a relay node with higher transmission rate, rather than sending data directly to the destination node at low transmission rate. To apply the cooperative communications in wireless LAN, several MAC protocols have been proposed. Some of them can result in collisions among relay nodes in a dense network. In order to solve this problem, we propose a new protocol. Relay nodes are grouped based on their transmission rates. And then, relay nodes only in the highest group try to get channel access. Performance evaluation is conducted using simulation, and shows that the proposed protocol significantly outperforms the previous protocol in terms of throughput and collision probability.

Keywords: cooperative communications, MAC protocol, relay node, WLAN

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4 Optimization of a Hand-Fan Shaped Microstrip Patch Antenna by Means of Orthogonal Design Method of Design of Experiments for L-Band and S-Band Applications

Authors: Jaswinder Kaur, Nitika, Navneet Kaur, Rajesh Khanna


A hand-fan shaped microstrip patch antenna (MPA) for L-band and S-band applications is designed, and its characteristics have been reconnoitered. The proposed microstrip patch antenna with double U-slot defected ground structure (DGS) is fabricated on an FR4 substrate which is a very readily available and inexpensive material. The suggested antenna is optimized using Orthogonal Design Method (ODM) of Design of Experiments (DOE) to cover the frequency range from 0.91-2.82 GHz for L-band and S-band applications. The L-band covers the frequency range of 1-2 GHz, which is allocated to telemetry, aeronautical, and military systems for passive satellite sensors, weather radars, radio astronomy, and mobile communication. The S-band covers the frequency range of 2-3 GHz, which is used by weather radars, surface ship radars and communication satellites and is also reserved for various wireless applications such as Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access (Wi-MAX), super high frequency radio frequency identification (SHF RFID), industrial, scientific and medical bands (ISM), Bluetooth, wireless broadband (Wi-Bro) and wireless local area network (WLAN). The proposed method of optimization is very time efficient and accurate as compared to the conventional evolutionary algorithms due to its statistical strategy. Moreover, the antenna is tested, followed by the comparison of simulated and measured results.

Keywords: design of experiments, hand fan shaped MPA, L-Band, orthogonal design method, S-Band

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3 Monitoring of Water Quality Using Wireless Sensor Network: Case Study of Benue State of Nigeria

Authors: Desmond Okorie, Emmanuel Prince


Availability of portable water has been a global challenge especially to the developing continents/nations such as Africa/Nigeria. The World Health Organization WHO has produced the guideline for drinking water quality GDWQ which aims at ensuring water safety from source to consumer. Portable water parameters test include physical (colour, odour, temperature, turbidity), chemical (PH, dissolved solids) biological (algae, plytoplankton). This paper discusses the use of wireless sensor networks to monitor water quality using efficient and effective sensors that have the ability to sense, process and transmit sensed data. The integration of wireless sensor network to a portable sensing device offers the feasibility of sensing distribution capability, on site data measurements and remote sensing abilities. The current water quality tests that are performed in government water quality institutions in Benue State Nigeria are carried out in problematic locations that require taking manual water samples to the institution laboratory for examination, to automate the entire process based on wireless sensor network, a system was designed. The system consists of sensor node containing one PH sensor, one temperature sensor, a microcontroller, a zigbee radio and a base station composed by a zigbee radio and a PC. Due to the advancement of wireless sensor network technology, unexpected contamination events in water environments can be observed continuously. local area network (LAN) wireless local area network (WLAN) and internet web-based also commonly used as a gateway unit for data communication via local base computer using standard global system for mobile communication (GSM). The improvement made on this development show a water quality monitoring system and prospect for more robust and reliable system in the future.

Keywords: local area network, Ph measurement, wireless sensor network, zigbee

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2 Pervasive Computing: Model to Increase Arable Crop Yield through Detection Intrusion System (IDS)

Authors: Idowu Olugbenga Adewumi, Foluke Iyabo Oluwatoyinbo


Presently, there are several discussions on the food security with increase in yield of arable crop throughout the world. This article, briefly present research efforts to create digital interfaces to nature, in particular to area of crop production in agriculture with increase in yield with interest on pervasive computing. The approach goes beyond the use of sensor networks for environmental monitoring but also by emphasizing the development of a system architecture that detect intruder (Intrusion Process) which reduce the yield of the farmer at the end of the planting/harvesting period. The objective of the work is to set a model for setting up the hand held or portable device for increasing the quality and quantity of arable crop. This process incorporates the use of infrared motion image sensor with security alarm system which can send a noise signal to intruder on the farm. This model of the portable image sensing device in monitoring or scaring human, rodent, birds and even pests activities will reduce post harvest loss which will increase the yield on farm. The nano intelligence technology was proposed to combat and minimize intrusion process that usually leads to low quality and quantity of produce from farm. Intranet system will be in place with wireless radio (WLAN), router, server, and client computer system or hand held device e.g PDAs or mobile phone. This approach enables the development of hybrid systems which will be effective as a security measure on farm. Since, precision agriculture has developed with the computerization of agricultural production systems and the networking of computerized control systems. In the intelligent plant production system of controlled greenhouses, information on plant responses, measured by sensors, is used to optimize the system. Further work must be carry out on modeling using pervasive computing environment to solve problems of agriculture, as the use of electronics in agriculture will attracts more youth involvement in the industry.

Keywords: pervasive computing, intrusion detection, precision agriculture, security, arable crop

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