Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 6315

Search results for: adult education

6315 Adult Education for Transformation and Security Challenges in Nigeria

Authors: Asmau Zarma Gogaram


The paper examines adult education and how it can be employed as a strategy for transformation and security challenges in Nigeria. It defines the meaning of adult education and its objectives.The issue of the necessity of employing adult education as a strategy for transformation and security challenges was also examined in the paper.In doing this it discussed the different types of adult education programmes, i.e.continuing education, literacy education, retirement and pre-retirement education and civic education. The paper concluded by stating that if the programmes stated are internalizes and applied they can help to raise awareness. Finally the paper proffered some recommendations one of which was that government should at all levels increase their efforts or promoting acquisition of adult education.

Keywords: adult education, transformation and security challenges, Nigeria, education and human development

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6314 Adult and Non Formal Education for the Attainment of Enterprenuerial Skills in Nigeria

Authors: Zulaiha Maluma Ahmad


This paper attempted to examine adult and non formal education for the attainment of entrepreneurial skills in empowering the citizens with entrepreneurial skills, for Nigeria’s socioeconomic development. This paper highlighted the meaning of education in the context of skill acquisition, entrepreneurial education, adult and non formal education. It also examined the objectives, issues and challenges as well as prospects of this type of education. It further discussed the role of adult and non formal education for the attainment of socioeconomic development of a growing nation like Nigeria. The paper equally proffered some recommendations and eventually concluded that adult and non formal education can indeed make self reliance, personal satisfaction and the attainment of entrepreneurial education for the socioeconomic development of any nation, possible.

Keywords: entrepreneurial education, adult education, non formal education skills, Nigeria

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6313 The Imperative of Adult Education in the Knowledge Society

Authors: Najim Akorede Babalola


Adult Education is a multi and interdisciplinary in nature that cut across different fields of study which includes education, social sciences, engineering even information technologies that dominate the contemporary world among others. In the past, Adult Education has been used as an instrument of civilization by teaching people how to read and write as well as earning a better living. The present world has witnessed a transition from industrial age to information age which is also known as knowledge society needs Adult Education for knowledge acquisition and update of existing knowledge. An individual needs Adult Education in either of its various forms (on-the-job-training, in-service training, extramural classes, vocational education, continuing education among others) in order to develop towards the information society trends; this is because Adult Education is a process of transforming an individual through acquisition of relevant skills and knowledge for personal as well as societal development. Evidence abounds in the literature that Adult Education has not only assisted people in the medieval period but still assisting people in this modern society in changing and transforming their lives for a better living. This study, therefore, raised a salient question that with different ideas and innovations brought by the contemporary world, is Adult Education relevant? It is on this basis that this study intends to examine the relevance of Adult Education in the past and present in order to determine its future relevance.

Keywords: adult education, multi and inter-disciplinary, knowledge society, skill acquisition

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6312 The Political Economy of Adult Education and Development: A Review in European Union

Authors: Pantelis Sklias, Panagiota Chatzimichailidou


This study intents to clarify the nexus of adult education and economic development within the methodological framework of political economy within EU. The main logic behind this study is that economies with a higher level of adult education have higher levels of economic development. Despite the assumption that policy making in adult education will clearly be facilitated by any ‘proofs’ of efficiency, mainly monetary, this study acknowledges the limitations following the use of the narrow economic approaches embedded in the neoclassical framework and proposes that the methodological framework of political economy is the most relevant to explore the correlation between adult education and economic development. Focusing only on neoclassical economics to explore the financial impact of adult education, it will marginalize the consideration of its history, producing a short of historical amnesia, besides the social harm, namely the devaluation of its socio-cultural influences. On the other side the political economy perspective offers a wider perception of adult education’s profits from a quantitative and a qualitative perspective too. The understanding of adult education engages questions of political economy because it is identified mainly as means of transformation, either personal or societal, serving humanistic values, besides its accepted monetary attributes. The political economy elevates questions regarding how the three institutional arrangements -the state, the market, and the civil society, are engaged in promoting adult education and therefore how adult education could reinforce economic development. Here the economic substance is still considered but it is placed into a wider social spectrum, where politics, economy, and history interact with one another. This study restricts itself in EU and explores the role of the three institutional arrangements both in the formulation of policy planning, and in the mental transformational process of the individual learners, which opens the path to a deeper understanding of the interaction between the individual and the social action, and therefore between adult education and economic development. This study also elevates the idea that economic development can have a positive impact on the unification of Europe, which encompasses economic, political, and cultural components.

Keywords: adult education, economic development, EU, political economy, unification of Europe

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6311 Transformative Pedagogy and Online Adult Education

Authors: Glenn A. Palmer, Lorenzo Bowman, Juanita Johnson-Bailey


The ubiquitous economic upheaval that has gripped the global environment in the past few years displaced many workers through unemployment or underemployment. Globally, this disruption has caused many adult workers to seek additional education or skills to remain competitive, and acquire the ability and options to find gainful employment. While many learners have availed themselves of some opportunities to be retrained and retooled at locations within their communities, others have explored those options through the online learning environment. This paper examines the empirical research that explores the various strategies that are used in the adult online learning community that could also foster transformative learning.

Keywords: online learning, transformational learning, adult education, economic crisis, unemployment

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6310 Development of Social Competence in the Preparation and Continuing Training of Adult Educators

Authors: Genute Gedviliene, Vidmantas Tutlys


The aim of this paper is to reveal the deployment and development of the social competence in the higher education programmes of adult education and in the continuing training and competence development of the andragogues. There will be compared how the issues of cooperation and communication in the learning and teaching processes are treated in the study programmes and in the courses of continuing training of andragogues. Theoretical and empirical research methods were combined for research analysis. For the analysis the following methods were applied: 1) Literature and document analysis helped to highlight the communication and cooperation as fundamental phenomena of the social competence, it’s important for the adult education in the context of digitalization and globalization. There were also analyzed the research studies on the development of social competence in the field of andragogy, as well as on the place and weight of the social competence in the overall competence profile of the andragogue. 2) The empirical study is based on questionnaire survey method. The population of survey consists of 240 students of bachelor and master degree studies of andragogy in Lithuania and of 320 representatives of the different bodies and institutions involved in the continuing training and professional development of the adult educators in Lithuania. The themes of survey questionnaire were defined on the basis of findings of the literature review and included the following: 1) opinions of the respondents on the role and place of a social competence in the work of andragogue; 2) opinions of the respondents on the role and place of the development of social competence in the curricula of higher education studies and continuing training courses; 3) judgements on the implications of the higher education studies and courses of continuing training for the development of social competence and it’s deployment in the work of andragogue. Data analysis disclosed a wide range of ways and modalities of the deployment and development of social competence in the preparation and continuing training of the adult educators. Social competence is important for the students and adult education providers not only as the auxiliary capability for the communication and transfer of information, but also as the outcome of collective learning leading to the development of new capabilities applied by the learners in the learning process, their professional field of adult education and their social life. Equally so, social competence is necessary for the effective adult education activities not only as an auxiliary capacity applied in the teaching process, but also as a potential for improvement, development and sustainability of the didactic competence and know-how in this field. The students of the higher education programmes in the field of adult education treat social competence as important generic capacity important for the work of adult educator, whereas adult education providers discern the concrete issues of application of social competence in the different processes of adult education, starting from curriculum design and ending with assessment of learning outcomes.

Keywords: adult education, andragogues, social competence, curriculum

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6309 Innovative Teaching Learning Techniques and Learning Difficulties of Adult Learners in Literacy Education Programmes in Calabar Metropolis, Cross River State, Nigeria

Authors: Simon Ibor Akpama


The study investigated the extent to which innovative teaching-learning techniques can influence and attenuate learning difficulties among adult learners participating in different literacy education programmes in Calabar Metropolis, Cross River State, Nigeria. A quasi-experimental design was adopted to collect data from a sample size of 150 participants of the programme. The sample was drawn using the simple random sampling method. As an experimental study, the 150 participants were divided into two equal groups –the first was the experimental group while the second was the control. A pre-test was administered to the two groups which were later exposed to a post-test after treatment. Two instruments were used for data collection. The first was the guide for the Literacy Learning Difficulties Inventory (LLDI). Three hypotheses were postulated and tested as .05 level of significance using Analysis of Covariance (ANOVA) test statistics. Results of the analysis firstly showed that the two groups (treatment and control) did not differ in the pre-test regarding their literacy learning difficulties. Secondly, the result showed that for each hypothesis, innovative teaching-learning techniques significantly influenced adult learners’ (participants) literacy learning difficulties. Based on these findings, the study recommends the use of innovative teaching-learning techniques in adult literacy education centres to mitigate the learning difficulties of adult learners in literacy education programmes in Calabar Metropolis.

Keywords: teaching, learning, techniques, innovative, difficulties, programme

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6308 Women Trainees' Perception on Non-Formal Educational Workshops in Improving Their Socio-Economic Status in Algeria and Costa Rica

Authors: Bahia Braktia, S. Anna Marcela Montenegro, Imene Abdessemed


Adult education is still considered a crucial area of education. In a developing framework, it is regarded as a practical approach for social inclusion and poverty reduction. They are also perceived as a way to serve adults who did not have the chance to education in their early ages by providing them knowledge, skills and values. Non-formal adult education and trainings are critical means in a society to break poverty and unemployment, and to decrease the social inequality. This paper investigates the perception of women trainees about a series of workshops in natural beauty products, held in Algeria and Costa Rica and organized by a non-profit educational organization, to improve their socio-economic status. This research seeks to explore ways of empowering women by assessing their needs and providing them with skills to start their own business. A questionnaire is administered before the workshops and focus groups are held at the end. A qualitative research method is employed to analyze the data. Preliminary results show that the trainees aspire to create their businesses with the objectives of poverty reduction and social inclusion. The findings also reveal the need for small business funding programs and entrepreneurial training programs.

Keywords: adult education, non-formal education, socio-economic status, women empowerment

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6307 Research on Integrating Adult Learning and Practice into Long-Term Care Education

Authors: Liu Yi Hui, Chun-Liang Lai, Jhang Yu Cih, He You Jing, Chiu Fan-Yun, Lin Yu Fang


For universities offering long-term care education, the inclusion of adulting learning and practices in professional courses as appropriate based on holistic design and evaluation could improve talent empowerment by leveraging social capital. Moreover, it could make the courses and materials used in long-term care education responsive to real-life needs. A mixed research method was used in the research design. A quantitative study was also conducted using a questionnaire survey, and the data were analyzed by SPSS 22.0 Chinese version. The qualitative data included students’ learning files (learning reflection notes, course reports, and experience records).

Keywords: adult learning, community empowerment, social capital, mixed research

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6306 Case Studies in Three Domains of Learning: Cognitive, Affective, Psychomotor

Authors: Zeinabsadat Haghshenas


Bloom’s Taxonomy has been changed during the years. The idea of this writing is about the revision that has happened in both facts and terms. It also contains case studies of using cognitive Bloom’s taxonomy in teaching geometric solids to the secondary school students, affective objectives in a creative workshop for adults and psychomotor objectives in fixing a malfunctioned refrigerator lamp. There is also pointed to the important role of classification objectives in adult education as a way to prevent memory loss.

Keywords: adult education, affective domain, cognitive domain, memory loss, psychomotor domain

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6305 Impact of Social Distancing on the Correlation Between Adults’ Participation in Learning and Acceptance of Technology

Authors: Liu Yi Hui


The COVID-19 pandemic in 2020 has globally affected all aspects of life, with social distancing and quarantine orders causing turmoil and learning in community colleges being temporarily paused. In fact, this is the first time that adult education has faced such a severe challenge. It forces researchers to reflect on the impact of pandemics on adult education and ways to respond. Distance learning appears to be one of the pedagogical tools capable of dealing with interpersonal isolation and social distancing caused by the pandemic. This research aims to examine whether the impact of social distancing during COVID-19 will lead to increased acceptance of technology and, subsequently, an increase in adults ’ willingness to participate in distance learning. The hypothesis that social distancing and the desire to participate in distance learning affects learners’ tendency to accept technology is investigated. Teachers ’ participation in distance education and acceptance of technology are used as adjustment variables with the relationship to “social distancing,” “participation in distance learning,” and “acceptance of technology” of learners. A questionnaire survey was conducted over a period of twelve months for teachers and learners at all community colleges in Taiwan who enrolled in a basic unit course. Community colleges were separated using multi-stage cluster sampling, with their locations being metropolitan, non-urban, south, and east as criteria. Using the G*power software, 660 samples were selected and analyzed. The results show that through appropriate pedagogical strategies or teachers ’ own acceptance of technology, adult learners’ willingness to participate in distance learning could be influenced. A diverse model of participation can be developed, improving adult education institutions’ ability to plan curricula to be flexible to avoid the risk associated with epidemic diseases.

Keywords: social distancing, adult learning, community colleges, technology acceptance model

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6304 Experiences Using Autoethnography as a Methodology for Research in Education

Authors: Sarah Amodeo


Drawing on the author’s research about the experiences of female immigrant students in academic Adult Education, in Montreal, Quebec, this paper deconstructs the benefits of autoethnography as a methodology for educators in Adult Education. Autoethnography is an advantageous methodology for teachers in Adult Education as it allows for deep engagement, allowing for educators to reflect on student experiences and their day-to-day realities, and in turn, allowing for professional development, improved andragogy, and changes to classroom practices. Autoethnography is a qualitative research methodology that cultivates strategies for improving adult learning. The paper begins by outlining the context that inspired autoethnography for the author’s work, highlighting the emergence of autoethnography as a method, while examining how it is evolving and drawing on foundational work that continues to inspire research. The basic autoethnographic methodologies that are explored in this paper include the use of memory work in episode formation, the use of personal photographs, and textual readings of artworks. Memory work allows for the researcher to use their professional experience and the lived/shared experiences of their students in their research, drawing on episodes from their past. Personal photographs and descriptions of artwork allow researchers to explore images of learning environments/realities in ways that compliment student experiences. Major findings of the text are examined through the analysis of categories of autoethnography. Specific categories include realism, impressionism, and conceptualism which aid in orientating the analysis and emergent themes that develop through self-study. Finally, the text presents a discussion surrounding the limitations of autoethnography, with attention to the trustworthiness and ethical issues. The paper concludes with a consideration of the implications of autoethnography for adult educators in juxtaposition with youth sector work.

Keywords: artwork, autoethnography, conceptualism, episode formation, impressionism, memory work, personal photographs, and realism, realism

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6303 A Study on Adult Attachment Styles and Romantic Relationship Quality among Young Adults

Authors: Kaliammah Kumaran, Thilaagheswary Thangadurai


This study examined the relationship between anxious attachment and avoidant attachment among young adult romantic relationship quality. Our survey was administered to 300 young adult participants (126 males and 174 females) aged 18-24 years old (M= 20.85, SD=1.89), accomplished the English version of the Revised Adult Attachment Scale (RAAS) used to measure adult attachment and Revised Dyadic Adjustment Scale (RDAS). All the participants were tertiary level students. Findings of our study indicated that young adults experienced anxious attachment style is negatively correlated with romantic relationship quality as well as young adult from avoidant attachment also negatively correlated with romantic relationship quality among young adults. The results showed that insecure adult attachment styles which are anxious and avoidance adult attachment styles links with reduced quality of romantic relationship.

Keywords: adult attachment style, anxious attachment style, avoidant attachment style, romantic relationship quality

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6302 The Educational Philosophies and Teaching Style Preferences of College Faculty at Selected Universities in the South of Metro Manila

Authors: Grace D. Severo, Lopita U. Jung


This study aimed to determine the educational philosophies and teaching styles of the college faculty of the University of Perpetual Help System DALTA in the campuses of Las-Piñas, Molino, and Calamba, south of Metro Manila. It sought to determine the relationships of educational philosophy and teaching styles of the college faculty vis-à-vis the university system’s educational philosophies and teaching style preferences. A hundred and five faculty members from the Colleges of Education, Arts and Sciences responded to the survey during the academic year 2014-2015. The Philosophy of Adult Education Inventory measured the faculty’s preferred educational philosophies. The Principles of Adult Learning Scale measured the faculty’s teaching style preference. Findings show that there is a similarity between the university system and the faculty members in using the progressive educational philosophy, however both contrasted in the preferred teaching style. Majority of the faculty held progressive educational philosophy but their preference for teacher-centered teaching style did not match. This implies that the majority are certain of having progressive educational philosophy but are not utilizing the learner-centered teaching styles; a high degree of support and commitment to practice a progressive and humanist philosophical orientation in education; and a high degree of support on teacher-centered teaching style promotion from the institution can strengthen a high degree of commitment for the faculty to enunciate their values and practice through these educational philosophies and teaching styles.

Keywords: educational philosophies, teaching styles, philosophy of adult education inventory, principles of adult learning scale

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6301 A Review of Strategies for Enhancing the Quality of Engineering Education in Zimbabwean Universities

Authors: Bhekisisa Nyoni, Nomakhosi Ndiweni, Annatoria Chinyama


The aim of this paper was to explore ways to enhance the quality of higher education with a bias towards engineering education in Zimbabwe universities. A search through relevant literature was conducted looking at both international and local scholars. It also involved reviewing the Dakar Framework for Action and Incheon Declaration and Framework for Action plans for education for sustainable development. Goals were set for 2030 as a standard for quality to be adopted by all countries in improving access as well as the quality of education from early childhood and through to adult learning. Despite the definition of quality being difficult to express due to diverse expectations from different stakeholders, the view of quality adopted is based on the World Education Forum’s propositions on quality education going beyond the classroom experience. It considers factors such as learning environment, governance and management, and teacher caliber. The study concludes by illustrating that the quality of engineering education in Zimbabwe has come a long way. It has made strides in increasing access and variety to education though at the expense of quality in its totality. To improve the quality of engineering education, programs have been introduced to promote the professionalism of lecturers, such as industrial secondment and professional development courses.

Keywords: engineering education, quality of education, professional development, industrial secondment

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6300 A Quantitative Study Identifying the Prevalence of Anxiety in Dyslexic Students in Higher Education

Authors: Amanda Abbott-Jones


Adult students with dyslexia in higher education can receive support for their cognitive needs but may also experience negative emotion such as anxiety due to their dyslexia in connection with their studies. This paper aims to test the hypothesis that adult dyslexic learners have a higher prevalence of academic and social anxiety than their non-dyslexic peers. A quantitative approach was used to measure differences in academic and social anxiety between 102 students with a formal diagnosis of dyslexia compared to 72 students with no history of learning difficulties. Academic and social anxiety was measured in a questionnaire based on the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. Findings showed that dyslexic students showed statistically significant higher levels of academic, but not social anxiety in comparison to the non-dyslexic sample. Dyslexic students in higher education show academic anxiety levels that are well above what is shown by students without dyslexia. The implications of this for the dyslexia practitioner is that delivery of strategies to deal with anxiety should be seen equally as important, if not more so, than interventions to deal with cognitive difficulties.

Keywords: Academic, Anxiety, Dyslexia, Quantitative

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6299 Critical Understanding on Equity and Access in Higher Education Engaging with Adult Learners and International Student in the Context of Globalisation

Authors: Jin-Hee Kim


The way that globalization distinguishes itself from the previous changes is scope and intensity of changes, which together affect many parts of a nation’s system. In this way, globalization has its relation with the concept of ‘internationalization’ in that a nation state formulates a set of strategies in many areas of its governance to actively react to it. In short, globalization is a ‘catalyst,’ and internationalization is a ‘response’. In this regard, the field of higher education is one of the representative cases that globalization has several consequences that change the terrain of national policy-making. Started and been dominated mainly by the Western world, it has now been expanded to the ‘late movers,’ such as Asia-Pacific countries. The case of internationalization of Korean higher education is, therefore, located in a unique place in this arena. Yet Korea still is one of the major countries of sending its students to the so-called, ‘first world.’ On the other hand, it has started its effort to recruit international students from the world to its higher education system. After new Millennium, particularly, internationalization of higher education has been launched in its full-scale and gradually been one of the important global policy agenda, striving in both ways by opening its turf to foreign educational service providers and recruiting prospective students from other countries. Particularly the latter, recruiting international students, has been highlighted under the government project named ‘Study Korea,’ launched in 2004. Not only global, but also local issues and motivations were based to launch this nationwide project. Bringing international students means various desirable economic outcomes such as reducing educational deficit as well as utilizing them in Korean industry after the completion of their study, to name a few. In addition, in a similar vein, Korea's higher education institutes have started to have a new comers of adult learners. When it comes to the questions regarding the quality and access of this new learning agency, the answer is quite tricky. This study will investigate the different dimension of education provision and learning process to empower diverse group regardless of nationality, race, class and gender in Korea. Listening to the voices of international students and adult learning as non-traditional participants in a changing Korean higher educational space not only benefit students themselves, but Korean stakeholders who should try to accommodate more comprehensive and fair educational provisions for more and more diversifying groups of learners.

Keywords: education equity, access, globalisation, international students, adult learning, learning support

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6298 The Impact of Physics Taught with Simulators and Texts in Brazilian High School: A Study in the Adult and Youth Education

Authors: Leandro Marcos Alves Vaz


The teaching of physics in Brazilian public schools emphasizes strongly the theoretical aspects of this science, showing its philosophical and mathematical basis, but neglecting its experimental character. Perhaps the lack of science laboratories explains this practice. In this work, we present a method of teaching physics using the computer. As alternatives to real experiments, we have the trials through simulators, many of which are free software available on the internet. In order to develop a study on the use of simulators in teaching, knowing the impossibility of simulations on all topics in a given subject, we combined these programs with phenomenological and/or experimental texts in order to mitigate this limitation. This study proposes the use of simulators and the debate using phenomenological/experimental texts on electrostatic theme in groups of the 3rd year of EJA (Adult and Youth Education) in order to verify the advantages of this methodology. Some benefits of the hybridization of the traditional method with the tools used were: Greater motivation of the students in learning, development of experimental notions, proactive socialization to learning, greater easiness to understand some concepts and the creation of collaborative activities that can reduce timidity of part of the students.

Keywords: experimentation, learning physical, simulators, youth and adult

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6297 Effect of Sex and Breed on Live Weight of Adult Iranian Pigeons

Authors: Sepehr Moradi, Mehdi Asadi Rad


This study is to evaluate the live weight of adult pigeons to investigate about their sex, race, their mutual effects and some auxiliary variables in 4 races of Kabood, Tizpar, Parvazy, and Namebar. In this paper, 152 pieces of pigeons as 76 male and female pairs with equal age are studied randomly. Then the birds were weighted by a scale with one gram precision. Software was used for statistical analysis. Mean live weight of adult male and female pigeons in 4 races (Kabood, Tizpar, Parvazy and Namebar with (15, 20, 20, 21) and (20, 21, 18, 17) records were, (530±56, 388.75±32, 392±34, 552±48) and (446±34, 342±32, 341±46, 457±57) gr, respectively. Difference weight of adult live of male with female was significant in 1% level (P < 0.01). Difference live weight of male adult pigeon was significant in 5% level (P < 0.05). Different live weight of female adult pigeon between Kabood, Parvazy and Tizpar races were significant in 5% level (P < 0.05) but mean live weight Kabood race with Namebar race and Parvazy with Tizpar were not significant. The results showed that most and least mean live weights belonged to Namebar of the male pigeon race and Parvazy of the female pigeon race.

Keywords: Iranian Native Pigeons, adult weight, live weight, adult pigeons

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6296 Life Stories of Adult Amateur Cellists That Inspire Them to Take Individual Lessons: A Narrative Inquiry

Authors: A. Marais


A challenging aspect of teaching cello to novice adult learners is finding adequate lesson material and applying relevant teaching methodologies. It could play a crucial role in adult learners' decision to commence or stop taking music lessons. This study contributes to the theory and practises of continuing education. This study is important to lifelong learning, especially with the focus on adult teaching and learning and the difficulties concerning these themes. The research problem identified for this study is we are not aware of adults' life stories; thus, cello lesson material is not always relevant for adult's specific needs for motivation and goals for starting cello lessons. In my experience, an adult does not necessarily want to play children songs when they learn a new instrument. They want material and lessons fitted to adult learners. Adults also learn differently from younger beginners. Adults ask questions such as how and why, while children more readily accept what is being taught. This research creates awareness of adults' musical needs and learning methods. If every adult shares their own story for commencing and continuing with cello lessons, material should be created, revised, or adapted for more individually appropriate lessons. A number of studies show that adults taking music lessons experience a decrease in feelings of loneliness and isolation. It gives adults a sense of wellbeing and can help improve immune systems. The purpose of this research study will be to discover the life stories of adult amateur cellists. At this stage in the research, the life stories of amateur cellists can generally be defined as personal reflections of their motivations for and experiences of commencing and continuing with individual lessons. The findings of this study will contribute to the development of cello lesson material for adult beginners based on their stories. This research could also encourage adults to commence with music lessons and could, in that way, contribute to their quality of life. Music learners become aware of deep spiritual, emotional, and social values incorporated or experienced through musical learning. This will be a qualitative study with a narrative approach making use of oral history. The chosen method will encapsulate the stories of amateur individual adults starting and continuing with cello lessons. The narrative method entails experiences as expressed in lived and told stories of individuals. Oral history is used as part of the narrative method and entails gathering of personal reflections of events and their cause and effects from an individual or several individuals. These findings from this study will contribute to adult amateur cellists' motivations to continue with music lessons and inspire others to commence. The inspiring life stories of the amateur cellists would provide insight into finding and creating new cello lesson material and enhance existing teaching methodologies for adult amateur cellists.

Keywords: adult, amateur, cello, education, learning, music, stories

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6295 A Dynamic Curriculum as a Platform for Continuous Competence Development

Authors: Niina Jallinoja, Anu Moisio


Focus on adult learning is vital to overcome economic challenges as well as to respond to the demand for new competencies and sustained productivity in the digitalized world economy. Employees of all ages must be able to carry on continuous professional development to remain competitive in the labor market. According to EU policies, countries should offer more flexible opportunities for adult learners who study online and in so-called ‘second chance’ qualification programmes. Traditionally, adult education in Finland has comprised of not only liberal adult education but also the government funding to study for Bachelor, Master's, and Ph.D. degrees in Finnish Universities and Universities of Applied Sciences (UAS). From the beginning of 2021, public funding is allocated not only to degrees but also to courses to achieve new competencies for adult learners in Finland. Consequently, there will be degree students (often younger of age) and adult learners studying in the same evening, online and blended courses. The question is thus: How are combined studies meeting the different needs of degree students and adult learners? Haaga-Helia University of Applied Sciences (UAS), located in the metropolitan area of Finland, is taking up the challenge of continuous learning for adult learners. Haaga-Helia has been reforming the bachelor level education and respective shorter courses from 2019 in the biggest project in its history. By the end of 2023, Haaga-Helia will have a flexible, modular curriculum for the bachelor's degrees of hospitality management, business administration, business information technology, journalism and sports management. Building on the shared key competencies, degree students will have the possibility to build individual study paths more flexibly, thanks to the new modular structure of the curriculum. They will be able to choose courses across all degrees, and thus, build their own unique competence combinations. All modules can also be offered as separate courses or learning paths to non-degree students, both publicly funded and as commercial services for employers. Consequently, there will be shared course implementations for degree studies and adult learners with various competence requirements. The newly designed courses are piloted in parallel of the designing of the curriculum in Haaga-Helia during 2020 and 2021. Semi-structured online surveys are composed among the participants for the key competence courses. The focus of the research is to understand how students in the bachelor programme and adult learners from Open UAE perceive the learning experience in such a diverse learning group. A comparison is also executed between learning methods of in-site teaching, online implementation, blended learning and virtual self-learning courses to understand how the pedagogy is meeting the learning objectives of these two different groups. The new flexible curricula and the study modules are to be designed to fill the most important competence gaps that exist in the Finnish labor markets. The new curriculum will be dynamic and constantly evolving over time according to the future competence needs in the labor market. This type of approach requires constant dialogue between Haaga-Helia and workplaces during and after designing of the shared curriculum.

Keywords: ccompetence development, continuous learning, curriculum, higher education

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6294 Role of Music Education as a Pillar in Sustainable Development of India

Authors: Rohit Rutka


The aim of the present paper is to reveal the importance of music as an indispensable aspect in education of art, with regard to every single culture which serves as indisputable support to sustainable development in India. Indian system of education is one of the oldest systems of the world. Both secular and sacred education was handed over systematically by formalizing the system of education. We have found significant growth in the system of education in our country since ancient times. It is a veritable avenue which enables societies to transmit music and musical skills from one generation to the upcoming ones. The research is based on a comprehensive literature review on the impact of music to sustainable development. This paper contextualized that music education is imperative to Sustainable Development, to the adult. It is a vital force of self-expression, communication and empowerment economically, in growing children, involvement in music education will promote their creative ability, thereby contribute to the full development of intellectual capacities, apt emotional development that gives the right values and feelings to various events and happenings, music helps to develop skills, innate and instinctive talent in human being and recommend that the informal music teaching should be incorporated into school system so as to transmit and preserve the cultural music and that the study of music should be made compulsory at all levels of the Indian educational system.

Keywords: sustainable development, music education, culture, music as a pillar to sustainable development

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6293 Osteometry of the Long Bones of Adult Chinkara (Gazella bennettii): A Remarkable Example of Sexual Dimorphism

Authors: Salahud Din, Saima Masood, Hafsa Zaneb, Saima Ashraf, Imad Khan


The objective of this study was 1) to measure osteometric parameters of the long bones of the adult Chinkara to obtain baseline data 2) to study sexual dimorphism in the adult Chinkara through osteometry and 3) to estimate body weight from the measurements of greatest length and shaft of the long bones. For this purpose, after taking body measurements of adult Chinkara after mortality, the carcass of adult Chinkara of known sex and age were buried in the locality of the Manglot Wildlife Park and Ungulate Breeding Centre, Nizampur, Pakistan; after a specific period of time, the bones were unearthed. Various osteometric parameters of the humerus, radius, metacarpus, femur, tibia and metatarsal were measured through the digital calliper. Statistically significant (P < 0.05), differences in some of the osteometrical parameters between male and female adult Chinkara were observed. Sexual dimorphism exit between the long bones of male and female adult Chinkara. In both male and female Chinkara value obtained for the estimated body weight from humeral, metacarpal and metatarsal measurements were near to the actual body weight of the adult Chinkara. In conclusion, the present study estimates preliminary data on long bones osteometrics and suggests that the morphometric details of the male and female adult Chinkara have differed morphometrically from each other.

Keywords: body mass measurements, Chinkara, long bones, morphometric, sexual dimorphism

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6292 Nontraditional Online Student Perceptions of Student Success Conditions

Authors: Carrie Prendergast, Lisa Bortman


The focus of this presentation will be on non-traditional (adult) students as they seek their Bachelors’ degrees online. This presentation will specifically examine nontraditional online student perceptions of Tinto’s success conditions: expectations, support, assessment, and engagement. Expectations include those of the student, the faculty and the institution. Support includes academic, social, and financial support. Feedback and assessment encompasses feedback in the classroom, upon entry, and on an institutional level. The fourth success condition is involvement or engagement of students with their peers and faculty in both academic and social contexts. This program will review and discuss a rich, detailed description of the lived experience of the nontraditional online student to add to the paucity of research on this understudied population and guide higher education professionals in supporting this growing population of students.

Keywords: adult students, online education, student success, vincent tinto

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6291 Adult Health Outcomes of Childhood Self-Control and Social Disadvantage in the United Kingdom

Authors: Michael Daly


Background/Aims: The interplay of childhood self-control and early life social background in predicting adult health is currently unclear. We drew on rich data from two large nationally representative cohort studies to test whether individual differences in childhood self-control may: (i) buffer the health impact of social disadvantage, (ii) act as a mediating pathway underlying the emergence of health disparities, or (iii) compensate for the health consequences of socioeconomic disadvantage across the lifespan. Methods: We examined data from over 25,000 participants from the British Cohort Study (BCS) and the National Child Development Study (NCDS). Child self-control was teacher-rated at age 10 in the BCS and ages 7/11 in the NCDS. The Early life social disadvantage was indexed using measures of parental education, occupational prestige, and housing characteristics (i.e. housing tenure, home crowding). A range of health outcomes was examined: the presence of chronic conditions, whether illnesses were limiting, physiological dysregulation (gauged by clinical indicators), mortality, and perceptions of pain, psychological distress, and general health. Results: Childhood self-control and social disadvantage predicted each measure of adult health, with similar strength on average. An examination of mediating factors showed that adult smoking, obesity, and socioeconomic status explained the majority of these linkages. There was no systematic evidence that self-control moderated the health consequences of early social disadvantage and limited evidence that self-control acted as a key pathway from disadvantage to later health. Conclusions: Childhood self-control predicts adult health and may compensate for early life social disadvantage by shaping adult health behaviour and social status.

Keywords: personality and health, social disadvantage, health psychology, life-course development

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6290 Better Together: Diverging Trajectories of Local Social Work Practice and Nationally-Regulated Social Work Education in the UK

Authors: Noel Smith


To achieve professional registration, UK social workers need to complete a programme of education and training which meets standards set down by central government. When it comes to practice, social work in local authorities must fulfil requirements of national legislation but there is considerable local variation in the organisation and delivery of services. This presentation discusses the on-going reform of social work education by central government in the context of research of social work services in a local authority. In doing so it highlights that the ‘direction of travel’ of the national reform of social work education seems at odds with the trajectory of development of local social work services. In terms of education reform, the presentation cites key government initiatives including the knowledge and skills requirements which have been published separately for, respectively, child and family social work and adult social work. Also relevant is the Government’s new ‘teaching partnership’ pilot which focuses exclusively on social work in local government, in isolation from social work in NGOs. In terms of research, the presentation discusses two studies undertaken by Professor Smith in Suffolk County Council, a local authority in the east of England. The first is an equality impact analysis of the introduction of a new model for the delivery of adult and community services in Suffolk. This is based on qualitative research with local government representatives and NGOs involved in social work with older people and people with disabilities. The second study is an on-going, mixed method evaluation of the introduction of a new model of social care for children and young people in Suffolk. This new model is based on the international ‘Signs of Safety’ approach, which is applied in this model to a wide range of services from early intervention to child protection. While both studies are localised, the service models they examine are good illustrations of the way services are developing nationally. Analysis of these studies suggest that, if services continue to develop as they currently are, then social workers will require particular skills which are not be adequately addressed in the Government’s plans for social work education. Two issues arise. First, education reform concentrates on social work within local government while increasingly local authorities are outsourcing service provision to NGOs, expecting greater community involvement in providing care, and integrating social care with health care services. Second, education reform focuses on the different skills required for working with older and disabled adults and working with children and families, to the point where potentially the profession would be fragmented into two different classes of social worker. In contrast, the development of adult and children’s services in local authorities re-asserts the importance of common social work skills relating to personalisation, prevention and community development. The presentation highlights the importance for social work education in the UK to be forward looking, in terms of the changing design of service delivery, and outward looking, in terms of lessons to be drawn from international social work.

Keywords: adult social work, children and families social work, European social work, social work education

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6289 Lifelong Distance Learning and Skills Development: A Case Study Analysis in Greece

Authors: Eleni Giouli


Distance learning provides a flexible approach to education, enabling busy learners to complete their coursework at their own pace, on their own schedule, and from a convenient location. This flexibility combined with a series of other issues; make the benefits of lifelong distance learning numerous. The purpose of the paper is to investigate whether distance education can contribute to the improvement of adult skills in Greece, highlighting in this way the necessity of the lifelong distance learning. To investigate this goal, a questionnaire is constructed and analyzed based on responses from 3,016 attendees of lifelong distance learning programs in the e-learning of the National and Kapodistrian University of Athens in Greece. In order to do so, a series of relationships is examined including the effects of a) the gender, b) the previous educational level, c) the current employment status, and d) the method used in the distance learning program, on the development of new general, technical, administrative, social, cultural, entrepreneurial and green skills. The basic conclusions that emerge after using a binary logistic framework are that the following factors are critical in order to develop new skills: the gender, the education level and the educational method used in the lifelong distance learning program. The skills more significantly affected by those factors are the acquiring new skills in general, as well as acquiring general, language and cultural, entrepreneurial and green skills, while for technical and social skills only gender and educational method play a crucial role. Moreover, routine skills and social skills are not affected by the four factors included in the analysis.

Keywords: adult skills, distance learning, education, lifelong learning

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6288 Factors Affecting Internet Behavior and Life Satisfaction of Older Adult Learners with Use of Smartphone

Authors: Horng-Ji Lai


The intuitive design features and friendly interface of smartphone attract older adults. In Taiwan, many senior education institutes offer smartphone training courses for older adult learners who are interested in learning this innovative technology. It is expected that the training courses can help them to enjoy the benefits of using smartphone and increase their life satisfaction. Therefore, it is important to investigate the factors that influence older adults’ behavior of using smartphone. The purpose of the research was to develop and test a research model that investigates the factors (self-efficacy, social connection, the need to seek health information, and the need to seek financial information) affecting older adult learners’ Internet behaviour and their life satisfaction with use of smartphone. Also, this research sought to identify the relationship between the proposed variables. Survey method was used to collect research data. A Structural Equation Modeling was performed using Partial Least Squares (PLS) regression for data exploration and model estimation. The participants were 394 older adult learners from smartphone training courses in active aging learning centers located in central Taiwan. The research results revealed that self-efficacy significantly affected older adult learner’ social connection, the need to seek health information, and the need to seek financial information. The construct of social connection yielded a positive influence in respondents’ life satisfaction. The implications of these results for practice and future research are also discussed.

Keywords: older adults, smartphone, internet behaviour, life satisfaction

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6287 Factors Impacting Training and Adult Education Providers’ Business Performance: The Singapore Context

Authors: Zan Chen, D. Kwok


The SkillsFuture Singapore’s mission to develop a responsive and forward-looking Training and Adult Education (TAE) and workforce development system is undergirded by how successful TAE providers are in their business performance and strategies that strengthen their operational efficiency and processes. Therefore, understanding the factors that drive the business performance of TAE providers is critical to the success of SkillsFuture Singapore’s initiatives. This study aims to investigate how business strategy, work autonomy, work intensity and professional development support impact the business performance of private TAE providers. Specifically, the three research questions are: (1) Are there significant relationships between the above-mentioned four factors and TAE providers’ business performance?; (2) Are there significant differences on the four factors between low and high TAE providers’ business performance groups?; and (3) To what extent and in what manner do the four factors predict TAE providers’ business performance? This was part of the first national study on organizations and professionals working in the Training and Adult Education (TAE) sector. Data from 265 private TAE providers where respondents were Chief Executive Officers representatives from the Senior Management were analyzed. The results showed that business strategy (the extent that the organization leads the way in terms of developing new products and services; uses up-to-date learning technologies; customizes its products and services to the client’s needs), work autonomy (the extent that the staff personally have an influence on how hard they work; deciding what tasks they are to do; deciding how they are to do the tasks, and deciding the quality standards to which they work) and professional development support (both monetary and non-monetary support and incentives) had positive and significant relationships with business performance. However, no significant relationship is found between work intensity and business performance. A business strategy, work autonomy and professional development support were significantly higher in the high business performance group compared to the low-performance group among the TAE providers. Results of hierarchical regression analyses controlling for the size of the TAE providers showed significant impacts of business strategy, work autonomy and professional development support on TAE providers’ business performance. Overall, the model accounted for 27% of the variance in TAE providers’ business performance. This study provides policymakers with insights into improving existing policies, designing new initiatives and implementing targeting interventions to support TAE providers. The findings also have implications on how the TAE providers could better formulate their organizational strategies and business models. Finally, limitations of study, along with directions for future research will be discussed in the paper.

Keywords: adult education, business performance, business strategy, training, work autonomy

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6286 Comparative Gross Anatomical Studies of the Long Bones of the Adult Chinkara and in the Adult Beetal Goat

Authors: Salahud Din, Saima Masood, Hafsa Zaneb, Habib –ur- Rehman, Imad Khan, Muqader Shah


The objective of this study was to examine the osteomorphological differences between the long bones of adult Chinkara and an adult Beetal goat, using visual observation, which has still not studied. The osseous remains of these small-sized ungulates often encountered, but cannot distinguish, because of the lack of literature. Specimens of the adult Chinkara of known age and sex for osteomorphological studies are collected from the Manglot Wildlife Park and Ungulate Breeding Centre, Nizampur, Pakistan, while the bones of adult Beetal goats are obtained after slaughtering in a slaughterhouse. The research is carried out at the University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore, Pakistan. In this research, the main morphological features recorded in the long bones of thoracic limb and pelvic limb of the adult Chinkara, by comparing them to those of the Beetal goat. The most important differences between the two species are noted in the scapula, the humerus, the radius and ulna, the metacarpal, femur, tibia metatarsal and phalanges. In conclusion, the present study suggests that the morphology of the long bones of adult Chinkara has different from the Beetal goat in various points of view. Based on these recorded points, long bones of these two species can easily be differentiated. The study is helpful in zooarcheological, comparative osteometric studies, for forensic specialists and veterinary anatomists.

Keywords: Beetal goat, Chinkara, comparative morphological features, long bones, osteology

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