Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 43

Search results for: elder

43 Elder Abuse Interventions: What We Know and What We Need to Know

Authors: Sepali Guruge

Abstract:

Background: There is an increase in interest among health care professionals and social workers in understanding how best to identify, mitigate, and prevent elder abuse. Purpose & method: Based on a recently completed scoping review of related literature, this paper will focus on the current state of knowledge on elder abuse interventions. Results: The results will be presented in light of the fact that limited literature exists on primary prevention of elder abuse. The existing literature on interventions to reduce or stop abuse will be critically examined in terms of their effectiveness. Particular attention will be paid to interventions such as relocation of older adults experiencing abuse, in-home assessments, empowerment and psycho-educational support for older adults. Conclusions: Overall, multi-stakeholder collaborative, community-based interventions should be designed to identify, mitigate, and prevent elder abuse.

Keywords: elder abuse, interventions, scoping review, prevention

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42 Exploring Elder Care in Different Settings in West Bengal: A Psycho-Social Study of Private Homes, Hospitals and Long-Term Care Facilities

Authors: Tulika Bhattacharyya, Suhita C. Chatterjee

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West Bengal, one of the most rapidly ageing states in India, has inadequate structure for elder care. Therefore, there is an urgent need to improve elder care which involves focusing on different care settings where the elderly exists, like - Homes, Hospitals and Long-Term Care facilities (e.g. - Old Age Homes, Hospices). The study explores various elder care settings, with the intention to develop an understanding about them, and thereby generate comprehensive information about the entire spectrum of elder care in Kolkata. Empirical data are collected from the elderly and their caregivers in different settings. The tools for data collection are narratives, in-depth interviews and focus group discussions, along with field observations. Mixed method design is adopted to analyze the complexities of elder care in different set ups. The major challenges of elder care in private Homes are: architecturally inadequate housing conditions, paucity of financial support and scarcity of skilled caregivers. While the key factors preventing the Hospital and Long-Term Care Facilities from providing elder care services are inadequate policies and set governmental standards for elder care for the hospitalized elderly in various departments of the Hospital and the elderly residing in different kinds of Long Term Care Facilities. The limitations in each care setting results in considerable neglect and abuse of the elderly. The major challenges in elder care in West Bengal are lack of continuum between different care settings/ peripheral location of private Homes within public health framework and inadequate state Palliative policy- including narcotic regulations. The study suggests remedial measures to improve the capacity to deliver elder care in different settings.

Keywords: elder care settings, family caregiver, home care, geriatric hospital care, long term care facility

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41 Association between Elder Mistreatment and Suicidal Ideation among Community-Dwelling Chinese Older Adults in the USA

Authors: Xin Qi Dong, Melissa Simon

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Aims: Elder mistreatment and suicidal ideation are important public health concerns among aging populations. This study will examine the association between elder mistreatment and suicidal ideation among Chinese older adults in the USA. Methods: Guided by a community-based participatory research approach, in this study we conducted in-person interviews with Chinese older adults aged 60 years and older in the Greater Chicago area from 2011 to 2013. Elder mistreatment was assessed by a 10-item instrument derived from the Hwalek-Sengstock Elder Abuse Screening Test (H-S/EAST) and the Vulnerability to Abuse Screening Scale (VASS). Suicidal ideation was assessed by the ninth item of the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) and the Geriatric Mental State Examination-Version A (GMS-A). Results: Overall, 3,159 Chinese older adults participated in this study, and their mean age was 72.8 years. After controlling for age, gender, education, income, medical comorbidities, depressive symptoms, and social support, elder mistreatment was significantly associated with 2-week suicidal ideation (OR 2.46, 95% CI 1.52--4.01) and 12-month suicidal ideation (OR 2.46, 95% CI 1.62--3.73). With respect to gender differences, the study found that the association remained significant for older women but not for older men after adjusting for all confounding factors. Conclusion: As the largest epidemiology study conducted among Chinese older adults in the USA, this study suggests that elder mistreatment is significantly associated with 2-week and 12-month suicidal ideation in older women but not in older men. Longitudinal studies should be conducted to explore the mechanisms through which elder mistreatment links with suicidal ideation.

Keywords: suicidal ideation, elder abuse, family violence, Asian health equity

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40 Intergenerational Technology Learning in the Family

Authors: Chih-Chun Wu

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Learning information and communication technologies (ICT) helps people survive in current society. For the internet generation also referred as digital natives, learning new technology is like breathing; however, for the elder generations also called digital immigrants, including parents and grandparents, learning new technology could be challenged and frustrated. While majority research focused on the effects of elders’ ICT learning, less attention was paid to the help that the elders got from their other family members while learning ICT. This study utilized the anonymous questionnaire to survey 3,749 undergraduates and demonstrated that families are great places for intergenerational technology learning to be carried out. Results from this study confirmed that in the family, the younger generation both helped set up technology products and educated the elder ones needed technology knowledge and skills. The family elder members in this study applied to those who lived under the same roof with relative relations. Results from this study revealed that 2,331 (62.2%) and 2,656 (70.8%) undergraduates revealed that they helped their family elder members set up and taught them how to use LINE respectively. In addition, 1,481 (49.1%) undergraduates helped their family elder members set up, and 2,222 (59.3%) taught them. When it came to Apps, 2,527 (67.4%) helped their family elder members download them, and 2,876 (76.7%) taught how to use them. As for search engine, 2,317 (61.8%) undergraduates taught their family elders. Furthermore, 3,118 (83.2%), 2,639 (70.4%) and 2,004 (53.7%) undergraduates illustrated that they taught their family elder members smartphones, computers and tablets respectively. Meanwhile, only 904 (24.2%) undergraduates taught their family elders how to make a doctor appointment online. This study suggests to making good use of intergenerational technology learning in the family, since it increases family elders’ technology capital, and thus strengthens our country’s human capital and competitiveness.

Keywords: intergenerational technology learning, adult technology learning, family technology learning, ICT learning

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39 Prevalence of Elder Abuse and Effects of Social Factors on It

Authors: Ezat Vahidian, Babak Eshrati

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Introduction: Elder abuse, a very complex issue with diverse definitions and names, has been very slow to capture the public eye and public policy since it is manifested at many levels. It requires the involvement of different types of professionals. While elder abuse is not a new phenomenon, the speed of population ageing world-wide is likely to lead to an increase in its incidence and prevalence. Elder abuse has devastating consequences for older persons such as poor quality of life, psychological distress, and loss of property and security. It is also associated with increased mortality and morbidity. Elder abuse is a problem that manifests itself in both rich and poor countries and at all levels of society. Purpose: The purpose of this study is to determine the prevalence of elder abuse and effects of social factor on it in Markazi Province. Materials and methods: The society of the study was all of the elders in Markazi Province that were available by geographical address in the table of rural and urban household societies. The study was cross sectional and multi phases in sampling the first one was classification according rural and urban area and the second one was cluster sampling with equal cluster. Estimation of samples were 472 persons and increased by design effect to 1110 persons. Collection data was done by questionnaire and analyzed by SPSS and chi 2 exam. Results: This study showed 70 persons were abused (42/8% male and 57/2% female) mean of ages was 74/7 years. 64% were marred and 31% were widows. There were not any significant meaningful association between elder abuse and area of living (pv=0.299),occupation (p.v=0.104), education (pv=0.358) and age (P.value=0.104) there were significant meaningful association between physical impairment (pv=0.08), and movement impairment (P.value=0.008). Conclusion: Results verify that maltreatment occurred in the aged persons. Analysis of data indicated that elder abuse exist in every socioeconomic group with any context of education in urban area and rural area and in men and women. Prevalence of elder abuse was 6.3% (70 persons) that verify the data of developed countries with limited sample.

Keywords: elder abuse, education, occupation, area of living

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38 ‘Nature Will Slow You Down for a Reason’: Virtual Elder-Led Support Services during COVID-19

Authors: Grandmother Roberta Oshkawbewisens, Elder Isabelle Meawasige, Lynne Groulx, Chloë Hamilton, Lee Allison Clark, Dana Hickey, Wansu Qiu, Jared Leedham, Nishanthini Mahendran, Cameron Maclaine

Abstract:

In March of 2020, the world suddenly shifted with the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic; in-person programs and services were unavailable and a scramble to shift to virtual service delivery began. The Native Women’s Association of Canada (NWAC) established virtual programming through the Resiliency Lodge model and connected with Indigenous women, girls, Two-Spirit, transgender, and gender-diverse people across Turtle Island and Inuit Nunangat through programs that provide a safe space to slow down and reflect on their lives, environment, and well-being. To continue to grow the virtual Resiliency Lodge model, NWAC needed to develop an understanding of three questions: how COVID-19 affects Elder-led support services, how Elder-led support services have adapted during the pandemic, and what Wise Practices need to be implemented to continue to develop, refine, and evaluate virtual Elder-led support services specifically for Indigenous women, girls, two-Spirit, transgender, and gender-diverse people. Through funding from the Canadian Institute of Health Research (CIHR), NWAC gained deeper insight into these questions and developed a series of key findings and recommendations that are outlined throughout this report. The goals of this project are to contribute to a more robust participatory analysis that reflects the complexities of Elder-led virtual cultural responses and the impacts of COVID-19 on Elder-led support services; develop culturally and contextually meaningful virtual protocols and wise practices for virtual Indigenous-led support; and develop an Evaluation Strategy to improve the capacity of the Resiliency Lodge model. Significant findings from the project include Resiliency Lodge programs, especially crafting and business sessions, have provided participants with a sense of community and contributed to healing and wellness; Elder-led support services need greater and more stable funding to offer more workshops to more Indigenous women, girls, Two-Spirit, transgender, and gender-diverse people; and Elder- and Indigenous-led programs play a significant role in healing and building a sense of purpose and belonging among Indigenous people. Ultimately, the findings and recommendations outlined in this research project help to guide future Elder-led virtual support services and emphasize the critical need to increase access to Elder-led programming for Indigenous women, girls, Two-Spirit, transgender, and gender-diverse people.

Keywords: indigenous women, traditional healing, virtual programs, covid-19

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37 Servant Leadership for Elder Care in St. Camillus Health Systems, USA

Authors: Anthoni Jeorge

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Throughout the history of the world, servant leadership has been researched, and favourable results such as individual, team, and organizational have been linked to the construct. This research paper designates St. Camillus de Lellis, a practitioner of servant leadership and founder of the Ministers of the Sick as a servant leader in his approach to care for the sick. Service is the visible face of his servant leadership. First of all, despite many challenges, St. Camillus de Lellis practiced leadership by the example of compassionate service to the sick. Second, he made service to the sick the highest priority of his life. Third, Camillus displayed servant leadership such that his manner of leadership gave birth to a New School of Service to the Sick. The paper identifies the distinctive dimensions and essential elements which characterized his service-centered leadership. Furthermore, discuss the six major characteristics of a servant leader as set forth by St. Camillus’s life example. The research illustrates the transformational power of servant leadership infield healthcare in general and, in doing so, provides servant leadership seekers ways servant leadership can transform elder care in one’s own field (St. Camillus Health Systems). Thus, it ascertains that servant leadership is best-fit for humanized elder care. Supported by the review of literature, the paper ascertains that Camillus, by identifying himself with the sick, gained deeper insights concerning the pain and suffering of the population. Uniquely drawn from his true grit, Camillus’ service-centered leadership is value-based, people-oriented, and compassion-filled. His way of service to the sick is the prolongation of gestures of mercy and compassion. It is hoped that the results of this study will help health care workers and servant leadership practitioners to humanize elder care and cultivate servant leadership attitude in their health care services to the sick. By incorporating such service-oriented elements into their leadership orientation, health care workers will be true servant leaders of the sick.

Keywords: leadership, service, healthcare, compassion

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36 Detecting Elderly Abuse in US Nursing Homes Using Machine Learning and Text Analytics

Authors: Minh Huynh, Aaron Heuser, Luke Patterson, Chris Zhang, Mason Miller, Daniel Wang, Sandeep Shetty, Mike Trinh, Abigail Miller, Adaeze Enekwechi, Tenille Daniels, Lu Huynh

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Machine learning and text analytics have been used to analyze child abuse, cyberbullying, domestic abuse and domestic violence, and hate speech. However, to the authors’ knowledge, no research to date has used these methods to study elder abuse in nursing homes or skilled nursing facilities from field inspection reports. We used machine learning and text analytics methods to analyze 356,000 inspection reports, which have been extracted from CMS Form-2567 field inspections of US nursing homes and skilled nursing facilities between 2016 and 2021. Our algorithm detected occurrences of the various types of abuse, including physical abuse, psychological abuse, verbal abuse, sexual abuse, and passive and active neglect. For example, to detect physical abuse, our algorithms search for combinations or phrases and words suggesting willful infliction of damage (hitting, pinching or burning, tethering, tying), or consciously ignoring an emergency. To detect occurrences of elder neglect, our algorithm looks for combinations or phrases and words suggesting both passive neglect (neglecting vital needs, allowing malnutrition and dehydration, allowing decubiti, deprivation of information, limitation of freedom, negligence toward safety precautions) and active neglect (intimidation and name-calling, tying the victim up to prevent falls without consent, consciously ignoring an emergency, not calling a physician in spite of indication, stopping important treatments, failure to provide essential care, deprivation of nourishment, leaving a person alone for an inappropriate amount of time, excessive demands in a situation of care). We further compare the prevalence of abuse before and after Covid-19 related restrictions on nursing home visits. We also identified the facilities with the most number of cases of abuse with no abuse facilities within a 25-mile radius as most likely candidates for additional inspections. We also built an interactive display to visualize the location of these facilities.

Keywords: machine learning, text analytics, elder abuse, elder neglect, nursing home abuse

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35 CONDUCTHOME: Gesture Interface Control of Home Automation Boxes

Authors: J. Branstett, V. Gagneux, A. Leleu, B. Levadoux, J. Pascale

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This paper presents the interface CONDUCTHOME which controls home automation systems with a Leap Motion using ‘invariant gesture protocols’. The function of this interface is to simplify the interaction of the user with its environment. A hardware part allows the Leap Motion to be carried around the house. A software part interacts with the home automation box and displays the useful information for the user. An objective of this work is the development a natural/invariant/simple gesture control interface to help elder people/people with disabilities.

Keywords: automation, ergonomics, gesture recognition, interoperability

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34 A Fast GPS Satellites Signals Detection Algorithm Based on Simplified Fast Fourier Transform

Authors: Beldjilali Bilal, Benadda Belkacem, Kahlouche Salem

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Due to the Doppler effect caused by the high velocity of satellite and in some case receivers, the frequency of the Global Positioning System (GPS) signals are transformed into a new ones. Several acquisition algorithms frequency of the Global Positioning System (GPS) signals are transformed can be used to estimate the new frequency and phase shifts values. Numerous algorithms are based on the frequencies domain calculation. Our developed algorithm is a new approach dedicated to the Global Positioning System signal acquisition based on the fast Fourier transform. Our proposed new algorithm is easier to implement and has fast execution time compared with elder ones.

Keywords: global positioning system, acquisition, FFT, GPS/L1, software receiver, weak signal

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33 The Development of the Self-concept Scale for Elders in Taiwan

Authors: Ting-Chia Lien, Tzu-Yin Yen, Szu-Fan Chen, Tai-chun Kuo, Hung-Tse Lin, Yi-Chen Chung, Hock-Sen Gwee

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The purpose of this study was to explore the result of the survey by developing “Self-Concept Scale for Elders”, which could provide community counseling and guidance institution for practical application. The sample of this study consisted of 332 elders in Taiwan (male: 33.4%; female: 66.6%). The mean age of participants was 65-98 years. The measurements applied in this study is “Self-Concept Scale for Elders”. After item and factor analyses, the preliminary version of the Self-Concept Scale for Elders was revised to the final version. The results were summarized as follows: 1) There were 10 items in Self-Concept Scale for Elders. 2) The variance explained for the scale accounted for 77.15%, with corrected item-total correlations Cronbach’s alpha=0.87. 3) The content validity, criterion validity and construct validity have been found to be satisfactory. Based on the findings, the implication and suggestions are offered for reference regarding counselor education and future research.

Keywords: self-concept, elder, development scale, applied psychology

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32 The Study of Elders’ Needs in Bangkok Metropolis for the Options of Health Tourism

Authors: Chantouch Wannathanom

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Research The study of elders’ needs in Bangkok metropolis for the options of health tourism. The objective is to study of elders’ needs in Bangkok Metropolis for the options of health tourism. The research her collected data using a questionnaire. The samples used in this research is elderly people living in the Dusit area. Of 400 people found the majority were female than male. Accounted for18 percent aged between 50-55 years, mostly undergraduate degree. Moreover, most seniors do not have underlying disease. The study found that 1. Elders’ needs in Bangkok Metropolis for the options of health tourism; 2. Tourism activity patterns that fit elderly was divided into 5 categories, including massage, massage, and herbal sauna. Practicing meditation and ascetic. The results showed that selection of elderly tourist activities by choosing healthy eating are the first. The hypothesis testing period: Elders’ needs in Bangkok Metropolis for the options of health tourism is different. The level of statistical significance .05 level.

Keywords: needs, elder, health tourism, Bangkok

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31 The Economic Impact of State Paid Family Leave and Medical Acts on Working Families with Old and Disabled Adults

Authors: Ngoc Dao

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State Paid Leave Programs (PFL) complement the Federal Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA) by offering workers time off to take care of their newborns or sick family members with supplemental income, and further job protection. Up to date, four states (California, New Jersey, Rhode Island, and New York) implemented paid leave policies. This study adds further understanding of how state PFL policies help working families with elder parents improve their work balance by examining the paid leave policies on labor outcomes. Early findings suggest State Paid Leave Policies reduced the likelihood to exit the labor market by 1.6 percentage points, with larger effects among paid leave policies with job protection feature. In addition, the results imply job protection in paid leave policies matters in helping employed caregivers attach to the labor market.

Keywords: family paid leave, working caregivers, employment, social welfare

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30 Marketing Planning Strategy to Promote Family Agro-Tourism: A Case Study of Bang Nam Phueng Community Prapradeang District, Samutprakarn Province

Authors: Sasitorn Chetanont, Benjaporn Yamjameung

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The objectives of this study are to increase tourism products and to develop family agro-tourism. The research methodology was to analyze internal and external situations according to MP-MF and the MC-STEPS principles. The results of this study highlight following necessary improvements; extend the cycling routes, increase the number of bicycle rental shops, offer a recreation place for the elders, organize a space for the floating market products and increase tourism activities throughout the year. In ‘places or distribution channel’ we discuss the improvement of facilities, specifically the routes to facilitate elder visitors and visitors on wheelchairs and furthermore the arrangement of educational trips to relevant centers in the community. In ‘promotions’, we discuss the implementation of an 'all inclusive package' were the agro-tourism program, health-conscious program and the elderly fun program converge.

Keywords: marketing planning strategy, agro-tourism, promotions, Bang Nam Phueng

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29 Ethnomedicinal Uses of Plants in Bridim Village Development Committee in Langtang National Park, Nepal

Authors: Ila Shrestha

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Bridim Village Development Committee (VDC) is one of the medicinal plants hot spots of Nepal. It is located on a ridge above the lower Langtang Khola, steep and narrow spot in between 1944 m to 4833 m altitude. The study area is homogeneously inhabited by Tamang communities. An investigation on folk herbal medicine on the basis of traditional uses of medicinal plants was done in 2014. The local traditional healers, elder men and women, traders and teachers, were consulted as key informants for documentation of indigenous knowledge on the medicinal plants. It was found that altogether seventy-one medicinal plant species belonging to sixty genera and thirty-three families were used by local people for twenty-seven diseases. Roots of thirty-four species were the most frequently used plant parts and bigger numbers of species were found to be used in fever of ten species. Most medicines were prepared in the form of juice of forty species. The attempt of the study was to document ethno medicinal practices to treat different diseases in the study area for conservation of indigenous knowledge.

Keywords: Bridim village, ethnomedicine, national park, plants

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28 Protection against the Hazards of Stress on Health in Older Adults through Mindfulness

Authors: Cindy de Frias, Erum Whyne

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Objectives: The current study examined whether the link between stress and health-related quality of life was buffered by protective factors, namely mindfulness, in a sample of middle-aged and older adults. Method: In this cross-sectional study, 134 healthy, community-dwelling adults (aged 50–85 years) were recruited from Dallas, Texas. The participants were screened for depressive symptoms and severity (using the Patient Health Questionnaire [PHQ-9]). All participants completed measures of self-reported health status (i.e., SF-36v2: mental and physical health composites), life stress (using the Elder’s Life Stress Inventory [ELSI]), and trait mindfulness (i.e., Mindful Attention Awareness Scale). Results: Hierarchical regressions (covarying for age, gender, and education) showed that life stress was inversely related to physical and mental health. Mindfulness was positively related to mental health. The negative effect of life stress on mental health was weakened for those individuals with greater trait mindfulness. Discussion: The results suggest that mindfulness is a powerful, adaptive strategy that may protect middle-aged and older adults from the well-known harmful effects of stress on healthy aging.

Keywords: health, stress, mindfulness, aging

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27 Preliminary Study on Analysis of Pinching Motion Actuated by Electro-Active Polymers

Authors: Doo W. Lee, Soo J. Lee, Bye R. Yoon, Jae Y. Jho, Kyehan Rhee

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Hand exoskeletons have been developed in order to assist daily activities for disabled and elder people. A figure exoskeleton was developed using ionic polymer metal composite (IPMC) actuators, and the performance of it was evaluated in this study. In order to study dynamic performance of a finger dummy performing pinching motion, force generating characteristics of an IPMC actuator and pinching motion of a thumb and index finger dummy actuated by IMPC actuators were analyzed. The blocking force of 1.54 N was achieved under 4 V of DC. A thumb and index finger dummy, which has one degree of freedom at the proximal joint of each figure, was manufactured by a three dimensional rapid prototyping. Each figure was actuated by an IPMC actuator, and the maximum fingertip force was 1.18 N. Pinching motion of a dummy was analyzed by two video cameras in vertical top and horizontal left end view planes. A figure dummy powered by IPMC actuators could perform flexion and extension motion of an index figure and a thumb.

Keywords: finger exoskeleton, ionic polymer metal composite, flexion and extension, motion analysis

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26 Comparing Image Processing and AI Techniques for Disease Detection in Plants

Authors: Luiz Daniel Garay Trindade, Antonio De Freitas Valle Neto, Fabio Paulo Basso, Elder De Macedo Rodrigues, Maicon Bernardino, Daniel Welfer, Daniel Muller

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Agriculture plays an important role in society since it is one of the main sources of food in the world. To help the production and yield of crops, precision agriculture makes use of technologies aiming at improving productivity and quality of agricultural commodities. One of the problems hampering quality of agricultural production is the disease affecting crops. Failure in detecting diseases in a short period of time can result in small or big damages to production, causing financial losses to farmers. In order to provide a map of the contributions destined to the early detection of plant diseases and a comparison of the accuracy of the selected studies, a systematic literature review of the literature was performed, showing techniques for digital image processing and neural networks. We found 35 interesting tool support alternatives to detect disease in 19 plants. Our comparison of these studies resulted in an overall average accuracy of 87.45%, with two studies very closer to obtain 100%.

Keywords: pattern recognition, image processing, deep learning, precision agriculture, smart farming, agricultural automation

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25 Systematic Review of Sexual Assault Prevention Methods for Older Adults: Exploring the Hidden Needs of a Growing Population

Authors: Michelle Hand, Brieanne Beaujolais

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Rape stereotypes have long involved the assault of young females by strangers desiring sex. As such, older adult women and men have largely been excluded from research, policies, and awareness raising initiatives to address sexual violence. Moreover sexual assault accounts for the most underreported type of abuse experienced by older adults, highlighting a need to expand our knowledge base in this area. Thus a systematic review of peer-reviewed scholarly articles and reports was conducted to explore the ways sexual assault has been prevented among older adults in recent years and to identify implications for researchers and practitioners as they aim to meet the needs of this population. Articles and reports published during or after 2007 were eligible if their focus included methods to address sex abuse among older adults as well as practice or research implications. Forty-four articles met this criteria and were included in this systematic review. The findings from this review will provide an in-depth understanding of the under-researched issue of sexual violence among older adult women and men as well as current prevention strategies. In addition, implications and recommendations will be provided for practitioners, educators and researchers as they aim to meet the hidden needs of this growing yet under-researched population.

Keywords: elder, rape, sexual assault, sexual violence

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24 To Assess the Awareness and Health Seeking Practices Related to Vitamin-A Deficiency Diseases in Urban Slums of Delhi, India

Authors: Dr.Vasundhra Misra, Prof. Praveen Vashist

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Purpose: Vitamin A deficiency prevention programmes are at varying stages of development and implementation in all countries. Vitamin A deficiency has been recognized as a public health issue in developing countries like India. Despite achieving a lot of success a load of blindness due to Vitamin A deficiencies is still high. In this regard, a study was conducted to assess the awareness and health-seeking practices about Vitamin A deficiency diseases among the urban slum population of Delhi, India. Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted in the 5 slum clusters from the urban population of South Delhi. A specially designed pre-tested questionnaire schedule was administered. The study sample was comprised of 1552 inhabitants. Results: The mean age of the respondents was 34 ± 12.1 years. A total of 1003 (64.6%) participants out of 1552, had heard of night blindness. Awareness of night blindness was more in the elderly age group and also found significant (p < 0.001). Only 31 (3.1%) knew that night blindness is caused due to deficiency of vitamin A. The awareness of vitamin A prophylaxis programme was significantly higher among elder age (p < 0.05) and females (p < 0.05). Conclusion: The findings highlighted that even though many of the respondents have heard of night blindness but the awareness about causes and treatment was found low in the community. There is a need for efforts directed to enhance community-level counseling and educational programmes.

Keywords: awareness, health-seeking practices, night blindness, vitamin-A deficiency diseases

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23 A Qualitative Meta-Synthesis of the Caregiving Experiences of Family Caregivers for Elderly Cancer Patients in China: Implications for Health Social Work

Authors: Longtao He, Han Wu

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Summary: As the need for elder care increases in China due to a growing aging population and, in particular, rising cancer rates, it becomes increasingly important to also support family caregivers, who are often the main source of care. We used a qualitative meta-synthesis to systematically evaluate and integrate the caregiving experiences of family caregivers of elderly cancer patients as revealed by articles published in Chinese journals. Findings: Nine studies are included in the final analysis. The caregiver experiences they describe are synthesized into three primary themes: care needs, care burden, and care gains, with numerous secondary themes. Besides the findings that seem to align with other findings across cultures, we have highlighted three main discoveries from the synthesis that may be quite specific to the Chinese context: 1. more sub-themes related to specific caregiving skills caregivers of cancer patients; 2. a call for health professionals to improve their communication skills with family caregivers; 3. the important role of filial piety. Applications: Our findings can be used to help health social workers and relevant policymakers in China support family caregivers by identifying the education and training required for caregivers, ways to make the most of potential care gains, and ways to ease care burdens.

Keywords: cancer, Chinese family caregivers, caregiving skills, care burden, care gains, health social work

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22 The Way of Life of the Civil Servant Community under the Bureau of the Royal Household: A Case Study of Tha Wasukri, Bangkok

Authors: Vilasinee Jintalikhitdee, Saowapa Phaithayawat

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The research on “The Way of Life of the Civil Servant Community under the Bureau of the Royal Household” aims to study 1) the way of life of the people who live in the civil servant community in Tha Wasukri, and 2) the model of community administration of civil servants under the Bureau of the Royal Household. This research is conducted qualitatively and quantitatively by collecting data from interviews, focus group discussion, participant and non-participant observation along with the data from the questionnaire based on age groups which include elder group, working age group and youth group. The result of the research shows that the origin of this community is related to the history during the Rama V’s reign. It has been a harbor for the king to boat in any royal ceremonies; this custom is still maintained until today. The status or position of person who serves the king in terms of working is often inherited from the bureau of the Royal Household based on his/her consanguinity and, hence, further receives the rights to live in the Tha Wasukri area. Therefore, this community has some special characteristics demonstrating the way of living influenced by the regulation of the Bureau of the Royal Household such as respecting elders and interdependence in which there is internal social organization with the practice of bureaucracy in going in and out the community. The person who has rights to live here must be friendly to everybody so that this community will be a safe place for lives and property. The administration based on the model of Bangkok for local administration was used as an external structure only, but the way of living still follows the practice of the Bureau of the Royal Household.

Keywords: way of life, community, Tha Wasukri, Bureau of the Royal Household

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21 A Case Study of Spontaneous Heterotopic Pregnancy with Subsequent Ruptured Ectopic Pregnancy

Authors: M. Elder, L. Beech, A. Mackie

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Heterotopic pregnancy is an uncommon and potentially life-threatening condition in which there is simultaneous occurrence of intrauterine and ectopic pregnancies. It has an incidence of approximately 1:3900 pregnancies, occurring in only 1:30000 spontaneous pregnancies. This study presents a rare case of spontaneous heterotopic pregnancy in a 34-year-old primiparous woman who was brought in by ambulance to the emergency department following collapse at 20+1 weeks gestation after normal first trimester screening and morphology scan. She was hemodynamically unstable and fetal heart rate was 60bpm. Initial resuscitation included transfusion of 2 units packed red blood cells and 1g intravenous tranexamic acid. Bedside ultrasound revealed evidence of approximately 1000ml clot in the right upper quadrant. She underwent a diagnostic laparoscopy and washout, which proceeded to a midline exploratory laparotomy. This revealed a 2.6L hemoperitoneum and query right ectopic pregnancy with calcified areas and clot, with no other cause of bleeding identified. Right salpingectomy was performed, and pathology later confirmed ectopic pregnancy. The intrauterine pregnancy had no complications, and she delivered a healthy full-term baby. This case demonstrates that ultrasound confirmation of intrauterine pregnancy does not exclude coexisting ectopic pregnancy. Heterotopic pregnancy should be considered in any pregnant woman presenting with abdominal pain or signs of hemorrhagic shock, as prompt diagnosis and treatment is essential to minimize foetal and maternal morbidity and mortality.

Keywords: ectopic pregnancy, hemorrhagic shock, salpingectomy, spontaneous heterotopic pregnancy

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20 World War II Vaccination Scheme as a Determinant of Gender-Specific Differences in Anti-Tetanus Antibody Levels in the British Elderly Population

Authors: Myrto Vlazaki

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Tetanus is a non-transmissible, preventable bacterial disease with high mortality. In the U.K., the demographic group systematically accounting for a large proportion of the infections notified to the authorities over the years have been the elderly (> 60 years old). The 2009 seroepidemiological study for tetanus in England reports a gender-age interaction for the +70, with males having significantly higher anti-tetanus antibody levels than females. A systematic review of the literature was carried out to characterise: I. the seroepidemiology of tetanus in economically developed countries with similar immunisation schemes to the U.K., introduced in the 1960’s. II. the factors leading to differential vaccine uptake between males and females in 1910-1945 (corresponding to ages of 60-95 in 2005). III. the immune response elicited by anti-tetanus immunisation in males and females IV. the value of catch-up immunisation in the elderly Similar age- and gender- differences in anti-tetanus antibody levels are noted in other countries. Gender differences in immune responses elicited by vaccination are not consistent with the finding that elder females are less well protected against tetanus compared to their male counterparts. Attention is drawn to the selective anti-tetanus immunisation scheme introduced in the U.K. in 1938, specific to the World War II conscripts. The age-specific immunity gap observed amongst the +70 could be explained as the by-product of that early scheme targetting mostly males. Introducing anti-tetanus vaccination in the +70 in the U.K. could help bridge the immunity gap between males and females and reduce the overall tetanus susceptibility of this age group.

Keywords: elderly, immunisation, gender-specific differences, seroepidemiology, tetanus, World War II

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19 Smartphone Addiction and Reaction Time in Geriatric Population

Authors: Anjali N. Shete, G. D. Mahajan, Nanda Somwanshi

Abstract:

Context: Smartphones are the new generation of mobile phones; they have emerged over the last few years. Technology has developed so much that it has become part of our life and mobile phones are one of them. These smartphones are equipped with the capabilities to display photos, play games, watch videos and navigation, etc. The advances have a huge impact on many walks of life. The adoption of new technology has been challenging for the elderly. But, the elder population is also moving towards digitally connected lives. As age advances, there is a decline in the motor and cognitive functions of the brain, and hence the reaction time is affected. The study was undertaken to assess the usefulness of smartphones in improving cognitive functions. Aims and Objectives: The aim of the study was to observe the effects of smartphone addiction on reaction time in elderly population Material and Methods: This is an experimental study. 100 elderly subjects were enrolled in this study randomly from urban areas. They all were using smartphones for several hours a day. They were divided into two groups according to the scores of the mobile phone addiction scale (MPAS). Simple reaction time was estimated by the Ruler drop method. The reaction time was then calculated for each subject in both groups. The data were analyzed using mean, standard deviation, and Pearson correlation test. Results: The mean reaction time in Group A is 0.27+ 0.040 and in Group B is 0.20 + 0.032. The values show a statistically significant change in reaction time. Conclusion: Group A with a high MPAS score has a low reaction time compared to Group B with a low MPAS score. Hence, it can be concluded that the use of smartphones in the elderly is useful, delaying the neurological decline, and smarten the brain.

Keywords: smartphones, MPAS, reaction time, elderly population

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18 A Qualitative Study of the Effect of Sibling and Parental Relationships on Coping Mechanisms in Families of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

Authors: Smriti Gour, Neelam Pandey

Abstract:

The objective of this study was to describe and analyse the mutual relationship between the coping mechanisms used by the families of a child with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and family dynamics and the effect sibling interactions have on the dynamics and coping mechanisms in an urban setup. In-depth interviews were conducted for 25 families, with 4 members each in the Delhi NCR area in India. The families who were interviewed had a younger child who had received a diagnosis of ASD between the ages of 5-12. The in-depth questionnaires contained open-ended questions and the interviews were conducted separately for the mother, father and the typically developing sibling. The key findings of the study suggested that lack of communication was a common factor in most families (n=19) leading to other difficulties like stress and relationship dysfunction. It also fostered a fallacious perception of the relationship dynamics in the family in most of the interviewed families and changed depending on the family member being interviewed. In families where the typically developing elder sibling had a good relationship with the autistic child, the family dynamics were found to be more stable, and the overall family well-being was better maintained. The coping mechanisms employed by the families were also more positive and tended to work better if the typically developing sibling maintained a positive and interactive relationship with the parents and the autistic child. The type of coping mechanisms had a major impact on the relationship between the parents and in dictating the dynamics of the family of the child with ASD. Spirituality, professional help, family support and household help emerged to be the most effective coping mechanisms for the families, with spirituality emerging to be the most positive and effective coping mechanism in the families interviewed.

Keywords: autism spectrum disorder, coping mechanism, family dynamics, parental relationships, siblings

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17 Obtaining Norms for Arabic Translated Version of the Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's Disease (CERAD) Neuropsychological Battery in Normal Elderly Omanis Attending a Tertiary Hospital in Oman

Authors: Ammar Alobaidy, Lamees Alsawafi, Malak Almawali, Balqees Alabri, Hajer Alhamrashdi

Abstract:

Background: There is scarce data in the literature concerning the use of Arabic version neuron psychological cognitive tests in the geriatric age group of the Omani population. Objectives: Our aim is to obtain norms for normal elderly Omanis assessed by The Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's disease (CERAD) neuro psychological battery and to compare these norms with other studies in the literature. Methods: 84 attendants and visitors of in-patients at Sultan Qaboos University Hospital, elder than 55 years, were interviewed. All participants were assessed by Dementia Rating Scale & Geriatric Depression Scale to ensure the integrity of their activities of daily living and the absence of depression, respectively. The performance of all participants in the CERAD battery was rated by a single rater to optimize the inter-rater reliability. Results: The cut-point for average performance in CERAD battery is dependent on the age, sex, and level of education and cannot be set as a single cut-point for all elderly Omanis. Conclusion: This study has shown the effect of age, sex, and level of education on the cognitive performance of normal elderly Omanis. The normative data obtained from this study can be utilized to differentiate between the cognitive decline of normal aging and the cognitive impairment due to various neuro cognitive disorders in the elderly Omanis, and probably culturally similar Arabic speaking communities.

Keywords: CERAD, neuropsychological battery, normal aging, elderly Omanis

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16 Tendency of Smoking, Factors Influencing and Knowledge Related to Smoking among Male Students in Tamil Primary School in Kuala Lumpur

Authors: T. Jivita, M. S. Salmiah

Abstract:

The aims of this study were to determine the prevalence of smoking, reasons for tried smoking, factors that influence smoking, and knowledge level on health risk among male Tamil primary school students. Seven urban Tamil primary schools in Kuala Lumpur were identified based on cluster sampling. A cross-sectional study was conducted in May 2014 and a total of 380 male children in standard 4 and 5 were selected. Survey included information on history of ever smoking even a puff, smoking a whole cigarette, smoking every day at least for 7 days, reasons for tried smoking, potential factors of smoking and knowledge related to smoking and health. Fifty seven had previously smoked, with a prevalence of 15.0% (95% CI = 11.4, 18.6) and 17 had smoked a whole cigarette (4.5%, 95% CI = 2.42, 6.58) while 8 had at least smoked 7 days continuously (2.1%, 95% CI = 0.66, 3.54). The reasons for tried smoking were because of curiosity (63.2%), it is not allowed (42.6%), it is relaxing (35.2%), it is cool (33.3%), to lose weight (20.4%), style (1.8%), by mistake (0.5%), for prayers purpose (0.3%), given by uncle (0.3%), and introduced by elder brother (0.3%). None of these reasons were associated with age factors (p > 0.05). Of those who had smoked a whole cigarette, 42.9% were significantly influenced by father (χ2 (1) = 6.42, p = 0.040) and 47.8% were significantly influenced by friends (χ2 (2) = 6.27, p = 0.043). Overall 91.5% had good level of knowledge about smoking, where the majority knew that smoking was dangerous to their health. However only 61.7% and 63.1% of them knew that smoking can cause high blood pressure and stroke, respectively. There is no significant different in mean rank between 10 years old and 11 years old students (p=0.987 < 0.05) for level of knowledge, tested by Mann-Whitney U Test. Odds of smoking increased 1.37 times having seen actors smoking (95% CI= 1.01, 1.86), 1.55 times having a father who smokes (95% CI= 1.26, 1.92), 1.64 times having siblings who smokes (95% CI= 1.32, 2.04), and 10.55 times having friends who offered cigarette (95% CI= 4.17, 26.68). As a conclusion, cessation of smoking in family members, who are role models, so as to reduce rates to taking up smoking among children.

Keywords: factors influence, knowledge on smoking, prevalence on smoking, reasons

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15 Volcanoscape Space Configuration Zoning Based on Disaster Mitigation by Utilizing GIS Platform in Mt. Krakatau Indonesia

Authors: Vega Erdiana Dwi Fransiska, Abyan Rai Fauzan Machmudin

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Particularly, space configuration zoning is the very first juncture of a complete space configuration and region planning. Zoning is aimed to define discrete knowledge based on a local wisdom. Ancient predecessor scientifically study the sign of natural disaster towards ethnography approach by operating this knowledge. There are three main functions of space zoning, which are control function, guidance function, and additional function. The control function refers to an instrument for development control and as one of the essentials in controlling land use. Hence, the guidance function indicates as guidance for proposing operational planning and technical development or land usage. Any additional function is useful as a supplementary for region or province planning details. This phase likewise accredits to define boundary in an open space based on geographical appearance. Informant who is categorized as an elder lives in earthquake prone area, to be precise the area is the surrounding of Mount Krakatau. The collected data is one of method for analyzed with thematic model. Later on, it will be verified. In space zoning, long-range distance sensor is applied to determine visualization of the area, which will be zoned before the step of survey to validate the data. The data, which is obtained from long-range distance sensor and site survey, will be overlaid using GIS Platform. Comparing the knowledge based on a local wisdom that is well known by elderly in that area, some of it is relevant to the research, while the others are not. Based on the site survey, the interpretation of a long-range distance sensor, and determining space zoning by considering various aspects resulted in the pattern map of space zoning. This map can be integrated with disaster mitigation affected by volcano eruption.

Keywords: elderly, GIS platform, local wisdom, space zoning

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14 Salient Beliefs regarding Alcohol Reduction and Cessation among Thai Teenagers

Authors: Panrapee Suttiwan, Rewadee Watakakosol Arunya Tuicomepee, Sakkaphat T. Ngamake

Abstract:

Alcohol consumption ranks among the top six of health-risk behaviors that lead to disability and death among Thai teenagers. Underage drinkers have higher health risks than their non-drinking peers do. This study, therefore, aimed to explore salient beliefs of Thai teenagers with alcohol reduction and cessation based on the Theory of Planned Behaviour theoretical framework. Participants were 225 high-school and vocational school students, most of whom (60.9%) consumed alcohol almost daily (5-6 times / week), and one-third of whom (33.8%) reported habitual moderate drink. The average age was 16.5 (SD = 0.9), and the average age of the first use of alcohol was 13.7 (SD = 2.2). Instrument was an open-ended questionnaire that elicited beliefs about having alcohol reduction / cessation in the past 12 months. Findings revealed salient benefit beliefs of alcohol reduction / cessation among the teens such as improved physical and mental health, accident and violence avoidance, less sexual risks, money and time saving, better academic performance, and improved relationships. In contrast, the teens identified several disadvantage beliefs such as deteriorating health, social awkwardness, lack of little fun, excitement, and experience, physical uneasiness, stress, and lack of self-confidence. Salient normative groups for alcohol reduction / cessation included parents, elder relatives, siblings, close friends, teachers, boy / girlfriends, and seniors / juniors at school. Situations influencing alcohol reduction / cessation included quarrels with boy / girlfriends, family conflicts, peer pressure, partying and socializing, festive holidays and anniversary celebration, and visiting entertainment places, etc. This study provides empirical evidence that help to identify normative attitudes towards alcohol reduction / cessation and may thus be an important knowledge for public health campaigns seeking to reduce alcohol consumption in this population.

Keywords: alcohol consumption reduction, cessation, salient belief, Thai teenagers

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