Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 48

Search results for: neuroprotective

48 Neuroprotective Effect of Germinated Dolichos lablab on 6-Hydroxy Dopamine (6-OHDA) Induced Toxicity in SH-SY5Y Neuroblastoma Cell

Authors: Taek Hwan Lee, Moon Ho Do, Lalita Subedi, Young Un Park, Sun Yeou Kim

Abstract:

Natural and artificial toxic substances namely neurotoxins induce the bitter effect in the nervous system termed as neurotoxicity. It can modulate the normal functioning of the nervous system either hyperactivate it or damage homeostasis of neuronal system. Neurotoxins induced toxicity ultimately kills the neuron. The present study investigated the neuroprotective effects of germinated Dolichos lablab on 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-induced neurotoxicity using SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells. Germination is a process of plant growth from a seed. Sprouting of a seedling from a seed induced many molecular changes in the seed in order to prepare it for further growth. Because of these molecular and chemical changes, the neuroprotective effect of Dolichos lablab is higher in the germinated form than in the normal condition. SH-SY5Y cells were treated with Dolichos lablab extract (50, 100 g/ml) followed by 6-OHDA (25M) induced toxicity. Cell Viability was measured to check the cell survival against 6-OHDA induced toxicity using MTT assay. Dolichos lablab showed a neuroprotective effect against 6-OHDA induced neuronal cell death in neuroblastoma cell at a higher concentration of 100g/ml however the effect is much better even at the lower concentration after germination 50g/ml. Cell survival was increased dramatically after 15 h of germination and increased with time of germination in concentration dependent manner. Trigonelline as a representative compound was validated in germinated Dolichos lablab by HPLC analysis that might enhance the neuroprotective effect of Dolichos lablab. This result suggests that Dolichos lablab possess neuroprotective effect in neuroblastoma cells against 6-OHDA however its activity was more potent in the germinated form.

Keywords: dolichos lablab, germination, neuroprotection, trigonelline

Procedia PDF Downloads 241
47 Investigation of Ameliorative Effect of a Polyphenolic Compound of Green Tea Extract against Rotenone Induced Neurotoxicity: A Mechanistic Approach

Authors: Sandeep Goyal, Sandeep Saluja

Abstract:

Natural antioxidants have major role in maintenance of health. Green tea extract principally contains epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), as its abundant antioxidant constituent. Green tea is consumed daily worldwide as antioxidant to combat CNS diseases and has traditional importance also. EGCG has neuroprotective potential in various animal models of Parkinson disease, Alzheimer’s disease etc. but its exact mechanism has not been ruled out. The present study has been designed to investigate the anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and mitochondrial modulating mechanism of neuroprotective effect of epigallocatechin-3-gallate against rodent model of rotenone induced Parkinson’s disease (PD). The behavioural alterations were assessed by using open field test apparatus, Chatilon’s grip strength test apparatus and elevated plus maze for determining the locomotor activity, grip strength and cognition respectively. Biochemically, various parameters to assess oxidative stress, neuroinflammation and neurochemical estimations were performed on rat brain homogenates. A histological examination of rat brain striatum was done to check the neurodegeneration. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) at 10 & 20 mg/kg, were investigated for their neuroprotective potential along with levodopa as a standard agent. Minocycline, a microglial activation inhibitor, was administered alone and in combination with EGCG. EGCG and minocycline produced ameliorative effect against rotenone induced PD like symptoms by significantly reduced behavioral, biochemical and histological alterations. Results of our study reveal the neuroprotective effect of EGCG and minocycline against rotenone induced PD. Results of our study indicate that EGCG exerted neuroprotective effect against rotenone induced PD via its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and mitochondrial modulating mechanisms and substantiate its previously reported and traditional claims for its use in CNS diseases.

Keywords: antioxidants, neurotoxicity, rotenone, EGCG

Procedia PDF Downloads 252
46 Identifying Metabolic Pathways Associated with Neuroprotection Mediated by Tibolone in Human Astrocytes under an Induced Inflammatory Model

Authors: Daniel Osorio, Janneth Gonzalez, Andres Pinzon

Abstract:

In this work, proteins and metabolic pathways associated with the neuroprotective response mediated by the synthetic neurosteroid tibolone under a palmitate-induced inflammatory model were identified by flux balance analysis (FBA). Three different metabolic scenarios (‘healthy’, ‘inflamed’ and ‘medicated’) were modeled over a gene expression data-driven constructed tissue-specific metabolic reconstruction of mature astrocytes. Astrocyte reconstruction was built, validated and constrained using three open source software packages (‘minval’, ‘g2f’ and ‘exp2flux’) released through the Comprehensive R Archive Network repositories during the development of this work. From our analysis, we predict that tibolone executes their neuroprotective effects through a reduction of neurotoxicity mediated by L-glutamate in astrocytes, inducing the activation several metabolic pathways with neuroprotective actions associated such as taurine metabolism, gluconeogenesis, calcium and the Peroxisome Proliferator Activated Receptor signaling pathways. Also, we found a tibolone associated increase in growth rate probably in concordance with previously reported side effects of steroid compounds in other human cell types.

Keywords: astrocytes, flux balance analysis, genome scale metabolic reconstruction, inflammation, neuroprotection, tibolone

Procedia PDF Downloads 120
45 Antioxidant Effects of C-Phycocyanin on Oxidized Astrocyte in Brain Injury Using 2D and 3D Neural Nanofiber Tissue Model

Authors: Seung Ju Yeon, Seul Ki Min, Jun Sang Park, Yeo Seon Kwon, Hoo Cheol Lee, Hyun Jung Shim, Il-Doo Kim, Ja Kyeong Lee, Hwa Sung Shin

Abstract:

In brain injury, depleting oxidative stress is the most effective way to reduce the brain infarct size. C-phycocyanin (C-Pc) is a well-known antioxidant protein that has neuroprotective effects obtained from green microalgae. Astrocyte is glial cell that supports the nerve cell such as neuron, which account for a large portion of the brain. In brain injury, such as ischemia and reperfusion, astrocyte has an important rule that overcomes the oxidative stress and protect from brain reactive oxygen species (ROS) injury. However little is known about how C-Pc regulates the anti-oxidants effects of astrocyte. In this study, when the C-Pc was treated in oxidized astrocyte, we confirmed that inflammatory factors Interleukin-6 and Interleukin-3 were increased and antioxidants enzyme, Superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase was upregulated, and neurotrophic factors, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and nerve growth factor (NGF) was alleviated. Also, it was confirmed to reduce infarct size of the brain in ischemia and reperfusion because C-Pc has anti-oxidant effects in middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) animal model. These results show that C-Pc can help astrocytes lead neuroprotective activities in the oxidative stressed environment of the brain. In summary, the C-PC protects astrocytes from oxidative stress and has anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory, neurotrophic effects under ischemic situations.

Keywords: c-phycocyanin, astrocyte, reactive oxygen species, ischemia and reperfusion, neuroprotective effect

Procedia PDF Downloads 218
44 Neuroprotective Effects of Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) in Rat Model of Alzheimer’s Disease

Authors: Hanan F. Aly, Fateheya M. Metwally, Hanaa H. Ahmed

Abstract:

The current study is undertaken to elucidate a possible neuroprotective role of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) against the development of Alzheimer’s disease in experimental rat model. Alzheimer’s disease was produced in young female ovariectomized rats by intraperitoneal administration of AlCl3 (4.2 mg/kg body weight) daily for 12 weeks. Half of these animals also received orally DHEA (250 mg/kg body weight, three times weekly) for 18 weeks. Control groups of animals received either DHAE alone, or no DHEA, or were not ovariectomized. After such treatment the animals were analyzed for oxidative stress biomarkers such as hydrogen peroxide, nitric oxide and malondialdehyde, total antioxidant capacity, reduced glutathione, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, superoxide dismutase and catalase activities, antiapoptotic marker Bcl-2 and brain derived neurotrophic factor. Also, brain cholinergic markers (acetylcholinesterase and acetylcholine) were determined. The results revealed significant increase in oxidative stress parameters associated with significant decrease in the antioxidant enzyme activities in Al-intoxicated ovariectomized rats. Significant depletion in brain Bcl-2 and brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels were also detected. Moreover, significant elevations in brain acetylcholinesterase activity accompanied with significant reduction in acetylcholine level were recorded. Significant amelioration in all investigated parameters was detected as a result of treatment of Al-intoxicated ovariectomized rats with DHEA. These results were confirmed by histological examination of brain sections. These results clearly indicate a neuroprotective effect of DHEA against Alzheimer’s disease.

Keywords: Alzheimer’s disease, oxidative stress, apoptosis, dehydroepiandrosterone

Procedia PDF Downloads 205
43 Evaluation of Neuroprotective Potential of Olea europaea and Malus domestica in Experimentally Induced Stroke Rat Model

Authors: Humaira M. Khan, Kanwal Asif

Abstract:

Ischemic stroke is a neurological disorder with a complex pathophysiology associated with motor, sensory and cognitive deficits. Major approaches developed to treat acute ischemic stroke fall into two categories, thrombolysis and neuroprotection. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the neuroprotective and anti-thrombolytic effects of Olea europaea (olive oil) and Malus domestica (apple cider vinegar) and their combination in rat stroke model. Furthermore, histopathological analysis was also performed to assess the severity of ischemia among treated and reference groups. Male albino rats (12 months age) weighing 300- 350gm were acclimatized and subjected to middle cerebral artery occlusion method for stroke induction. Olea europaea and Malus domestica was administered orally in dose of 0.75ml/kg and 3ml/kg and combination was administered at dose of 0.375ml/kg and 1.5ml/kg prophylactically for consecutive 21 days. Negative control group was dosed with normal saline whereas piracetam (250mg/kg) was administered as reference. Neuroprotective activity of standard piracetam, Olea europaea, Malus domestica and their combination was evaluated by performing functional outcome tests i.e. Cylinder, pasta, ladder run, pole and water maize tests. Rats were subjected to surgery after 21 days of treatment for analysis from stroke recovery. Olea europaea and Malus domestica in individual doses of 0.75ml/kg and 3ml/kg respectively showed neuroprotection by significant improvement in ladder run test (121.6± 0.92;128.2 ± 0.73) as compare to reference (125.4 ± 0.74). Both test doses showed significant neuroprotection as compare to reference (9.60 ± 0.50) in pasta test (8.40 ± 0.24;9.80 ± 0.37) whereas with cylinder test, experimental groups showed significant increase in movements (6.60 ± 0.24; 8.40 ± 0.24) in contrast to reference (7.80 ± 0.37).There was a decrease in percentage time taken f to reach the hidden maize in water maize test (56.80 ± 0.58;61.80 ± 0.66) at doses 0.75ml/kg and 3ml/kg respectively as compare to piracetam (59.40 ± 1.07). Olea europaea and Malus domestica individually showed significant reduction in duration of mobility (127.0 ± 0.44; 123.0 ± 0.44) in pole test as compare to piracetam (124.0 ± 0.70). Histopathological analysis revealed the significant extent of protection from ischemia after prophylactic treatments. Hence it is concluded that Olea europaea and Malus domestica are effective neuroprotective agents alone as compare to their combination.

Keywords: ischemia, Malus domestica, neuroprotection, Olea europaea

Procedia PDF Downloads 57
42 Neuroprotective Effects of Rosmarinic Acid in the MPTP Mouse Model of Parkinson's Disease

Authors: Huamin Xu, Wenting Jia, Hong Jiang, Junxia Xie

Abstract:

Rosmarinic acid (RA) is a natural acid that is found in a variety of herbs, such as rosemary and has multiple biological activities such as antioxidative, anti-inflammatory and antiviral activities. In this study, we investigated the neuroprotective effects of RA on dopaminergic system in 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) induced mouse model of Parkinson’s disease (PD). The mice received oral administration of RA before MPTP injection. Results showed that the tyrosine hydroxylase expression in SN reduced and the levels of dopamine and its metabolites in the striatum decreased in MPTP intoxicated PD mice. Pretreatment with RA significantly inhibited these changes. Further studies demonstrated that MPTP treatment increased the iron content, which was counteracted by pre-treatment with RA. In addition, RA could restore the decrease of superoxide dismutase (SOD) induced by MPTP. This study provides evidence that RA could suppress MPTP-induced degeneration of the nigrostriatal dopaminergic system by regulating iron content and the expression of SOD. Thus, RA might be clinically evaluated for the prevention of neurodegenerative diseases.

Keywords: rosmarinic acid, Parkinson's disease, MPTP, dopaminergic system

Procedia PDF Downloads 95
41 Delivery of Ginseng Extract Containing Phytosome Loaded Microsphere System: A Preclinical Approach for Treatment of Neuropathic Pain in Rodent Model

Authors: Nitin Kumar

Abstract:

Purpose: The current research work focuses mainly on evolving a delivery system for ginseng extract (GE), which in turn will ameliorate the neuroprotective potential by means of enhancing the ginsenoside (Rb1) bio-availability (BA). For more noteworthy enhancement in oral bioavailability (OBA) along with pharmacological properties, the drug carriers’ performance can be strengthened by utilizing phytosomes-loaded microspheres (PM) delivery system. Methods: For preparing the disparate phytosome complexes (F1, F2, and F3), an aqueous extract of ginseng roots (GR) along with phospholipids were reacted in disparate ratio. Considering the outcomes, F3 formulation (spray-dried) was chosen for preparing the phytosomes powder (PP), PM, and extract microspheres (EM). PM was made by means of loading of F3 into Gum Arabic (GA) in addition to maltodextrin polymer mixture, whereas EM was prepared by means of the addition of extract directly into the same polymer mixture. For investigating the neuroprotective effect (NPE) in addition to their pharmacokinetic (PK) properties, PP, PM, and EM formulations were assessed. Results: F3 formulation gave enhanced entrapment efficiency (EE) (i.e., 50.61%) along with good homogeneity of spherical shaped particle size (PS) (42.58 ± 1.4 nm) with least polydispersity index (PDI) (i.e., 0.193 ± 0.01). The sustained release (up to 24 h) of ginsenoside Rb1 (GRb1) is revealed by the dissolution study of PM. A significantly (p < 0.05) greater anti-oxidant (AO) potential of PM can well be perceived as of the diminution in the lipid peroxidase level in addition to the rise in the glutathione superoxide dismutase (SOD) in addition to catalase levels. It also showed a greater neuroprotective potential exhibiting significant (p < 0.05) augmentation in the nociceptive threshold together with the diminution in damage to nerves. A noteworthy enhancement in the relative BA (157.94%) of GRb1 through the PM formulation can well be seen in the PK studies. Conclusion: It is exhibited that the PM system is an optimistic and feasible strategy to enhance the delivery of GE for the effectual treatment of neuropathic pain.

Keywords: ginseng, neuropathic, phytosome, pain

Procedia PDF Downloads 66
40 Neuroprotective Effect of Chrysin on Thioacetamide-Induced Hepatic Encephalopathy in Rats: Role of Oxidative Stress and TLR-4/NF-κB Pathway

Authors: S. A. El-Marasy, S. A. El Awdan, R. M. Abd-Elsalam

Abstract:

This study aimed to investigate the possible neuroprotective effect of chrysin on thioacetamide (TAA)-induced hepatic encephalopathy in rats. Also, the effect of chrysin on motor impairment, cognitive deficits, oxidative stress, neuroinflammation, apoptosis and histopathological damage was assessed. Male Wistar rats were randomly allocated into five groups. The first group received the vehicle (distilled water) for 21 days and is considered as normal group. While the second one received intraperitoneal dose of TAA (200 mg/kg) at three alternative days during the third week of the experiment to induce HE and is considered as control group. The other three groups were orally administered chrysin for 21 days (25, 50, 100 mg/kg) and starting from day 17; rats received intraperitoneal dose of TAA (200 mg/kg) at three alternative days. Then behavioral, biochemical, histopathological and immunohistochemical analyses were assessed. Then behavioral, biochemical, histopathological and immunohistochemical analyses were assessed. Chrysin reversed TAA-induced motor coordination in rotarod test, cognitive deficits in object recognition test (ORT) and attenuated serum ammonia, hepatic liver enzymes, reduced malondialdehyde (MDA), elevated reduced glutathione (GSH), reduced nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and Interleukin-6 (IL-6) brain contents. Chrysin administration also reduced Toll-4 receptor (TLR-4) gene expression, caspase-3 protein expression, hepatic necrosis and astrocyte swelling. This study depicts that chrysin exerted neuroprotective effect in TAA-induced HE rats, evidenced by improvement of cognitive deficits, motor incoordination and histopathological changes such as astrocyte swelling and vacuolization; hallmarks in HE, via reducing hyperammonemia, ameliorating hepatic function, in addition to its anti-oxidant, inactivation of TLR-4/NF-κB inflammatory pathway, and anti-apoptotic effects.

Keywords: chrysin, hepatic encephalopathy, oxidative stress, rats, thioacetamide, TLR4/NF-κB pathway

Procedia PDF Downloads 73
39 Role of Onion Extract for Neuro-Protection in Experimental Stroke Model

Authors: Richa Shri, Varinder Singh, Kundan Singh Bora, Abhishek Bhanot, Rahul Kumar, Amit Kumar, Ravinder Kaur

Abstract:

The term ‘neuroprotection’ means preserving/salvaging function and structure of neurons. Neuroprotection is an adjunctive treatment option for neurodegenerative disorders. Oxidative stress is considered a major culprit in neurodegenerative disorders; hence, management strategies include use of antioxidants. Our search for a neuroprotective agent began with Allium cepa L. or onions, (family Amaryllidaceae) - a potent antioxidant. We have investigated the neuroprotective potential of onions in experimental models of ischemic stroke, diabetic neuropathy, neuropathic pain, and dementia. In pre and post-ischemic stroke model, the methanol extract of outer scales of onion bulbs (MEOS) prevented memory loss and motor in-coordination; reduced oxidative stress and cerebral infarct size. This also prevented and ameliorated diabetic neuropathy in mice. The MEOS was fractionated to yield a flavonoid rich fraction (FRF) that successfully reversed ischemia-reperfusion induced neuronal damage, thereby demonstrating that the flavonoids are responsible for the activity. The FRF effectively ameliorated chronic constriction induced neuropathic pain in rats. The FRF was subjected to bioactivity-guided fractionated. It was seen that FRF is more effective as compared to the isolated components probably due to synergism among the constituents (i.e., quercetin and quercetin glucosides) in the FRF. The outer scales of onion bulbs have great potential for prevention as well as for treatment of neuronal disorders. Red onions, with higher amounts of flavonoids as compared to the white onions, produced more significant neuroprotection. Thus, the standardized FRF from the waste material of a commonly used vegetable, especially the red variety, may be developed as a valuable neuroprotective agent.

Keywords: Allium cepa, antioxidant activity, flavonoid rich fraction, neuroprotection

Procedia PDF Downloads 40
38 Neuroprotective Effect of Vildagliptin against Cerebral Ischemia in Rats

Authors: Salma A. El-Marasy, Rehab F. Abdel-Rahman, Reham M. Abd-Elsalam

Abstract:

The burden of stroke is intensely increasing worldwide. Brain injury following transient or permanent focal cerebral ischemia develops ischemic stroke as a consequence of a complex series of pathophysiological events. The aim of this study is to evaluate the possible neuroprotective effect of a dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor, vildagliptin, independent on its insulinotropic properties in non-diabetic rats subjected to cerebral ischemia. Anaesthetized Wistar rats were subjected to either left middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) or sham operation followed by reperfusion after 30 min of MCAO. The other three groups were orally administered vildagliptin at 3 dose levels (2.5, 5, 10 mg/kg) for 3 successive weeks before subjected to left focal cerebral ischemia/reperfusion and till the end of the study. Neurological deficit scores and motor activity were assessed 24h following reperfusion. 48h following reperfusion, rats were euthanized and their left brain hemispheres were harvested and used in the biochemical, histopathological, and immunohistochemical investigations. Vildagliptin pretreatment improved neurological score deficit, locomotor activity and motor coordination in MCAO rats. Moreover, vildagliptin reduced malondialdehyde (MDA), elevated reduced glutathione (GSH), phosphotylinosital 3 kinase (PI3K), phosphorylated of protein kinase B (p-AKT), and mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) brain contents in addition to reducing protein expression of caspase-3. Also, vildagliptin showed a dose-dependent attenuation in neuronal cell loss and histopathological alterations in MCAO rats. This study proves that vildagliptin exerted the neuroprotective effect in a dose-dependent manner as shown in amelioration of neuronal cell loss and histopathological damage in MCAO rats, which may be mediated by attenuating neuronal and motor deficits, it’s anti-oxidant property, activation of PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway and its anti-apoptotic effect.

Keywords: caspase-3, cerebral ischemia, dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor, oxidative stress, PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway, rats, vildagliptin

Procedia PDF Downloads 53
37 Assessment of the Neuroprotective Effect of Oral Hypoglycemic Agents in Patients with Acute Ischemic Stroke

Authors: A. Alhusban, M. Alqawasmeh, F. Alfawares

Abstract:

Introduction: Diabetes is a chronic health problem and a major risk factor of stroke. A number of therapeutic modalities exist for diabetes management. It’s still unknown whether the different oral hypoglycemic agents would ameliorate the detrimental effect of diabetes on stroke severity. The objective of this work is to assess the effect of pretreatment with oral hypoglycemic agents, insulin and their combination on stroke severity at presentation. Patients and Methods: Patients admitted to the King Abdullah University Hospital (KAUH)-Jordan with ischemic stroke between January 2015 and December 2016 were evaluated and their comorbid diseases, treatment on admission and their neurologic severity was assessed using the National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) were documented. Stroke severity was compared for non-diabetic patients and diabetic patients treated with different antidiabetic agents. Results: Data from 324 patients with acute stroke was documented. The median age of participants was 69 years. Diabetes was documented in about 50% of the patients. Multinomial regression analysis identified diabetes treatment status as an independent predictor of neurological severity of stroke (p=0.032). Patients treated with oral hypoglycemic agents had a significantly lower NIHSS as compared to nondiabetic patients and insulin treated patients (p < 0.02). The positive effect of oral hypoglycemic agents was blunted by insulin co-treatment. Insulin did not alter the severity of stroke as compared to non-diabetics. Conclusion: Oral hypoglycemic agents may reduce the severity of neurologic deficit of ischemic stroke and may have neuroprotective effect.

Keywords: diabetes, stroke, neuroprotection, oral hypoglycemic agents

Procedia PDF Downloads 56
36 Anti-Neuroinflammatory and Anti-Apoptotic Efficacy of Equol, against Lipopolysaccharide Activated Microglia and Its Neurotoxicity

Authors: Lalita Subedi, Jae Kyoung Chae, Yong Un Park, Cho Kyo Hee, Lee Jae Hyuk, Kang Min Cheol, Sun Yeou Kim

Abstract:

Neuroinflammation may mediate the relationship between low levels of estrogens and neurodegenerative disease. Estrogens are neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory in neurodegenerative disease models. Due to the long term side effects of estrogens, researches have been focused on finding an effective phytoestrogens for biological activities. Daidzein present in soybeans and its active metabolite equol (7-hydroxy-3-(4'-hydroxyphenyl)-chroman) bears strong antioxidant and anticancer showed more potent anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective role in neuroinflammatory model confirmed its in vitro activity with molecular mechanism through NF-κB pathway. Three major CNS cells Microglia (BV-2), Astrocyte (C6), Neuron (N2a) were used to find the effect of equol in inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase (COX-2), MAPKs signaling proteins, apoptosis related proteins by western blot analysis. Nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) was measured by the Gries method and ELISA, respectively. Cytokines like tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and IL-6 were also measured in the conditioned medium of LPS activated cells with or without equol. Equol inhibited the NO production, PGE-2 production and expression of COX-2 and iNOS in LPS-stimulated microglial cells at a dose dependent without any cellular toxicity. At the same time Equol also showed promising effect in modulation of MAPK’s and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) expression with significant inhibition of the production of proinflammatory cytokine like interleukin -6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor -α (TNF-α). Additionally, it inhibited the LPS activated microglia-induced neuronal cell death by downregulating the apoptotic phenomenon in neuronal cells. Furthermore, equol increases the production of neurotrophins like NGF and increase the neurite outgrowth as well. In conclusion the natural daidzein metabolite equol are more active than daidzein, which showed a promising effectiveness as an anti-neuroinflammatory and neuroprotective agent via downregulating the LPS stimulated microglial activation and neuronal apoptosis. This work was supported by Brain Korea 21 Plus project and High Value-added Food Technology Development Program 114006-4, Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs.

Keywords: apoptosis, equol, neuroinflammation, phytoestrogen

Procedia PDF Downloads 258
35 Neuroprotective Effect of Crocus sativus against Cerebral Ischemia in Rats

Authors: Rehab F. Abdel-Rahman, Sally A. El Awdan, Rehab R. Hegazy, Dina F. Mansour, Hanan A. Ogaly, Marwan Abdelbaset

Abstract:

Disorders of the cerebral circulation are the leading cause of numerous neurological and psychiatric illnesses. The transient middle cerebral artery occlusion model (MCAO) is considered to be a reliable and reproducible rodent model of cerebral ischemia. The purpose of the current study was to examine the neuroprotective effects of Crocus sativus (saffron) in a rat model of left middle cerebral artery MCAO. Male Wistar rats were anesthetized and subjected to 1 h of MCAO followed by 48 h reperfusion or sham surgery. One group of the ischemia operated animals was kept as left brain ischemia/reperfusion (I/R). Another 2 operated groups received saffron extract (100 or 200 mg/kg, i.p) four times (60 min before the surgery, during the surgery, and on days 1 and 2 after the occlusion). During the experiment, behavioral tests were performed. After 72 h the animals were euthanized and their left brain hemispheres were used in the biochemical, histopathological, and immunohistochemical studies. Saffron administration revealed an improvement in I/R-induced alteration of locomotor balance and coordination ability of rats. Moreover, saffron decreased the brain content of malondialdehyde, nitric oxide, brain natriuretic peptide and vascular endothelial growth factor with significant increase of reduced glutathione. Immunohistochemical evaluation of caspase-3 and Bax protein expression revealed reduction in I/R-enhanced apoptosis in saffron treated rats. In conclusion, saffron treatment decreases ischemic brain injury in association with inhibition of apoptotic and oxidative cell death in a dose dependent manner.

Keywords: caspase-3, cerebral ischemia, Crocus sativus, rats, vascular endothelial growth factor

Procedia PDF Downloads 157
34 Pistachio Supplementation Ameliorates the Motor and Cognitive Deficits in Rotenone-Induced Rat Model of Parkinson’s Disease

Authors: Saida Haider, Syeda Madiha

Abstract:

Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a common neurological disorder characterized by motor deficits and loss of dopaminergic neurons. Oxidative stress is said to play a pivotal role in the pathophysiology of the disease. In the present study, PD was induced by injection of rotenone (1.5 mg/kg/day, s.c.) for eight days. Pistachio (800 mg/kg/day, p.o.) was given for two weeks. At the end of treatment brains were dissected out and striatum was isolated for biochemical and neurochemical analysis. Morris water maze (MWM) test and novel object recognition (NOR) task was used to test the memory function while motor behavior was determined by open field test (OFT), Kondziela inverted screen test (KIST), pole test (PT), beam walking test (BWT), inclined plane test (IPT) and footprint (FP) test. Several dietary components have been evaluated as potential therapeutic compounds in many neurodegenerative diseases. Increasing evidence shows that nuts have protective effects against various diseases by improving the oxidative status and reducing lipid peroxidation. Pistachio is the only nut that contains anthocyanin, a potent antioxidant having neuroprotective properties. Results showed that pistachio supplementation significantly restored the rotenone-induced motor deficits and improved the memory performance. Moreover, rats treated with pistachio also exhibited enhanced oxidative status and increased dopamine (DA) and 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) concentration in striatum. In conclusion, to our best knowledge, we have for the first time shown that pistachio nut possesses neuroprotective effects against rotenone-induced motor and cognitive deficits. These beneficial effects of pistachio may be attributed to its high content of natural antioxidant and phenolic compounds. Hence, consumption of pistachio regularly as part of a daily diet can be beneficial in the prevention and treatment of PD.

Keywords: rotenone, pistachio, oxidative stress, Parkinson’s disease

Procedia PDF Downloads 34
33 Neuroprotective Effect of Hypericum Perforatum against Neurotoxicity and Alzheimer's Disease (Experimental Study in Mice)

Authors: Khayra Zerrouki, Noureddine Djebli, Esra Eroglu, Afife Mat, Ozhan Gul

Abstract:

Neurodegenerative diseases of the human brain comprise a variety of disorders that affect an increasing percentage of the population. Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a complex, multifactorial, heterogeneous mental illness, which is characterized by an age-dependent loss of memory and an impairment of multiple cognitive functions, but this 10 last years it concerns the population most and most young. Hypericum perforatum has traditionally been used as an external anti-inflammatory and healing remedy for the treatment of swellings, wounds and burns, diseases of the alimentary tract and psychological disorders. It is currently of great interest due to new and important therapeutic applications. In this study, the chemical composition of methanolic extract of Hypericum perforatum (HPM) was analysed by using high performance liquid chromatography – diode array detector (HPLC-DAD). The in vitro antioxidant activity of HPM was evaluated by using several antioxidant tests. HSM exhibits inhibitory capacity against posphatidylcholine liposome peroxidation, induced with iron and ascorbic acid, scavenge DPPH and superoxide radicals and act as reductants. The cytotoxic activity of HSM was also determined by using MTT cell viability assay on HeLa and NRK-52E cell lines. The in vivo activity studies in Swiss mice were determined by using behavioral, memory tests and histological study. According to tests results HPM that may be relevant to the treatment of cognitive disorders. The results of chemical analysis showed a hight level of hyperforin and quercitin that had an important antioxidant activity proved in vitro with the DPPH, anti LPO and SOD; this antioxidant activity was confirmed in vivo after the non-toxic results by means of improvement in behavioral and memory than the reducing shrunken in pyramidal cells of mice brains.

Keywords: AlCl3, alzheimer, mice, neuroprotective, neurotoxicity, phytotherapy

Procedia PDF Downloads 403
32 Involvement of Nrf2 in Kolaviron-Mediated Attenuation of Behavioural Incompetence and Neurodegeneration in a Murine Model of Parkinson's Disease

Authors: Yusuf E. Mustapha, Inioluwa A Akindoyeni, Oluwatoyin G. Ezekiel, Ifeoluwa O. Awogbindin, Ebenezer O. Farombi

Abstract:

Background: Parkinson's disease (PD) is the most prevalent motor disorder. Available therapies are palliative with no effect on disease progression. Kolaviron (KV), a natural anti-inflammatory and antioxidant agent, has been reported to possess neuroprotective effects in Parkinsonian flies and rats. Objective: The present study investigates the neuroprotective effect of KV, focusing on the DJ1/Nrf2 signaling pathway. Methodology: All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA, 10 mg/kg, i.p.) was used to inhibit Nrf2. Murine model of PD was established with four doses of MPTP (20 mg/kg i.p.) at 2 hours interval. MPTP mice were pre-treated with either KV (200 mg/kg/day p.o), ATRA, or both conditions for seven days before PD induction. Motor behaviour was evaluated, and markers of oxidative stress/damage and its regulators were assessed with immunofluorescence and ELISA techniques. Results: MPTP-treated mice covered less distance with reduced numbers of anticlockwise rotations, heightened freezing, and prolonged immobility when compared to control. However, KV significantly attenuated these deficits. Pretreatment of MPTP mice with KV upregulated Nrf2 expression beyond MPTP level with a remarkable reduction in Keap1 expression and marked elevation of DJ-1 level, whereas co-administration with ATRA abrogated these effects. KV treatment restored MPTP-mediated depletion of endogenous antioxidant, striatal oxidative stress, oxidative damage, and inhibition of acetylcholinesterase activity. However, ATRA treatment potentiated acetylcholinesterase inhibition and attenuated the protective effect of KV on the level of nitric oxide and activities of catalase and superoxide dismutase. Conclusion: Kolaviron protects Parkinsonian mice by stabilizing and activating the Nrf2 signaling pathway. Thus, kolaviron can be explored as a pharmacological lead in PD management.

Keywords: Garcinia kola, Kolaviron, Parkinson Disease, Nrf2, behavioral incompetence, neurodegeneration

Procedia PDF Downloads 31
31 Trigonelline: A Promising Compound for The Treatment of Alzheimer's Disease

Authors: Mai M. Farid, Ximeng Yang, Tomoharu Kuboyama, Chihiro Tohda

Abstract:

Trigonelline is a major alkaloid component derived from Trigonella foenum-graecum L. (fenugreek) and has been reported before as a potential neuroprotective agent, especially in Alzheimer’s disease (AD). However, the previous data were unclear and used model mice were not well established. In the present study, the effect of trigonelline on memory function was investigated in Alzheimer’s disease transgenic model mouse, 5XFAD which overexpresses the mutated APP and PS1 genes. Oral administration of trigonelline for 14 days significantly enhanced object recognition and object location memories. Plasma and cerebral cortex were isolated at 30 min, 1h, 3h, and 6 h after oral administration of trigonelline. LC-MS/MS analysis indicated that trigonelline was detected in both plasma and cortex from 30 min after, suggesting good penetration of trigonelline into the brain. In addition, trigonelline significantly ameliorated axonal and dendrite atrophy in Amyloid β-treated cortical neurons. These results suggest that trigonelline could be a promising therapeutic candidate for AD.

Keywords: alzheimer’s disease, cortical neurons, LC-MS/MS analysis, trigonelline

Procedia PDF Downloads 45
30 Functional Relevance of Flavanones and Other Plant Products in the Remedy of Parkinson's Disease

Authors: Himanshi Allahabadi

Abstract:

Plants have found a widespread use in medicine traditionally, including the treatment of cognitive disorders, especially, neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease. In terms of indigenous medicine, it has been found that many potential drugs can be isolated from plant products, including those for dementia. Plant product is widely distributed in plant kingdom and forms a major antioxidant source in the human diet, is Polyphenols. There are four important groups of polyphenols: phenolic acids, flavonoids, stilbenes, and lignans. Due to their high antioxidant capacity, interest in their study has greatly increased. There are several methods for discovering and characterizing active compounds isolated from plant sources, now available. The results obtained so far seem fulfilling, but additionally, mechanism of functioning of polyphenols at the molecular level, as well as their application in human health need to be researched upon. Also, even though the neuroprotective effects of flavonoids have been much talked about, much of the data in support of this statement has come from animal studies rather than human studies. This review is based on a multi-faceted study of medicinal plants, i.e. phytochemicals, with special focus on flavanones and their relevance in remedy of Parkinson's disease.

Keywords: dementia, parkinson's disease, flavanones, polyphenols, substantia nigra

Procedia PDF Downloads 212
29 Epigallocatechin Gallate Protects against Oxidative Stress-Mediated Neurotoxicity and Hippocampus Dysfunction Induced by Fluoride in Rats

Authors: S. Thangapandiyan, S. Miltonprabu

Abstract:

Fl (Fl) exposure engenders neurodegeneration and induces oxidative stress in the brain. The Neuroprotective role of EGCG on oxidative stress-mediated neurotoxicity in Fl intoxicated rat hippocampus has not yet been explored so far. Hence, the present study is focused on witnessing whether EGCG (40mg/kg) supplementation prevents Fl induced oxidative stress in the brain of rats with special emphasis on the hippocampus. Fl (25mg/kg) intoxication for four weeks in rats showed an increase in Fl concentration along with the decrease the AChE, NP, DA, and 5-HT activity in the brain. The oxidative stress markers (ROS, TBARS, NO, and PC) were significantly increased with decreased enzymatic (SOD, CAT, GPx, GR, GST, and G6PD) and non-enzymatic antioxidants (GSH, TSH, and Vit.C) in Fl intoxicated rat hippocampus. Moreover, Fl intoxicated rats exhibited an intrinsic and extrinsic pathway mediated apoptosis in the hippocampus of rats. Fl intoxication significantly increased the DNA damage as evidenced by increased DNA fragmentation. Furthermore, the toxic impact of Fl on hippocampus was also proved by the immunohistochemical, histological, and ultrastructural studies. Pre-administration of EGCG has significantly protected the Fl induced oxidative stress, biochemical changes, cellular apoptotic, and histological alternations in the hippocampus of rats. In conclusion, EGCG supplementation significantly attenuated the Fl induced oxidative stress mediated neurotoxicity via its free radical scavenging and antioxidant activity.

Keywords: brain, hippocampal, NaF, ROS, EGCG

Procedia PDF Downloads 284
28 Histological Evaluation of the Neuroprotective Roles of Trans Cinnamaldehyde against High Fat Diet and Streptozotozin Induced Neurodegeneration in Wistar Rats

Authors: Samson Ehindero, Oluwole Akinola

Abstract:

Substantial evidence has shown an association between type 2 diabetes (T2D) and cognitive decline, Trans Cinnamaldehyde (TCA) has been shown to have many potent pharmacological properties. In this present study, we are currently investigating the effects of TCA on type II diabetes-induced neurodegeneration. Neurodegeneration was induced in forty (40) adult wistar rats using high fat diet (HFD) for 4 months followed by low dose of streptozotocin (STZ) (40 mg/kg, i.p.) administration. TCA was administered orally for 30 days at the doses of 40mg/kg and 60mg/kg body weight. Animals were randomized and divided into following groups; A- control group, B- diabetic group, C- TCA (high dose), D- diabetic + TCA (high dose), E- diabetic + TCA (high dose) with high fat diet, F- TCA Low dose, G- diabetic + TCA (low dose) and H- diabetic + TCA (low dose) with high fat diet. Animals were subjected to behavioral tests followed by histological studies of the hippocampus. Demented rats showed impaired behavior in Y- Maze test compared to treated and control groups. Trans Cinnamaldehyde restores the histo architecture of the hippocampus of demented rats. This present study demonstrates that treatment with trans- cinnamaldehyde improves behavioral deficits, restores cellular histo architecture in rat models of neurodegeneration.

Keywords: neurodegeneration, trans cinnamaldehyde, high fat diet, streptozotocin

Procedia PDF Downloads 37
27 Protective Effects of Sinapic Acid on Organophosphate Poisoning

Authors: Turker Yardan, Bahattin Avci, S. Sirri Bilge, Ayhan Bozkurt

Abstract:

Sinapic acid (SA) is a phenylpropanoid compound with anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and neuroprotective activities. The purpose of this study was to characterize the possible protective effect of sinapic acid on chlorpyrifos (CPF), a common organophosphorus pesticide used worldwide, induced toxicity in rats. Forty male and female rats (240-270 g) were used in this study. Each group was composed of 5 male and 5 female rats. Sinapic acid (20 mg/kg or 40 mg/kg) or vehicle (olive oil, 1 ml ⁄ rat) were given orally for 5 days. CPF (279 mg/kg) or vehicle (peanut oil, 2 ml ⁄ kg, s.c.) was administered on the sixth day, immediately after the recording of the body weight of the animals. Twenty four hours following CPF administration body weight, body temperature and locomotor activity values were recorded before decapitation of the animals. Trunk blood, brain, and liver samples were collected for biochemical examinations. Chlorpyrifos administration decreased butyrylcholinesterase activity in blood, brain, and liver, while it increased malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and advanced oxidation protein products (AOPPs) (p < 0.01 - 0.001). Additionally, CPF administration reduced the body weight, body temperature, and locomotor activity values of the animals (p < 0.01 - 0.001). All these physiological and biochemical changes induced by CPF were reduced with the 40 mg/kg dose of SA (p < 0.05 - 0.001). Our results suggest that SA administration ameliorates CPF induced toxicity in rats, possibly by supporting the antioxidant mechanism.

Keywords: antioxidant, Chlorpyrifos, poisoning, sinapic acid

Procedia PDF Downloads 69
26 Computational Approach for Grp78–Nf-ΚB Binding Interactions in the Context of Neuroprotective Pathway in Brain Injuries

Authors: Janneth Gonzalez, Marco Avila, George Barreto

Abstract:

GRP78 participates in multiple functions in the cell during normal and pathological conditions, controlling calcium homeostasis, protein folding and unfolded protein response. GRP78 is located in the endoplasmic reticulum, but it can change its location under stress, hypoxic and apoptotic conditions. NF-κB represents the keystone of the inflammatory process and regulates the transcription of several genes related with apoptosis, differentiation, and cell growth. The possible relationship between GRP78-NF-κB could support and explain several mechanisms that may regulate a variety of cell functions, especially following brain injuries. Although several reports show interactions between NF-κB and heat shock proteins family members, there is a lack of information on how GRP78 may be interacting with NF-κB, and possibly regulating its downstream activation. Therefore, we assessed the computational predictions of the GRP78 (Chain A) and NF-κB complex (IkB alpha and p65) protein-protein interactions. The interaction interface of the docking model showed that the amino acids ASN 47, GLU 215, GLY 403 of GRP78 and THR 54, ASN 182 and HIS 184 of NF-κB are key residues involved in the docking. The electrostatic field between GRP78-NF-κB interfaces and molecular dynamic simulations support the possible interaction between the proteins. In conclusion, this work shed some light in the possible GRP78-NF-κB complex indicating key residues in this crosstalk, which may be used as an input for better drug design strategy targeting NF-κB downstream signaling as a new therapeutic approach following brain injuries.

Keywords: computational biology, protein interactions, Grp78, bioinformatics, molecular dynamics

Procedia PDF Downloads 257
25 Depressant Effects of 2-PMPA through Reduction of p-CREB (Ser133) and mGluR5 Level in Prefrontal Cortex of C57BL/6 Mice

Authors: Sang-Sun Yoon, Yea-Hyun Leem, Sangmee Ahn Jo

Abstract:

The N-acetylated-alpha-linked-acidic (NAAG) peptidase inhibitor 2-phosphonomethyl pentanedioic acid (2-PMPA) has demonstrated to be neuroprotective against glutamate-mediated neuron degeneration and neurological disorders such as ischemia. Several studies have demonstrated impaired psychiatric function by altered glutamate carboxypeptidase II expression, although 2-PMPA has not yet been studied. Thus, we investigated effect of 2-PMPA on depressive-like phenotype using C57BL/6 mice. Treatment of 2-PMPA (10 mg/kg for 6 days/daily, ip injection) on C57BL/6 naïve mice showed depressive-like symptoms such as decreased social preference, but did not affect the immobility measured by tail suspension test. Reduction of phosphorylated cAMP-responsive element binding (p-CREB) known as a representative marker of depressive-like behavior was observed in layer 1 and piriform cortex subregions of the prefrontal cortex of 2-PMPA-treated mice. The immunoreactivity of metabotropic glutamate receptors 5 (mGluR5) that mediate phosphorylation of CREB was also decreased in layer 1 and piriform cortex subregions of the prefrontal cortex of 2-PMPA injected mice. Thus, our results suggest that dysregulation of the GCPII or NAAG by 2-PMPA treatment is likely to be associated with pathogenesis of depression and further studies are needed to understand whether the reduced NAAG level or enhanced glutamate level in the brain is involved in this response.

Keywords: depression, GCPII, 2-PMPA, p-CREB, mGluR5

Procedia PDF Downloads 193
24 Supplementation of Corosolic Acid Prevents the Development of Neuropathic Pain in Streptozotocin Induced Diabetic Rats

Authors: Aman Upaganlawar, Chandrasekhar Upasani

Abstract:

The present study was designed to screen the neuroprotective and antioxidant activity of corosolic acid in painful diabetic neuropathy (DN). Diabetes was induced in rats by single dose of STZ (60mg/kg, i.p). Diabetic rats were tested every week for the development of pain, at 5th week rats showed sensation of pain. At 6th week the rats developed significant neuropathic pain. They were divided into different groups and treated with Corosolic acid (2 and 4 mg/kg, p.o) for further two weeks. Pain was assessed in the diabetic rats by mechano-tactil allodynia, mechanical hyperalgesia and cold allodynia. At the end of treatment period rats were scarified and biochemical changes such as plasma glucose level, endogenous antioxidants (Lipid peroxidation, reduced glutathione, superoxide dismutase and catalase) in sciatic nerve were evaluated. Further Na+/K+ ATPase and nitric oxide content was also evaluated. Treatment with corosolic acid for two weeks restored the altered body weight and elevated blood sugar level. Further corosolic acid showed dose dependent reduction in pain in neuropathic animals. The level of endogenous antioxidants enzymes, Na+/K+ ATPase and nitric oxide were significantly prevented. In conclusion, the result of the present study suggests the antidiabetic, antioxidant and neuroprotectieve property of corosolic acid in diabetic rats with neuropathic pain.

Keywords: neuropathic pain, diabetes, corosolic acid, antioxidant

Procedia PDF Downloads 200
23 Antioxidant Mediated Neuroprotective Effects of Allium Cepa Extract Against Ischemia Reperfusion Induced Cognitive Dysfunction and Brain Damage in Mice

Authors: Jaspal Rana, Varinder Singh

Abstract:

Oxidative stress has been identified as an underlying cause of ischemia-reperfusion (IR) related cognitive dysfunction and brain damage. Therefore, antioxidant based therapies to treat IR injury are being investigated. Allium cepa L. (onion) is used as culinary medicine and is documented to have marked antioxidant effects. Hence, the present study was designed to evaluate the effect of A. cepa outer scale extract (ACE) against IR induced cognition and biochemical deficit in mice. ACE was prepared by maceration with 70% methanol and fractionated into ethylacetate and aqueous fractions. Bilateral common carotid artery occlusion for 10 min, followed by 24 h reperfusion, was used to induce cerebral IR injury. Following IR injury, ACE (100 and 200 mg/kg) was administered orally to animals for 7 days once daily. Behavioral outcomes (memory and sensorimotor functions) were evaluated using Morris water maze and neurological severity score. Cerebral infarct size, brain thiobarbituric acid reactive species, reduced glutathione, and superoxide dismutase activity were also determined. Treatment with ACE significantly ameliorated IR mediated deterioration of memory and sensorimotor functions and rose in brain oxidative stress in animals. The results of the present investigation revealed that ACE improved functional outcomes after cerebral IR injury which may be attributed to its antioxidant properties.

Keywords: allium cepa, cerebral ischemia, memory, sensorimotor

Procedia PDF Downloads 28
22 Phyllantus nuriri Protect against Fe2+ and SNP Induced Oxidative Damage in Mitochondrial Rich Fractions of Rats Brain

Authors: Olusola Olalekan Elekofehinti, Isaac Gbadura Adanlawo, Joao Batista Teixeira Rocha

Abstract:

We evaluated the potential neuroprotective effect of Phyllantus nuriri against Fe2+ and SNP induced oxidative stress in mitochondria of rats brain. Cellular viability was assessed by MTT reduction, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation was measured using the probe 2,7-dichlorofluorescein diacetate (DCFH-DA). Glutathione content was measured using dithionitrobenzoic acid (DTNB). Fe2+ (10µM) and SNP (5µM) significantly decreased mitochondrial activity, assessed by MTT reduction assay, in a dose-dependent manner, this occurred in parallel with increased glutathione oxidation, ROS production and lipid peroxidation end-products (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, TBARS). The co-incubation with methanolic extract of Phyllantus nuriri (10-100 µg/ml) reduced the disruption of mitochondrial activity, gluthathione oxidation, ROS production as well as the increase in TBARS levels caused by both Fe2+ and SNP in a dose dependent manner. HPLC analysis of the extract revealed the presence of gallic acid (20.54±0.01), caffeic acid (7.93±0.02), rutin (25.31±0.05), quercetin (31.28±0.03) and kaemferol (14.36±0.01). This result suggests that these phytochemicals account for the protective actions of Phyllantus nuriri against Fe2+ and SNP -induced oxidative stress. Our results show that Phyllantus nuriri consist important bioactive molecules in the search for an improved therapy against the deleterious effects of Fe2+, an intrinsic producer of reactive oxygen species (ROS), that leads to neuronal oxidative stress and neurodegeneration.

Keywords: Phyllantus niruri, neuroprotection, oxidative stress, mitochondria, synaptosome

Procedia PDF Downloads 265
21 Chitosan Coated Liposome Incorporated Cyanobacterial Pigment for Nasal Administration in the Brain Stroke

Authors: Kyou Hee Shim, Hwa Sung Shin

Abstract:

When a thrombolysis agent is administered to treat ischemic stroke, excessive reactive oxygen species are generated due to a sudden provision of oxygen and occurs secondary damage cell necrosis. Thus, it is necessary to administrate adjuvant as well as thrombolysis agent to protect and reduce damaged tissue. As cerebral blood vessels have specific structure called blood-brain barrier (BBB), it is not easy to transfer substances from blood to tissue. Therefore, development of a drug carrier is required to increase drug delivery efficiency to brain tissue. In this study, cyanobacterial pigment from the blue-green algae known for having neuroprotective effect as well as antioxidant effect was nasally administrated for bypassing BBB. In order to deliver cyanobacterial pigment efficiently, the nano-sized liposome was used as a carrier. Liposomes were coated with a positive charge of chitosan since negative residues are present at the nasal mucosa the first gateway of nasal administration. Characteristics of liposome including morphology, size and zeta potential were analyzed by transmission electron microscope (TEM) and zeta analyzer. As a result of cytotoxic test, the liposomes were not harmful. Also, being administered a drug to the ischemic stroke animal model, we could confirm that the pharmacological effect of the pigment delivered by chitosan coated liposome was enhanced compared to that of non-coated liposome. Consequently, chitosan coated liposome could be considered as an optimized drug delivery system for the treatment of acute ischemic stroke.

Keywords: ischemic stroke, cyanobacterial pigment, liposome, chitosan, nasal administration

Procedia PDF Downloads 141
20 Pharmacological Activities and Potential Uses of Cyperus Rotundus: A Review

Authors: Arslan Masood Pirzada, Muhammad Naeem, Hafiz Haider Ali, Muhammad Latif, Aown Sammar Raza, Asad Hussain Bukhari, Muhammad Saqib, Muhammad Ijaz

Abstract:

Cyperus rotundus (Cyperaceae), a medicinal herb, is being traditionally used as a home remedy for the treatment of various clinical conditions like diarrhea, diabetic, pyretic, inflammation, malaria, and for treating stomach and bowel disorders. Its current status is one of the most widespread, troublesome, and economically damaging agronomic weeds, growing wildly in various tropical and sub-tropical regions of the world. Tuber and rhizomes of Cyperus rotundus possess a higher concentration of active ingredients in the form of essential oils, phenolic acids, ascorbic acids and flavonoids, responsible for its remedial properties. Exploitation of any medicinal plant application depends on the crucial and comprehensive information about the therapeutic potential of a plant. Researchers have evaluated and characterized the significance of Cyperus rotundus as an anti-androgenic, anti-bacterial, anti-cancerous, anti-convulsant, anti-diabetic, anti-diarrheal, anti-genotoxic, anti-inflammatory, anti-lipidemic, anti-malarial, anti-mutagenic, anti-obesity, anti-oxidant, anti-uropathogenic, hepato-, cardio-, neuroprotective, and nootropic agent. This paper comprises a broad review to summarize the current state of knowledge about chemical constituents, potential economic uses and therapeutic aspects of Cyperus rotundus that will aid in the development of bioethanol and modern herbal medicine through latest technologies that will promote the ability of this plant in the cure of many clinical disorders.

Keywords: purple nutsedge, chemical composition, economic uses, therapeutic values, future directions

Procedia PDF Downloads 378
19 Neuroprotective Effects of Gly-Pro-Glu-Thr-Ala-Phe-Leu-Arg, a Peptide Isolated from Lupinus angustifolius L. Protein Hydrolysate

Authors: Maria Del Carmen Millan-Linares, Ana Lemus Conejo, Rocio Toscano, Alvaro Villanueva, Francisco Millan, Justo Pedroche, Sergio Montserrat-De La Paz

Abstract:

GPETAFLR (Glycine-Proline-Glutamine-Threonine-Alanine-Phenylalanine-Leucine-Arginine) is a peptide isolated from Lupinus angustifolius L. protein hydrolysate (LPH). Herein, the effect of this peptide was investigated in two different models of neuroinflammation: in the immortalized murine microglia cell line BV-2 and in a high-fat-diet-induced obesity mouse model. Methods and Results: Effects of GPETAFLR on neuroinflammation were evaluated by RT-qPCR, flow cytometry, and ELISA techniques. In BV-2 microglial cells, Lipopolysaccharides (LPS) enhanced the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6) whereas GPETAFLR decreased pro-inflammatory cytokine levels and increased the release of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 in BV2 microglial cells. M1 (CCR7 and iNOS) and M2 (Arg-1 and Ym-1) polarization markers results showed how the GPETAFLR octapeptide was able to decrease M1 polarization marker expression and increase the M2 polarization marker expression compared to LPS. Animal model results indicate that GPETAFLR has an immunomodulatory capacity, both decreasing pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-6 and increasing the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 in brain tissue. Polarization markers in the brain tissue were also modulated by GPETAFLR that decreased the pro-inflammatory expression (M1) and increased the anti-inflammatory expression (M2). Conclusion: Our results suggest that GPETAFLR isolated from LPH has significant potential for management of neuroinflammatory conditions and offer benefits derived from the consumption of Lupinus angustifolius L. in the prevention of neuroinflammatory-related diseases.

Keywords: GPETAFLR peptide, BV-2 cell line, neuroinflammation, cytokines, high-fat-diet

Procedia PDF Downloads 41