Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 13

Search results for: astrocyte

13 Investigation of Astrocyte Physiology on Stiffness-Controlled Cellulose Acetate Nanofiber as a Tissue Scaffold

Authors: Sun Il Yu, Jung Hyun Joo, Hwa Sung Shin

Abstract:

Astrocytes are known as dominant cells in CNS and play a role as a supporter of CNS activity and regeneration. Recently, three-dimensional culture of astrocytes were actively applied to understand in vivo astrocyte works. Electrospun nanofibers are attractive for 3D cell culture system because they have a high surface to volume ratio and porous structure, and have already been used for 3D astrocyte cultures. In this research, the stiffness of cellulose acetate (CA) nanofiber was controlled by heat treatment. As stiffness increased, astrocyte cell viability and adhesion increased. Reactivity of astrocyte was also upregulated in stiffer CA nanofiber in terms of GFAP, an intermediate filament protein. Finally, we demonstrated that stiffness-controllable CA is attractive for astrocyte tissue engineering.

Keywords: astrocyte, cellulose acetate, nanofiber, tissue scaffold

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12 Cellulose Acetate Nanofiber Modification for Regulating Astrocyte Activity via Simple Heat Treatment

Authors: Sang-Myung Jung, Jeong Hyun Ju, Gwang Heum Yoon, Hwa Sung Shin

Abstract:

Central nervous system (CNS) consists of neuronal cell and supporting cells. Astrocytes are the most common supporting cells and play roles in metabolism between neurons and blood vessel. For this function, engineered astrocytes have been studied as a therapeutic source for CNS injury. In neural tissue engineering, nanofiber has been suggested as an effective scaffold for providing structure and mechanical properties influencing physiology. Cellulose acetate (CA) has been investigated for material to fabricate scaffold because of its biocompatibility, biodegradability and fine thermal stability. In this research, CA nanofiber was modified via heat treatment and its effect on astrocyte activity was evaluated. Adhesion and viability of astrocyte were increased in proportion to stiffness. Additionally, expression of GFAP, a marker of astrocyte activation, was increased via stiffness of scaffold. This research suggests a simple modification method to change stiffness of CA nanofiber and shows cellular behavior affecting stiffness of three-dimensional scaffold independently. For the results, we highlight that the stiffness is a factor to regulate astrocyte activity.

Keywords: astrocyte, cellulose acetate, cell therapy, stiffness of scaffold

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11 Antioxidant Effects of C-Phycocyanin on Oxidized Astrocyte in Brain Injury Using 2D and 3D Neural Nanofiber Tissue Model

Authors: Seung Ju Yeon, Seul Ki Min, Jun Sang Park, Yeo Seon Kwon, Hoo Cheol Lee, Hyun Jung Shim, Il-Doo Kim, Ja Kyeong Lee, Hwa Sung Shin

Abstract:

In brain injury, depleting oxidative stress is the most effective way to reduce the brain infarct size. C-phycocyanin (C-Pc) is a well-known antioxidant protein that has neuroprotective effects obtained from green microalgae. Astrocyte is glial cell that supports the nerve cell such as neuron, which account for a large portion of the brain. In brain injury, such as ischemia and reperfusion, astrocyte has an important rule that overcomes the oxidative stress and protect from brain reactive oxygen species (ROS) injury. However little is known about how C-Pc regulates the anti-oxidants effects of astrocyte. In this study, when the C-Pc was treated in oxidized astrocyte, we confirmed that inflammatory factors Interleukin-6 and Interleukin-3 were increased and antioxidants enzyme, Superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase was upregulated, and neurotrophic factors, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and nerve growth factor (NGF) was alleviated. Also, it was confirmed to reduce infarct size of the brain in ischemia and reperfusion because C-Pc has anti-oxidant effects in middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) animal model. These results show that C-Pc can help astrocytes lead neuroprotective activities in the oxidative stressed environment of the brain. In summary, the C-PC protects astrocytes from oxidative stress and has anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory, neurotrophic effects under ischemic situations.

Keywords: c-phycocyanin, astrocyte, reactive oxygen species, ischemia and reperfusion, neuroprotective effect

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10 Neuroprotective Effect of Chrysin on Thioacetamide-Induced Hepatic Encephalopathy in Rats: Role of Oxidative Stress and TLR-4/NF-κB Pathway

Authors: S. A. El-Marasy, S. A. El Awdan, R. M. Abd-Elsalam

Abstract:

This study aimed to investigate the possible neuroprotective effect of chrysin on thioacetamide (TAA)-induced hepatic encephalopathy in rats. Also, the effect of chrysin on motor impairment, cognitive deficits, oxidative stress, neuroinflammation, apoptosis and histopathological damage was assessed. Male Wistar rats were randomly allocated into five groups. The first group received the vehicle (distilled water) for 21 days and is considered as normal group. While the second one received intraperitoneal dose of TAA (200 mg/kg) at three alternative days during the third week of the experiment to induce HE and is considered as control group. The other three groups were orally administered chrysin for 21 days (25, 50, 100 mg/kg) and starting from day 17; rats received intraperitoneal dose of TAA (200 mg/kg) at three alternative days. Then behavioral, biochemical, histopathological and immunohistochemical analyses were assessed. Then behavioral, biochemical, histopathological and immunohistochemical analyses were assessed. Chrysin reversed TAA-induced motor coordination in rotarod test, cognitive deficits in object recognition test (ORT) and attenuated serum ammonia, hepatic liver enzymes, reduced malondialdehyde (MDA), elevated reduced glutathione (GSH), reduced nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and Interleukin-6 (IL-6) brain contents. Chrysin administration also reduced Toll-4 receptor (TLR-4) gene expression, caspase-3 protein expression, hepatic necrosis and astrocyte swelling. This study depicts that chrysin exerted neuroprotective effect in TAA-induced HE rats, evidenced by improvement of cognitive deficits, motor incoordination and histopathological changes such as astrocyte swelling and vacuolization; hallmarks in HE, via reducing hyperammonemia, ameliorating hepatic function, in addition to its anti-oxidant, inactivation of TLR-4/NF-κB inflammatory pathway, and anti-apoptotic effects.

Keywords: chrysin, hepatic encephalopathy, oxidative stress, rats, thioacetamide, TLR4/NF-κB pathway

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9 The Effects of Myelin Basic Protein Charge Isomers on the Methyl Cycle Metabolites in Glial Cells

Authors: Elene Zhuravliova, Tamar Barbakadze, Irina Kalandadze, Elnari Zaalishvili, Lali Shanshiashvili, David Mikeladze

Abstract:

Background: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory, neurodegenerative disease, which is accompanied by demyelination and autoimmune response to myelin proteins. Among post-translational modifications, which mediate the modulation of inflammatory pathways during MS, methylation is the main one. The methylation of DNA, also amino acids lysine and arginine, occurs in the cell. It was found that decreased trans-methylation is associated with neuroinflammatory diseases. Therefore, abnormal regulation of the methyl cycle could induce demyelination through the action on PAD (peptidyl-arginine-deiminase) gene promoter. PAD takes part in protein citrullination and targets myelin basic protein (MBP), which is affected during demyelination. To determine whether MBP charge isomers are changing the methyl cycle, we have estimated the concentrations of methyl cycle metabolites in MBP-activated primary astrocytes and oligodendrocytes. For this purpose, the action of the citrullinated MBP- C8 and the most cationic MBP-C1 isomers on the primary cells were investigated. Methods: Primary oligodendrocyte and astrocyte cell cultures were prepared from whole brains of 2-day-old Wistar rats. The methyl cycle metabolites, including homocysteine, S-adenosylmethionine (SAM), and S-adenosylhomocysteine (SAH), were estimated by HPLC analysis using fluorescence detection and prior derivatization. Results: We found that the action of MBP-C8 and MBP-C1 induces a decrease in the concentration of both methyl cycle metabolites, S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) and S-adenosylhomocysteine (SAH), in astrocytes compared to the control cells. As for oligodendrocytes, the concentration of SAM was increased by the addition of MBP-C1, while MBP-C8 has no significant effect. As for SAH, its concentration was increased compared to the control cells by the action of both MBP-C1 and MBP-C8. A significant increase in homocysteine concentration was observed by the action of the MBP-C8 isomer in both oligodendrocytes and astrocytes. Conclusion: These data suggest that MBP charge isomers change the concentration of methyl cycle metabolites. MBP-C8 citrullinated isomer causes elevation of homocysteine in astrocytes and oligodendrocytes, which may be the reason for decreased astrocyte proliferation and increased oligodendrocyte cell death which takes place in neurodegenerative processes. Elevated homocysteine levels and subsequent abnormal regulation of methyl cycles in oligodendrocytes possibly change the methylation of DNA that activates PAD gene promoter and induces the synthesis of PAD, which in turn provokes the process of citrullination, which is the accompanying process of demyelination. Acknowledgment: This research was supported by the SRNSF Georgia RF17_534 grant.

Keywords: myelin basic protein, astrocytes, methyl cycle metabolites, homocysteine, oligodendrocytes

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8 Delivery of Doxorubicin to Glioblastoma Multiforme Using Solid Lipid Nanoparticles with Surface Aprotinin and Melanotransferrin Antibody for Enhanced Chemotherapy

Authors: Yung-Chih Kuo, I-Hsuan Lee

Abstract:

Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) conjugated with aprotinin (Apr) and melanotransferrin antibody (Anti-MTf) were used to carry doxorubicin (Dox) across the blood–brain barrier (BBB) for glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) chemotherapy. Dox-entrapped SLNs with grafted Apr and Anti-MTf (Apr-Anti-MTf-Dox-SLNs) were applied to a cultured monolayer comprising human brain-microvascular endothelial cells (HBMECs) with regulation of human astrocyte (HAs) and to a proliferated colony of U87MG cells. Based on the average particle diameter, zeta potential, entrapping efficiency of Dox, and grafting efficiency of Apr and Anti-MTf, we found that 40% (w/w) 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine in lipids were appropriate for fabricating Apr-Anti-MTf-Dox-SLNs. In addition, Apr-Anti-MTf-Dox-SLNs could prevent Dox from fast dissolution and did not induce a serious cytotoxicity to HBMECs and HAs when compared with free Dox. Moreover, the treatments with Apr-Anti-MTf-Dox-SLNs enhanced the ability of Dox to infuse the BBB and to inhibit the growth of GBM. The current Apr-Anti-MTf-Dox-SLNs can be a promising pharmacotherapeutic preparation to penetrate the BBB for malignant brain tumor treatment.

Keywords: solid lipid nanoparticle, glioblastoma multiforme, blood–brain barrier, doxorubicin

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7 Identifying Metabolic Pathways Associated with Neuroprotection Mediated by Tibolone in Human Astrocytes under an Induced Inflammatory Model

Authors: Daniel Osorio, Janneth Gonzalez, Andres Pinzon

Abstract:

In this work, proteins and metabolic pathways associated with the neuroprotective response mediated by the synthetic neurosteroid tibolone under a palmitate-induced inflammatory model were identified by flux balance analysis (FBA). Three different metabolic scenarios (‘healthy’, ‘inflamed’ and ‘medicated’) were modeled over a gene expression data-driven constructed tissue-specific metabolic reconstruction of mature astrocytes. Astrocyte reconstruction was built, validated and constrained using three open source software packages (‘minval’, ‘g2f’ and ‘exp2flux’) released through the Comprehensive R Archive Network repositories during the development of this work. From our analysis, we predict that tibolone executes their neuroprotective effects through a reduction of neurotoxicity mediated by L-glutamate in astrocytes, inducing the activation several metabolic pathways with neuroprotective actions associated such as taurine metabolism, gluconeogenesis, calcium and the Peroxisome Proliferator Activated Receptor signaling pathways. Also, we found a tibolone associated increase in growth rate probably in concordance with previously reported side effects of steroid compounds in other human cell types.

Keywords: astrocytes, flux balance analysis, genome scale metabolic reconstruction, inflammation, neuroprotection, tibolone

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6 Determination of the Phosphate Activated Glutaminase Localization in the Astrocyte Mitochondria Using Kinetic Approach

Authors: N. V. Kazmiruk, Y. R. Nartsissov

Abstract:

Phosphate activated glutaminase (GA, E.C. 3.5.1.2) plays a key role in glutamine/glutamate homeostasis in mammalian brain, catalyzing the hydrolytic deamidation of glutamine to glutamate and ammonium ions. GA is mainly localized in mitochondria, where it has the catalytically active form on the inner mitochondrial membrane (IMM) and the other soluble form, which is supposed to be dormant. At present time, the exact localization of the membrane glutaminase active site remains a controversial and an unresolved issue. The first hypothesis called c-side localization suggests that the catalytic site of GA faces the inter-membrane space and products of the deamidation reaction have immediate access to cytosolic metabolism. According to the alternative m-side localization hypothesis, GA orients to the matrix, making glutamate and ammonium available for the tricarboxylic acid cycle metabolism in mitochondria directly. In our study, we used a multi-compartment kinetic approach to simulate metabolism of glutamate and glutamine in the astrocytic cytosol and mitochondria. We used physiologically important ratio between the concentrations of glutamine inside the matrix of mitochondria [Glnₘᵢₜ] and glutamine in the cytosol [Glncyt] as a marker for precise functioning of the system. Since this ratio directly depends on the mitochondrial glutamine carrier (MGC) flow parameters, key observation was to investigate the dependence of the [Glnmit]/[Glncyt] ratio on the maximal velocity of MGC at different initial concentrations of mitochondrial glutamate. Another important task was to observe the similar dependence at different inhibition constants of the soluble GA. The simulation results confirmed the experimental c-side localization hypothesis, in which the glutaminase active site faces the outer surface of the IMM. Moreover, in the case of such localization of the enzyme, a 3-fold decrease in ammonium production was predicted.

Keywords: glutamate metabolism, glutaminase, kinetic approach, mitochondrial membrane, multi-compartment modeling

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5 Microglia Activity and Induction of Mechanical Allodynia after Mincle Receptor Ligand Injection in Rat Spinal Cord

Authors: Jihoon Yang, Jeong II Choi

Abstract:

Mincle is expressed in macrophages and is members of immunoreceptors induced after exposure to various stimuli and stresses. Mincle receptor activation promotes the production of these substances by increasing the transcription of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. Cytokines, which play an important role in the initiation and maintenance of such inflammatory pain diseases, have a significant effect on sensory neurons in addition to their enhancement and inhibitory effects on immune and inflammatory cells as mediators of cell interaction. Glial cells in the central nervous system play a critical role in development and maintenance of chronic pain states. Microglia are tissue-resident macrophages in the central nervous system, and belong to a group of mononuclear phagocytes. In the central nervous system, mincle receptor is present in neurons and glial cells of the brain.This study was performed to identify the Mincle receptor in the spinal cord and to investigate the effect of Mincle receptor activation on nociception and the changes of microglia. Materials and Methods: C-type lectins(Mincle) was identified in spinal cord of Male Sprague–Dawley rats. Then, mincle receptor ligand (TDB), via an intrathecal catheter. Mechanical allodynia was measured using von Frey test to evaluate the effect of intrathecal injection of TDB. Result: The present investigation shows that the intrathecal administration of TDB in the rat produces a reliable and quantifiable mechanical hyperalgesia. In addition, The mechanical hyperalgesia after TDB injection gradually developed over time and remained until 10 days. Mincle receptor is identified in the spinal cord, mainly expressed in neuronal cells, but not in microglia or astrocyte. These results suggest that activation of mincle receptor pathway in neurons plays an important role in inducing activation of microglia and inducing mechanical allodynia.

Keywords: mincle, spinal cord, pain, microglia

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4 Citrullinated Myelin Basic Protein Mediated Inflammation in Astrocytes

Authors: Lali Shanshiashvili, Marika Chikviladze, Nino Mamulashvili, Maia Sepashvili, Nana Narmania, David Mikeladze

Abstract:

Purpose: During demyelinating inflammatory diseases and after the damage of the myelin sheet, myelin-derived proteins, including myelin basic protein (MBP), are secreted into the extracellular space. MBP shows extensive post-translational modifications, including the deimination of arginine residues. Deiminated MBP is structurally less ordered, susceptible to proteolytic attack, and more immunogenic than the unmodified one. It is hypothesized that MBP could change the inflammatory response in astrocytes. Methods: MBP was isolated and purified from bovine brain white matter. Primary astrocyte cultures were prepared from whole brains of 2-day-old Wistar rats. For evaluation of glutamate uptake/release in astrocytes following treatment of cells with MBP charge isomers, Glutamate Assay Kit was used. The expression of EAAT-2 (excitatory amino acid transporters), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR- γ), inhibitor of nuclear factor kappa B (IkB), and high mobility group protein B1 (HMGB1) in astrocytes were assayed by Western Blot analysis. Results: This study investigated the action of deiminated isomer (C8) on the cultured primary astrocytes and compared its effects with the effects of unmodified C1 isomers. The study found that C8 and C1 MBP differently act on the uptake and release of glutamate in astrocytes: nonmodified C1 MBP increases the uptake of glutamate and does not change the release, whereas C8 decreases the release of glutamate but does not alter the uptake. Nevertheless, both isomers increased the expression of PPAR-γ and EAAT2 in the same intensity. However, immunostaining and Western Blots of cell lysates showed a decrease of IkB and increased expression of HMGB1 after the treatment of astrocytes by C8. Moreover, in the presence of C8, astrocytes release more nitric oxide than unmodified C1 isomers. Conclusion: These data suggest that the deiminated isomer of MBP evokes an inflammatory response and enhances the ability of astrocytes to release proinflammatory mediators through activation of NF-kB after the breakdown of myelin sheets. Acknowledgment: This research was supported by the SRNSF Georgia RF17_534 grant.

Keywords: myelin basic protein, glutamate, deimination, astrocytes, inflammation

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3 Maresin Like 1 Treatment: Curbing the Pathogenesis of Behavioral Dysfunction and Neurodegeneration in Alzheimer's Disease Mouse Model

Authors: Yan Lu, Song Hong, Janakiraman Udaiyappan, Aarti Nagayach, Quoc-Viet A. Duong, Masao Morita, Shun Saito, Yuichi Kobayashi, Yuhai, Zhao, Hongying Peng, Nicholas B. Pham, Walter J Lukiw, Christopher A. Vuong, Nicolas G. Bazan

Abstract:

Aims: Neurodegeneration and behavior dysfunction occurs in patients with Alzheimer's Disease (AD), and as the disease progresses many patients develop cognitive impairment. 5XFAD mouse model of AD is widely used to study AD pathogenesis and treatment. This study aimed to investigate the effect of maresin like 1 (MaR-L1) treatment in AD pathology using 5XFAD mice. Methods: We tested 12-month-old male 5XFAD mice and wild type control mice treated with MaR-L1 in a battery of behavioral tasks. We performed open field test, beam walking test, clasping test, inverted grid test, acetone test, marble burring test, elevated plus maze test, cross maze test and novel object recognition test. We also studied neuronal loss, amyloid β burden, and inflammation in the brains of 5XFAD mice using immunohistology and Western blotting. Results: MaR-L1 treatment to the 5XFAD mice showed improved cognitive function of 5XFAD mice. MaR-L1 showed decreased anxiety behavior in open field test and marble burring test, increased muscular strength in the beam walking test, clasping test and inverted grid test. Cognitive function was improved in MaR-L1 treated 5XFAD mice in the novel object recognition test. MaR-L1 prevented neuronal loss and aberrant inflammation. Conclusion: Our finding suggests that behavioral abnormalities were normalized by the administration of MaR-L1 and the neuroprotective role of MaR-L1 in the AD. It also indicates that MaR-L1 treatment is able to prevent and or ameliorate neuronal loss and aberrant inflammation. Further experiments to validate the results are warranted using other AD models in the future.

Keywords: Alzheimer's disease, motor and cognitive behavior, 5XFAD mice, Maresin Like 1, microglial cell, astrocyte, neurodegeneration, inflammation, resolution of inflammation

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2 Anti-Neuroinflammatory and Anti-Apoptotic Efficacy of Equol, against Lipopolysaccharide Activated Microglia and Its Neurotoxicity

Authors: Lalita Subedi, Jae Kyoung Chae, Yong Un Park, Cho Kyo Hee, Lee Jae Hyuk, Kang Min Cheol, Sun Yeou Kim

Abstract:

Neuroinflammation may mediate the relationship between low levels of estrogens and neurodegenerative disease. Estrogens are neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory in neurodegenerative disease models. Due to the long term side effects of estrogens, researches have been focused on finding an effective phytoestrogens for biological activities. Daidzein present in soybeans and its active metabolite equol (7-hydroxy-3-(4'-hydroxyphenyl)-chroman) bears strong antioxidant and anticancer showed more potent anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective role in neuroinflammatory model confirmed its in vitro activity with molecular mechanism through NF-κB pathway. Three major CNS cells Microglia (BV-2), Astrocyte (C6), Neuron (N2a) were used to find the effect of equol in inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase (COX-2), MAPKs signaling proteins, apoptosis related proteins by western blot analysis. Nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) was measured by the Gries method and ELISA, respectively. Cytokines like tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and IL-6 were also measured in the conditioned medium of LPS activated cells with or without equol. Equol inhibited the NO production, PGE-2 production and expression of COX-2 and iNOS in LPS-stimulated microglial cells at a dose dependent without any cellular toxicity. At the same time Equol also showed promising effect in modulation of MAPK’s and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) expression with significant inhibition of the production of proinflammatory cytokine like interleukin -6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor -α (TNF-α). Additionally, it inhibited the LPS activated microglia-induced neuronal cell death by downregulating the apoptotic phenomenon in neuronal cells. Furthermore, equol increases the production of neurotrophins like NGF and increase the neurite outgrowth as well. In conclusion the natural daidzein metabolite equol are more active than daidzein, which showed a promising effectiveness as an anti-neuroinflammatory and neuroprotective agent via downregulating the LPS stimulated microglial activation and neuronal apoptosis. This work was supported by Brain Korea 21 Plus project and High Value-added Food Technology Development Program 114006-4, Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs.

Keywords: apoptosis, equol, neuroinflammation, phytoestrogen

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1 Effect of 8-OH-DPAT on the Behavioral Indicators of Stress and on the Number of Astrocytes after Exposure to Chronic Stress

Authors: Ivette Gonzalez-Rivera, Diana B. Paz-Trejo, Oscar Galicia-Castillo, David N. Velazquez-Martinez, Hugo Sanchez-Castillo

Abstract:

Prolonged exposure to stress can cause disorders related with dysfunction in the prefrontal cortex such as generalized anxiety and depression. These disorders involve alterations in neurotransmitter systems; the serotonergic system—a target of the drugs that are commonly used as a treatment to these disorders—is one of them. Recent studies suggest that 5-HT1A receptors play a pivotal role in the serotonergic system regulation and in stress responses. In the same way, there is increasing evidence that astrocytes are involved in the pathophysiology of stress. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of 8-OH-DPAT, a selective agonist of 5-HT1A receptors, in the behavioral signs of anxiety and anhedonia as well as in the number of astrocytes in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) after exposure to chronic stress. They used 50 male Wistar rats of 250-350 grams housed in standard laboratory conditions and treated in accordance with the ethical standards of use and care of laboratory animals. A protocol of chronic unpredictable stress was used for 10 consecutive days during which the presentation of stressors such as motion restriction, water deprivation, wet bed, among others, were used. 40 rats were subjected to the stress protocol and then were divided into 4 groups of 10 rats each, which were administered 8-OH-DPAT (Tocris, USA) intraperitoneally with saline as vehicle in doses 0.0, 0.3, 1.0 and 2.0 mg/kg respectively. Another 10 rats were not subjected to the stress protocol or the drug. Subsequently, all the rats were measured in an open field test, a forced swimming test, sucrose consume, and a cero maze test. At the end of this procedure, the animals were sacrificed, the brain was removed and the tissue of the mPFC (Bregma: 4.20, 3.70, 2.70, 2.20) was processed in immunofluorescence staining for astrocytes (Anti-GFAP antibody - astrocyte maker, ABCAM). Statistically significant differences were found in the behavioral tests of all groups, showing that the stress group with saline administration had more indicators of anxiety and anhedonia than the control group and the groups with administration of 8-OH-DPAT. Also, a dose dependent effect of 8-OH-DPAT was found on the number of astrocytes in the mPFC. The results show that 8-OH-DPAT can modulate the effect of stress in both behavioral and anatomical level. Also they indicate that 5-HT1A receptors and astrocytes play an important role in the stress response and may modulate the therapeutic effect of serotonergic drugs, so they should be explored as a fundamental part in the treatment of symptoms of stress and in the understanding of the mechanisms of stress responses.

Keywords: anxiety, prefrontal cortex, serotonergic system, stress

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