Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 9

Search results for: ginseng

9 Production of Ginseng Berry Wines and Analysis of Their Properties

Authors: Jae Hee Choi, Seung Il Ahn, Sae Kyul Kim, Byung Wook Yang, Bong Sun Park, Hwan Sup Kim, Young Tae Hahm

Abstract:

The root of Panax ginseng C. A. MEYER, commonly known as Korean ginseng, has several physiologic effects as a cure-all or a panacea. Among the ginseng, ginseng berry can be obtained from 3 or 4-year-old ginseng plant. Ginseng berry contains the high amount of ginsenoside Re, compared with other ginsenosides. Ginseng berry wine was manufactured with berry extract. The concentration of ginsenoside in ginseng berry extract obtained from Anseong Ginseng Nonghyup was 3.6 mg/g. Ethanol content of ginseng berry wine was 15.00±1.00%. Total polyphenol content was 1.62±0.12 mg/ml. In analysis of organic acids, acetic acid was high in ginseng berry extract whereas malic acid in ginseng berry wine was high.Ginseng berry rice wine was manufactured with berry extract with traditional nuruk (yeast). When the ginseng berry rice wine was manufactured, ginseng berry extract was diluted into 5% of total volume of wine. pH values and total acidity were 3.30±0.03 and 1.28±0.0 %, respectively. Residual sugar content was 8.8 ± 0.0 °Brix and ethanol content was 14.00 %. Any residual pesticides were not detected over acceptable range. Overall, the ginseng berry extract were valuable food stuffs for the manufacture of new ginseng product.

Keywords: ginseng berry, ginseng berry wine, ginsenoside, panax ginseng

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8 Standardized Black Ginseng Extract Improving a Suppressed Immunomodulatory Effect Induced by Heat Stress

Authors: Byung Wook Yang, Jong Dae Park, Wang Soo Shin, Ji-Hyeon Song, Seo-Yun Choi, Boo-Yong Lee, Young Tae Hahm

Abstract:

Korean ginseng (Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer) is frequently taken orally as a traditional herbal medicine with ginsenosides as the main pharmacological component in Asian countries, and its use is increasing worldwide. Recently, the increase in global temperature has been reported to cause various kinds of biological disorders induced by heat stress in human. The standardized black ginseng extract (SBGE; KGR-BG1) was developed in our biological screening experiment on the thermo-regulation, whose chemical characteristics were evaluated as ginsenoside Rg1, Rb1, Rg3(S), as well as Re, Rf, Rg2(S), Rh1(S), Rh2(S), and Rg5+Rk1. Heat stress responses such as body weight, food intake, water consumption have been measured when treated with Standardized Black Ginseng Extract (SBGE) in the animal experiment and also, biomarkers. SBGE treated group has been found to inhibit a decrease in body weight, a decrease in food intake and an increase in the water consumption when compared with non-treated group against environmental heat stress. These results suggest that SBGE might have a protective effect against environmental heat stress. And also, the several factors of stress response on the immune system need to be done for further studies and its evaluation is in progress.

Keywords: ginseng, ginsenoside, standardization, heat stress, immunomodulatory effect

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7 The Effect of Endurance Training and Ginseng Consumption on VEGF and PDGF Plasma in Untrained Females

Authors: Barari Alireza, Seyed Hossein Alavi, Ghasemi Mohamad

Abstract:

Objectives: VEGF and PDGF play central role in the processes of angiogenesis and vascular changes in most body tissues. The aim of the present study to determine effect of endurance training with ginseng on VEGF and PDGF levels is untrained female. Methods: Statistic society of this study was untraining male students of Azad University of Sari Branch in year of 2012-2013. Forty young untrained female (age 21.3 ± 0.90 year, height162.08±8.07cm , body weight 65.45± 7.6 kg and body mass index [BMI] 23.23 ± 2.64 kg/m2) were randomly divided into four groups: control(C), endurance(E), ginseng (G), endurance and ginseng (EG). Participants in training groups performed endurance training for 6 weeks and three sessions per week with 60-80% HRmax. Subjects perform endurance training and consumed ginseng for six weeks. Blood samples from the subjects before and after the test was performed. One wey ANOVA were used to test for differences between group and pair T-test were used for differences within groups. In all cases, P<0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. Results: A higher and significant Vo2 max was found in E and EG groups, while no change in other groups. BMI and Fat% were significantly decreased in EG group. No significant difference was found between and within groups in VEGF level. A higher and significant PDGF was only in endurance group, while there was significant reduction observed in G and EG groups. One-way ANOVA for PDGF showed significant difference between groups. Conclusion: The finding of the current study indicated that ginseng likely could through reducing of angiogenesis factors Such as VEGF and PDGF and reduced activity of tumor necrosis factor and inhibited inflammatory process.

Keywords: endurance, ginseng, VEGF, PDGF, untrained female

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6 Physiological Effects of Myrrh and Ginseng Extracts in Diabetic Rats

Authors: Ismail I. Abo-Ghanema, Faheim E. Wehaish, Rasha M. Saleh , Walaa F. Awadin, Mohamed F. Elshal

Abstract:

The antidiabetic activity of myrrh and ginseng ethanolic extracts were investigated in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Thirty male albino rats were divided into five groups, each consisted of six rats. The first group (G1) is the negative control that was fed basal diet, the second group (G2) was injected with STZ and received no treatment, the third group (G3) injected with STZ and received metformin (50 mg/kg, b.wt) as standard anti-diabetic drug, the fourth group (G4) injected with STZ and ginseng (50 mg/kg, b.wt), the fifth group (G5) injected with STZ and received myrrh (500 mg/kg, b.wt). As compared with G1-group, STZ injection increased blood concentrations of glucose (6.2 fold), glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) (2.51 fold), aspartateaminotransferase (AST), and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) (2.64, 4.60 fold respectively), creatinine (2.91 fold), cholesterol (1.79 fold), triglycerides (2.06 fold), low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL) (2.92 fold), nitric oxide (NO) (20.18 fold), and malondialdehyde (MDA) (2.25 fold), whereas it decreased blood insulin (0.40 fold), albumin (0.60 fold), high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL) (0.33 fold), and reduced glutathione (GSH) (0.49 fold). Vascular permeability index (VPI as measured by Evan's Blue; EB extravasations test) was significantly increased in the skin of diabetic animals (9.6 fold) when compared with the G1-group. In addition, histological alterations in liver, pancreas, kidneys and heart were observed. After 4 weeks of treatment, rats in G4 and G5 showed significant corrections in the all measured parameters and indices. In conclusions, the ethanolic extracts of ginseng and myrrh exhibited promising and safe anti-diabetic activity especially on peripheral circulation as manifested by decreased vascular permeability and improved histopathological alterations of examined organs and insulin secretion. Hence, it may be pursued for their clinical usefulness in the management of diabetes mellitus (DM) and associated vascular complications.

Keywords: diabetic rats, peripheral circulation, natural plants, myrrh, ginseng

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5 Delivery of Ginseng Extract Containing Phytosome Loaded Microsphere System: A Preclinical Approach for Treatment of Neuropathic Pain in Rodent Model

Authors: Nitin Kumar

Abstract:

Purpose: The current research work focuses mainly on evolving a delivery system for ginseng extract (GE), which in turn will ameliorate the neuroprotective potential by means of enhancing the ginsenoside (Rb1) bio-availability (BA). For more noteworthy enhancement in oral bioavailability (OBA) along with pharmacological properties, the drug carriers’ performance can be strengthened by utilizing phytosomes-loaded microspheres (PM) delivery system. Methods: For preparing the disparate phytosome complexes (F1, F2, and F3), an aqueous extract of ginseng roots (GR) along with phospholipids were reacted in disparate ratio. Considering the outcomes, F3 formulation (spray-dried) was chosen for preparing the phytosomes powder (PP), PM, and extract microspheres (EM). PM was made by means of loading of F3 into Gum Arabic (GA) in addition to maltodextrin polymer mixture, whereas EM was prepared by means of the addition of extract directly into the same polymer mixture. For investigating the neuroprotective effect (NPE) in addition to their pharmacokinetic (PK) properties, PP, PM, and EM formulations were assessed. Results: F3 formulation gave enhanced entrapment efficiency (EE) (i.e., 50.61%) along with good homogeneity of spherical shaped particle size (PS) (42.58 ± 1.4 nm) with least polydispersity index (PDI) (i.e., 0.193 ± 0.01). The sustained release (up to 24 h) of ginsenoside Rb1 (GRb1) is revealed by the dissolution study of PM. A significantly (p < 0.05) greater anti-oxidant (AO) potential of PM can well be perceived as of the diminution in the lipid peroxidase level in addition to the rise in the glutathione superoxide dismutase (SOD) in addition to catalase levels. It also showed a greater neuroprotective potential exhibiting significant (p < 0.05) augmentation in the nociceptive threshold together with the diminution in damage to nerves. A noteworthy enhancement in the relative BA (157.94%) of GRb1 through the PM formulation can well be seen in the PK studies. Conclusion: It is exhibited that the PM system is an optimistic and feasible strategy to enhance the delivery of GE for the effectual treatment of neuropathic pain.

Keywords: ginseng, neuropathic, phytosome, pain

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4 Antiglycemic Activity of Raw Plant Materials as Potential Components of Functional Food

Authors: Ewa Flaczyk, Monika Przeor, Joanna Kobus-Cisowska, Józef Korczak

Abstract:

The aim of this paper was to collect the information concerning the most popular raw plant materials of antidiabetic activity, in a context of functional food developing production. The elaboration discusses morphological elements possible for an application in functional food production of the plants such as: common bean, ginger, Ceylon cinnamon, white mulberry, fenugreek, French lilac, ginseng, jambolão, and bitter melon. An activity of bioactive substances contained in these raw plant materials was presented, pointing their antiglycemic and also hypocholesterolemic, antiarthritic, antirheumatic, antibacterial, and antiviral activity in the studies on humans and animals. Also the genesis of functional food definition was presented.

Keywords: antiglycemic activity, raw plant materials, functional food, food, nutritional sciences

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3 Comparison of Tourist Shopping Patterns in Korea, 2009-2015: A Case of China and Japan

Authors: Miju Choi, Ava Seo

Abstract:

Japan has been positioned as a major inbound market to Korea, accounting for about 31% of total inbound visitors until 2012. The percentage has sharply dropped each year since and remained in second place, reaching 13.33% in 2016. Meanwhile, China has been boosted as a major inbound market, reaching 46.79% in 2016. Chinese tourists mainly visit Korea with the major purpose of shopping. They consume Korean cosmetic/beauty products and clothes while Japanese tourists prefer to purchase healthy food such as ginseng and seaweed. This study aims to investigate and compare tourist shopping patterns across two major inbound markets, China and Japan. A quantitative approach using survey was applied from 2009 to 2016. Findings suggest Chinese visit Korea due to quality of product, value for money, and accessibility, and trust. Meanwhile, Japanese choose Korea as a shopping destination mainly due to convenience, affordability, and tourist attractions. Also, there were significant differences in shopping venues. For example, Japanese tourists prefer shopping at department stores while Chinese tourists prefer retail outlets and local markets. This study contributes to deeper understanding on two major inbound markets to Korea and suggests future marketing strategies.

Keywords: tourist shopping patterns, Korea, China, Japan, historical data

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2 Induction of G1 Arrest and Apoptosis in Human Cancer Cells by Panaxydol

Authors: Dong-Gyu Leem, Ji-Sun Shin, Sang Yoon Choi, Kyung-Tae Lee

Abstract:

In this study, we focused on the anti-proliferative effects of panaxydol, a C17 polyacetylenic compound derived from Panax ginseng roots, against various human cancer cells. We treated with panaxydol to various cancer cells and panaxydol treatment was found to significantly inhibit the proliferation of human lung cancer cells (A549) and human pancreatic cancer cells (AsPC-1 and MIA PaCa-2), of which AsPC-1 cells were most sensitive to its treatment. DNA flow cytometric analysis indicated that panaxydol blocked cell cycle progression at the G1 phase in A549 cells, which accompanied by a parallel reduction of protein expression of cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) 2, CDK4, CDK6, cyclin D1 and cyclin E. CDK inhibitors (CDKIs), such as p21CIP1/WAF1 and p27KIP1, were gradually upregulated after panaxydol treatment at the protein levels. Furthermore, panaxydol induced the activation of p53 in A549 cells. In addition, panaxydol also induced apoptosis of AsPC-1 and MIA PaCa-2 cells, as shown by accumulation of subG1 and apoptotic cell populations. Panaxydol triggered the activation of caspase-3, -8, -9 and the cleavage of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP). Reduction of mitochondrial transmembrane potential by panaxydol was determined by staining with dihexyloxacarbocyanine iodide. Furthermore, panaxydol suppressed the levels of anti-apoptotic proteins, XIAP and Bcl-2, and increased the levels of proapoptotic proteins, Bax and Bad. In addition, panaxydol inhibited the activation of Akt and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and activated the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MAPK). Our results suggest that panaxydol is an anti-tumor compound that causes p53-mediated cell cycle arrest and apoptosis via mitochondrial apoptotic pathway in various cancer cells.

Keywords: apoptosis, cancer, G1 arrest, panaxydol

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1 Resistance Training and Ginger Consumption on Cytokines Levels

Authors: Alireza Barari, Ahmad Abdi

Abstract:

Regular body trainings cause adaption in various system in body. One of the important effect of body training is its effect on immune system. It seems that cytokines usually release after long period exercises or some exercises which cause skeletal muscular damages. If some of the cytokines which cause responses such as inflammation of cells in skeletal muscles, with manipulating of training program, it can be avoided or limited from those exercises which induct cytokines release. Ginger plant is a kind of medicinal plants which is known as a anti inflammation plant. This plant is as most precedence medicinal plants in medicine science especially in inflammation cure. The aim of the present study was the effect of selected resistance training and consumption of ginger extract on IL-1α and TNFα untrained young women. The population includes young women interested in participating in the study with the average of 30±2 years old from Abbas Abad city among which 32 participants were chosen randomly and divided into 4 four groups, resistance training (R), resistance training and ginger consumption(RG), Ginger consumption(G)and Control group(C). The training groups performed circuit resistance training at the intensity of 65-75% one repeat maximum, 3 days a week for 6 weeks. Besides resistance training, subjects were given either ginseng (5 mg/kg per day) or placebo. Prior to and 48 hours after interventions body composition was measured and blood samples were taken in order to assess serum levels of IL-1α and TNFα. Plasma levels of cytokines were measured with commercially available ELISA Kits.IL-1α kit and TNFα kit were used in this research. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the independent variable and the comparison between groups, t-test and ANOVA were used. To determine differences between the groups, the Scheffe test was used that showed significant changes in any of the variables. we observed that circuit resistance training in R and RG groups can significant decreased in weight and body mass index in untrained females (p<0.05). The results showed a significant decreased in the mean level of IL-1α levels before and after the training period in G group (p=0.046) and RG group (p=0.022). Comparison between groups also showed there was significant difference between groups R-RG and RG-C. Intergroup comparison results showed that the mean levels of TNFα before and after the training in group G (p=0.044) and RG (p=0.037), significantly decreased. Comparison between groups also showed there was significant difference between groups R–RG , R-G ,RG-C and G-C. The research shows that circuit resistance training with reducing overload method results in systemic inflammation had significant effect on IL-1α levels and TNFα. Of course, Ginger can counteract the negative effects of resistance training exercise on immune function and stability of the mast cell membrane. Considerable evidence supported the anti-inflammatory properties of ginger for several constituents, especially gingerols, shogaols, paradols, and zingerones, through decreased cytokine gene TNF α and IL-1Α expression and inhibition of cyclooxygenase 1 and 2. These established biological actions suggest that ingested ginger could block the increase in IL-1α.

Keywords: resistance training, ginger, IL-1α , TNFα

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