Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 8516

Search results for: vascular endothelial growth factor

8516 Effects of Valproate on Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor in the Retina Associated with Choroidal Neovascularization

Authors: Zhang Zhenzhen


Valproate (VPA) is commonly used in the treatment of bipolar disorder and epilepsy. The mechanism is complicated, including its ability to inhibit histone deacetylases (HDACs). Here, we show that VPA attenuated VEGF gene expression and the morphological changes in choroidal neovascularization (CNV) induced by photocoagulation in retina. C57BL/6 mice were injected subcutaneously at 300mg/kg twice daily with VPA before insult. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-A and VEGF-B were examined in the eyes of VPA-treated mice and in human retinal pigment epithelial cell lines (ARPE-19) exposed to VPA. In addition, CNV was induced by photocoagulation in mice injected with VPA, and the volume of CNV was compared by fluorescence-labeled choroidal flat mount. Morphological changes were analyzed on stained histological sections. Western blot analysis was used to determine protein levels of VEGF-A and VEGF-B, and acetylation of histone H3 in each group. VPA injected intraperitoneally attenuated the VEGF-A and VEGF-B expression in the retina, accompanied by the hyperacetylation of retina tissue, indicating that VPA acts directly on retina tissues through acetylation to reduce the expression of VEGF. VPA also attenuated the VEGF-A mRNA expression in the retinal pigment epithelium showed by immunohistochemistry. Moreover, the administration of VPA significantly attenuated photocoagulation-induced CNV in mice. These results demonstrate that VPA attenuated VEGF production in retina associated with choroidal neovascularization possibly via the HDAC inhibition.

Keywords: retina, acetylation, chorodial neovascularization, vascular endothelial growth factor

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8515 The Differences of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Levels in Serum to Determine Follicular Adenoma and Follicular Carcinoma of Thyroid

Authors: Tery Nehemia Nugraha Joseph, J. D. P. Wisnubroto


Thyroid cancer is a healthcare problem with high morbidity and mortality. Follicular adenoma and follicular carcinoma are thyroid tumors from the thyroid follicular cells differentiation with a microfollicular pattern that consists of follicular cuboidal cells. vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a potent and powerful mitogen for endothelial cells and increases vascular permeability. Therefore, due to an increase in thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), VEGF production is activated in the thyroid that leads to the end of mitogenic TSH stimulation and initiation of angiogenesis. The differences in VEGF levels in the follicular carcinoma of thyroid tissue with follicular adenoma thyroid can be used as a basis in differentiating the two types of neoplasms. This study aims to analyze VEGF in the serum so that it can be used to differentiate the types of thyroid carcinoma before surgery. This study uses a cross-sectional research design. Samples were carried out by taking serum samples, and the VEGF levels were calculated. Data were analyzed using the Mann-Whitney test. The results found a significant difference between VEGF levels in the follicular carcinoma thyroid group and VEGF levels in the follicular adenoma thyroid group with a value of p = 0.007 (p < 0.05). The results obtained are 560,427 ± 160,506 ng/mL in the type of follicular carcinoma thyroid and 320.943 ± 134.573 ng/mL in the type of follicular adenoma thyroid. VEGF levels between follicular adenoma and follicular carcinoma are different. VEGF levels are higher in follicular carcinoma thyroid than follicular adenoma thyroid.

Keywords: follicular adenoma thyroid, follicular carcinoma thyroid, thyroid, VEGF

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8514 An Increase in Glucose Uptake per se is Insufficient to Induce Oxidative Stress and Vascular Endothelial Cell Dysfunction

Authors: Heba Khader, Victor Solodushko, Brian Fouty


Hyperglycemia is a hallmark of uncontrolled diabetes and causes vascular endothelial dysfunction. An increase in glucose uptake and metabolism by vascular endothelial cells is the presumed trigger for this hyperglycemia-induced dysfunction. Glucose uptake into vascular endothelial cells is mediated largely by Glut-1. Glut-1 is an equilibrative glucose transporter with a Km value of 2 mM. At physiologic glucose concentrations, Glut-1 is almost saturated and, therefore, increasing glucose concentration does not increase glucose uptake unless Glut-1 is upregulated. However, hyperglycemia downregulates Glut-1 and decreases rather than increases glucose uptake in vascular endothelial cells. This apparent discrepancy necessitates further study on the effect of increasing glucose uptake on the oxidative state and function of vascular endothelial cells. To test this, a Tet-on system was generated to conditionally regulate Glut-1 expression in endothelial cells by the addition and removal of doxycycline. Glut-1 overexpression was confirmed by Western blot and radiolabeled glucose uptake measurements. Upregulation of Glut-1 resulted in a 4-fold increase in glucose uptake into endothelial cells as determined by 3H deoxy-D-glucose uptake. Increased glucose uptake through Glut-1 did not induce an oxidative stress nor did it cause endothelial dysfunction in rat pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells determined by monolayer resistance, cell proliferation or advanced glycation end product formation. Increased glucose uptake through Glut-1did not lead to an increase in glucose metabolism, due in part to inhibition of hexokinase in Glut-1 overexpressing cells. In summary, this study demonstrates that increasing glucose uptake and intracellular glucose by overexpression of Glut-1 does not alter the oxidative state of rat pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells or cause endothelial cell dysfunction. These results conflict with the current paradigm that hyperglycemia leads to oxidative stress and endothelial dysfunction in vascular endothelial cells through an increase in glucose uptake.

Keywords: endothelial cells, glucose uptake, Glut1, hyperglycemia

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8513 Effect of Far Infrared and Endothelial Cell Growth Supplement on Human Umbilical Vascular Endothelial Cells

Authors: Ming-Tzu Tsai, Jui-Ting Hsu, Chia-Chieh Lin, Feng-Tsai Chiang, Cheng-Chin Huang


Far infrared (FIR), an invisible and short electromagnetic waves ranges from 6-14 μm also defines as the “growth ray.” Although the mechanism of FIR is still unknown, most data have suggested that FIR could accelerate the skin microcirculation by elevating the blood flow and nitric-oxide (NO) synthesis. In this present work, the effect of FIR irradiation and endothelial cell growth supplement (ECGS) on human umbilical vascular endothelial cells (HUVECs) was evaluated. To understand whether the cell viability and NO production of HUVECs affected by NO, cells with/without ECGS were treated in the presence or absence of L-NAME, an eNOS inhibitor. For FIR exposure, FIR-emitted ceramic powders consisted of a variety of well-mixed metal oxides were developed. The results showed that L-NAME did had a strong effect on the inhibition of NO production, especially in the ECGS-treated group. However, the cell viability of each group was rarely affected in the presence of L-NAME. Cells with the incubation of ECGS showed much higher cell viability compared to the control. Moreover, NO production of HUVECs exposed to FIR irradiation was significantly inhibited in the presence of L-NAME. It suggested that NO could play a role modulating the downstream signals of HUVECs during FIR exposure.

Keywords: far-infrared irradiation (FIR), nitric oxide (NO), endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), endothelial cell growth supplement (ECGS)

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8512 The Influence of Aerobic Physical Exercise with Different Frequency to Concentration of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor in Brain Tissue of Wistar Rat

Authors: Rostika Flora, Muhammad Zulkarnain, Syokumawena


Background: Aerobic physical exercises are recommended to keep body fit and healthy although physical exercises themselves can increase body metabolism and oxygen and can lead into tissue hypoxia. Oxygen pressure can serve as Vascular Endhothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) regulator. Hypoxia increases gene expression of VEGF through ascendant regulation of HIF-1. VEGF is involved in regulating angiogenesis process. Aerobic physical exercises can increase the concentration of VEGF in brain and enables angiogenesis process. We have investigated the influence of aerobic physical exercise to the VGEF concentration of wistar rat’s brain. Methods: This was experimental study using post test only control group design. Independent t-test was used as statistical test. The samples were twenty four wistar rat (Rattus Norvegicus) which were divided into four groups: group P1 (control group), group P2 (treatment group with once-a-week exercise), group P3 (treatment group with three time-a-week exercise), and group P4 (treatment group with seven time-a-week exercise). Group P2, P3, and P4 were treated with treadmil with speed of 20 m/minute for 30 minutes. The concentration of VEGF was determined by ELISA. Results: There was a significant increase of VEGF in treatment group compared with control one (<0.05). The maximum increase was found in group P2 (129.02±64.49) and the minimum increase was in group P4 (96.98±11.20). Conclusion: The frequency of aerobic physical exercises influenced the concentration of Vascular Endhothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) of brain tissue of Rattus Norvegicus.

Keywords: brain tissue, hypoxia, physical exercises, vascular endhothelial growth factor

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8511 Development of a Novel Score for Early Detection of Hepatocellular Carcinoma in Patients with Hepatitis C Virus

Authors: Hatem A. El-Mezayen, Hossam Darwesh


Background/Aim: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is often diagnosed at advanced stage where effective therapies are lacking. Identification of new scoring system is needed to discriminate HCC patients from those with chronic liver disease. Based on the link between vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and HCC progression, we aimed to develop a novel score based on combination of VEGF and routine laboratory tests for early prediction of HCC. Methods: VEGF was assayed for HCC group (123), liver cirrhosis group (210) and control group (50) by Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). Data from all groups were retrospectively analyzed including α feto protein (AFP), international normalized ratio (INR), albumin and platelet count, transaminases, and age. Areas under ROC curve were used to develop the score. Results: A novel index named hepatocellular carcinoma-vascular endothelial growth factor score (HCC-VEGF score)=1.26 (numerical constant) + 0.05 ×AFP (U L-1)+0.038 × VEGF(ng ml-1)+0.004× INR –1.02 × Albumin (g l-1)–0.002 × Platelet count × 109 l-1 was developed. HCC-VEGF score produce area under ROC curve of 0.98 for discriminating HCC patients from liver cirrhosis with sensitivity of 91% and specificity of 82% at cut-off 4.4 (ie less than 4.4 considered cirrhosis and greater than 4.4 considered HCC). Conclusion: Hepatocellular carcinoma-VEGF score could replace AFP in HCC screening and follow up of cirrhotic patients.

Keywords: Hepatocellular carcinoma, cirrhosis, HCV, diagnosis, tumor markers

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8510 Triple Modulation on Wound Healing in Glaucoma Surgery Using Mitomycin C and Ologen Augmented with Anti-Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor

Authors: Reetika Sharma, Lalit Tejwani, Himanshu Shekhar, Arun Singhvi


Purpose: To describe a novel technique of trabeculectomy targeting triple modulation on wound healing to increase the overall success rate. Method: Ten eyes of 10 patients underwent trabeculectomy with subconjunctival mitomycin C (0.4mg/ml for 4 minutes) application combined with Ologen implantation subconjunctivally and subsclerally. Five of these patients underwent additional phacoemulsification with intraocular lens implantation. The Ologen implant was wet with 0.1 ml Bevacizumab. Result: All the eyes achieved target intraocular pressure (IOP), which was maintained until one year of follow-up. Two patients needed anterior chamber reformation at day two post surgery. One patient needed cataract surgery after four months of surgery and achieved target intraocular pressure on two topical antiglaucoma medicines. Conclusion: Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) concentration has been seen to increase in the aqueous humor after filtration surgery. Ologen implantation helps in collagen remodelling, antifibroblastic response, and acts as a spacer. Bevacizumab augmented Ologen, in addition, targets the increased VEGF and helps in decreasing scarring. Anti-VEGF augmented Ologen in trabeculectomy with mitomycin C (MMC) hence appears to have encouraging short-term intraocular pressure control.

Keywords: ologen, anti-VEGF, trabeculectomy, scarring

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8509 Association of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Gene +405 C>G and -460 T>C Polymorphism with Type 2 Diabetic Foot Ulcer Patient in Cipto Mangunkusumo National Hospital Jakarta

Authors: Dedy Pratama, Akhmadu Muradi, Hilman Ibrahim, Raden Suhartono, Alexander Jayadi Utama, Patrianef Darwis, S. Dwi Anita, Luluk Yunaini, Kemas Dahlan


Introduction: Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) gene shows association with various angiogenesis conditions including Diabetic Foot Ulcer (DFU) disease. In this study, we performed this study to examine VEGF gene polymorphism associated with DFU. Methods: Case-control study of polymorphism of VEGF gene +405 C>G and -460 T>C, of diabetes mellitus (DM) type 2 with Diabetic Foot Ulcer (DFU) in Cipto Mangunkusumo National Hospital (RSCM) Jakarta from June to December 2016. Results: There were 203 patients, 102 patients with DFU and 101 patients without DFU. Forty-nine point 8 percent of total samples is male and 50,2% female with mean age 56,06 years. Distribution of the wild-type genotype VEGF +405 C>G wild type CC was found in 6,9% of respondents, the number of mutant heterozygote CG was 69,5% and mutant homozygote GG was 19,7%. Cumulatively, there were 6,9% wild-type and 85,2% mutant and 3,9% of total blood samples could not be detected on PCR-RFLP. Distribution of VEGF allele +405 C>G C alleles were 43% and G alleles were 57%. Distribution of genotype from VEGF gene -460 T>C is wild type TT 42,9%, mutant heterozygote TC 37,9% and mutant homozygote CC 13,3%. Cumulatively, there were 42,9% wild-type and 51% mutant type. Distribution of VEGF -460 T>C were 62% T allele and 38% C allele. Conclusion: In this study we found the distribution of alleles from VEGF +405 C>G is C 43% and G 57% and from VEGF -460 T>C; T 62% and C 38%. We propose that G allele in VEGF +405 C>G can act as a protective allele and on the other hands T allele in VEGF -460 T>C could be acted as a risk factor for DFU in diabetic patients.

Keywords: diabetic foot ulcer, diabetes mellitus, polymorphism, VEGF

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8508 Effects of Anti-FGL2 Monoclonal Antibody SPF89 on Vascular Inflammation

Authors: Ying Sun, Biao Cheng, Qing Lu, Xuefei Tao, Xiaoyu Lai, Cheng Guo, Dan Wang


Fibrinogen-like protein 2 (FGL2) has recently been identified to play an important role in inflammatory diseases such as atherosclerosis through a thrombin-dependent manner. Here, a murine monoclonal antibody was raised against the critical residue Ser(89) of FGL2, and the effects of the anti-FGL2 mAb (SPF89) were analyzed in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and THP-1 cells. Firstly, it was proved that SPF89, which belongs to the IgG1 subtype with a KD value of 44.5 pM, could specifically show the expression levels of protein FGL2 in different cell lines of known target gene status. The lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-mediated endothelial cell proliferation was significantly inhibited with a decline of phosphorylation nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) in a dose-dependent manner after SPF89 treatment. Furthermore, SPF89 reduced LPS-induced expression of adhesion molecules and inflammatory cytokines such as vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, tumor necrosis factor-α, Matrix metalloproteinase MMP-2, Integrin αvβ3, and interleukin-6 in HUVECs. In macrophage-like THP-1 cells, SPF89 effectively inhibited LPS and low-density lipoprotein-induced foam cell formation. However, these anti-inflammatory and anti-atherosclerotic effects of anti-FGL2 mAb in HUVECs and THP-1 cells were significantly reduced after treatment with an NF-κB inhibitor PDTC. All the above suggest, by efficiently inhibiting LPS-induced pro-inflammatory effects in vascular endothelial cells by attenuating NF-κB dependent pathway, the new anti-FGL2 mAb SPF89 could to be a potential therapeutic candidate for protecting the vascular endothelium against inflammatory diseases such as atherosclerosis. This work was supported by the Program of Sichuan Science and Technology Department (2017FZ0069) and Collaborative Innovation Program of Sichuan for Elderly Care and Health(YLZBZ1511).

Keywords: monoclonal antibody, fibrinogen like protein 2, inflammation, endothelial cells

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8507 Effect of Ethanolic Extract of Keladi Tikus (Typhonium flagelliforme) on the Level of Ifn Γ (Interferon Gamma), Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) and Caspase 3 Expression

Authors: Chodidjah, Edi Dharmana, Hardhono, Sarjadi


Breast cancer treatment options including surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, and immunotherapy have not been effective. Besides, they have side effects. Keladi Tikus (Typhonium flagelliforme) has been shown to improve immune system, suppress tumor growth and induce apoptosis. One of the parameters for immune system, tumor growth and apoptosis is IFNγ (Interferon γ), VEGF (Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor) and Caspase 3 respectively. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of the administration of Keladi Tikus tuber extract at the dose of 200 mg/kgBW, 400 mg/KgBW, and 800 mg/kgBW on the level of IFNγ, VEGF and caspase 3 expression. In this experimental study using post test randomized control group design, 24 CH3 mice with tumor were randomly divided into 4 groups including control group and treated groups: Treated with 0.2 cc extract of Keladi Tikus at the dose of 200 mg/kgBW, 400 mg/kgBW, 800 mg/kgBW, respectively for 30 days. On day 31 the lymphatic tissue was taken and evaluated for its level of IFNγ, using ELISA. The tumor tissue was taken and subjected to immunohistochemistry staining for VEGF and caspase 3 expression evaluation. The data on IFNγ, VEGF and Caspase 3 expression were analyzed using One Way Anova with significant level of 0.05. One Way Anova resulted in p<0.05. LSD test showed that the level of IFNγ and Caspase 3 for control group was different from that of treated groups. There was no significant different between the treated group of 400 mg/KgBW and 800mg/KgBW. VEGF expressions for all the treated groups were significant. In conclusion, the oral administration of ethanolic extract of Keladi Tikus (Typhonium flagelliforme) at the dose of 200mg/kgBW, 400 mg/kgBW,800 mg/kgBW increases IFNγ, Caspase 3 and decreases VEGF expression in C3H mice with adenocarsinoma mamma.

Keywords: Typhonium flagelliforme, IFNγ, caspase 3, VEGF

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8506 The Effect of Aerobic Training and Aqueous Extract of C. monogyna (Hawthorn) on Plasma and Heart Angiogenic Mediators in Male Wistar Rats

Authors: Asieh Abbassi Daloii, Ahmad Abdi


Introduction: Sports information suggests that physical inactivity increases the risk of many diseases, including atherosclerosis. Coronary heart disease, stroke and peripheral vascular disease, atherosclerosis and clinical protests. However, exercise can have beneficial effects on risk factors for atherosclerosis by reducing hyperlipidemia, hypertension, obesity, plaque density, increased insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance is improved. Despite these findings, there is little information about the molecular mechanisms of interaction between the body and its relation to sport and there arteriosclerosis. The present study aims to investigate the effect of six weeks of progressive aerobic training and aqueous extract of crataegus monogyna on vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) variations and angiopoetin-1/2 (ANG- 1/2) in plasma and heart tissue in male Wistar rats. Methods: 30 male Wistar rats, 4-6 months old, were randomly divided into four groups: control crataegus monogyna (N=8), training crataegus monogyna (N=8), control saline (N=6), and training saline (N=8). The aerobic training program included running on treadmill at the speed of 34 meters per minute for 60 minutes per day. The training was conducted for six weeks, five days a week. Following each training session, both experimental and control subjects of crataegus monogyna groups were orally fed with 0.5 mg crataegus monogyna extract per gram of the body weight. The normal saline group was given the same amount of the normal saline solution (NS). Eventually, 72 hours after the last training session, blood samples were taken from inferior Verna cava. Conclusion: It is likely that crataegus monogyna extract compared with aerobic training and even combination of both training and crataegus monogyna extract is more effective on angiogenesis.

Keywords: angiopoietin 1, 2, vascular endothelial growth factor, aerobic exercise

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8505 Eudesmane-Type Sesquiterpenes from Laggera alata Inhibiting Angiogenesis

Authors: Liang Ning, Chung Hau Yin


Angiogenesis is the process of new blood vessel development. It has been recognized as a therapeutic target for blocking cancer growth four decades ago. Vascular sprouting is initiated by pro-angiogenic factors. Vascular endothelial cell growth factor (VEGF) plays a central role in angiogenic initiation, many patients with cancer or ocular neovascularization have been benefited from anti-VEGF therapy. Emerging approaches impacting in the later stages of vessel remodeling and maturation are expected to improve clinical efficacy. TIE receptor as well as the corresponding angiopoietin ligands, were identified as another endothelial cell specific receptor tyrosine kinase signaling system. Much efforts were made to reduce the activity of angiopoietin-TIE receptor axis. Two eudesmane-type sesquiterpenes from laggera alata, namely, 15-dihydrocostic acid and ilicic acid were found with strong anti-angiogenic properties in zebrafish model. Meanwhile, the mRNA expression levels of VEGFR2 and TIE2 pathway related genes were down-regulated in the sesquiterpenes treated zebrafish embryos. Besides, in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), the sesquiterpenes have the ability to inhibit VEGF-induced HUVECs proliferation and migration at non-toxic concentration. Moreover, angiopoietin-2 induced TIE2 phosphorylation was inhibited by the sesquiterpenes, the inhibitory effect was detected in angiopoietin-1 induced HUVECs proliferation as well. Thus, we hypothesized the anti-angiogenic activity of the compounds may via the inhibition of VEGF and TIE2 related pathways. How the compounds come into play as the pathways inhibitors need to be evaluated in the future.

Keywords: Laggera alata, eudesmane-type sesquiterpene, anti-angiogenesis, VEGF, angiopoietin, TIE2

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8504 Mesenchymal Stem Cells on Fibrin Assemblies with Growth Factors

Authors: Elena Filova, Ondrej Kaplan, Marie Markova, Helena Dragounova, Roman Matejka, Eduard Brynda, Lucie Bacakova


Decellularized vessels have been evaluated as small-diameter vascular prostheses. Reseeding autologous cells onto decellularized tissue prior implantation should prolong prostheses function and make them living tissues. Suitable cell types for reseeding are both endothelial cells and bone marrow-derived stem cells, with a capacity for differentiation into smooth muscle cells upon mechanical loading. Endothelial cells assure antithrombogenicity of the vessels and MSCs produce growth factors and, after their differentiation into smooth muscle cells, they are contractile and produce extracellular matrix proteins as well. Fibrin is a natural scaffold, which allows direct cell adhesion based on integrin receptors. It can be prepared autologous. Fibrin can be modified with bound growth factors, such as basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF-2) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). These modifications in turn make the scaffold more attractive for cells ingrowth into the biological scaffold. The aim of the study was to prepare thin surface-attached fibrin assemblies with bound FGF-2 and VEGF, and to evaluate growth and differentiation of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells on the fibrin (Fb) assemblies. Following thin surface-attached fibrin assemblies were prepared: Fb, Fb+VEGF, Fb+FGF2, Fb+heparin, Fb+heparin+VEGF, Fb+heparin+FGF2, Fb+heparin+FGF2+VEGF. Cell culture poly-styrene and glass coverslips were used as controls. Human MSCs (passage 3) were seeded at the density of 8800 cells/1.5 mL alpha-MEM medium with 2.5% FS and 200 U/mL aprotinin per well of a 24-well cell culture. The cells have been cultured on the samples for 6 days. Cell densities on day 1, 3, and 6 were analyzed after staining with LIVE/DEAD cytotoxicity/viability assay kit. The differentiation of MSCs is being analyzed using qPCR. On day 1, the highest density of MSCs was observed on Fb+VEGF and Fb+FGF2. On days 3 and 6, there were similar densities on all samples. On day 1, cell morphology was polygonal and spread on all sample. On day 3 and 6, MSCs growing on Fb assemblies with FGF2 became apparently elongated. The evaluation of expression of genes for von Willebrand factor and CD31 (endothelial cells), for alpha-actin (smooth muscle cells), and for alkaline phosphatase (osteoblasts) is in progress. We prepared fibrin assemblies with bound VEGF and FGF-2 that supported attachment and growth of mesenchymal stem cells. The layers are promising for improving the ingrowth of MSCs into the biological scaffold. Supported by the Technology Agency of the Czech Republic TA04011345, and Ministry of Health NT11270-4/2010, and BIOCEV – Biotechnology and Biomedicine Centre of the Academy of Sciences and Charles University” project (CZ.1.05/1.1.00/02.0109), funded by the European Regional Development Fund for their financial supports.

Keywords: fibrin assemblies, FGF-2, mesenchymal stem cells, VEGF

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8503 Neuroprotective Effect of Crocus sativus against Cerebral Ischemia in Rats

Authors: Rehab F. Abdel-Rahman, Sally A. El Awdan, Rehab R. Hegazy, Dina F. Mansour, Hanan A. Ogaly, Marwan Abdelbaset


Disorders of the cerebral circulation are the leading cause of numerous neurological and psychiatric illnesses. The transient middle cerebral artery occlusion model (MCAO) is considered to be a reliable and reproducible rodent model of cerebral ischemia. The purpose of the current study was to examine the neuroprotective effects of Crocus sativus (saffron) in a rat model of left middle cerebral artery MCAO. Male Wistar rats were anesthetized and subjected to 1 h of MCAO followed by 48 h reperfusion or sham surgery. One group of the ischemia operated animals was kept as left brain ischemia/reperfusion (I/R). Another 2 operated groups received saffron extract (100 or 200 mg/kg, i.p) four times (60 min before the surgery, during the surgery, and on days 1 and 2 after the occlusion). During the experiment, behavioral tests were performed. After 72 h the animals were euthanized and their left brain hemispheres were used in the biochemical, histopathological, and immunohistochemical studies. Saffron administration revealed an improvement in I/R-induced alteration of locomotor balance and coordination ability of rats. Moreover, saffron decreased the brain content of malondialdehyde, nitric oxide, brain natriuretic peptide and vascular endothelial growth factor with significant increase of reduced glutathione. Immunohistochemical evaluation of caspase-3 and Bax protein expression revealed reduction in I/R-enhanced apoptosis in saffron treated rats. In conclusion, saffron treatment decreases ischemic brain injury in association with inhibition of apoptotic and oxidative cell death in a dose dependent manner.

Keywords: caspase-3, cerebral ischemia, Crocus sativus, rats, vascular endothelial growth factor

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8502 Endothelial Progenitor Cells Is a Determinant of Vascular Function and Atherosclerosis in Ankylosing Spondylitis

Authors: Ashit Syngle, Inderjit Verma, Pawan Krishan


Objective: Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) have reparative potential in overcoming the endothelial dysfunction and reducing cardiovascular risk. EPC depletion has been demonstrated in the setting of established atherosclerotic diseases. With this background, we evaluated whether reduced EPCs population are associated with endothelial dysfunction, subclinical atherosclerosis and inflammatory markers in ankylosing spondylitis (AS) patients without any known traditional cardiovascular risk factor in AS patients. Methods: Levels of circulating EPCs (CD34+/CD133+), brachial artery flow-mediated dilatation, carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) and inflammatory markers i.e erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), C-reactive protein (CRP), tissue necrosis factor (TNF)–α, interleukin (IL)-6, IL-1 were assessed in 30 AS patients (mean age33.41 ± 10.25; 11 female and 19 male) who fulfilled the modified New York diagnostic criteria with 25 healthy volunteers (mean age 29.36± 8.64; 9 female and 16 male) matched for age and sex. Results: EPCs (CD34+/CD133+) cells were significantly (0.020 ± 0.001% versus 0.040 ± 0.010%, p<0.001) reduced in patients with AS compared to healthy controls. Endothelial function (7.35 ± 2.54 versus 10.27 ±1.73, p=0.002), CIMT (0.63 ± 0.01 versus 0.35 ± 0.02, p < 0.001) and inflammatory markers were also significantly (p < 0.01) altered as compared to healthy controls. Specifically, CD34+CD133+cells were inversely multivariate correlated with CRP and TNF-α and endothelial dysfunction was positively correlated with reduced number of EPC. Conclusion: Depletion of EPCs population is an independent predictor of endothelial dysfunction and early atherosclerosis in AS patients and may provide additional information beyond conventional risk factors and inflammatory markers.

Keywords: endothelial progenitor cells, atherosclerosis, ankylosing spondylitis, cardiovascular

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8501 Identification of Potential Predictive Biomarkers for Early Diagnosis of Preeclampsia Growth Factors to microRNAs

Authors: Sadia Munir


Preeclampsia is the contributor to the worldwide maternal mortality of approximately 100,000 deaths a year. It complicates about 10% of all pregnancies and is the first cause of maternal admission to intensive care units. Predicting preeclampsia is a major challenge in obstetrics. More importantly, no major progress has been achieved in the treatment of preeclampsia. As placenta is the main cause of the disease, the only way to treat the disease is to extract placental and deliver the baby. In developed countries, the cost of an average case of preeclampsia is estimated at £9000. Interestingly, preeclampsia may have an impact on the health of mother or infant, beyond the pregnancy. We performed a systematic search of PubMed including the combination of terms such as preeclampsia, biomarkers, treatment, hypoxia, inflammation, oxidative stress, vascular endothelial growth factor A, activin A, inhibin A, placental growth factor, transforming growth factor β-1, Nodal, placenta, trophoblast cells, microRNAs. In this review, we have summarized current knowledge on the identification of potential biomarkers for the diagnosis of preeclampsia. Although these studies show promising data in early diagnosis of preeclampsia, the current value of these factors as biomarkers, for the precise prediction of preeclampsia, has its limitation. Therefore, future studies need to be done to support some of the very promising and interesting data to develop affordable and widely available tests for early detection and treatment of preeclampsia.

Keywords: activin, biomarkers, growth factors, miroRNA

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8500 The Effect of Physical Exercise to Level of Nuclear Factor Kappa B on Serum, Macrophages and Myocytes

Authors: Eryati Darwin, Eka Fithra Elfi, Indria Hafizah


Background: Physical exercise induces a pattern of hormonal and immunological responses that prevent endothelial dysfunction by maintaining the availability of nitric oxide (NO). Regular and moderate exercise stimulates NO release, that can be considered as protective factor of cardiovascular diseases, while strenuous exercise induces increased levels in a number of pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines. Pro-inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) triggers endothelial activation which results in an increased vascular permeability. Nuclear gene factor kappa B (NF-κB) activates biological effect of TNF-α. Aim of Study: To determine the effect of physical exercise on the endothelial and skeletal muscle, we measured the level of NF-κB on rats’ serum, macrophages, and myocytes after strenuous physical exercise. Methods: 30 male Rattus norvegicus in the age of eight weeks were randomly divided into five groups (each containing six), and there were treated groups (T) and control group (C). The treated groups obtain strenuous physical exercise by ran on treadmill at 32 m/minutes for 1 hour or until exhaustion. Blood samples, myocytes of gastrocnemius muscle, and intraperitoneal macrophages were collected sequentially. There were investigated immediately, 2 hours, 6 hours, and 24 hours (T1, T2, T3, and T4) after sacrifice. The levels of NF-κB were measured by ELISA methods. Results: From our study, we found that the levels of NF-κB on myocytes in treated group from which its specimen was taken immediately (T1), 2 hours after treadmill (T2), and 6 hours after treadmill (T3) were significantly higher than control group (p<0.05), while the group from which its specimen was taken 24 hours after treadmill, was no significantly different (p>0.05). Also on macrophages, NF-κB in treated groups T1, T2, and T3 was significantly higher than control group (p<0.05), but there was no difference between T4 and control group (p>0.05). The level of serum NF-κB was not significantly different between treatment group as well as compared to control group (p>0.05). Serum NF-κB was significantly higher than the level on macrophages and myocytes (p<0.05). Conclusion: This study demonstrated that strenuous physical exercise stimulates the activation of NF-κB that plays a role in vascular inflammation and muscular damage, and may be recovered after resting period.

Keywords: endothelial function, inflammation, NFkB, physical exercise

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8499 Effects of Stiffness on Endothelial Cells Behavior

Authors: Forough Ataollahi, Sumit Pramanik, Belinda Pingguan-Murphy, Wan Abu Bakar Bin Wan Abas, Noor Azuan Bin Abu Osman


Endothelium proliferation is an important process in cardiovascular homeostasis and can be regulated by extracellular environment, as cells can actively sense mechanical environment. In this study, we evaluated endothelial cell proliferation on PDMS/alumina (Al2O3) composites and pure PDMS. The substrates were prepared from pure PDMS and its composites with 5% and 10% Al2O3 at curing temperature 50˚C for 4 h and then characterized by mechanical, structural and morphological analyses. Higher stiffness was found in the composites compared to the pure PDMS substrate. Cell proliferation of the cultured bovine aortic endothelial cells on substrate materials were evaluated via Resazurin assay and 1, 1’-Dioctadecyl-1, 3, 3, 3’, 3’-Tetramethylindocarbocyanine Perchlorate-Acetylated LDL (Dil-Ac-LDL) cell staining, respectively. The results revealed that stiffer substrates promote more endothelial cells proliferation to the less stiff substrates. Therefore, this study firmly hypothesizes that the stiffness elevates endothelial cells proliferation.

Keywords: stiffness, proliferation, bovine aortic endothelial cells, extra cellular matrix, vascular

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8498 The Prodomain-Bound Form of Bone Morphogenetic Protein 10 is Biologically Active on Endothelial Cells

Authors: Austin Jiang, Richard M. Salmon, Nicholas W. Morrell, Wei Li


BMP10 is highly expressed in the developing heart and plays essential roles in cardiogenesis. BMP10 deletion in mice results in embryonic lethality due to impaired cardiac development. In adults, BMP10 expression is restricted to the right atrium, though ventricular hypertrophy is accompanied by increased BMP10 expression in a rat hypertension model. However, reports of BMP10 activity in the circulation are inconclusive. In particular it is not known whether in vivo secreted BMP10 is active or whether additional factors are required to achieve its bioactivity. It has been shown that high-affinity binding of the BMP10 prodomain to the mature ligand inhibits BMP10 signaling activity in C2C12 cells, and it was proposed that prodomain-bound BMP10 (pBMP10) complex is latent. In this study, we demonstrated that the BMP10 prodomain did not inhibit BMP10 signaling activity in multiple endothelial cells, and that recombinant human pBMP10 complex, expressed in mammalian cells and purified under native conditions, was fully active. In addition, both BMP10 in human plasma and BMP10 secreted from the mouse right atrium were fully active. Finally, we confirmed that active BMP10 secreted from mouse right atrium was in the prodomain-bound form. Our data suggest that circulating BMP10 in adults is fully active and that the reported vascular quiescence function of BMP10 in vivo is due to the direct activity of pBMP10 and does not require an additional activation step. Moreover, being an active ligand, recombinant pBMP10 may have therapeutic potential as an endothelial-selective BMP ligand, in conditions characterized by loss of BMP9/10 signaling.

Keywords: bone morphogenetic protein 10 (BMP10), endothelial cell, signal transduction, transforming growth factor beta (TGF-B)

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8497 Activation of TNF-α from Human Endothelial Cells by Exposure of the Mitochondrial Stress Protein (Hsp60) Secreted from THP-1 Monocytes to High Glucose

Authors: Ryan D. Martinus


Inflammation of the endothelium is an important process leading to diabetic atherosclerosis. However, the molecular mechanisms by which diabetes contributes to endothelial inflammation remain to be established. Using In-vitro cultured Human cells and Hsp60 specific ELISA assays, we show that Hsp60 is not only induced in Human monocyte cells under hyperglycaemic conditions but that the Hsp60 is also secreted from these cells. Furthermore, we also demonstrate that the Hsp60 secreted from these monocyte cells is also able to activate Toll-like receptor-4 (TLR4) from Human endothelial cells. This suggests that a potential link may exist between the hyperglycaemia-induced expression of Hsp60 in monocyte cells and vascular inflammation. Circulating levels of Hsp60 due to mitochondrial stress in diabetes patients could, therefore, be an important modulator of inflammation in endothelial cells and thus contribute to the increased incidences of atherosclerosis in diabetes mellitus.

Keywords: mitochondria, Hsp60, inflammation, diabetes mellitus

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8496 Right Atrial Tissue Morphology in Acquired Heart Diseases

Authors: Edite Kulmane, Mara Pilmane, Romans Lacis


Introduction: Acquired heart diseases remain one of the leading health care problems in the world. Changes in myocardium of the diseased hearts are complex and pathogenesis is still not fully clear. The aim of this study was to identify appearance and distribution of apoptosis, homeostasis regulating factors, and innervation and ischemia markers in right atrial tissue in different acquired heart diseases. Methods: During elective open heart surgery were taken right atrial tissue fragments from 12 patients. All patients were operated because of acquired heart diseases- aortic valve stenosis (5 patients), coronary heart disease (5 patients), coronary heart disease and secondary mitral insufficiency (1 patient) and mitral disease (1 patient). The mean age was (mean±SD) 70,2±7,0 years (range 58-83 years). The tissues were stained with haematoxylin and eosin methods for routine light-microscopical examination and for immunohistochemical detection of protein gene peptide 9.5 (PGP 9.5), human atrial natriuretic peptide (hANUP), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), chromogranin A and endothelin. Apoptosis was detected by TUNEL method. Results: All specimens showed degeneration of cardiomyocytes with lysis of myofibrils, diffuse vacuolization especially in perinuclear region, different size of cells and their nuclei. The severe invasion of connective tissue was observed in main part of all fragments. The apoptotic index ranged from 24 to 91%. One specimen showed region of newly performed microvessels with cube shaped endotheliocytes that were positive for PGP 9.5, endothelin, chromogranin A and VEGF. From all fragments, taken from patients with coronary heart disease, there were observed numerous PGP 9.5-containing nerve fibres, except in patient with secondary mitral insufficiency, who showed just few PGP 9.5 positive nerves. In majority of specimens there were regions observed with cube shaped mixed -VEGF immunoreactive endocardial and epicardial cells. Only VEGF positive endothelial cells were observed just in few specimens. There was no significant difference of hANUP secreting cells among all specimens. All patients operated due to the coronary heart disease moderate to numerous number of chromogranin A positive cells were seen while in patients with aortic valve stenosis tissue demonstrated just few factor positive cells. Conclusions: Complex detection of different factors may indicate selectively disordered morphopathogenetical event of heart disease: decrease of PGP 9.5 nerves suggests the decreased innervation of organ; increased apoptosis indicates the cell death without ingrowth of connective tissue; persistent presence of hANUP proves the unchanged homeostasis of cardiomyocytes probably supported by expression of chromogranins. Finally, decrease of VEGF detects the regions of affected blood vessels in heart affected by acquired heart disease.

Keywords: heart, apoptosis, protein-gene peptide 9.5, atrial natriuretic peptide, vascular endothelial growth factor, chromogranin A, endothelin

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8495 Plasma Treatment in Conjunction with EGM-2 Medium Can Enhance Endothelial and Osteogenic Marker Expressions of Bone Marrow MSCs

Authors: Chih-Hsin Lin, Shyh-Yuan Lee, Yuan-Min Lin


For many tissue engineering applications, an important goal is to create functional tissues in-vitro, and such tissues to be viable, they have to be vascularized. Endothelial cells (EC) and endothelial progenitor cells (EPC) are promising candidates for vascularization. However, both of them have limited expansion capacity and autologous cells currently do not exist for either ECs or EPCs. Therefore, we use bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) as a source material for ECs. Growth supplements are commonly used to induce MSC differentiation, and further improvements in differentiation conditions can be made by modifying the cell's growth environment. An example is pre-treatment of the growth dish with gas plasma, in order to modify the surface functional groups of the material that the cells are seeded on. In this work, we compare the effects of different gas plasmas on the growth and differentiation of MSCs. We treat the dish with different plasmas (CO2, N2, and O2) and then induce MSC differentiation with endothelial growth medium-2 (EGM-2). We find that EGM-2 by itself upregulates EC marker CD31 mRNA expression, but not VEGFR2, CD34, or vWF. However, these additional EC marker expressions were increased for cells seeded on plasma treated substrates. Specifically, for EC markers, we found that N2 plasma treatment upregulated CD31 and VEGFR-2 mRNA expressions; CO2 plasma treatment upregulated CD34 and vWF mRNA expressions. The osteogenic markers ALP and osteopontin mRNA expressions were markedly enhanced on all plasma-treated dishes. We also found that plasma treatment in conjunction with EGM-2 growth medium can enhance MSCs differentiation into endothelial-like cells and osteogenic-like cells. Our work shows that the effect of the growth medium (EGM-2) on MSCs differentiation is influenced by the plasma modified surface chemistry of the substrate. In conclusion, plasma surface modification can enhance EGM-2 effectiveness and induced both endothelial and osteogenic differentiation. Our findings provide a method to enhance EGM-2 based cell differentiation, with consequences for tissue engineering and stem cell biology applications.

Keywords: endothelial differentiation, EGM-2, osteogenesis, plasma treatment, surface modification

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8494 Endothelial Progenitor Cell Biology in Ankylosing Spondylitis

Authors: Ashit Syngle, Inderjit Verma, Pawan Krishan


Aim: Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) are unique populations which have reparative potential in overcoming the endothelial damage and reducing cardiovascular risk. Patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS) have increased risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study was to investigate the endothelial progenitor cell population in AS patients and its potential relationships with disease variables. Methods: Endothelial progenitor cells were measured in peripheral blood samples from 20 AS and 20 healthy controls by flow cytometry on the basis of CD34 and CD133 expression. Disease activity was evaluated by using Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index (BASDAI). Functional ability was monitored by using Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Functional Index (BASFI). Results: EPCs were depleted in AS patients as compared to the healthy controls (CD34+/CD133+: 0.027 ± 0.010 % vs. 0.044 ± 0.011 %, p<0.001). EPCs depletion were significantly associated with disease duration (r=-0.52, p=0.01) and BASDAI (r=-0.45, p=0.04). Conclusion: This is the first study to demonstrate endothelial progenitor cells depletion in AS patients. EPCs depletion inversely correlates with disease duration and disease activity, suggesting the pivotal role of inflammation in depletion of EPCs. EPC would possibly also serve as a therapeutic target for preventing cardiovascular disease in AS.

Keywords: ankylosing spondylitis, endothelial progenitor cells, inflammation, vascular damage

Procedia PDF Downloads 297
8493 Biomolecules Based Microarray for Screening Human Endothelial Cells Behavior

Authors: Adel Dalilottojari, Bahman Delalat, Frances J. Harding, Michaelia P. Cockshell, Claudine S. Bonder, Nicolas H. Voelcker


Endothelial Progenitor Cell (EPC) based therapies continue to be of interest to treat ischemic events based on their proven role to promote blood vessel formation and thus tissue re-vascularisation. Current strategies for the production of clinical-grade EPCs requires the in vitro isolation of EPCs from peripheral blood followed by cell expansion to provide sufficient quantities EPCs for cell therapy. This study aims to examine the use of different biomolecules to significantly improve the current strategy of EPC capture and expansion on collagen type I (Col I). In this study, four different biomolecules were immobilised on a surface and then investigated for their capacity to support EPC capture and proliferation. First, a cell microarray platform was fabricated by coating a glass surface with epoxy functional allyl glycidyl ether plasma polymer (AGEpp) to mediate biomolecule binding. The four candidate biomolecules tested were Col I, collagen type II (Col II), collagen type IV (Col IV) and vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A), which were arrayed on the epoxy-functionalised surface using a non-contact printer. The surrounding area between the printed biomolecules was passivated with polyethylene glycol-bisamine (A-PEG) to prevent non-specific cell attachment. EPCs were seeded onto the microarray platform and cell numbers quantified after 1 h (to determine capture) and 72 h (to determine proliferation). All of the extracellular matrix (ECM) biomolecules printed demonstrated an ability to capture EPCs within 1 h of cell seeding with Col II exhibiting the highest level of attachment when compared to the other biomolecules. Interestingly, Col IV exhibited the highest increase in EPC expansion after 72 h when compared to Col I, Col II and VEGF-A. These results provide information for significant improvement in the capture and expansion of human EPC for further application.

Keywords: biomolecules, cell microarray platform, cell therapy, endothelial progenitor cells, high throughput screening

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8492 Advanced Eales’ Disease with Neovascular Glaucoma at First Presentation: Case Report

Authors: Mohammed A. Alfayyadh, Halla A. AlAbdulhadi, Mahdi H. Almubarak


Purpose: Eales’ disease is an idiopathic vasculitis that affects the peripheral retina. It is characterized by recurrent vitreous hemorrhage as a complication of retinal neovascularization. It is more prevalent in India and affects young males. Here we present a patient with neovascular glaucoma as a rare first presentation of Eales’ disease. Observations: This is a 24-year-old Indian gentleman, who complained of a sudden decrease in vision in the left eye over less than 24 hours, along with frontal headache and eye pain for the last three weeks. Ocular examination revealed peripheral retinal ischemia in the right eye, very high intraocular pressure, rubeosis iridis, vitreous hemorrhage and extensive retinal ischemia in the left eye, vascular sheathing and neovascularization in both eyes. Purified protein derivative skin test was positive. The patient was managed with anti-glaucoma, intravitreal anti-vascular endothelial growth factor and laser photocoagulation. Systemic steroids and anti-tuberculous therapy were also initiated. Conclusions: Neovascular glaucoma is an infrequent complication of Eales’ disease. However, the lack of early detection of the disease in the early stages might lead to such serious complication.

Keywords: case report, Eales’ disease, mycobacterium tuberculosis, neovascular glaucoma

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8491 Sequential Release of Dual Drugs Using Thermo-Sensitive Hydrogel for Tumor Vascular Inhibition and to Enhance the Efficacy of Chemotherapy

Authors: Haile F. Darge, Hsieh C. Tsai


The tumor microenvironment affects the therapeutic outcomes of cancer disease. In a malignant tumor, overexpression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) provokes the production of pathologic vascular networks. This results in a hostile tumor environment that hinders anti-cancer drug activities and profoundly fuels tumor progression. In this study, we develop a strategy of sequential sustain release of the anti-angiogenic drug: Bevacizumab(BVZ), and anti-cancer drug: Doxorubicin(DOX) which had a synergistic effect on cancer treatment. Poly (D, L-Lactide)- Poly (ethylene glycol) –Poly (D, L-Lactide) (PDLLA-PEG-PDLLA) thermo-sensitive hydrogel was used as a vehicle for local delivery of drugs in a single platform. The in vitro release profiles of the drugs were investigated and confirmed a relatively rapid release of BVZ (73.56 ± 1.39%) followed by Dox (61.21 ± 0.62%) for a prolonged period. The cytotoxicity test revealed that the copolymer exhibited negligible cytotoxicity up to 2.5 mg ml-1 concentration on HaCaT and HeLa cells. The in vivo study on Hela xenograft nude mice verified that hydrogel co-loaded with BVZ and DOX displayed the highest tumor suppression efficacy for up to 36 days with pronounce anti-angiogenic effect of BVZ and with no noticeable damage on vital organs. Therefore, localized co-delivery of anti-angiogenic drug and anti-cancer drugs by the hydrogel system may be a promising approach for enhanced chemotherapeutic efficacy in cancer treatment.

Keywords: anti-angiogenesis, chemotherapy, controlled release, thermo-sensitive hydrogel

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8490 Prevalence of Complement Factor H (Y402H) Gene Polymorphism and Its Impact on the Predisposition of Syrians to Age-Related Macular Degeneration (AMD) and Response to Bevacizumab Intravitreal Injection

Authors: Loubna Safar, Lama Youssef, Majd Aljamali


Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is one of the leading causes of blindness worldwide. Complement factor H polymorphism (Y402H) is thought to play a potential role in the predisposition to AMD and response of patients with exudative AMD to treatment with anti-Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (anti-VEGF). This study aimed to investigate the frequency of Y402H among Syrians, its impact on their susceptibility to AMD, and the hypothesized role of Y402H in patients' response to intravitreal anti-VEGF (i.e.,, bevacizumab). Our case-control study encompassed unrelated 54 AMD cases and 44 controls. Genotyping was determined by standard sequencing of PCR products. Frequency was compared between patients and controls, and correlation between genotype and response to treatment was assessed in 20 patients with wet AMD who received a therapeutic course of three intravitreal bevacizumab injections (once monthly). Our results revealed a significantly higher prevalence of the risk allele C among AMD cases (51.9%) in comparison with controls (37.5%) (P= 0.04, OR= 1.386, CI= 0.999- 1.923). Patients with the TT genotype (no risk allele) exhibited a significantly better primary response rate, reached 87.5% compared to only 41.7% in patients carrying the risk allele C (TC + CC), (P= 0.04, OR= 9.8, CI=0.899- 106.84). The findings of this study prove the importance of investigating Y402H polymorphism as a prognostic marker for predicting response to bevacizumab in AMD patients.

Keywords: age-related macular degeneration, bevacizumab, complement factor H gene, polymorphism, Y402H

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8489 Glioblastoma: Prognostic Value of Clinical, Histopathological and Immunohistochemical (p53, EGFR, VEGF, MDM2, Ki67) Parameters

Authors: Sujata Chaturvedi, Ishita Pant, Deepak Kumar Jha, Vinod Kumar Singh Gautam, Chandra Bhushan Tripathi


Objective: To describe clinical, histopathological and immunohistochemical profile of glioblastoma in patients and to correlate these findings with patient survival. Material and methods: 30 cases of histopathologically diagnosed glioblastomas were included in this study. These cases were analysed in detail for certain clinical and histopathological parameters. Immunohistochemical staining for p53, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), mouse double minute 2 homolog (MDM2) and Ki67 was done and scores were calculated. Results of these findings were correlated with patient survival. Results: A retrospective analysis of the histopathology records and clinical case files was done in 30 cases of glioblastoma (WHO grade IV). The mean age of presentation was 50.6 years with a male predilection. The most common involved site was the frontal lobe. Amongst the clinical parameters, age of the patient and extent of surgical resection showed a significant correlation with the patient survival. Histopathological parameters showed no significant correlation with the patient survival, while amongst the immunohistochemical parameters expression of MDM2 showed a significant correlation with the patient survival. Conclusion: In this study incorporating clinical, histopathological and basic panel of immunohistochemistry, age of the patient, extent of the surgical resection and expression of MDM2 showed significant correlation with the patient survival.

Keywords: glioblastoma, p53, EGFR, VEGF, MDM2, Ki67

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8488 Plasma Collagen XVIII in Response to Intensive Aerobic Running and Aqueous Extraction of Black Crataegus Elbursensis in Male Rats

Authors: A. Abdi, A. Abbasi Daloee, A. Barari


Aim: The adaptations that occur in human body after doing exercises training are a factor to help healthy people stay away from certain diseases. One of the main adaptations is a change in blood circulation, especially in vessels. The increase of capillary density is dependent on the balance between angiogenic and angiostatic factors. Most studies show that the changes made to angiogenic developmental factors resulted from physical exercises indicate the low level of stimulators compared with inhibitors. It is believed that the plasma level of VEGF-A, the important angiogenic factor, is reduced after physical exercise. Findings indicate that the extract of crataegus plant reduces the platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR) autophosphorylation in human's fibroblast. More importantly, crataegus (1 to 100 mg in liter) clearly leads to the inhibition of PDGFR autophosphorylation in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). Angiogenesis is a process that can be classified into physiological and pathophysiological forms. collagen XVIII is a part of extracellular protein and heparan sulfate proteoglycans in vascular epithelial and endothelial basement membrane cause the release of endostatin from noncollagenous collagen XVIII. Endostatin inhibits the growth of endothelial cells, inhibits angiogenesis, weakens different types of cancer, and the growth of tumors. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the effect of intensive aerobic running with or without aqueous extraction of black Crataegus elbursensis on Collagen XVIII in male rats. Design: Thirty-two Wistar male rats (4-6 weeks old, 125-135 gr weight) were acquired from the Pasteur's Institute (Amol, Mazandaran), and randomly assigned into control (n = 16) and training (n = 16) groups. Rats were further divided into saline-control (SC) (n=8), saline-training (ST) (n=8), crataegus pentaegyna extraction -control (CPEC) (n=8), and crataegus pentaegyna extraction - training (CPET) (n=8). The control (SC and CPEC) groups remained sedentary; whereas the training groups underwent a high running exercise program. plasma were excised and immediately frozen in liquid nitrogen. Statistical analysis was performed using a one way analysis of variance and Tukey test. Significance was accepted at P = 0.05. Results: The results show that aerobic exercise group had the highest concentration collagen XVIII compared to other groups and then respectively black crataegus, training-crataegus and control groups. Conclusion: In general, researchers in this study concluded that the increase of collagen XVIII (albeit insignificant) as a result of physical activity and consumption of black crataegus extract could possibly serve as a regional inhibitor of angiogenesis and another evidence for the anti-cancer effects of physical activities. Since the research has not managed in this study to measure the amount of plasma endostatin, it is suggested that both indices are measured with important angiogenic factors so that we can have a more accurate interpretation of changes to angiogenic and angiostatic factors resulted from physical exercises.

Keywords: aerobic running, Crataegus elbursensis, Collagen XVIII

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8487 Pioglitazone Ameliorates Methotrexate-Induced Renal Endothelial Dysfunction via Amending Detrimental Changes in Antioxidant Profile, Systemic Cytokines and Fas Production

Authors: Sahar M. El-Gowilly, Mai M. Helmy, Hanan M. El-Gowelli


Methotrexate (MTX) is widely used in treatment of cancers and autoimmune diseases. However, nephrotoxicity is one of its most important side effects. The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma agonist, pioglitazone, is known to exert antiinflammatory and reno-protective effects in various kidney injuries. The purpose of this study was to investigate the potential involvement of endothelial damage in MTX-induced renal injury and to elaborate the possible protective effect of pioglitazone against MTX-induced endothelial impairment. Compared with saline-treated rats, treatment with MTX (7 mg/kg for 3 day) caused significant elevations in serum levels of urea and creatinine, increased renal nitrate/nitrite level and impaired renovascular responsiveness of isolated perfused kidney to endothelium-dependent vasodilations induced by acetylcholine (0.01-2.43 nmol) and isoprenaline (1µmol). These effects were abolished by concurrent treatment with pioglitazone (2.5 mg/kg, for 5 days starting two days before MTX). Alternatively, MTX treatment did not affect endothelium-independent renovascular relaxation induced by sodium nitroprusside (0.001-10 μmole). The possibility that alterations in renal antioxidants, circulating cytokine and apoptotic factor (Fas) levels contributed to MTX-pioglitazone interaction was assessed. Pioglitazone treatment abrogated renal oxidative stress (decreased reduced glutathione and catalase activity and increased malondialdehyde), elevated serum cytokine (interleukin-6, interleukin-10, tumor necrosis factor-alpha and transforming growth factor-beta1) and Fas induced by MTX. Histologically, MTX caused defused tubular cells swelling and vacuolization associated with endothelial damage in renal arterioles. These effects disappeared upon co-treated with pioglitazone. Collectively, pioglitazone abolished MTX-induced endothelium dysfunction and nephrotoxicity via ameliorating oxidative stress and rectifying cytokines and Fas abnormalities caused by MTX.

Keywords: methotrexate, pioglitazone, endothelium, kidney

Procedia PDF Downloads 406