Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 27

Search results for: Crocus sativus

27 Effet of Humic Substance on Ex-Vitro Propagation of Saffron (Crocus Sativus L.)

Authors: Abdelghani Tahiri, Youssef Karra, Naima Ait Aabd, Abdelaziz Mimouni

Abstract:

Saffron (Crocus sativus L.), the most expensive spice in the world derived from the stigmas, is an autumn-flowering and sterile triploid (2n=3x=24) geophyte species that belong to the Iridaceae family. This plant species is mainly propagated vegetatively through the formation of daughter corms from the mother one. Low multiplication rates of daughter corms under natural conditions, along with fungal contamination, significantly reduce the productivity and quality of saffron corms. The development of efficient and sustainable strategies for rapid and large-scale production of selected cultivars of saffron will be desired. For this, the main objective of this work is to improve the vegetative propagation of saffron under ex-vitro conditions. Preliminary results of the influence of increasing doses of humic substances (HS) on the growth and multiplication of corms under greenhouse conditions are evaluated. The obtained data shows that the effect of HS depends on the concentration used and the mode of application. Indeed, the application through irrigation has increased the number of shoots and corms, but it has reduced other parameters. On the other hand, the temporary treatment has improved all observed parameters except for the number of shoots and corms. Results obtained in this work suggest that it is possible to improve the propagation of saffron corms under greenhouse conditions.

Keywords: saffron, Crocus sativus L., corm, humic substances

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26 Neuroprotective Effect of Crocus sativus against Cerebral Ischemia in Rats

Authors: Rehab F. Abdel-Rahman, Sally A. El Awdan, Rehab R. Hegazy, Dina F. Mansour, Hanan A. Ogaly, Marwan Abdelbaset

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Disorders of the cerebral circulation are the leading cause of numerous neurological and psychiatric illnesses. The transient middle cerebral artery occlusion model (MCAO) is considered to be a reliable and reproducible rodent model of cerebral ischemia. The purpose of the current study was to examine the neuroprotective effects of Crocus sativus (saffron) in a rat model of left middle cerebral artery MCAO. Male Wistar rats were anesthetized and subjected to 1 h of MCAO followed by 48 h reperfusion or sham surgery. One group of the ischemia operated animals was kept as left brain ischemia/reperfusion (I/R). Another 2 operated groups received saffron extract (100 or 200 mg/kg, i.p) four times (60 min before the surgery, during the surgery, and on days 1 and 2 after the occlusion). During the experiment, behavioral tests were performed. After 72 h the animals were euthanized and their left brain hemispheres were used in the biochemical, histopathological, and immunohistochemical studies. Saffron administration revealed an improvement in I/R-induced alteration of locomotor balance and coordination ability of rats. Moreover, saffron decreased the brain content of malondialdehyde, nitric oxide, brain natriuretic peptide and vascular endothelial growth factor with significant increase of reduced glutathione. Immunohistochemical evaluation of caspase-3 and Bax protein expression revealed reduction in I/R-enhanced apoptosis in saffron treated rats. In conclusion, saffron treatment decreases ischemic brain injury in association with inhibition of apoptotic and oxidative cell death in a dose dependent manner.

Keywords: caspase-3, cerebral ischemia, Crocus sativus, rats, vascular endothelial growth factor

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25 Investigation of Type and Concentration Effects of Solvent on Chemical Properties of Saffron Edible Extract

Authors: Sharareh Mohseni

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Purpose: The objective of this study was to find a suitable solvent to produce saffron edible extract with improved chemical properties. Design/methodology/approach: Dried and pulverized stigmas of C. sativus L. (10g) was extracted with 300 ml of solvents including: distillated water (DW), ethanol/DW, methanol/DW, propylene glycol/DW, heptan/DW, and hexan/DW, for 3 days at 25°C and then centrifuged at 3000 rpm. Then the extracts were evaporated using rotary evaporator at 40°C. The fiber and solvent-free extracts were then analyzed by UV spectrophotometer to detect saffron quality parameters including crocin, picrocrocin and safranal. Findings: Distilled water/ethanol mixture as the extraction solvent, caused larger amounts of the plant constituents to diffuse out to the extract compared to other treatments and also control. Polar solvents including distilled water, ethanol, and propylene glycol (except methanol) were more effective in extracting crocin, picrocrocin, and saffranal than non-polar solvents. Social implications: Due to an enhancement of color and flavor, saffron extract is economical compared to natural saffron. Saffron Extract saves on preparation time and reduces the amount of saffron required for imparting the same flavor, as compared to dry saffron. Liquid extract is easier to use and standardize in food preparations compared to dry stamens and can be dosed precisely compared to natural saffron. Originality/value: No research had been done on production of saffron edible extract using the solvent studied in this survey. The novelty of this research is high and the results can be used industrially.

Keywords: Crocus sativus L., saffron extract, solvent extraction, distilled water

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24 Cochliobolus sativus: An Important Pathogen of Cereal Crops

Authors: Awet Araya

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Cochliobolus sativus ((anamorphic stage: Bipolaris sorokiniana (synonyms: Helminthosporium sorokinianum, Drechslera sorokiniana, and Helminthosporium sativum)) is an important pathogen of cereal crops. Many other grass species are also hosts for this fungus. Yield losses have been reported from many regions, especially where barley and wheat are commercially cultivated. The fungus has a worldwide distribution. The pathogen causes root rot, seedling blight, spot blotch, head blight, and black point. Environmental conditions affect disease development. Most of the time, fungus survives as mycelia and conidia. Pseudothecium of the fungus is not commonly encountered and probably not important in the epidemiology of the disease. The fungus can be in seed, soil, or in plant parts. Crop rotation, proper fertilization, reducing other stress factors, fungicide treatments, and resistant cultivars may be used for the control of the disease.

Keywords: Cochliobolus sativus, barley, cultivars, root rot

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23 Evalution of Antiurolithiatic Potentials from Cucumis sativus Fruits

Authors: H. J. Pramod, S. Pethkar

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The evaluation of antiurolithiatic potentials from the extracts of Cucumis sativus fruits at different doses and cystone (standard formulation) at a dose of 750 mg/kg were measured for both preventive and curative regimen in wistar rats by adding 0.75% v/v ethylene glycol (EG) to drinking water for 28 days, except normal rats. After the completion of the experimental period, (28th day) urinary parameters like (urine volume, routine urine analysis, levels of calcium, phosphate, oxalate, magnesium, sodium) serum biomarkers like (creatinine, BUN, uric acid, ALP, ALT, AST) kidney homogenate analysis for (levels of calcium, oxalate and phosphate) were analysed. The treated groups shows increased in the urine output significantly compared to the normal. The extract shows significantly decreased in the urinary excretion of the calcium, phosphate, magnesium, sodium and oxalate. The both preventive and curative treatment of extracts showed decrease in the stone forming constituents in the kidneys of urolithiatic rats further the kidneys of all the groups were excised and sectioned for histopathological examination which further claims to posses antiurolithiatic activity.

Keywords: Cucumis sativus, urolithiasis, ethylene glycol, cystone

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22 The Genotoxic Effect of Coal Fly Ash of Thermal Power Plant on Raphanus sativus L. (Radish)

Authors: Patel Kailash P, Patel Parimal M

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The effect of coal fly ash treatment on the chromosomes of Raphanus sativus L. was investigated. The seeds of Raphanus sativusL. were placed in petri dishes in three replicates and allowed to germinate for five days in different concentration of coal fly ash solution. The root was treated with the diluted, semidiluted, and concentrated solution of fly ash while the control group had distilled water.The total aberration were examined. The mitotic index was calculated and the results were statically evaluated by the analysis of variance 5% significant level. The mitotic index decreased as the concentration increased. The highest mitotic index value was diluted fly ash solution while the least was concentrated fly ash treatment. The results show the most frequent chromosomal abnormalities observed included: chromatid bridge, c-mitosis, and stickiness. Concentrated fly ash solution is much more genotoxic than semidiluted fly ash solution, as it induced more aberrations having percentage abnormalities for the highest concentration tested. Increased fly ash pollution can lead to some irreversible cytogenetic effect in plants. The study is an attempt to corroborate the toxic effect of coal fly ash of thermal power plant on the chromosome of plants. These results will be useful in environmental monitoring of the cytotoxicity of coal fly ash.

Keywords: coal fly-ash, genotoxic, cytogenetic, mitotic index, Raphanus sativus L.

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21 Inhibitory Effects of Crocin from Crocus sativus L. on Cell Proliferation of a Medulloblastoma Human Cell Line

Authors: Kyriaki Hatziagapiou, Eleni Kakouri, Konstantinos Bethanis, Alexandra Nikola, Eleni Koniari, Charalabos Kanakis, Elias Christoforides, George Lambrou, Petros Tarantilis

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Medulloblastoma is a highly invasive tumour, as it tends to disseminate throughout the central nervous system early in its course. Despite the high 5-year-survival rate, a significant number of patients demonstrate serious long- or short-term sequelae (e.g., myelosuppression, endocrine dysfunction, cardiotoxicity, neurological deficits and cognitive impairment) and higher mortality rates, unrelated to the initial malignancy itself but rather to the aggressive treatment. A strong rationale exists for the use of Crocus sativus L (saffron) and its bioactive constituents (crocin, crocetin, safranal) as pharmaceutical agents, as they exert significant health-promoting properties. Crocins are water soluble carotenoids. Unlike other carotenoids, crocins are highly water-soluble compounds, with relatively low toxicity as they are not stored in adipose and liver tissues. Crocins have attracted wide attention as promising anti-cancer agents, due to their antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and immunomodulatory effects, interference with transduction pathways implicated in tumorigenesis, angiogenesis, and metastasis (disruption of mitotic spindle assembly, inhibition of DNA topoisomerases, cell-cycle arrest, apoptosis or cell differentiation) and sensitization of cancer cells to radiotherapy and chemotherapy. The current research aimed to study the potential cytotoxic effect of crocins on TE671 medulloblastoma cell line, which may be useful in the optimization of existing and development of new therapeutic strategies. Crocins were extracted from stigmas of saffron in ultrasonic bath, using petroleum-ether, diethylether and methanol 70%v/v as solvents and the final extract was lyophilized. Identification of crocins according to high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis was determined comparing the UV-vis spectra and the retention time (tR) of the peaks with literature data. For the biological assays crocin was diluted to nuclease and protease free water. TE671 cells were incubated with a range of concentrations of crocins (16, 8, 4, 2, 1, 0.5 and 0.25 mg/ml) for 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours. Analysis of cell viability after incubation with crocins was performed with Alamar Blue viability assay. The active ingredient of Alamar Blue, resazurin, is a blue, nontoxic, cell permeable compound virtually nonfluorescent. Upon entering cells, resazurin is reduced to a pink and fluorescent molecule, resorufin. Viable cells continuously convert resazurin to resorufin, generating a quantitative measure of viability. The colour of resorufin was quantified by measuring the absorbance of the solution at 600 nm with a spectrophotometer. HPLC analysis indicated that the most abundant crocins in our extract were trans-crocin-4 and trans-crocin-3. Crocins exerted significant cytotoxicity in a dose and time-dependent manner (p < 0.005 for exposed cells to any concentration at 48, 72 and 96 hours versus cells not exposed); as their concentration and time of exposure increased, the reduction of resazurin to resofurin decreased, indicating reduction in cell viability. IC50 values for each time point were calculated ~3.738, 1.725, 0.878 and 0.7566 mg/ml at 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours, respectively. The results of our study could afford the basis of research regarding the use of natural carotenoids as anticancer agents and the shift to targeted therapy with higher efficacy and limited toxicity. Acknowledgements: The research was funded by Fellowships of Excellence for Postgraduate Studies IKY-Siemens Programme.

Keywords: crocetin, crocin, medulloblastoma, saffron

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20 Changing Colours and Odours: Exploring Cues Used by Insect Pollinators in Two Brassicaceous Plants

Authors: Katherine Y. Barragan-Fonseca, Joop J. A. Van Loon, Marcel Dicke, Dani Lucas-Barbosa

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Flowering plants use different traits to attract pollinators, which indicate flower location and reward quality. Visual and olfactory cues are among the most important floral traits exploited by pollinating insects. Pollination can alter physical and chemical cues of flowers, which can subsequently influence the behaviour of flower visitors. We investigated the main cues exploited by the syrphid fly Episyrphus balteatus and the butterfly Pieris brassicae when visiting flowers of Brassica nigra and Raphanus sativus plants. We studied post-pollination changes and their effects on the behaviour of flower visitors and flower volatile emission. Preference of pollinators was investigated by offering visual and olfactory cues simultaneously as well as separately in two-choice bioassays. We also assessed whether pollen is used as a cue by pollinating insects. In addition, we studied whether behavioural responses could be correlated with changes in plant volatile emission, by collecting volatiles from flower headspace. P. brassicae and E. balteatus did not use pollen as a cue in either of the two plant species studied. Interestingly, pollinators showed a strong bias for visual cues over olfactory cues when exposed to B. nigra plants. Flower visits by pollinators were influenced by post-pollination changes in B. nigra. In contrast, plant responses to pollination did not influence pollinator preference for R. sativus flowers. These results correlate well with floral volatile emission of B. nigra and R. sativus; pollination influenced the volatile profile of B. nigra flowers but not that of R. sativus. Collectively, our data show that different pollinators exploit different visual and olfactory traits when searching for nectar or pollen of flowers of two close related plant species. Although the syrphid fly consumes mostly pollen from brassicaceous flowers, it cannot detect pollen from a distance and likely associates other flower traits with quantity and quality of pollen.

Keywords: plant volatiles, pollinators, post-pollination changes, visual and odour cues

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19 Studies on Population and Management of Melon Fruit Fly Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett) in Vegetables Agro-Ecosystem in District Hyderabada

Authors: Abro Zain-Ul-Aabdin, Naheed Baloch, Khuhro Niaz Hussain, Waseem Akbar, Noor Abid Saeed

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The Melon Fruit Fly Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coq.) belongs to family: Tephritidae order: Diptera and is distributed throughout the vegetable growing areas of Pakistan. The B. cucurbitae is injurious pest of more than 125 species of the vegetables throughout the world. In the present studies we investigated the population of this important pest in cucurbit crops and influence of abiotic parameters such as: temperature, relative humidity and rainfall. The study was carried out at two different locations of District, Hyderabad. The locations were Jeay Shah and Dehli farm where three cucurbit vegetable crops, such as bottle gourd (Lagenaria siceraria), bitter gourd (Momordica charantia) and ridge gourd (Luffa acutangula) were grown. The traps were baited with Cue-lure and deployed at three meter height in the all locations from 01.01.2015 and up to 30.06.2015. Results revealed that overall significantly higher (P < 0.05) population was recorded on L.acutangula, M.charantia and L.siceraria (130.64, 127.21, and 122.91), respectively. However, significantly higher (P < 0.05) population was observed on L. acutangula (339.4±22.59) during the 4th week of May 2015 followed by M. charantia (334.6±22.76) L. siceraria (333.2±20.13). Whereas; lowest population was recorded on L. siceraria (5.8±1.39) followed by L. acutangula and M. charantia (6.8±0.80g, 8.0±1.30) respectively during the 4th week of January. The population of B. cucurbitae was significantly correlated with the temperature while negatively correlated with relative humidity. Meanwhile in the parasitism preference experiment pupal parasitoid Dirhinus giffardii showed significantly higher (P<0.05) parasitization when the pupae of B.cucurbitae were reared on Cucumber (Cucumis sativus) (24.8±0.48) and also female were yielded from pupae reared on C.sativus under no choice experiment. Similarly higher parasitization and female were recovered when pupae were supplied C. sativus under free choice experiment. Results of the present investigation would be useful in developing a sustainable pest management strategy in the vegetable agro-ecosystem.

Keywords: Dirhinus giffardii, Bactrocera cucurbitae Cucumis sativus, diptera, free choice, parasitization

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18 Effects of Bed Type, Corm Weight and Lifting Time on Quantitative and Qualitative Criteria of Saffron (Crocus sativus L.)

Authors: A. Mollafilabi, A. Koocheki, P. Rezvani Moghaddam, M. Nassiri Mahalati

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In order to study the effects of corm weights and times of corm lifting saffron in different planting beds, an experiment was conducted as Factorial layout based on a Randomized Complete Block Design with three replications at the Fadak Research Center of Agricultural Research in Food Science during 2010. Treatments were two corm weights (8-10, 10 < g), two planting beds (stone wool and peat moss) and five levels of lifting time (mi-June, early July, mid-July, early August and mid-August). No. of corms were 457 corms.m-2 and for 40 days and were stored for 90 days in incubation, 85% relative humidity and 25°C temperature in the darkness. Then, saffron corms were transferred to growth chamber with 17 °C in 8 hours light and 16 hours darkness. Characteristics were number of flower, fresh weight of flower, dry weight of flower, fresh and dry weight of stigma, fresh and dry weight of style, fresh and dry weight of stigma+style and Picrocrocin, Safronal and Crocin contents of saffron were measured. Results showed that the corm weight, bed type and time of corm lifting had significant effects on economical yield of saffron such as picked flowers, dry weight of stigma and fresh weight of flowers. The highest saffron economical yield was obtained in interaction of corm weight, 10 g, peat moss and lifting time in mid-June as much as 5.2 g.m-2. This yield is 11 fold of average yield of Iranian farms. Picrocrocin, Safranal and Crocin contents was graded as excellent thread in peat moss under controlled conditions compared with ISO Standard of 203.

Keywords: corm density, dry stigma, safranal-flowering, yield saffron

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17 Effect of Blanching and Drying Methods on the Degradation Kinetics and Color Stability of Radish (Raphanus sativus) Leaves

Authors: K. Radha Krishnan, Mirajul Alom

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Dehydrated powder prepared from fresh radish (Raphanus sativus) leaves were investigated for the color stability by different drying methods (tray, sun and solar). The effect of blanching conditions, drying methods as well as drying temperatures (50 – 90°C) were considered for studying the color degradation kinetics of chlorophyll in the dehydrated powder. The hunter color parameters (L*, a*, b*) and total color difference (TCD) were determined in order to investigate the color degradation kinetics of chlorophyll. Blanching conditions, drying method and drying temperature influenced the changes in L*, a*, b* and TCD values. The changes in color values during processing were described by a first order kinetic model. The temperature dependence of chlorophyll degradation was adequately modeled by Arrhenius equation. To predict the losses in green color, a mathematical model was developed from the steady state kinetic parameters. The results from this study indicated the protective effect of blanching conditions on the color stability of dehydrated radish powder.

Keywords: chlorophyll, color stability, degradation kinetics, drying

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16 The Effect of Different Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) Varieties on Growth and Development Time of Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae)

Authors: Rochelyn Dona, Mohamed F. Nur, Serdar Satar

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The biological response of Aphis gossypii Glover (Hom. Aphididae) was investigated on the effects of seven cucumber varieties (Cucumis sativus L.) such as Kitir, Muhika, Ayda, Beit, 14-F1, Ruzgar, and Ptk in the laboratory condition at 24±1°C, 65±5% relative humidity (RH) and a photoperiod of 16:8 (L:D) hour. The results were related that the developmental time of A. gossypii at the nymphal stages was presented a significant difference only on the first instar stage. From the lowest to the highest respectively, 0.98 days on ruzgar to 1.18 days on Kitir, the second nymphal stage 0.98 days to Beit alfa, 1.08 days on Muhika, the third from 0.94 days to Kitir, from 1.16 days to 14-F1, and the last instar 1.22 days on Ptk, 1.48 days on Kitir were investigated. The total development time was evaluated at 4.46 days Beit on alfa 4.72 days on Kitir. The offspring number was 60.42 aphids on ayda and 83.72 aphids on muhika, the significant differences between varieties were based on one-way ANOVA (Tukey test). The lifetime of A. gossypii was recorded 19.10 days on Kitir, 27.64 days on Ptk. The results showed that cucumber cultivars were affected by the biological life of A. gossypii. The combination of this study with the other methods of the IPM tactics can serve as the best strategy for controlling this pest on cucumber varieties into the greenhouse.

Keywords: cucumber cultivars, fecundity, intrinsic rate, mortality, resistance

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15 Response of Briquettes Application with Different Coating Materials on Yield and Quality of Cucumber [Cucumis sativus (L.)]

Authors: H. B. Torane, M. C. Kasture, S. S. Prabhudesai, P. B. Sanap, V. N. Palsande, J. J. Palkar

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The present investigation entitled “Response of briquettes application with different coating materials on yield and quality of Cucumber [Cucumis sativus (L.)]” was conducted at Central Experiment Center, Wakawali during kharif season 2013. The field experiment was laid out in Factorial Randomized Block Design with three replicate. The four coating materials viz., Co – Non coating, C1 – Wax coating, C2 – Jaggary coating, and C3 – Tar coating was applied to Konkan Annapurna Briquette along with three sub treatments of application time i.e B1 – ½ at sowing, B2 - ½ at sowing and ½ at 30 days after sowing and B3 - 1/3 at sowing, 1/3 at 30 days after sowing and 1/3 at 60 days after sowing. It was observed that the application of tar coated Konkan Annapurna Briquettes (KAB) in three times @1/3 quantity of briquettes at sowing time, 1/3 quantity of briquettes at 30 days after sowing and 1/3 quantity of briquettes at 60 days after sowing was found promising to enhancing the cucumber fruit yield, higher vine length, number of fruits vine-1, girth of fruit, length of fruit. It was also observed that the quality of the cucumber fruit increased in terms of ascorbic acid. UB-Godavari forms of briquettes .i.e. are promising source of N, P2O5 and K2O fertilizers as compared to straight fertilizers for enhancing green cucumber fruit yield of Sheetal variety of cucumber in lateritic soil. Amongst the three types of coated briquettes, the tar coated briquettes application was found to be superior for increasing cucumber fruit yield applied in three times @1/3 quantity of briquettes at sowing time, 1/3 quantity of briquettes at 30 days after sowing and 1/3 quantity of briquettes at 60 days after sowing @ 5 briquettes per plant at an interval of 30 days after sowing.

Keywords: briquettes, coating, yield, tar, wax and quality

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14 Genome-Wide Analysis of BES1/BZR1 Gene Family in Five Plant Species

Authors: Jafar Ahmadi, Zhohreh Asiaban, Sedigheh Fabriki Ourang

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Brassinosteroids (BRs) regulate cell elongation, vascular differentiation, senescence and stress responses. BRs signal through the BES1/BZR1 family of transcription factors, which regulate hundreds of target genes involved in this pathway. In this research a comprehensive genome-wide analysis was carried out in BES1/BZR1 gene family in Arabidopsis thaliana, Cucumis sativus, Vitis vinifera, Glycin max, and Brachypodium distachyon. Specifications of the desired sequences, dot plot and hydropathy plot were analyzed in the protein and genome sequences of five plant species. The maximum amino acid length was attributed to protein sequence Brdic3g with 374aa and the minimum amino acid length was attributed to protein sequence Gm7g with 163aa. The maximum Instability index was attributed to protein sequence AT1G19350 equal with 79.99 and the minimum Instability index was attributed to protein sequence Gm5g equal with 33.22. Aliphatic index of these protein sequences ranged from 47.82 to 78.79 in Arabidopsis thaliana, 49.91 to 57.50 in Vitis vinifera, 55.09 to 82.43 in Glycin max, 54.09 to 54.28 in Brachypodium distachyon 55.36 to 56.83 in Cucumis sativus. Overall, data obtained from our investigation contributes a better understanding of the complexity of the BES1/BZR1 gene family and provides the first step towards directing future experimental designs to perform systematic analysis of the functions of the BES1/BZR1 gene family.

Keywords: BES1/BZR1, brassinosteroids, phylogenetic analysis, transcription factor

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13 Assessment of Soil Contamination on the Content of Macro and Microelements and the Quality of Grass Pea Seeds (Lathyrus sativus L.)

Authors: Violina R. Angelova

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Comparative research has been conducted to allow us to determine the content of macro and microelements in the vegetative and reproductive organs of grass pea and the quality of grass pea seeds, as well as to identify the possibility of grass pea growth on soils contaminated by heavy metals. The experiment was conducted on an agricultural field subjected to contamination from the Non-Ferrous-Metal Works (MFMW) near Plovdiv, Bulgaria. The experimental plots were situated at different distances of 0.5 km and 8 km, respectively, from the source of pollution. On reaching commercial ripeness the grass pea plants were gathered. The composition of the macro and microelements in plant materials (roots, stems, leaves, seeds), and the dry matter content, sugars, proteins, fats and ash contained in the grass pea seeds were determined. Translocation factors (TF) and bioaccumulation factor (BCF) were also determined. The quantitative measurements were carried out through inductively-coupled plasma (ICP). The grass pea plant can successfully be grown on soils contaminated by heavy metals. Soil pollution with heavy metals does not affect the quality of the grass pea seeds. The seeds of the grass pea contain significant amounts of nutrients (K, P, Cu, Fe Mn, Zn) and protein (23.18-29.54%). The distribution of heavy metals in the organs of the grass pea has a selective character, which reduces in the following order: leaves > roots > stems > seeds. BCF and TF values were greater than one suggesting efficient accumulation in the above ground parts of grass pea plant. Grass pea is a plant that is tolerant to heavy metals and can be referred to the accumulator plants. The results provide valuable information about the chemical and nutritional composition of the seeds of the grass pea grown on contaminated soils in Bulgaria. The high content of macro and microelements and the low concentrations of toxic elements in the grass pea grown in contaminated soil make it possible to use the seeds of the grass pea as animal feed.

Keywords: Lathyrus sativus L, macroelements, microelements, quality

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12 Production of Vermiwash from Medicinal Plants and Its Potential Use as Fungicide against the Alternaria Alternata (fr.) Keissl. Affecting Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) in Guyana

Authors: Abdullah Ansari, Sinika Rambaran, Sirpaul Jaikishun

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Vermiwash could be used to enhance plant productivity and resistance to some harmful plant pathogens, as well as provide benefit through the disposal of waste matter. Alternaria rot caused by the fungus Alternaria alternata (Fr.) Keissl., is a common soil-borne pathogen that results in postharvest fruit rot of cucumbers, peppers and other cash crops. The production and distribution of Cucumis sativus L. (cucumber) could be severely affected by Alternaria rot. Fungicides are the traditional treatment however; they are not only expensive but can also cause environmental and health problems. Vermiwash was prepared from various medicinal plants (Ocimum tenuiflorum L. {Tulsi}, Azadirachta indica A. Juss. {neem}, Cymbopogon citratus (DC. ex Nees) Stapf. {lemon grass} and Oryza sativa L. {paddy straw} and applied, in vitro, to A. alternata to investigate their effectiveness as organic alternatives to traditional fungicides. All of the samples of vermiwash inhibited the growth of A. alternata. The inhibitive effects on the fungus appeared most effective when A. indica and O. tenuiflorum were used in the production of the vermiwash. Using the serial dilution method, vermiwash from O. tenuiflorum showed the highest percent of inhibition (93.2%), followed by C. citratus (74.7%), A. indica (68.7%), O. sativa, combination, and combination without worms. Using the sterile disc diffusion method, all of the samples produced zones of inhibition against A. alternata. Vermiwash from A. indica produced a zone of inhibition, averaging 15.3mm, followed by O. tenuiflorum (14.0mm), combination without worms, combination, C. citratus and O. sativa. Nystatin produced a zone of inhibition of 10mm. The results indicate that vermiwash is not simply an organic alternative to more traditional chemical fungicides, but it may in fact be a better and more effective product in treating certain fungal plant infections, particularly A. alternata.

Keywords: vermiwash, earthworms, soil, bacteria, alternaria alternata, antifungal, antibacterial

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11 Preliminary Phytopharmacological Evaluation of Methanol and Petroleum Ether Extracts of Selected Vegetables of Bangladesh

Authors: A. Mohammad Abdul Motalib Momin, B. Sheikh Mohammad Adil Uddin, C. Md Mamunur Rashid, D. Sheikh Arman Mahbub, E. Mohammad Sazzad Rahman, F. Abdullah Faruque

Abstract:

The present study was designed to investigate the antioxidant and cytotoxicity potential of methanol and pet ether extracts of the Lagenaria siceraria (LM, LP), Cucumis sativus (CSM, CSP), Cucurbita maxima (CMM, CMP) plants. For the phytochemical screening, crude extract was tested for the presence of different chemical groups. In Lagenaria siceraria the following groups were identified: alkaloids, steroids, glycosides and saponins for methanol extract and alkaloids, steroids, glycosides, tannins and saponins are for pet ether extract. Glycosides, steroids, alkaloids, saponins and tannins are present in the methanol extract of Cucumis sativus; the pet ether extract has the alkaloids, steroids and saponins. Glycosides, steroids, alkaloids, saponins and tannins are present in both the methanolic and pet ether extract of Cucurbita maxima. In vitro antioxidant activity of the extracts were performed using DPPH radical scavenging, nitric oxide (NO) scavenging, total antioxidant capacity, total phenol content, total flavonoid content, and Cupric Reducing Antioxidant Capacity assays. The most prominent antioxidant activity was observed with the CSM in the DPPH free radical scavenging test with an IC50 value of 1667.23±11.00271 μg/ml as opposed to that of standard ascorbic acid (IC50 value of 15.707± 1.181 μg/ml.) In total antioxidant capacity method, CMP showed the highest activity (427.81±11.4 mg ascorbic acid/g). The total phenolic and flavonoids content were determined by Folin-Ciocalteu Reagent and aluminium chloride colorimetric method, respectively. The highest total phenols and total flavonoids content were found in CMM and LP with the value of 79.06±16.06 mg gallic acid/g & 119.0±1.41 mg quercetin/g, respectively. In nitric oxide (NO) scavenging the most prominent antioxidant activity was observed in CMM with an IC50 value of 8.119± 0.0036 μg/ml. The Cupric reducing capacity of the extracts was strong and dose dependent manner and CSM showed lowest reducing capacity. The cytotoxicity was determined by Brine shrimp lethality test and among these extracts most potent cytotoxicity was shown by CMM with LC50 value 16.98 µg/ml. The obtained results indicate that the investigated plants could be potential sources of natural antioxidants and can be used for various types of diseases.

Keywords: antioxidant, cytotoxicity, methanol, petroleum ether

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10 Inventory and Pollinating Role of Bees (Hymenoptera: apoidea) on Turnip (Brassica rapa L.) and Radish (Raphanus sativus L.) (Brassicaceae) in Constantine Area (Algeria)

Authors: Benachour Karima

Abstract:

Pollination is a key factor in crop production and the presence of insect pollinators, mainly wild bees, is essential for improving yields. In this work, visiting apoids of two vegetable crops, the turnip (Brassica rapa L.) and the radish (Raphanus sativus L.) (Brassicaceae) were recorded during flowering times of 2003 and 2004 in Constantine area (36°22’N 06°37’E, 660 m). The observations were conducted in a plot of approximately 308 m2 of the Institute of Nutrition, Food and Food Technology (University of Mentouri Brothers). To estimate the density of bees (per 100 flowers or m2), 07 plots (01m2 for each one) are defined from the edge of the culture and in the first two rows. From flowering and every two days, foraging insects are recorded from 09 am until 17 pm (Gmt+1).The purpose of visit (collecting nectar, pollen or both) and pollinating efficiency (estimated by the number of flowers visited per minute and the number of positive visits) were noted for the most abundant bees on flowers. The action of pollinating insects is measured by comparing seed yields of 07 plots covered with tulle with 07 other accessible to pollinators. 04 families of Apoidea: Apidae, Halictidae, Andrenidae and Megachilidae were observed on the two plants. On turnip, the honeybee is the most common visitor (on average 214visites/ m2), it is followed by the Halictidae Lasioglossum mediterraneum whose visits are less intense (20 individuals/m2). Visits by Andrenidae, represented by several species such as Andrena lagopus, A.flavipes, A.agilissima and A.rhypara were episodic. The honeybee collected mainly nectar, its visits were all potentially fertilizing (contact with stigma) and more frequent (on average 14 flowers/min. L.mediterraneum visited only 05 flrs/min, it collected mostly the two products together and all its visits were also positive. On radish, the wild bee Ceratina cucurbitina recorded the highest number of visits (on average 06 individuals/100flo wers), the Halictidae represented mainly by L.mediterraneum, and L.malachurum, L.pauxillum were less abundant. C.cucurbitina visited on average 10 flowers /min and all its visits are positive. Visits of Halictidae were less frequent (05-06 flowers/min) and not all fertilizing. Seed yield of Brassica rapa (average number of pods /plant, seeds/ pods and average weight of 1000 seeds) was significantly higher in the presence of pollinators. Similarly, the pods of caged plants gave a percentage of aborted seeds (10.3%) significantly higher than that obtained on free plants (4.12%), the pods of caged plants also gave a percentage of malformed seeds (1.9%) significantly higher than that of the free plants (0.9%). For radish, the seed yield in the presence and absence of insects are almost similar. Only the percentage of malformed seeds (3.8%) obtained from the pods of caged plants was significantly higher in comparison with pods of free plants (1.9%). Following these results, it is clear that pollinators especially bees are essential for the production and improvement of crop yields and therefore it is necessary to protect this fauna increasingly threatened.

Keywords: foraging behavior, honey bee, radish, seed yield, turnip, wild bee

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9 Identification of Quantitative Trait Loci Conferring Downy Mildew Resistance in Cucumis sativus

Authors: Pawinee Innark, Hudsaya Punyanitikul, Chanuluk Khanobdee, Chatchawan Jantasuriyarat, Sompid Samipak

Abstract:

One of the most devastating diseases in cucumber is downy mildew caused by the fungus Pseudoperonospora cubensis. To enable the use of marker-assisted breeding for resistance cultivars, sixty six microsatellite markers were used to map (quantitative trait loci) QTLs for DM resistance. Total of 315 F2 population from the cross between DM-resistant inbred line CSL0067 and susceptible CSL0139 were evaluated for downy mildew resistance in cotyledon, first and second true leaf at 7, 10, and 14 day after inoculation. The QTL analysis revealed that the downy mildew resistant genes were controlled by multiple recessive genes. From eight linkage groups (LG 1.1, 1.2, 2, 3, 4, 5.1, 5.2 and 6), fourteen QTL positions were detected on 4 linkage groups (LG 1.1, 2, 5.1 and 6) with the log of odd scores ranged from 3.538 to 9.165. Among them, Cot7_5.1_2 and Cot10_5.1 had major-effect QTL with the R2 values of 10.9 and 12.5%, respectively. The flanking markers for Cot7_5.1_2 were SSR19172 - SSR07531 markers and for Cot10_5.1 were SSR03943 - SSR00772. Besides QTLs on chromosome 1, 5 and 6 that were previously reported, this study also revealed a QTL for DM resistance on chromosome 2 that can be used as a new source in cucumber breeding program.

Keywords: cucumber, DNA marker, downy mildew, QTL

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8 Evaluation of Forage Yield and Competition Indices for Intercropped Barley and Legumes

Authors: Abdollah Javanmard, Fariborz Shekari

Abstract:

Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), vetch (Vicia villosa), and grass pea (Lathyrus sativus L.) monocultures as well as mixtures of barley with each of the above legumes, in three seeding ratios (i.e., barley: legume 75:25, 50:50 and 25:75 based on seed numbers) were used to investigate forage yield and competition indices. The results showed that intercropping reduced the dry matter yield of the three component plants, compared with their respective monocrops. The greatest value of total dry matter yield was obtained from barley25-grasspea75 (5.44 t ha-1) mixture, followed by grass pea sole crop (4.99 t ha-1). The total AYL values were positive and greater than 0 in all mixtures, indicating an advantage from intercropping over sole crops. Intercropped barley had a higher relative crowding coefficient (K=1.64) than intercropped legumes (K=1.20), indicating that barley was more competitive than legumes in mixtures. Furthermore, grass pea was more competitive than vetch in mixtures with barley. The highest LER, SPI and MAI were obtained when barley was mixed at a rate of 25% with 75% seed rate of grass pea. It is concluded that intercropping of barley with grass pea has a good potential to improve the performance of forage with high land-use efficiency.

Keywords: forage, grass pea, intercropping, LER, monetary advantage

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7 Effects of Rice Plant Extracts and Phenolic Allelochemicals on Seedling Growth of Radish

Authors: Mohammad Shamim Hasan Mandal, Phu Minh, Do Tan Khang, Phung Thi Tuyen, Tran Dang Xuan

Abstract:

Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is one of the major crops of Vietnam which has more than thousands of varieties. Many of the local varieties have greater potentiality but they are in danger of extinct. Rice plant contains many secondary metabolites that are allelopathic to other plants. Seven rice varieties were cultivated in the field condition at Hiroshima University, Japan; stems and leaves from each variety were collected later, they were extracted with methanol, hexane, ethyl acetate, butanol, and water. Total phenolic content and total flavonoid contents were high in ethyl acetate extracts. DPPH antioxidant assay results showed that the ethyl acetate extracts had the higher IC50 value. Therefore, the ethyl acetate extracts were selected for laboratory experimentation through petri dish assay. Results showed that the two-local variety Re nuoc and Nan chon completely inhibited the germination of radish seedlings. Further laboratory bioassay and field experimentation will be conducted to validate the laboratory bioassay findings.

Keywords: allelopathy, bioassay, Oryza sativa, Raphanus sativus

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6 Biofertilization of Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) Using Trichoderma longibrachiatum

Authors: Kehinde T. Kareem

Abstract:

The need to increase the production of cucumber has led to the use of inorganic fertilizers. This chemical affects the ecological balance of nature by increasing the nitrogen and phosphorus contents of the soil. Surface runoffs into rivers and streams cause eutrophication which affects aquatic organisms as well as the consumers of aquatic animals. Therefore, this study was carried out in the screenhouse to investigate the use of a plant growth-promoting fungus; Trichoderma longibrachiatum for the growth promotion of conventional and in-vitro propagated Ashley and Marketmoor cucumber. Before planting of cucumber, spore suspension (108 cfu/ml) of Trichoderma longibrachiatum grown on Potato dextrose agar (PDA) was inoculated into the soil. Fruits were evaluated for the presence of Trichoderma longibrachiatum using a species-specific primer. Results revealed that the highest significant plant height produced by in-vitro propagated Ashley was 19 cm while the highest plant height of in-vitro propagated Marketmoor was 19.67 cm. The yield of the conventional propagated Ashley cucumber showed that the number of fruit/plant obtained from T. longibrachiatum-fertilized plants were significantly more than those of the control. The in-vitro Ashely had 7 fruits/plant while the control produced 4 fruits/plant. In-vitro Marketmoor had ten fruits/plant, and the control had a value of 4 fruits/plant. There were no traces of Trichoderma longibrachiatum genes in the harvested cucumber fruits. Therefore, the use of Trichoderma longibrachiatum as a plant growth-promoter is safe for human health as well as the environment.

Keywords: biofertilizer, cucumber, genes, growth-promoter, in-vitro, propagation

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5 Genome-Wide Identification and Characterization of MLO Family Genes in Pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima Duch.)

Authors: Khin Thanda Win, Chunying Zhang, Sanghyeob Lee

Abstract:

Mildew resistance locus o (Mlo), a plant-specific gene family with seven-transmembrane (TM), plays an important role in plant resistance to powdery mildew (PM). PM caused by Podosphaera xanthii is a widespread plant disease and probably represents the major fungal threat for many Cucurbits. The recent Cucurbita maxima genome sequence data provides an opportunity to identify and characterize the MLO gene family in this species. Total twenty genes (designated CmaMLO1 through CmaMLO20) have been identified by using an in silico cloning method with the MLO gene sequences of Cucumis sativus, Cucumis melo, Citrullus lanatus and Cucurbita pepo as probes. These CmaMLOs were evenly distributed on 15 chromosomes of 20 C. maxima chromosomes without any obvious clustering. Multiple sequence alignment showed that the common structural features of MLO gene family, such as TM domains, a calmodulin-binding domain and 30 important amino acid residues for MLO function, were well conserved. Phylogenetic analysis of the CmaMLO genes and other plant species reveals seven different clades (I through VII) and only clade IV is specific to monocots (rice, barley, and wheat). Phylogenetic and structural analyses provided preliminary evidence that five genes belonged to clade V could be the susceptibility genes which may play the importance role in PM resistance. This study is the first comprehensive report on MLO genes in C. maxima to our knowledge. These findings will facilitate the functional analysis of the MLOs related to PM susceptibility and are valuable resources for the development of disease resistance in pumpkin.

Keywords: Mildew resistance locus o (Mlo), powdery mildew, phylogenetic relationship, susceptibility genes

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4 The Dynamic of Nₘᵢₙ in Clay Loam Cambisol in Alternative Farming

Authors: Danute Jablonskyte-Rasce, Laura Masilionyte

Abstract:

The field experiments of different farming systems were conducted at Joniškėlis Experimental Station of the Lithuanian Research Centre for Agriculture and Forestry in 2006–2016. The soil of the experimental site was Endocalcari-Endohypogleyic Cambisol (CMg-n-w-can). The research was designed to identify the effects of dry matter and nitrogen accumulated in the above-ground biomass of various catch crops grown after winter wheat on soil mineral nitrogen variation during the autumn and spring period in the presence of intensive leaching complex. Research was done in the soil differing in humus status in the organic and sustainable cropping systems by growing various plant mixtures as catch crops: narrow-leafed lupine (Lupinus angustifolius L.) and oil radish (Raphanus sativus var. Oleifera L.), white mustard (Sinapis alba L.) and buckwheat (Fagopyrum exculentum Moench.) and white mustard as a sole crop. All crop and soil management practices have shown optimal efficiency in late autumn – stubble breaking, catch crops and straw used during the post-harvest period of the main crops, reduced Nmin migration into deeper (40–80 cm) soil layer. The greatest Nmin reduction in the 0–40 cm soil layer during the period from late autumn to early spring was identified in the sustainable cropping system having applied N30 for the promotion of straw mineralization and with no catch crops cultivation. The sustainable cropping system, having applied N30 for straw mineralization and growing white mustard in combination with buckwheat as catch crops, Nmin difference in the spring compared with its status in the autumn in the soil low and moderate in humus was lower by 70.1% and 34.2%, respectively.

Keywords: soil nitrogen, catch crops, ecological and sustainable farming systems, Cambisol

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3 Virus Diseases of Edible Seed Squash (Cucurbita pepo L.) in Aksaray Province

Authors: Serkan Yesil

Abstract:

Cucurbits (the Cucurbitaceae family) include 119 genera and 825 species distributed primarily in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. The major cultivated cucurbit species such as melon (Cucumis melo L.), cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.), squash (Cucurbita pepo L.), and watermelon (Citrullus lanatus (Thunb) Matsum.&Nakai) are important vegetable crops worldwide. Squash is grown for fresh consuming, as well as its seeds are used as a snack in Turkey like some Mediterranean countries and Germany, Hungary, Austria and China. Virus diseases are one of the most destructive diseases on squash which is grown for seeds in Aksaray province. In this study, it was aimed to determine the virus infections in major squash growing areas in Aksaray province. Totally 153 plant samples with common virus symptoms like mosaic, curling, blistering, mottling, distortion, shoestring, stunting and vine decline were collected from squash plants during 2014. In this study, DAS-ELISA method is used for identifying the virus infections on the plant samples. According to the results of the DAS-ELISA 84.96 % of plant samples were infected with Zucchini yellow mosaic Potyvirus (ZYMV), Watermelon mosaic Potyvirus-2 (WMV-2), Cucumber mosaic Cucumovirus (CMV), Papaya ringspot Potyvirus-watermelon strain (PRSV-W) and Squash mosaic Comovirus (SqMV). ZYMV was predominant in the research area with the ratio of 66.01 %. WMV-2 was the second important virus disease in the survey area, it was detected on the samples at the ratio of 57.51 %. Also, mixed infections of those virus infections were detected commonly in squash. Especially, ZYMV+WMV-2 mixed infections were common. Cucumber green mottle mosaic Tobamovirus (CGMMV) was not present in the research area.

Keywords: Aksaray, DAS-ELISA, edible seed squash, WMV-2, ZYMV

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2 Screening of Selected Medicinal Plants from Jordan for Their Protective Properties against Oxidative DNA Damage and Mutagenecity

Authors: Karem H. Alzoubi, Ahmad S. Alkofahi, Omar F. Khabour, Nizar M. Mhaidat

Abstract:

Herbal medicinal products represent a major focus for drug development and industry and it holds a significant share in drug-market all over the globe. In here, selected medicinal plant extracts from Jordan with high antioxidative capacity were tested for their protective effect against oxidative DNA damage using in vitro 8-hydroxydeoxyguanisine and sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs) assays in cultured human lymphocytes. The following plant extracts were tested Cupressus sempervirens L., Psidium guajava (L.) Gaerth., Silybum marianum L., Malva sylvestris L., Varthemia iphionoides Boiss., Eminium spiculatum L. Blume, Pistachia palaestina Boiss., Artemisia herba-alba Asso, Ficus carica L., Morus alba Linn , Cucumis sativus L., Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh., Salvia triloba L., Zizyphus spina-christi L. Desf., and Laurus nobilis L. A fractionation scheme for the active plant extracts of the above was followed. Plants extract fractions with best protective properties against DNA damage included hexane fraction of S. marianum L. (aerial parts), chloroform fractions of P. palaestina Boiss. (Fruits), ethanolic fractions of E. camaldulensis Dehnh (leaves), S. triloba L. (leaves), and ethanolic fractions of Z. spina-christi L. Desf. (Fruits/leaves). On the other hand, the ethanolic extracts of V. iphionoides Boiss was found to increase oxidative DNA damage. Results of the SCEs are undergoing. In conclusion, plant extracts with antioxidative DNA damage properties might have clinical applications in cancer prevention.

Keywords: medicinal plants extract, fractionation, oxidative DNA damage, 8-hydroxydeoxyguanisine, SCEs, Jordan

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1 The Effect of Radish (Raphanus Sativus L.) Leaves Ethanol Extract on Blood Glucose Levels in Streptozotocin-Nicotinamide-Induced Type-2 Diabetic Rats

Authors: Satria B. Mahathma, Asri Hendrawati

Abstract:

Background: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a metabolic disorder syndrome characterized by chronic hyperglycemia. The number of people with diabetes rose from 108 million in 1980 to 422 million in 2014. In general, almost 90% of the prevalence of DM is type 2 DM which marked by insulin resistance and decreased receptor sensitivity. Aside from conventional antidiabetic therapy, the utilization of medicinal plants as alternative medicine has beneficial effects in diabetic patients. Flavonoid contents in radish leaves such as quercetin, pelargonidin, and kaempferol are thought to have antidiabetic activity on decreasing blood glucose levels by tricyclic nucleotide modulation of pancreatic beta cells and ameliorating insulin resistance. This study aimed to determine the effect of variant concentration of radish leaves ethanol extract on blood glucose levels in diabetic rats. Method: This study used pretest-posttest control group design by using 16 male Wistar rats which were induced type-2 diabetic by streptozotocin 60 mg/kg BW-nicotinamide 120 mg/kg BW intraperitoneally. Rats who had developed type-2 DM later divided randomly into 4 groups; negative control received placebo, positive control received glibenclamide 5 mg/kg BW/day, rats intervention I and intervention II received 100% and 50% of radish leaves ethanol extract, respectively. Treatments were administered orally for four weeks. The blood glucose levels were measured using the Enzymatic Colorimetric Test “GOD-PAP”. Data were analyzed by the dependent t-test for pretest-posttest intervention difference and one-way ANOVA followed by post hoc test to determine the significant difference of each treatment to obtain the significant data. Result: The result revealed that intervention group had lower blood glucose levels mean than control group which the lowest was intervention II group (negative control: 540,9 ± 191,7 mg/dl, positive control: 494, 97 ± 64,91 mg/dl, intervention I: 301,92 ± 165,70 mg/dl, and intervention II group: 276,1 ± 139,02 mg/dl. Intervention II group had the highest antidiabetic activity, followed by the intervention I group with the amount of decrease in blood glucose levels were -151,85 ± 77,43 mg/dl and -11,08 ± 186,62 mg/dl, however negative and positive control group didn’t have antidiabetic activity. The dependent t-test result showed there is a significant difference in decreasing blood glucose levels in the intervention II pretest-posttest intervention (p=0,03) while the other group didn’t. Data analyzed by one-way ANOVA also revealed the intervention II group significantly declined blood glucose levels compared to the negative and positive control group (p = 0,033 and p=0,032, respectively). Conclusion: There is a significant effect of radish leaves ethanol extract on blood glucose levels in streptozotocin-nicotinamide-induced diabetic rats with the optimal therapeutic effect at a concentration of 50%.

Keywords: blood glucose levels, medicinal plant, radish leaves, type-2 diabetes mellitus

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