Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 9

Search results for: pyran

9 Alumina Nanoparticles in One-Pot Synthesis of Pyrazolopyranopyrimidinones

Authors: Saeed Khodabakhshi, Alimorad Rashidi, Ziba Tavakoli, Sajad Kiani, Sadegh Dastkhoon


Alumina nanoparticles (γ-Al2O3 NPs) were prepared via a new and simple synthetic route and characterized by field emission scanning electron microscope, X-ray diffraction, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The catalytic activity of prepared γ-Al2O3 NPs was investigated for the one-pot, four-component synthesis of fused tri-heterocyclic compounds containing pyrazole, pyran, and pyrimidine. This procedure has some advantages such as high efficiency, simplicity, high rate and environmental safety.

Keywords: alumina nanoparticles, one-pot, fused tri-heterocyclic compounds, pyran

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8 Investigation of Acidizing Corrosion Inhibitors for Mild Steel in Hydrochloric Acid: Theoretical and Experimental Approaches

Authors: Ambrish Singh


The corrosion inhibition performance of pyran derivatives (AP) on mild steel in 15% HCl was investigated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), potentiodynamic polarization, weight loss, contact angle, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) measurements, DFT and molecular dynamic simulation. The adsorption of APs on the surface of mild steel obeyed Langmuir isotherm. The potentiodynamic polarization study confirmed that inhibitors are mixed type with cathodic predominance. Molecular dynamic simulation was applied to search for the most stable configuration and adsorption energies for the interaction of the inhibitors with Fe (110) surface. The theoretical data obtained are, in most cases, in agreement with experimental results.

Keywords: acidizing inhibitor, pyran derivatives, DFT, molecular simulation, mild steel, EIS

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7 Analysis of Some Produced Inhibitors for Corrosion of J55 Steel in NaCl Solution Saturated with CO₂

Authors: Ambrish Singh


The corrosion inhibition performance of pyran (AP) and benzimidazole (BI) derivatives on J55 steel in 3.5% NaCl solution saturated with CO₂ was investigated by electrochemical, weight loss, surface characterization, and theoretical studies. The electrochemical studies included electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), potentiodynamic polarization (PDP), electrochemical frequency modulation (EFM), and electrochemical frequency modulation trend (EFMT). Surface characterization was done using contact angle, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and atomic force microscopy (AFM) techniques. DFT and molecular dynamics (MD) studies were done using Gaussian and Materials Studio softwares. All the studies suggested the good inhibition by the synthesized inhibitors on J55 steel in 3.5% NaCl solution saturated with CO₂ due to the formation of a protective film on the surface. Molecular dynamic simulation was applied to search for the most stable configuration and adsorption energies for the interaction of the inhibitors with Fe (110) surface.

Keywords: corrosion, inhibitor, EFM, AFM, DFT, MD

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6 Transformation of Glycals to Chiral Fused Aromatic Cores via Annulative π-Extension Reaction with Arynes

Authors: Nazar Hussain, Debaraj Mukherjee


Carbohydrate-derived chiral intermediates which contain arrays of defined stereocenters have found enormous applications in organic synthesis due to their inherent functional group, stereochemical and structural diversities as well as their ready availability. Stereodiversity of these classes of molecules has motivated synthetic organic chemistry over the years. One major challenge is control of relative configuration during construction of acyclic fragments. Here, we show that The Diels Alder addition of arynes to appropriately substituted vinyl/aryl glycals followed by π-extension via pyran ring opening smoothly furnished meta-disubstituted fused aromatic cores containing a stereo-defined orthogonally protected chiral side chain. The method is broad in terms of aryl homologation affording benzene, naphthalene, and phenanthrene derivatives. Base-induced deprotonation followed by cleavage of the allylic C-O bond appears to be the crucial steps leading to the development of aromaticity, which is the driving force behind the annulative π-extension process. The present protocol can be used for the synthesis of meta-disubstituted naphthalene aldehydes and substrates for aldolases.

Keywords: vinyl/C-2 aryl glycal, arynes, cyclization, ring opening

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5 Heterocyclic Ring Extension of Estrone: Synthesis and Cytotoxicity of Fused Pyrin, Pyrimidine and Thiazole Derivatives

Authors: Rafat M. Mohareb


Several D-ring alkylated estrone analogues display exceptionally high affinity for estrogen receptors. In particular, compounds in which an E-ring is formed are known to be involved in the inhibition of steroidogenic enzymes. Such compounds also have an effect on steroid dehydrogenase activity and the ability to inhibit the detrimental action of the steroid sulfatase enzyme. Generally, E-ring extended steroids have been accessed by modification of the C17-ketone in the D-ring by either arylimine or oximino formation, addition of a carbon nucleophile or hydrazone formation. Other approaches have included ketone reduction, silyl enol ether formation or ring-closing metathesis (giving five- or six-membered E-rings). Chemical modification of the steroid D-ring provides a way to alter the functional groups, sizes and stereochemistry of the D-ring, and numerous structure-activity relationships have been established by such synthetic alterations. Steroids bearing heterocycles fused to the D-ring of the steroid nucleus have been of pharmaceutical interest. In the present paper, we report on the efficient synthesis of estrone possessing pyran, pyrimidine and thiazole ring systems. This study focused on the synthesis and biochemical evaluation of newly synthesized heterocyclic compounds which were then subjected through inhibitory evaluations towards human cancer and normal cell lines.

Keywords: estrone, heterocyclization, cytotoxicity, biomedicine

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4 The Study of Natural Synthetic Linalool Isolated from Ginger (Zingiber officinale) Using Photochemical Reactions

Authors: Elgendy M. Eman, Sameeh Y. Manal


Ginger (Zingiber officinale) is so important plant for its medicinal properties from ancient time and used as a spicy herb all over the world. This study was designed to examine the chemical composition of the essential oil and various crude extracts (n-hexane, chloroform and ethanol) of Zingiber officinale as well. GC–MS analyses of the essential oil resulted in the identification of 68 compounds,; 1,8-cineole (8.9%) and linalool (15.1%) were the main components in the essential oil .The crude extracts were analyzed with TLC plates and revealed several spots under UV light; however the hexane extract exhibited the highest number of spots compared to the other extracts. Hexane extract was selected for GC-MS profile, and the results revealed the presence of several volatile compounds and linalool was the major component with high percentage (11.4 %). Further investigation on the structure elucidation of the bioactive compound (linalool) using IR, GC-MS and NMR techniques compared to authenticated linalool then subjected to purification using preparative and column chromatography. Linalool has been epoxidized using m-chloroperbenzoicacid (mcpba) at room temperature in the presence of florescent lamps to give two cyclic oxygenated products (furan epoxide & pyran epoxide) as a stereospecific is concluded that, oxidation process is enhanced by irradiation to form epoxide derivative, which acts as the precursor of important products.

Keywords: epoxide, ginger, irradiation, linalool

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3 Use of Amaranthus Roxburghianus Root Extract in the Treatment of Ulcerative Colitis in Mice

Authors: S. A. Nirmal, J. M. Ingale, G. S. Asane, S. C. Pal, Subhash C. Mandal


The present work was undertaken to determine the effects of Amaranthus roxburghianus Nevski. (Amaranthaceae) root alone and in combination with piperine in treating ulcerative colitis (UC) in mice. Swiss albino mice were divided into seven groups (n = 6). Standard group received prednisolone (5 mg/kg, i.p.). Treatment groups received hydroalcoholic extract of roots of A. roxburghianus (50 and 100 mg/kg, p.o.) and a combination of hydroalcoholic extract of roots of A. roxburghianus (50 and 100 mg/kg, p.o.) and piperine (5 mg/kg, p.o.). Ulcer index, colitis severity, myeloperoxidase (MPO), malondialdehyde and glutathione were estimated from blood and tissue. Column chromatography of the extract was done and purified fractions were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS). Treatment with the combination of hydroalcoholic extract of A. roxburghianus and piperine showed minimal ulceration, hemorrhage, necrosis and leucocyte infiltration by histopathological observation. Acetic acid increased MPO levels in blood and colon tissue to 355 U/mL and 385 U/mg, respectively. The combination of hydroalcoholic extract (100 mg/kg) and piperine (5 mg/kg) significantly decreased MPO in blood and tissue to 182 U/mL and 193 U/mg, respectively. Similarly, this combination significantly reduced MPO and increased glutathione levels in blood and tissue. Various phytoconstituents were detected by GC-MS. The combination of hydroalcoholic extract and piperine is effective in the treatment of UC and the effects are comparable with the standard drug prednisolone. 4H-pyran-4-one, 2,3-dihydro-3,5-dihydroxy-6-methyl, eugenol and benzene, and 1-(1,5-dimethyl-4-hexenyl)-4-methyl are reported having analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant properties; they may play a role in the biological activity of A. roxburghianus root.

Keywords: Amaranthus roxburghianus, ulcerative colitis, anti-inflammatory, ulcerative colitis

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2 In situ Ortho-Quinone Methide Reactions for Construction of Flavonoids with Fused Ring Systems

Authors: Vidia A. Nuraini, Eugene M. H. Yee, Mohan Bhadbhade, David StC. Black, Naresh Kumar


Flavonoids are naturally occurring compounds that have been shown to exhibit a wide range of biological properties including anticancer and anti-inflammatory activities. However, flavonoids suffer from low bioavailability, which limits their overall utility for therapeutic applications. One of the methods to overcome this limitation is through structural modification of natural flavonoids. In this study, flavanone, isoflavanone, and isoflavene, were structurally modified through the introduction of additional fused-ring systems via ortho-quinone methide intermediates (o-QMs). These intermediates can readily undergo a [4+2] cycloaddition through an inverse-electron-demand Diels–Alder reaction with electron-rich dienophiles. A regioselective Mannich reaction using bis-(N,N-dimethylamino)methane was employed to generate the o-QM precursors of flavanone, isoflavanone, and isoflavene. The o-QM intermediates were subsequently generated in situ through thermal elimination of the dimethylamine functionality and reacted with a variety of dienophiles to produce novel flavonoids with fused-ring systems. A total of 21 novel flavonoid analogs were successfully synthesized. The X-ray crystal structure of cycloaddition adducts, particularly those derived from 3,4-dihydro-2H-pyran and p-methoxystyrene revealed a special case of enantiomeric disorder, where two enantiomers in equal amounts superpose with one another, with the exception for atoms that have opposite configuration. The anticancer properties of fused-ring systems derived from isoflavene were evaluated against the neuroblastoma SKN-BE(2)C, the triple negative breast cancer MDA-MB-231, and the glioblastoma U87 cancer cell lines. One of these cycloaddition adducts had displayed improved anti-proliferative activity against MDA-MB-231 and U87 cancer cell lines as compared to the parent compound. Further anticancer and anti-inflammatory activities of the flavanone and isoflavanone analogs are currently being investigated.

Keywords: Diels-Alder reaction, flavonoids, Mannich reaction, ortho-quinone methide.

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1 Gas Chromatography and Mass Spectrometry in Honey Fingerprinting: The Occurrence of 3,4-dihydro-3-oxoedulan and (E)-4-(r-1',t-2',c-4'-trihydroxy-3',6',6'-trimethylcyclohexyl)-but-3-en-2-one

Authors: Igor Jerkovic


Owing to the attractive sensory properties and low odour thresholds, norisoprenoids (degraded carotenoid-like structures with 3,5,5-trimethylcyclohex-2-enoic unit) have been identified as aroma contributors in a number of different matrices. C₁₃-Norisoprenoids have been found among volatile organic compounds of various honey types as well as C₉//C₁₀-norisoprenoids or C₁₄/C₁₅-norisoprenoids. Besides degradation of abscisic acid (which produces, e.g., dehydrovomifoliol, vomifoliol, others), the cleavage of the C(9)=C(10) bond of other carotenoid precursors directly generates nonspecific C₁₃-norisoprenoids such as trans-β-damascenone, 3-hydroxy-trans-β-damascone, 3-oxo-α-ionol, 3-oxo-α-ionone, β-ionone found in various honey types. β-Damascenone and β-ionone smelling like honey, exhibit the lowest odour threshold values of all C₁₃-norisoprenoids. The presentation is targeted on two uncommon C₁₃-norisoprenoids in the honey flavor that could be used as specific or nonspecific chemical markers of the botanical origin. Namely, after screening of different honey types, the focus was directed on Centaruea cyanus L. and Allium ursinum L. honey. The samples were extracted by headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) and ultrasonic solvent extraction (USE) and the extracts were analysed by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC-MS). SPME fiber with divinylbenzene/carboxen/polydimethylsiloxane (DVB/CAR/PDMS) coating was applied for the research of C. cyanus honey headspace and predominant identified compound was 3,4-dihydro-3-oxoedulan (2,5,5,8a-tetramethyl-2,3,5,6,8,8a-hexahydro-7H-chromen-7-one also known as 2,3,5,6,8,8a-hexahydro-2,5,5,8a-tetramethyl-7H-1-benzo-pyran-7-one). The oxoedulan structure contains epoxide and it is more volatile in comparison with its hydroxylated precursors. This compound has not been found in other honey types and can be considered specific for C. cyanus honey. The dichloromethane extract of A. ursinum honey contained abundant (E)-4-(r-1',t-2',c-4'-trihydroxy-3',6',6'-trimethylcyclohexyl)-but-3-en-2-one that was previously isolated as dominant substance from the ether extracts of New Zealand thyme honey. Although a wide variety of degraded carotenoid-like substances have been identified from different honey types, this appears to be rare situation where 3,4-dihydro-3-oxoedulan and (E)-4-(r-1',t-2',c-4'-trihydroxy-3',6',6'-trimethylcyclohexyl)-but-3-en-2-one have been found that is of great importance for chemical fingerprinting and identification of the chemical biomarkers that can complement the pollen analysis as the major method for the honey classification.

Keywords: 3, 4-dihydro-3-oxoedulan, (E)-4-(r-1', t-2', c-4'-trihydroxy-3', 6', 6'-trimethylcyclohexyl)-but-3-en-2-one, honey flavour, C₁₃-norisoprenoids

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