Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 2

Search results for: A. T. Osungbade

2 Contributions of Microbial Activities to Tomato Growth and Yield under an Organic Production System

Authors: O. A. Babalola, A. F Adekunle, F. Oladeji, A. T. Osungbade, O. A. Akinlaja


Optimizing microbiological activities in an organic crop production system is crucial to the realization of optimum growth and development of the crops. Field and pot experiments were conducted to assess soil microbial activities, growth and yield of tomato varieties in response to 4 rates of composted plant and animal residues. The compost rates were 0, 5, 10 and 20 t ha-1, and improved Ibadan and Ibadan local constituted the varieties. Fungi population, microbial biomass nitrogen, cellulase and proteinase activities were significantly higher (P≤ 0.05) at the rhizosphere of the local variety than that of improved variety. This led to a significantly higher number of branches, plant height, leaf area, number of fruits and less days to maturity in the local variety. Furthermore, compost-amended soil had significantly higher microbial populations, microbial biomass N, P and C, enzyme activities, soil N, P and organic carbon than control, but amendment of 20 t ha-1 gave significantly higher values than other compost rates. Consequently, growth parameters and tissue N significantly increased in all compost treatments while dry matter yield and weight of fruits were significantly higher in soil amended with 20 t ha-1. Correlation analysis showed that microbial activities at 6 weeks after transplanting (6 WAT) were more consistently and highly correlated with growth and yield parameters. It was concluded that microbial activities could be optimized to improve the yield of the two tomato varieties in an organic production system, through the application of compost, particularly at 20 t ha-1.

Keywords: compost, microbial activities, microbial contribution, tomato growth and yield

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1 Economic Cost of Malaria: A Threat to Household Income in Nigeria

Authors: Nsikan Affiah, Kayode Osungbade, Williams Uzoma


Malaria remains one of the major killers of humans worldwide, threatening the lives of more than one-third of the world’s population. Some people refers it to; a disease of poverty because it contributes towards national poverty through its impact on foreign direct investment, tourism, labour productivity, and trade. At the micro level, it may cause poverty through spending on health care, income losses, and premature deaths. Unfortunately, malaria is a disease that affects both low-income household and its high-income counterpart, but low-income households are still at greater risk because significant part of the available monthly income is dedicated to various preventive and treatment measures. The objective of this study is to estimate direct and indirect cost of malaria treatment in households in a section of South-South Region (Akwa Ibom State) of Nigeria. A cross-sectional study of Six Hundred and Forty (640) heads of households or any adult representative of households in three local government areas of Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria from May 1-31, 2015 were ascertained through interviewer-administered questionnaire adapted from Nigerian Malaria Indicator Survey Report. The clustering technique was used to select 640 households with the help of Primary Health Care (PHC) house numbering system. Using exchange rate of 197 Naira/USD, result shows that direct cost of malaria treatment was 8,894.44 USD while the indirect cost of malaria treatment was 11,012.81 USD. Total cost of treatment made up of 44.7% direct cost and 55.3% indirect cost, with average direct cost of malaria treatment per household estimated at 20.6 USD and the average indirect cost of treatment per household estimated at 25.1 USD. Average total cost for each episode (888) of malaria was estimated at 22.4 USD. While at household level, the average total cost was estimated at 45.5 USD. From the average total cost, low-income households would spend 36% of monthly household income on treating malaria and the impact could be said to be catastrophic, compared to high-income households where only 1.2% of monthly household income is spent on malaria treatment. It could be concluded that the cost of malaria treatment is well beyond the means of households and given the reality of repeated bouts of malaria and its contribution to the impoverishment of households, there is a need for urgent action.

Keywords: direct cost, indirect cost, low income households, malaria

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