Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 11

Search results for: Varroa destructor

11 Microbial Contamination of Haemolymph of Honeybee (Apis mellifera intermissa) Parasitized by Varroa Destructor

Authors: Messaouda Belaid, Salima Kebbouche-Gana

Abstract:

The negative effect of the Varroa bee colony is very important. They cause morphological and physiological changes, causing a decrease in performance of individuals and long-term death of the colony. Indirectly, they weaken the bees become much more sensitive to the different pathogenic organisms naturally present in the colony. This work aims to research secondary infections of microbial origin occurred in the worker bee nurse due to parasitism by Varroa destructor. The feeding behaviour of Varroa may causes damaging host integument. The results show that the microbial contamination enable to be transmitted into honeybee heamocoel are Bacillus sp, Pseudomonas sp, Enterobacter, Aspergillus.

Keywords: honeybee, Apis mellifera intermissa, microbial contamination, Varroa destructor

Procedia PDF Downloads 301
10 Efficacy of Modified Bottom Boards to Control Varroa Mite (Varroa Destructor) in Honeybee Colonies

Authors: Marwan Keshlaf, Hassan Fellah

Abstract:

This study was designed to test whether hive bottom boards modified with polyvinyl chloride pipe or screen-mesh reduces number of Varroa mites in naturally infested honeybee colonies comparing to chemical control. Fifty six colonies distributed equally between two location each received one of four experimental treatment 1) conventional solid board “control”, 2) Apistan in conventional solid board, 3) Mesh bottom board and 4) tube bottom board. Varroa infestation level on both adult bees and on capped brood was estimated. Stored pollen, capped brood area and honey production were also measured. Results of varroa infestation were inconsistent between apiaries. In apiary 1, colonies with Apistan had fewer Varroa destructor than other treatments, but this benefit was not apparent in Apiary 2. There were no effects of modified bottom boards on bee flight activity, brood production, honey yield and stored pollen. We conclude that the efficacy of modified bottom boards in reducing varroa mites population in bee colonies remains uncertain due to observed differences of hygienic behavior.

Keywords: Apis mellifera, modified bottom boards, Varroa destructor, Honeybee colonies

Procedia PDF Downloads 290
9 Deformed Wing Virus and Varroa Destructor in the Local Honey Bee Colonies Apis mellifera intermissa in Algeria

Authors: Noureddine Adjlane, Nizar Haddad

Abstract:

Deformed Wing Virus (DWV) is considered as the most prevalent virus that dangerous the honeybee health worldwide today. In this study we aimed to evaluate the impact of the virus on honeybees (Apis mellifera intermissa) mortality in Algeria and we conducted the study on samples collected from the central area in the country. We used PCR for the diagnoses of the (DWV) in the diagnosis. The results had shown a high infestation in the sampled colonies and it represented 42% of the total sample. In this study, we found a clear role of both Varroa destructor mite and DWV on hive mortality in the experimented apiary. Further studies need to be conducted in order to give soled recommendations to the beekeepers, decision makers and stockholders of the Algerian beekeeping sector.

Keywords: honey bee, DWV, Varroa destructor, mortality, prevalence, infestation

Procedia PDF Downloads 366
8 Breeding for Hygienic Behavior in Honey Bees

Authors: Michael Eickermann, Juergen Junk

Abstract:

The Western honey (Apis mellifera) is threatened by a number of parasites, especially the devastating Varroa mite (Varroa destructor) is responsible for a high level of mortality over winter, e.g., in Europe and USA. While the use of synthetic pesticides or organic acids has been preferred so far to control this parasite, breeding strategies for less susceptible honey bees are in early stages. Hygienic behavior can be an important tool for controlling Varroa destructor. Worker bees with a high level of this behavior are able to detect infested brood in the cells under the wax lid during pupation and remove them out of the hive. The underlying processes of this behavior are only partly investigated, but it is for sure that hygienic behavior is heritable and therefore, can be integrated into commercial breeding lines. In a first step, breeding lines with a high level of phenotypic hygienic behavior have been identified by using a bioassay for accurate assessment of this trait in a long-term national breeding program in Luxembourg since 2015. Based on the artificial infestation of nucleus colonies with 150 phoretic Varroa destructor mites, the level of phenotypic hygienic behavior was detected by counting the number of mites in all stages, twelve days after infestation. A nucleus with a high level of hygienic behavior was overwintered and used for breeding activities in the following years. Artificial insemination was used to combine different breeding lines. Buckfast lines, as well as Carnica lines, were used. While Carnica lines offered only a low increase of hygienic behavior up to maximum 62.5%, Buckfast lines performed much better with mean levels of more than 87.5%. Some mating ends up with a level of 100%. But even with a level of 82.5% Varroa mites are not able to reproduce in the colony anymore. In a final step, a nucleus with a high level of hygienic behavior were build up to full colonies and located at two places in Luxembourg to build up a drone congregation area. Local beekeepers can bring their nucleus to this location for mating the queens with drones offering a high level of hygienic behavior.

Keywords: agiculture, artificial insemination, honey bee, varroa destructor

Procedia PDF Downloads 48
7 Analysis of Veterinary Drug Residues and Pesticide Residues in Beehive Products

Authors: Alba Luna Jimenez, Maria Dolores Hernando

Abstract:

The administration of veterinary treatments at higher doses than the recommended Varroa mite control in beehive matrices has the potential to generate residues in the honeybee colony and in the derived products for consumption. Honeybee colonies can also be indirectly exposed to residues of plant protection products when foraging in crops, wildflowers near the crops, or in urban gardens just after spraying. The study evaluates the presence of both types of residues, veterinary treatments, and pesticides in beeswax, bee bread, and honey. The study was carried out in apiaries located in agricultural zones and forest areas in Andalusia, Spain. Up to nineteen residues were identified above LOQ using gas chromatography-triple quadrupole-mass spectrometry analysis (GC-MS/MS). Samples were extracted by a modified QuEChERs method. Chlorfenvinphos was detected in beeswax and bee bread despite its use is not authorized for Varroa mite control. Residues of fluvalinate-tau, authorized as veterinary treatment, were detected in most of the samples of beeswax and bee bread, presumably due to overdose or also to its potential for accumulation associated with its marked liposolubility. Residues of plant protection products were also detected in samples of beeswax and bee bread. Pesticide residues were detected above the LOQ that was established at 5 µg.kg⁻¹, which is the minimum concentration that can be quantified with acceptable accuracy and precision, as described in the European guidelines for pesticide residue analysis SANTE/11945/2015. No residues of phytosanitary treatments used in agriculture were detected in honey.

Keywords: honeybee colony, mass spectrometry analysis, pesticide residues, Varroa destructor, veterinary treatment

Procedia PDF Downloads 67
6 Surface Morphology and Wetting Behavior of the Aspidiotus spp. Scale Covers

Authors: Meril Kate Mariano, Billy Joel Almarinez Divina Amalin, Jose Isagani Janairo

Abstract:

The scale insects Aspidiotus destructor and Aspidiotus rigidus exhibit notable scale covers made of wax which provides protection against water loss and is capable to resist wetting, thus making them a desirable model for biomimetic designs. Their waxy covers enable them to infest mainly leaves of coconut trees despite the harsh wind and rain. This study aims to describe and compare the micro morphological characters on the surfaces of their scale covers consequently, how these micro structures affect their wetting properties. Scanning electron microscope was used for the surface characterization while an optical contact angle meter was employed in the wetting measurement. The scale cover of A. destructor is composed of multiple overlapping layers of wax that is arranged regularly while that of A. rigidus is composed of a uniform layer of wax with much more prominent wax ribbons irregularly arranged compared to the former. The protrusions found on the two organisms are formed by the wax ribbons that differ in arrangement with their height being A. destructor (3.57+1.29) < A. rigidus (4.23+1.22) and their density A. destructor (15+2.94) < A. rigidus (18.33+2.64). These morphological measurements could affect the contact angle (CA θ) measurement of A. destructor (102.66+9.78°) < A. rigidus (102.77 + 11.01°) wherein the assessment that the interaction of the liquid to the microstructures of the substrate is a large factor in the wetting properties of the insect scales is realized. The calculated surface free energy of A. destructor (38.47 mJ/m²) > A. rigidus (31.02 mJ/m²) shows inverse proportionality with the CA measurement. The dispersive interaction between the surface and liquid is more prevalent compared to the polar interaction for both Aspidiotus species, which was observed using the Fowkes method. The results of this study have possible applications to be a potential biomimetic design for various industries such as textiles and coatings.

Keywords: Aspidiotus spp., biomimetics, contact angle, surface characterization, wetting behavior

Procedia PDF Downloads 46
5 Food Preference of Monomorium Destructor

Authors: Ussawit Srisakrapikoop, Art-Ong Pradatsundarasar, Duangkhae Sitthicharoenchai

Abstract:

Monomorium destructor or Singapore ant is one of the common household pests. It causes nuisance and damage to household. Due to the fact that there are many queens in one colony (polygyny), so this ant can quickly increase its population in a short time in the urban environment. This study has been conducted at Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University in the field condition. Ant food preference was conducted for 3 replicates per month by using six food choices including 20% sucrose solution, 20% sucrose agar, pork liver, smashed pork liver, pork fat and lard. The number of ants of each bait choice was counted and the orders of ant accessing baits were also recorded. The results showed that the 20% sucrose agar was the most attractive significantly following by pork liver and pork fat. The ants also most accessed to the pork liver bait choice in the first place. It can be suggested that the ant control by baiting should consist of mixture of carbohydrate, protein and lipid in solid form with suitable ratios.

Keywords: baits, food preference, monomorium destructor, Singapore ant

Procedia PDF Downloads 184
4 Ants of the Genus Trichomyrmex Mayr, 1865 (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in the Arabian Peninsula, with Description of Two New Species

Authors: Mostafa R. Sharaf, Shehzad Salman, Hathal M. Al Dhafer, Shahid A. Akbar, Abdulrahman S. Aldawood

Abstract:

The ant genus Trichomyrmex Mayr is revised for the Arabian Peninsula based on the worker caste. Nine species are recognized and descriptions of two new species, T. almosayari sp. n. and T. shakeri sp. n. from Riyadh Province, the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) are given. A key to species and diagnostic characters of the treated species are presented. New country records are presented, T. abyssinicus (Forel) for the KSA and T. destructor (Jerdon) and T. mayri (Forel) for the State of Qatar. New distribution records for T. destructor (Jerdon) and T. mayri (Forel) in the KSA are provided. Regional and world distributions, and distribution maps for the treated species are included. Ecological and biological data are given where known.

Keywords: ants, Trichomyrmex, Arabian Peninsula, T. almosayari, T. shakeri

Procedia PDF Downloads 235
3 Monitoring of Potato Rot Nematode (Ditylenchus destructor Thorne, 1945) in Southern Georgia Nematode Fauna Diversity of Rhizosphere

Authors: E. Tskitishvili, L. Jgenti, I. Eliava, T. Tskitishvili, N. Bagathuria, M. Gigolashvili

Abstract:

The nematode fauna of 20 agrocenosis (soil, tuber of potato, green parts of plant, roots) was studied in four regions in South Georgia (Akhaltsikhe, Aspindza, Akhalkalaki, Ninotsminda). In all, there were registered 173 forms of free-living and Phyto-parasitic nematodes, including 132 forms which were specified according to their species. A few exemplars of potato root nematode (Ditylenchus destructor) were identified in soil samples taken in Ninotsminda, Akhalkalaki and Aspinda stations, i.e. invasion is weak. Based on our data, potato Ditylenchus was not found in any of the researched tubers, while based on the data of previous years the most of tubers were infested. The cysts of 'golden nematodes' were not found during inspection of material for detection of Globoderosis

Keywords: ditylenchus, monitoring, nematoda, potato

Procedia PDF Downloads 262
2 Investigation of Diseases and Enemies of Bees of Breeding Apis mellifera intermissa (Buttel-Reepen, 1906)

Authors: S. Zenia, L. Bitta, O. Bouhamam, H. Brines, M. Boudriaa, F. Haddadj, F. Marniche, A. Milla, H. Saadi, A. Smai

Abstract:

The bee Apis mellifera intermissa is a major social insect, in addition to its honey production, it is a pillar of our biodiversity. Several living organisms can come into contact with it: bacteria, viruses, protozoa, fungi, mites, and insects. In Algeria, many beekeepers have reported unusual mortality of local bees, loss of foragers and significant losses of their livestock. Despite the presence of a varied honey-bearing flora and a favourable Mediterranean climate, honey production remains low. This phenomenon can be attributed to the excess winter mortality, but also to the increasing difficulties that beekeepers face in maintaining healthy bee colonies, particularly bee diseases and their transmission facilitated by trade and beekeeping practices. Our survey is based on a questionnaire composed of several parts. The results obtained show that the disease that most affects bees according to beekeepers is varroa mite with 93% followed by fungi with 26%. The most replied enemy of bees is the false ringworm with 73%, followed by the bee-eater with 63%. Our goal is to determine the causes of this low production in two areas: Bejaia and Tizi-Ouzou.

Keywords: diseases, Apis mellifera L., varroa, European foulbrood

Procedia PDF Downloads 74
1 Determination of the Effectiveness of Some Methods Used in Greater Wax Moth (Galleria mellonella L.) in Honeycombs

Authors: Neslihan Ozsoy Taskiran, Miray Dayioglu, Belgin Gunbey, Banu Yucel, Cigdem Takma, Unal Karik, Tugce Olgun, Levent Aydin

Abstract:

A greater wax moth (Galleria mellonella L.), which is one of the most important pests after Varroa, plays a role in the transportation of many pathogens into the hive as well as damage to the honeycombs, and beekeepers suffer economically. Due to the risk that some of the methods against this pest may cause residue in bee products, and it can be harmful to the health of people who consume these products. Therefore, the most appropriate, most economical, and effective method should be applied in the moth control. For this purpose, in the first phase of the project (2017-2018), planned to be 2-stage in the Aegean Agricultural Research Institute in 2017-2020, the honeycombs, certified with good agricultural practice, were kept in a favorable condition for moths. Later, applications (Sulfur - B401 - Walnut (Leaf & Smoker) - lavender essential oil (1cc & 2cc & 3cc & 4cc) - laurel essential oil (1cc & 2cc & 3cc & 4cc) - control) were applied to the honeycombs with moths. In 2017, the B401 group had the highest wax moth damage area, and the group with the lowest wax moth damage area was determined as lavender 1cc; In 2018, the highest wax moth damage area was found in the walnut smoker group, while the lowest wax moth damage area was found in sulfur, walnut leaves, laurel 1cc - 2cc - 4cc, lavender 1cc - 2cc - 3cc - 4cc and control groups. In addition, sulfur residue amount (mean 128,18 mg/kg) in honeycomb was measured in the sulfur-treated group. Phase 1 of the project was completed, and the most important sub-groups among walnut (leaf) - lavender (1cc) and laurel (4cc) groups were identified. Accordingly, it is planned to carry out these treatments ((sulfur - B401 - walnut (leaf) - lavender (1cc) and laurel (4cc)) on honeycombs with do not contain moths, and later, it is planned to examine the effects of the treatment on the offspring area and honey yield by giving these honeycombs to the hives, in the 2nd stage of the project (2019-2020).

Keywords: honey bee, lavender essential oil, laurel essential oil, walnut, wax moth

Procedia PDF Downloads 50