Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 53

Search results for: Apis mellifera intermissa

53 Microbial Contamination of Haemolymph of Honeybee (Apis mellifera intermissa) Parasitized by Varroa Destructor

Authors: Messaouda Belaid, Salima Kebbouche-Gana

Abstract:

The negative effect of the Varroa bee colony is very important. They cause morphological and physiological changes, causing a decrease in performance of individuals and long-term death of the colony. Indirectly, they weaken the bees become much more sensitive to the different pathogenic organisms naturally present in the colony. This work aims to research secondary infections of microbial origin occurred in the worker bee nurse due to parasitism by Varroa destructor. The feeding behaviour of Varroa may causes damaging host integument. The results show that the microbial contamination enable to be transmitted into honeybee heamocoel are Bacillus sp, Pseudomonas sp, Enterobacter, Aspergillus.

Keywords: honeybee, Apis mellifera intermissa, microbial contamination, Varroa destructor

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52 Investigation of Diseases and Enemies of Bees of Breeding Apis mellifera intermissa (Buttel-Reepen, 1906)

Authors: S. Zenia, L. Bitta, O. Bouhamam, H. Brines, M. Boudriaa, F. Haddadj, F. Marniche, A. Milla, H. Saadi, A. Smai

Abstract:

The bee Apis mellifera intermissa is a major social insect, in addition to its honey production, it is a pillar of our biodiversity. Several living organisms can come into contact with it: bacteria, viruses, protozoa, fungi, mites, and insects. In Algeria, many beekeepers have reported unusual mortality of local bees, loss of foragers and significant losses of their livestock. Despite the presence of a varied honey-bearing flora and a favourable Mediterranean climate, honey production remains low. This phenomenon can be attributed to the excess winter mortality, but also to the increasing difficulties that beekeepers face in maintaining healthy bee colonies, particularly bee diseases and their transmission facilitated by trade and beekeeping practices. Our survey is based on a questionnaire composed of several parts. The results obtained show that the disease that most affects bees according to beekeepers is varroa mite with 93% followed by fungi with 26%. The most replied enemy of bees is the false ringworm with 73%, followed by the bee-eater with 63%. Our goal is to determine the causes of this low production in two areas: Bejaia and Tizi-Ouzou.

Keywords: diseases, Apis mellifera L., varroa, European foulbrood

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51 Deformed Wing Virus and Varroa Destructor in the Local Honey Bee Colonies Apis mellifera intermissa in Algeria

Authors: Noureddine Adjlane, Nizar Haddad

Abstract:

Deformed Wing Virus (DWV) is considered as the most prevalent virus that dangerous the honeybee health worldwide today. In this study we aimed to evaluate the impact of the virus on honeybees (Apis mellifera intermissa) mortality in Algeria and we conducted the study on samples collected from the central area in the country. We used PCR for the diagnoses of the (DWV) in the diagnosis. The results had shown a high infestation in the sampled colonies and it represented 42% of the total sample. In this study, we found a clear role of both Varroa destructor mite and DWV on hive mortality in the experimented apiary. Further studies need to be conducted in order to give soled recommendations to the beekeepers, decision makers and stockholders of the Algerian beekeeping sector.

Keywords: honey bee, DWV, Varroa destructor, mortality, prevalence, infestation

Procedia PDF Downloads 372
50 Entomological Origin of Honey Discriminated by NMR Chloroform Extracts in Ecuadorian Honey

Authors: P. Vit, J. Uddin, V. Zuccato, F. Maza, E. Schievano

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In Ecuador honeys are produced by Apis mellifera and stingless bees (Meliponini). We studied honey produced in beeswax combs by Apis mellifera, and honey produced in pots by Geotrigona and Scaptotrigona bees. Chloroform extracts of honey were obtained for fast NMR spectra. The 1D spectra were acquired at 298 K, with a 600 MHz NMR Bruker instrument, using a modified double pulsed field gradient spin echoes (DPFGSE) sequence. Signals of 1H NMR spectra were integrated and used as inputs for PCA, PLS-DA analysis, and labelled sets of classes were successfully identified, enhancing the separation between the three groups of honey according to the entomological origin: A. mellifera, Geotrigona and Scaptotrigona. This procedure is therefore recommended for authenticity test of honey in Ecuador.

Keywords: Apis mellifera, honey, 1H NMR, entomological origin, meliponini

Procedia PDF Downloads 326
49 Effect of Pollination on Qualitative Characters of Rapeseed (Brassica campestris l. Var. Toria) Seed in Chitwan, Nepal

Authors: Rameshwor Pudasaini

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An experiment was conducted to study the effect of pollination quality of rapeseed seed in Chitwan during 2012-2013. The experiment was designed in Randomized Complete Block with four replications and five pollination treatments. The rapeseed plots were caged with mosquito nets at 10% flowering except natural pollination. Two-framed colonies of Apis mellifera L. and Apis cerana F. were introduced separately for pollination, and control plot caged without pollinators. The highest germination percent was observed on Apis cerana F. pollinated plot seeds (90.50% germination) and lowest on control plots (42.00% germination) seeds. Similarly, seed test weight of Apis cerana F. pollinated plots (3.22 gm/ 1000 seed) and Apis mellifera L. pollinated plots (2.93 gm/1000 seed) were and control plots (2.26 gm/ 1000 seed) recorded respectively. However, oil content was recorded highest on pollinated by Apis cerana F. (36.1 %) and lowest on control plots (32.8%). This study clearly indicated pollination increases the seed quality of rapeseed and therefore, management of honeybee is necessary for higher quality of rapeseed under Chitwan condition.

Keywords: apis cerana, apis mellifera, rapeseed pollination, rapeseed quality

Procedia PDF Downloads 254
48 Functional Expression and Characterization of a Novel Indigenous Endo-Beta 1,4- Glucanase from Apis mellifera

Authors: Amtul Jamil Sami

Abstract:

Apis mellifera is an insect of immense economic importance lives on rich carbohydrate diet including cellulose, nectar, honey and pollen. The carbohydrate metabolism in A mellifera has not been understood fully, as there are no data available, on the functional expression of cellulase gene. The cellulose hydrolyzing enzyme is required for the digestion of pollen cellulose wall, to release the important nutrients (amino acids, minerals, vitamins etc.) from the pollen. A dissection of Apis genome had revealed that there is one gene present for the expression of endo-beta-1,4-glucanase, for cellulose hydrolysis. In the presented work, functional expression of endo-beta-1,4 glucanase gene is reported. Total soluble proteins of the honey bee were isolated and were tested cellulose hydrolyzing enzyme activity, using carboxy-methyl cellulose, as a substrate. A mellifera proteins were able to hydrolyze carboxy-methyl cellulose, confirming its endo- type mode of action. Endo beta-1,4 glucanase enzyme was only present in the gut tissues, no activity was detected in the salivary glands. The pH optima of the enzyme were in the acidic pH range of 4-5-5-0, indicating its metabolic role in the acidic stomach of A mellifera. The reported enzyme is unique, as endo-beta- 1,4 glucanase was able to generate non reducing sugar, as an end product. The results presented, are supportive to the information that the honey bee is capable of producing its novel endo-beta-1,4 glucanase. Further it could be helpful, in understanding, the carbohydrate metabolism in A mellifera.

Keywords: honey bees, Endo-beta 1, 4- glucanase, Apis mellifera, functional expression

Procedia PDF Downloads 333
47 Value Chain Identification of Beekeeping Business in Indonesia: Case Study of Four Beekeeping Business in West Java

Authors: Dwi Purnomo, Anas Bunyamin, Fajar Susilo, Akbar Anugrah

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Beekeeping became a rural economic buffer, especially for people who lived by forest side to diversify their food or sell the honey and bee colony. Aside from the high price of honey and it’s derivative products, there is another revenue stream along beekeeping value chain that could be optimized by the people. There are five of nine honey bee species in the world, exist in Indonesia, such as Apis Cerana, Apis Dorsata, Apis Andreniformis, Apis Koschevnikovi, and Apis Nigrocincta. Indonesian farmer generally developed Apis Cerana and two other honey bees species, like Apis Mellifera and Trigona. This study tried to identify, how beekeeping business practices, challenges and opportunities in four beekeeping business in West Java through the value chain along the business. Data carried out by literature review, interview and focus group discussion with key actors in beekeeping business. There are six revenue stream in beekeeping business in West Java, such as brood hunter, beehives maker, agroforestry, agro-tourism, honey and derivatives products and bee acupuncture. This assesses conclude any criteria that should grasp for developing and sustaining beekeeping business in West Java.

Keywords: beekeeping business, business developing, value chain, West Java

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46 Mitochondrial Energy Utilization is Unchanged with Age in the Trophocytes and Oenocytes of Queen Honeybees (Apis mellifera)

Authors: Chia-Ying Yen, Chin-Yuan Hsu

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The lifespans of queen honeybees (Apis mellifera) are much longer than those of worker bees. The expression, concentration, and activity of mitochondrial energy-utilized molecules decreased with age in the trophocytes and oenocytes of worker bees, but they are unknown in queen bees. In this study, the expression, concentration, and activity of mitochondrial energy-utilized molecules were evaluated in the trophocytes and oenocytes of young and old queen bees by biochemical techniques. The results showed that mitochondrial density and mitochondrial membrane potential; nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+), nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide reduced form (NADH), and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) levels; the NAD+/NADH ratio; and relative expression of NADH dehydrogenase 1 and ATP synthase normalized against mitochondrial density were not significantly different between young and old queen bees. These findings reveal that mitochondrial energy utilization maintains a young status in the trophocytes and oenocytes of old queen bees and that trophocytes and oenocytes have aging-delaying mechanisms and can be used to study cellular longevity.

Keywords: aging, longevity, mitochondrial energy, queen bees

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45 Effect of Varying Diets on Growth, Development and Survival of Queen Bee (Apis mellifera L.) in Captivity

Authors: Muhammad Anjum Aqueel, Zaighum Abbas, Mubasshir Sohail, Muhammad Abubakar, Hafiz Khurram Shurjeel, Abu Bakar Muhammad Raza, Muhammad Afzal, Sami Ullah

Abstract:

Keeping in view the increasing demand, queen of Apis mellifera L. (Hymenoptera: Apidae) was reared artificially in this experiment at varying diets including royal jelly. Larval duration, pupal duration, weight, and size of pupae were evaluated at different diets including royal jelly. Queen larvae were raised by Doo Little grafting method. Four different diets were mixed with royal jelly and applied to larvae. Fructose, sugar, yeast, and honey were provided to rearing queen larvae along with same amount of royal jelly. Larval and pupal duration were longest (6.15 and 7.5 days, respectively) at yeast and shortest on honey (5.05 and 7.02 days, respectively). Heavier and bigger pupae were recorded on yeast (168.14 mg and 1.76 cm, respectively) followed by diets having sugar and honey. Due to production of heavier and bigger pupae, yeast was considered as best artificial diet for the growing queen larvae. So, in the second part of experiment, different amounts of yeast were provided to growing larvae along with fixed amount (0.5 g) of royal jelly. Survival rates of the larvae and queen bee were 70% and 40% in the 4-g food, 86.7% and 53.3% in the 6-g food, and 76.7% and 50% in the 8-g food. Weight of adult queen bee (1.459±0.191 g) and the number of ovarioles (41.7±21.3) were highest at 8 g of food. Results of this study are helpful for bee-keepers in producing fitter queen bees.

Keywords: apis melifera l, dietary effect, survival and development, honey bee queen

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44 Pollination Effectiveness of Native Bee Species in Quality Seed Production of Berseem

Authors: Awais Ahmad, Mudssar Ali

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Berseem is the major fodder crop grown in Pakistan and is highly preferred by cattle farmers due to its multicut nature and nutritious value. The quality seed production in berseem is largely dependent upon the activities of insect pollinators, particularly bees. In order to determine the effectiveness of native bee species in quality seed production of berseem, an experiment was conducted in the research field of MNS-University of Agriculture, Multan, Pakistan. The pollinator community of berseem was composed of four bees, three syrphid fly, and two butterfly species. Pesudapis sp. was the most abundant insect visitor, followed by Apis mellifera and A. dorsata. The visitation rate of A. mellifera was found highest, followed by Pesudapis sp. and A. dorsata. Moreover, single-visit efficacy in terms of seed per head and 1000 seed weight proved A. mellifera and Pesudapis sp as the most effective pollinators. Conserving these bee species may lead to sustainable berseem seed production in Pakistan.

Keywords: honey bees, syrphid fly, visitation rate, single visit

Procedia PDF Downloads 58
43 Cellular Energy Metabolism Decreases with Age in the Trophocytes and Oenocytes of Honeybees (Apis Mellifera)

Authors: Chin-Yuan Hsu, Yu-Lung Chuang

Abstract:

The expression, concentration, and activity of mitochondrial energy-utilized molecules and cellular energy-regulated molecules decreased with age in the trophocytes and oenocytes of honeybees (Apis mellifera), but those of cellular energy-metabolized molecules is unknown. In this study, the expression, concentration, and activity of cellular energy-metabolized molecules were assayed in the trophocytes and fat cells of young and old worker bees by using the techniques of cell and biochemistry. The results showed that (i) the •-hydroxylacyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase (HOAD) activity/citrate synthase (CS) activity ratio, non-esterified fatty acids concentrations, the expression of eukaryotic initiation factor 4E, and the expression of phosphorylated eIF4E binding protein 1 decreased with age; (ii) fat and glycogen accumulation increased with age; and (iii) the pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) activity/citrate synthase (CS) activity ratio was not correlated with age. These finding indicated that •-oxidation (HOAD/CS) and protein synthsis decreased with age. Glycolysis (PDH/CS) was unchanged with age. The most likely reason is that sugars are the vital food of worker bees. Taken together these data reveal that young workers have higher cellular energy metabolism than old workers and that aging results in a decline in the cellular energy metabolism in worker honeybees.

Keywords: aging, energy, honeybee, metabolism

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42 Development of Two Phage Therapy-Based Strategies for the Treatment of American Foulbrood Disease Affecting Apis Mellifera capensis

Authors: Ridwaan N. Milase, Leonardo J. Van Zyl, Marla Trindade

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American foulbrood (AFB) is the world’s most devastating honeybee disease that has drastically reduced the population of Apis mellifera capensis since 2009. The outbreak has jeopardized the South African bee keeping industry as well as the agricultural sector dependent on honeybees for honey production and pollination, leading to significant economic losses. AFB is caused by Paenibacillus larvae, a spore-forming, Gram positive facultative anaerobic and flagellated bacterium. The use of antibiotics within beehives has selected for resistant strains of P. larvae, while the current practice of burning spore contaminated beehives and equipment contributes to the economic losses in the honeybee-keeping industry. Therefore, phage therapy is proposed as a promising alternative to combat P. larvae strains affecting A. mellifera capensis. The genomes of two P. larvae strains isolated from infected combs in the Western Cape have been sequenced and annotated using bioinformatics tools. Genome analyses has revealed that these P. larvae strains are lysogens to more than 6 different prophages and possess different type of clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPRs) regions per strain. Active prophages from one of the two P. larvae strains were detected and identified using PCR. Electron microscopy was used to determine the family of the identified active prophages. Lytic bacteriophages that specifically target the two P. larvae strains were purified from sewage wastewater, beehive materials, and soil samples to investigate their potential development as anti-P. larvae agents. Another alternative treatment being investigated is the development of a prophage endolysin cocktail. Endolysin genes of the prophages have been targeted, cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. The heterologously expressed endolysins have been purified and are currently being assessed for their lytic activity against P. larvae strains and other commensal microorganisms that compose the honeybee larvae microbiota. The study has shown that phage therapy and endolysins have a great potential as alternative control methods for AFB disease affecting A. mellifera capensis.

Keywords: American foulbrood, bacteriophage, honeybee, Paenibacillus larvae

Procedia PDF Downloads 113
41 Developing API Economy: Associating Value to APIs and Microservices in an Enterprise

Authors: Mujahid Sultan

Abstract:

The IT industry has seen many transformations in the Software Development Life Cycle (SDLC) methodologies and development approaches. SDLCs range from waterfall to agile, and the development approaches from monolith to microservices. Management, orchestration, and monetization of microservices have created an API economy in the modern enterprise. There are two approaches to API design, code first and design first. Design first is gaining popularity in the industry as this allows capturing the API needs from the stakeholders rather than the development teams guesstimating the needs and associating a monetary value with the APIs and microservices. In this publication, we describe an approach to organizing and creating stakeholder needs and requirements for designing microservices and APIs.

Keywords: requirements engineering, enterprise architecture, APIs, microservices, DevOps, continuous delivery, continuous integration, stakeholder viewpoints

Procedia PDF Downloads 79
40 Eco-Ethology of Bees Visitors on Vicia faba L. var. Major (Fabaceae) in Algeria

Authors: L. Bendifallah, S. Doumandji, K. Louadi, S. Iserbyt, F. Acheuk

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Due to their ecological key position and diversity, plant-bee relationships constitute excellent models to understand the processes of food specialisation. The purpose of this study is to define and identify the most important species of bees foraging broadbean flowers, we estimated morphological, phonological and behavioural features. We discuss the results by considering the food specialisation level of the visitor. In the studied populations (Algiers, Algeria), visiting bees belong to four different genus: Apis, Andrena, Eucera and Xylocopa. Eucera is foraging broad beans flowers during months of April, May. The genus Andrena and Xylocopa were found on weeds after the flowering period of beans. The two species have not a preferred type of vegetation compared to Eucera. The main pollinators were generalist bees such as Apis mellifera L. and Xylocopa pubescens Spinola (Apidae), and specialist bees such Eucera numida Lep. (Apidae). The results show that no one of the studied species, neither the specialist, nor the generalist ones, share adaptative morphological or behavioural features that may improve foraging on Vicia faba. However, there is a narrow synchronisation between the daily and yearly phenologies of Eucera numida and those of V. faba. This could be an adaptation of the specialist bee to its host plant. Thus, the food specialisation of Eucera numida, as for most specialist bees, would be more linked to its adapted phenology than to an adapted morphology.

Keywords: Vicia faba, bees, pollinators, Algeria

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39 In vitro Synergistic Antioxidant Activity of Honey-Mentha Spicata Combination

Authors: Yuva Bellik, Selles Mohamed Amar

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The beneficial health effects including antioxidant properties of mint (Mentha spicata) and honey bees (Apis mellifera) have been extensively studied. However, there is no data about the effects of their associated use. In this study the total phenolic and flavonoid contents for individual extracts of mint and honey and their combination were determined. The antioxidant activity was investigated by using reducing power, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2´- azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid diamonium salt (ABTS), and chelating power methods. The results showed that individual extracts contained important quantity of phenolics and flavonoids and their combination was found to produce best antioxidant activity. A significant linear correlation between the phenolic/flavonoid contents and antioxidant activity, especially with reducing power and free radical scavenging abilities, was observed.

Keywords: honey, mint, synergy, antioxidant activity

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38 DLtrace: Toward Understanding and Testing Deep Learning Information Flow in Deep Learning-Based Android Apps

Authors: Jie Zhang, Qianyu Guo, Tieyi Zhang, Zhiyong Feng, Xiaohong Li

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With the widespread popularity of mobile devices and the development of artificial intelligence (AI), deep learning (DL) has been extensively applied in Android apps. Compared with traditional Android apps (traditional apps), deep learning based Android apps (DL-based apps) need to use more third-party application programming interfaces (APIs) to complete complex DL inference tasks. However, existing methods (e.g., FlowDroid) for detecting sensitive information leakage in Android apps cannot be directly used to detect DL-based apps as they are difficult to detect third-party APIs. To solve this problem, we design DLtrace; a new static information flow analysis tool that can effectively recognize third-party APIs. With our proposed trace and detection algorithms, DLtrace can also efficiently detect privacy leaks caused by sensitive APIs in DL-based apps. Moreover, using DLtrace, we summarize the non-sequential characteristics of DL inference tasks in DL-based apps and the specific functionalities provided by DL models for such apps. We propose two formal definitions to deal with the common polymorphism and anonymous inner-class problems in the Android static analyzer. We conducted an empirical assessment with DLtrace on 208 popular DL-based apps in the wild and found that 26.0% of the apps suffered from sensitive information leakage. Furthermore, DLtrace has a more robust performance than FlowDroid in detecting and identifying third-party APIs. The experimental results demonstrate that DLtrace expands FlowDroid in understanding DL-based apps and detecting security issues therein.

Keywords: mobile computing, deep learning apps, sensitive information, static analysis

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37 Detection of Nutrients Using Honeybee-Mimic Bioelectronic Tongue Systems

Authors: Soo Ho Lim, Minju Lee, Dong In Kim, Gi Youn Han, Seunghun Hong, Hyung Wook Kwon

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We report a floating electrode-based bioelectronic tongue mimicking honeybee taste systems for the detection and discrimination of various nutrients. Here, carbon nanotube field effect transistors with floating electrodes (CNT-FET) were hybridized with nanovesicles containing honeybee nutrient receptors, gustatory receptors of Apis mellifera. This strategy enables us to detect nutrient substance with a high sensitivity and selectivity. It could also be utilized for the detection of nutrients in liquid food. This floating electrode-based bioelectronic tongue mimicking insect taste systems can be a simple, but highly effective strategy in many different basic research areas about sensory systems. Moreover, our research provides opportunities to develop various applications such as food screening, and it also can provide valuable insights on insect taste systems.

Keywords: taste system, CNT-FET, insect gustatory receptor, biolelectronic tongue

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36 A Risk Assessment for the Small Hive Beetle Based on Meteorological Standard Measurements

Authors: J. Junk, M. Eickermann

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The Small Hive Beetle, Aethina tumida (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae) is a parasite for honey bee colonies, Apis mellifera, and was recently introduced to the European continent, accidentally. Based on the literature, a model was developed by using regional meteorological variables (daily values of minimum, maximum and mean air temperature as well as mean soil temperature at 50 mm depth) to calculate the time-point of hive invasion by A. tumida in springtime, the development duration of pupae as well as the number of generations of A. tumida per year. Luxembourg was used as a test region for our model for 2005 to 2013. The model output indicates a successful surviving of the Small Hive Beetle in Luxembourg with two up to three generations per year. Additionally, based on our meteorological data sets a first migration of SHB to apiaries can be expected from mid of March up to April. Our approach can be transferred easily to other countries to estimate the risk potential for a successful introduction and spreading of A. tumida in Western Europe.

Keywords: Aethina tumida, air temperature, larval development, soil temperature

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35 Identifying Apis millefera Strains in Akkar District (North Lebanon) Using Mitochondrial DNA: A Step in Preserving the Local Strain A. m. Syriaca

Authors: Zeina Nasr, Bashar Merheb

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The honey bee is a social insect that had driven the human interest much more than any other organism. Beekeeping practices dated the appearance of Man on earth and now it provides a hobby or a secondary work that contributes to the family revenue and requires a little time engagement and money investment. Honey production is not the only contribution of honey bees to the economy, since honey bees play an important role in the pollination. Bee keeping in Lebanon is an important part of the agricultural economy. However, a growing concern about bees is spreading globally, due to an accelerated decline of bees colonies. This raises the alert to preserve and protect local bee strains against uncontrolled introduction of foreign strains and invasive parasitic species. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) markers are commonly used in studying genetic variation in the Apis mellifera species. The DraI-COI-COII test is based on the analysis of the intergenic region between the two genes COI and COII. The different honey bee strains differ in the presence or absence of the p sequence and the number of Q sequences present. A. m. syriaca belonging to the lineage Z, is the native honey bee subspecies in Lebanon, Syria, Jordan, and Palestine. A. m. syriaca is known for its high defensiveness, even though it has many important advantages. However, commercial breeder strains, such as the Italian (A. m. ligustica), and Carniolan (A. m. carnica) strains, have been introduced by beekeepers and regularly used for honey production. This raises worries about the disappearance of the local subspecies. It is obvious that identifying A. m. syriaca colonies and protecting them against uncontrolled mating with other bee strains is a crucial step to protect and improve the original local strain. This study aims to reveal the existing sub-species of honey bee in Akkar – Lebanon and to assess the influence of introgression on the hybridization of the local strain. This will help to identify areas of pure A.m. syriaca population over this district to be considered in choosing syriaca reserves. We collected samples of bees from different regions of Akkar district in order to perform mtDNA analysis. We determined the restriction fragments length of the intergenic region COI-COII, using the restriction enzyme DraI. The results showed both the C and the Z lineages. Four restriction patterns were identified among the restriction maps of the studied samples. The most abundant mitochondrial lineage is the Z lineage constituting about 60% of the identified samples. Al-Dreib region reported the lowest introgression with foreign mtDNA of 21% making it the most suitable area for a genetic reserve of syriaca in Akkar based on its lowest introgression and suitable environment in addition to the attitude of local beekeepers to conserve the local strain. Finally, this study is the first step in constructing conservation programs for the preservation of the local strain and should be generalized to the whole Lebanese population, consistent with the effort done in neighboring countries.

Keywords: Akkar Lebanon, Apis millefera syriaca, DraI-COI-COII test, mitochondrial DNA

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34 Efficacy of Modified Bottom Boards to Control Varroa Mite (Varroa Destructor) in Honeybee Colonies

Authors: Marwan Keshlaf, Hassan Fellah

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This study was designed to test whether hive bottom boards modified with polyvinyl chloride pipe or screen-mesh reduces number of Varroa mites in naturally infested honeybee colonies comparing to chemical control. Fifty six colonies distributed equally between two location each received one of four experimental treatment 1) conventional solid board “control”, 2) Apistan in conventional solid board, 3) Mesh bottom board and 4) tube bottom board. Varroa infestation level on both adult bees and on capped brood was estimated. Stored pollen, capped brood area and honey production were also measured. Results of varroa infestation were inconsistent between apiaries. In apiary 1, colonies with Apistan had fewer Varroa destructor than other treatments, but this benefit was not apparent in Apiary 2. There were no effects of modified bottom boards on bee flight activity, brood production, honey yield and stored pollen. We conclude that the efficacy of modified bottom boards in reducing varroa mites population in bee colonies remains uncertain due to observed differences of hygienic behavior.

Keywords: Apis mellifera, modified bottom boards, Varroa destructor, Honeybee colonies

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33 Detection and Quantification of Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients as Adulterants in Garcinia cambogia Slimming Preparations Using NIR Spectroscopy Combined with Chemometrics

Authors: Dina Ahmed Selim, Eman Shawky Anwar, Rasha Mohamed Abu El-Khair

Abstract:

A rapid, simple and efficient method with minimal sample treatment was developed for authentication of Garcinia cambogia fruit peel powder, along with determining undeclared active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) in its herbal slimming dietary supplements using near infrared spectroscopy combined with chemometrics. Five featured adulterants, including sibutramine, metformin, orlistat, ephedrine, and theophylline are selected as target compounds. The Near infrared spectral data matrix of authentic Garcinia cambogia fruit peel and specimens degraded by intentional contamination with the five selected APIs was subjected to hierarchical clustering analysis to investigate their bundling figure. SIMCA models were established to ensure the genuiness of Garcinia cambogia fruit peel which resulted in perfect classification of all tested specimens. Adulterated samples were utilized for construction of PLSR models based on different APIs contents at minute levels of fraud practices (LOQ < 0.2% w/w).The suggested approach can be applied to enhance and guarantee the safety and quality of Garcinia fruit peel powder as raw material and in dietary supplements.

Keywords: Garcinia cambogia, Quality control, NIR spectroscopy, Chemometrics

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32 Authenticity of Ecuadorian Commercial Honeys

Authors: Elisabetta Schievano, Valentina Zuccato, Claudia Finotello, Patricia Vit

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Control of honey frauds is needed in Ecuador to protect bee keepers and consumers because simple syrups and new syrups with eucalyptus are sold as genuine honeys. Authenticity of Ecuadorian commercial honeys was tested with a vortex emulsion consisting on one volume of honey:water (1:1) dilution, and two volumes of diethyl ether. This method allows a separation of phases in one minute to discriminate genuine honeys that form three phase and fake honeys that form two phases; 34 of the 42 honeys analyzed from five provinces of Ecuador were genuine. This was confirmed with 1H NMR spectra of honey dilutions in deuterated water with an enhanced aminoacid region with signals for proline, phenylalanine and tyrosine. Classic quality indicators were also tested with this method (sugars, HMF), indicators of fermentation (ethanol, acetic acid), and residues of citric acid used in the syrup manufacture. One of the honeys gave a false positive for genuine, being an admixture of genuine honey with added syrup, evident for the high sucrose. Sensory analysis was the final confirmation to recognize the honey groups studied here, namely honey produced in combs by Apis mellifera, fake honey, and honey produced in cerumen pots by Geotrigona, Melipona, and Scaptotrigona. This is a valuable contribution to protect honey consumers, and to develop the beekeeping industry in Ecuador.

Keywords: fake, genuine, honey, 1H NMR, Ecuador

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31 Level of Sociality and Sting Autotomy

Authors: V. V. Belavadi, Syed Najeer E. Noor Khadri, Shivamurthy Naik

Abstract:

Members of aculeate Hymenoptera exhibit different levels of sociality. While Chrysidoidea are primarily parasitic and use their sting only for the purpose parasitizing the host and never for defense, all vespoid and apoid (sphecid) wasps use their sting for paralysing their prey as well as for defending themselves from predators and intruders. Though most apoid bees use their sting for defending themselves, a few bees (Apis spp.) use their sting exclusively for defending their colonies and the brood. A preliminary study conducted on the comparative morphology of stings of apoid bees and wasps and that of vespid wasps, indicated that the backward projected barbs are more pronounced only in the genus Apis, which is considered as the reason why a honey bee worker, loses its sting and dies when it stings a higher animal. This raises an important question: How barbs on lancets of Apis bees evolved? Supposing the barbs had not been strong, the worker bee would have been more efficient in defending the colony instead of only once in its lifetime! Some arguments in favour of worker altruistic behaviour, mention that in highly social insects, the colony size is large, workers are closely related among themselves and a worker sacrificing its life for the colony is beneficial for the colony. However, in colonies with a queen that has mated multiple times, the coefficient of relatedness among workers gets reduced and still the workers continue to exhibit the same behaviour. In this paper, we have tried to compare the morphology of stings of aculeate Hymenoptera and have attempted to relate sting morphology with social behaviour. Species examined for sting morphology are A. cerana, Apis dorsata, A. florea, Amegilla violacea, A. zonata, Megachile anthracina, M. Disjuncta, Liris aurulentus, Tachysphex bengalensis. Our studies indicate that occurrence of barbs on lancets correlates with the degree of sociality and sting autotomy is more pronounced in swarm-founding species than in haplometrotic species. The number of barbs on the lancets varied from 0 to 11. Additionally SEM images also revealed interesting characters of barbs.

Keywords: altruistic, barbs, sociality, sting autotomy

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30 The Influence of Environmental Factors on Honey Bee Activities: A Quantitative Analysis

Authors: Hung-Jen Lin, Chien-Hao Wang, Chien-Peng Huang, Yu-Sheng Tseng, En-Cheng Yang, Joe-Air Jiang

Abstract:

Bees’ incoming and outgoing behavior is a decisive index which can indicate the health condition of a colony. Traditional methods for monitoring the behavior of honey bees (Apis mellifera) take too much time and are highly labor-intensive, and the lack of automation and synchronization disables researchers and beekeepers from obtaining real-time information of beehives. To solve these problems, this study proposes to use an Internet of Things (IoT)-based system for counting honey bees’ incoming and outgoing activities using an infrared interruption technique, while environmental factors are recorded simultaneously. The accuracy of the established system is verified by comparing the counting results with the outcomes of manual counting. Moreover, this highly -accurate device is appropriate for providing quantitative information regarding honey bees’ incoming and outgoing behavior. Different statistical analysis methods, including one-way ANOVA and two-way ANOVA, are used to investigate the influence of environmental factors, such as temperature, humidity, illumination and ambient pressure, on bees’ incoming and outgoing behavior. With the real-time data, a standard model is established using the outcomes from analyzing the relationship between environmental factors and bees’ incoming and outgoing behavior. In the future, smart control systems, such as a temperature control system, can also be combined with the proposed system to create an appropriate colony environment. It is expected that the proposed system will make a considerable contribution to the apiculture and researchers.

Keywords: ANOVA, environmental factors, honey bee, incoming and outgoing behavior

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29 Breeding for Hygienic Behavior in Honey Bees

Authors: Michael Eickermann, Juergen Junk

Abstract:

The Western honey (Apis mellifera) is threatened by a number of parasites, especially the devastating Varroa mite (Varroa destructor) is responsible for a high level of mortality over winter, e.g., in Europe and USA. While the use of synthetic pesticides or organic acids has been preferred so far to control this parasite, breeding strategies for less susceptible honey bees are in early stages. Hygienic behavior can be an important tool for controlling Varroa destructor. Worker bees with a high level of this behavior are able to detect infested brood in the cells under the wax lid during pupation and remove them out of the hive. The underlying processes of this behavior are only partly investigated, but it is for sure that hygienic behavior is heritable and therefore, can be integrated into commercial breeding lines. In a first step, breeding lines with a high level of phenotypic hygienic behavior have been identified by using a bioassay for accurate assessment of this trait in a long-term national breeding program in Luxembourg since 2015. Based on the artificial infestation of nucleus colonies with 150 phoretic Varroa destructor mites, the level of phenotypic hygienic behavior was detected by counting the number of mites in all stages, twelve days after infestation. A nucleus with a high level of hygienic behavior was overwintered and used for breeding activities in the following years. Artificial insemination was used to combine different breeding lines. Buckfast lines, as well as Carnica lines, were used. While Carnica lines offered only a low increase of hygienic behavior up to maximum 62.5%, Buckfast lines performed much better with mean levels of more than 87.5%. Some mating ends up with a level of 100%. But even with a level of 82.5% Varroa mites are not able to reproduce in the colony anymore. In a final step, a nucleus with a high level of hygienic behavior were build up to full colonies and located at two places in Luxembourg to build up a drone congregation area. Local beekeepers can bring their nucleus to this location for mating the queens with drones offering a high level of hygienic behavior.

Keywords: agiculture, artificial insemination, honey bee, varroa destructor

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28 S. S. L. Andrade, E. A. Souza, L. C. L. Santos, C. Moraes, A. K. C. L. Lobato

Authors: Fazal Said, Mian Inayatullah

Abstract:

Various insect visitors in common and honeybees in particular are considered to be accountable for 80-85% of pollination services for numerous crops worldwide. Pollinators not only increase crop yield but also improve quality of produce as well. The present investigation is therefore, an endeavor to assess the visitation pattern of honeybees, Apis florea (Hymenopterae: Apidae) in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.). The current research trial was carried out at New Developmental Farm (NDF), The University of Agriculture Peshawar, (34.01° N, 71.53° E) Khyber Pakhtunkhwa-Pakistan during 2012 and 2013. Different observations on the foraging behavior of A. florea’s individuals were made from 0800 hr in the morning and continued until 1800 hr in the evening. Hence, total duration of foraging activity of A. florea individuals was comprised of 10 hours. It was found that two peaks of visitation/foraging occurred between 1400 to 1600 hr of the day. First peak of foraging was recorded at 1600hr, where 15 individuals of honeybees/3 m2 were counted to be engaged in foraging sunflower blooms. Second peak visitation was recorded with a total of 12 bees/3 m2 at 1400 hrs of the day. Visitations of A. florea were observed to its minimum intensity of only 07 individuals during late hours of the day as evening approached after 1800 hrs. Similarly, due to more number of pollens and nectars on flowers, high frequency of A. florea were found engaged in foraging during 20th and 25th day after initiation of blooms on sunflower. Minimum numbers of honeybees were recorded during initial and very last days of flowering due to less number of plants with blooms and less availability of pollen and nectar on flowers.

Keywords: apis florea, days after flowering, daily hours, sunflower, visitation pattern

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27 Antimicrobial, Antioxidant Activities and Phytochemical Screening of Five Species from Acacia Used in Sudanese Ethnomedicine

Authors: Hajir Abdllha, Alaa Mohamed, Khansa Almoniem, Naga Adam, Wdeea Alhaadi, Ahmed Elshikh, Ahmed Ali, Ismail Makuar, Anas Elnazeer, Nagat Elrofaei, Samir Abdoelftah, Monier Hemidan

Abstract:

The present study was designed to investigate antimicrobial, and antioxidant activities of five species from Acacia (Acacia albidia, Acacia mellifera, Acacia nubica, Acacia seyal var. seyal and Acacia tortilis). Phytochemical study was piloted to detect the bioactive compounds, which have been responsible from the biological activities. The ethanol, chloroform and acetone plant extracts were seasoned against standard bacteria strains of gram +ve bacteria Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923), Gram -ve bacteria Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 27853) and standard fungi Candida albicans (ATCC 90028), using cup-plate method. The antioxidant activities were conducted via DPPH radical scavenging and metal chelating assays. Prospective activity against the five species was observed in acetone extract. Ethanol extract showed highest activities against Staphylococcus aureus, and Candida albicans. Potential antioxidant activity was presented by ethanol. Cholorophorm and acetone extracts via DPPH, the radical scavenging activities were found to be 91±0.03, 88±0.01 and 85±0.04 respectively. The results of phytochemical screening showed that all extracts of studied plant contain flavonoids, saponins, terpenoids, steroids, alkaloids, phenols and tannins. This study gives rise to antioxidant, antimicrobial properties of studied plant, and showed interesting correlation with the phytochemical constituents and biological activities.

Keywords: antimicrobial, antioxidant, Acacia albidia, Acacia mellifera, Acacia nubica, Acacia seyal var. seyal, Acacia tortilis

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26 Antimicrobial, Antioxidant Activities, and Phytochemical Screening of Five Species from Acacia Used in Sudanese Ethnomedicine

Authors: Hajir, B. Abdllha, , Alaa, I. Mohamed, Khansa, A. Almoniem, Naga, I. Adam, Wdeea, Alhaadi, Ahmed, A. Elshikh, Ahmed, J. Ali, Ismail, G. Makuar, Anas, M. Elnazeer, Nagat, A. Elrofaei, Samir, F. Abdoelftah, Monier, N. Hemidan

Abstract:

The present study was designed to investigate antimicrobial, and antioxidant activities of five species from Acacia (Acacia albidia, Acacia mellifera, Acacia nubica, Acacia seyal var.seyal and Acacia tortilis). Phytochemical study was piloted to detect the bioactive compounds, which have been responsible from the biological activities. The ethanol, chloroform and acetone plant extracts were seasoned against standard bacteria strains of gram +ve bacteria Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923) ,Gram -ve bacteria Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 27853) and standard fungi Candida albicans (ATCC 90028), using cup-plate method. The antioxidant activities were conducted via DPPH radical scavenging and metal chelating assays. Prospective activity against the five species was observed in acetone extract. Ethanol extract showed highest activities against Staphylococcus aureus, and Candida albicans. Potential antioxidant activity was presented by ethanol. Cholorophorm and acetone extracts via DPPH, the radical scavenging activities were found to be 91±0.03, 88±0.01 and 85±0.04 respectively. The results of phytochemical screening showed that all extracts of studied plant contain flavonoids, saponins, terpenoids, steroids, alkaloids, phenols and tannins. This study give rise to antioxidant, antimicrobial properties of studied plant, and showed interesting correlation with the phytochemical constituents and biological activities.

Keywords: antimicrobial, Antioxidant, Acacia albidia, Acacia mellifera, acacia nubica, acacia seyal var.seyal, Acacia tortilis

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25 The Effects of Heavy Metal and Aromatic Hydrocarbon Pollution on Bees

Authors: Katarzyna Zięba, Hajnalka Szentgyörgyi, Paweł Miśkowiec, Agnieszka Moos-Matysik

Abstract:

Bees are effective pollinators of plants using by humans. However, there is a concern about the fate different species due to their recently decline. Pollution of the environment is described in the literature as one of the causes of this phenomenon. Due to human activities, heavy metals and aromatic hydrocarbons can occur in bee organisms in high concentrations. The presented study aims to provide information on how pollution affects bee quality, taking into account, also the biological differences between various groups of bees. Understanding the consequences of environmental pollution on bees can help to create and promote bee friendly habitats and actions. The analyses were carried out using two contamination gradients with 5 sites on each. The first, mainly heavy metal polluted gradient is stretching approx. 30km from the Bukowno Zinc smelter near Olkusz in the Lesser Poland Voivodship, to the north. The second cuts through the agglomeration of Kraków up to the southern borders of the Ojców National Park. The gradient near Olkusz is a well-described pollution gradient contaminated mainly by zinc, lead, and cadmium. The second gradient cut through the agglomeration of Kraków and end below the Ojców National Park. On each gradient, two bee species were installed: red mason bees (Osmia bicornis) and honey bees (Apis mellifera). Red mason bee is a polylectic, solitary bee species, widely distributed in Poland. Honey bees are a highly social species of bees, with clearly defined casts and roles in the colony. Before installing the bees in the field, samples of imagos of red mason bees and samples of pollen and imagos from each honey bee colony were analysed for zinc, lead cadmium, polycyclic and monocyclic hydrocarbons levels. After collecting the bees from the field, samples of bees and pollen samples for each site were prepared for heavy metal, monocyclic hydrocarbon, and polycyclic hydrocarbon analysis. Analyses of aromatic hydrocarbons were performed with gas chromatography coupled with a headspace sampler (HP 7694E) and mass spectrometer (MS) as detector. Monocyclic compounds were injected into column with headspace sampler while polycyclic ones with manual injector (after solid-liquid extraction with hexane). The heavy metal content (zinc, lead and cadmium) was assessed with flame atomic absorption spectroscopy (FAAS AAnalyst 300 Perkin Elmer spectrometer) according to the methods for honey and bee products described in the literature. Pollution levels found in bee bodies and imago body masses in both species, and proportion of sex in case of red mason bees were correlated with pollution levels found in pollen for each site and colony or trap nest. An attempt to pinpoint the most important form of contamination regarding bee health was also be undertaken based on the achieved results.

Keywords: heavy metals, aromatic hydrocarbons, bees, pollution

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24 Brazilian Brown Propolis as a Natural Source against Leishmania amazonensis

Authors: Victor Pena Ribeiro, Caroline Arruda, Jennyfer Andrea Aldana Mejia, Jairo Kenupp Bastos

Abstract:

Leishmaniasis is a serious health problem around the world. The treatment of infected individuals with pentavalent antimonial drugs is the main therapeutic strategy. However, they present high toxicity and persistence side effects. Therefore, the discovery of new and safe natural-derived therapeutic agents against leishmaniasis is important. Propolis is a resin of viscous consistency produced by Apis mellifera bees from parts of plants. The main types of Brazilian propolis are green, red, yellow and brown. Thus, the aim of this work was to investigate the chemical composition and leishmanicidal properties of a brown propolis (BP). For this purpose, the hydroalcoholic crude extract of BP was obtained and was fractionated by liquid-liquid chromatography. The chemical profile of the extract and its fractions were obtained by HPLC-UV-DAD. The fractions were submitted to preparative HPLC chromatography for isolation of the major compounds of each fraction. They were analyzed by NMR for structural determination. The volatile compounds were obtained by hydrodistillation and identified by GC/MS. Promastigote forms of Leishmania amazonensis were cultivated in M199 medium and then 2×106 parasites.mL-1 were incubated in 96-well microtiter plates with the samples. The BP was dissolved in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and diluted into the medium, to give final concentrations of 1.56, 3.12, 6.25, 12.5, 25 and 50 µg.mL⁻¹. The plates were incubated at 25ºC for 24 h, and the lysis percentage was determined by using a Neubauer chamber. The bioassays were performed in triplicate, using a medium with 0.5% DMSO as a negative control and amphotericin B as a positive control. The leishimnicidal effect against promastigote forms was also evaluated at the same concentrations. Cytotoxicity experiments also were performed in 96-well plates against normal (CHO-k1) and tumor cell lines (AGP01 and HeLa) using XTT colorimetric method. Phenolic compounds, flavonoids, and terpenoids were identified in brown propolis. The major compounds were identified as follows: p-coumaric acid (24.6%) for a methanolic fraction, Artepelin-C (29.2%) for ethyl acetate fraction and the compounds of hexane fraction are in the process of structural elucidation. The major volatile compounds identified were β-caryophyllene (10.9%), germacrene D (9.7%), nerolidol (10.8%) and spathulenol (8.5%). The propolis did not show cytotoxicity against normal cell lines (CHO) with IC₅₀ > 100 μg.mL⁻¹, whereas the IC₅₀ < 10 μg.mL⁻¹ showed a potential against the AGP01 cell line, propolis did not demonstrate cytotoxicity against HeLa cell lines IC₅₀ > 100 μg.mL⁻¹. In the determination of the leishmanicidal activity, the highest (50 μg.mL⁻¹) and lowest (1.56 μg.mL⁻¹) concentrations of the crude extract caused the lysis of 76% and 45% of promastigote forms of L. amazonensis, respectively. To the amastigote form, the highest (50 μg.mL⁻¹) and lowest (1.56 μg.mL⁻¹) concentrations caused the mortality of 89% and 75% of L. amazonensis, respectively. The IC₅₀ was 2.8 μg.mL⁻¹ to amastigote form and 3.9 μg.mL⁻¹ to promastigote form, showing a promising activity against Leishmania amazonensis.

Keywords: amastigote, brown propolis, cytotoxicity, promastigote

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