Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 5467

Search results for: anti-microbial activities

5467 The Effect of Solution pH of Chitosan on Antimicrobial Properties of Nylon 6,6 Fabrics

Authors: Nilüfer Yıldız Varan

Abstract:

The antimicrobial activities of chitosan against various bacteria and fungi are well known, and the antimicrobial activity of chitosan depends on pH. This study investigates the antimicrobial activity at different pH levels. Nylon 6,6 fabrics were treated with different chitosan solutions. Additionally, samples were treated also in basic conditions to see the antimicrobial activities. AATCC Test Method 100 was followed to evaluate the antimicrobial activity using Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538 test inoculum. The pH of the chitosan solutions was controlled below 6.5 since chitosan shows its antimicrobial activity only in acidic conditions because of its poor solubility above 6.5. In basic conditions, the samples did not show any antimicrobial activity. It appears from SEM images that the bonded chitosan in the structures exists. In acidic media (ph < 6.5), all samples showed antimicrobial activity. No correlation was found between pH levels and antimicrobial activity in acidic media.

Keywords: chitosan, nylon 6, 6, crosslinking, pH stability, antimicrobial

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5466 Antimicrobial, Antioxidant and Free Radical Scavenging Activities of Essential Oils Extracted from Six Eucalyptus Species

Authors: Sanaa K. Bardaweel, Mohammad M. Hudaib, Khaled A. Tawaha, Rasha M. Bashatwah

Abstract:

Eucalyptus species are well reputed for their traditional use in Asia as well as in other parts of the world; therefore, the present study was designed to investigate the antimicrobial and antioxidant activities associated with essential oils from different Eucalyptus species. Essential oils from the leaves of six Eucalyptus species, including: Eucalyptus woodwardi, Eucalyptus stricklandii, Eucalyptus salubris, Eucalyptus sargentii, Eucalyptus torquata and Eucalyptus wandoo were separated by hydrodistillation and dried over anhydrous sodium sulphate. DPPH, ferric reducing antioxidant power, and hydroxyl radical scavenging activity assays were carried out to evaluate the antioxidant potential of the oils. The results indicate that examined oils exhibit substantial antioxidant activities relative to ascorbic acid. Previously, these oils were evaluated for their antimicrobial activities, against wide range of bacterial and fungal strains, and they were shown to possess significant antimicrobial activities. In this study, further investigation into the growth kinetics of oil-treated microbial cultures was conducted. The results clearly demonstrate that the microbial growth was markedly inhibited when treated with sub-MIC concentrations of the oils. Taken together, the results obtained indicate a high potential of the examined essential oils as bioactive oils, for nutraceutical and medical applications, possessing significant antioxidant and anti microbial activities.

Keywords: antimicrobial, antioxidants, essential (volatile) oil, Eucalyptus

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5465 Production of Antimicrobial Agents against Multidrug-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus through the Biocatalysis of Vegetable Oils

Authors: Hak-Ryul Kim, Hyung-Geun Lee, Qi Long, Ching Hou

Abstract:

Structural modification of natural lipids via chemical reaction or microbial bioconversion can change their properties or even create novel functionalities. Enzymatic oxidation of lipids leading to formation of oxylipin is one of those modifications. Hydroxy fatty acids, one of those oxylipins have gained important attentions because of their structural and functional properties compared with other non-hydroxy fatty acids. Recently 7,10-dihydroxy-8(E)-octadecenoic acid (DOD) was produced with high yield from lipid-containing oleic acid by microbial conversion, and the further study confirmed that DOD contained strong antimicrobial activities against a broad range of microorganisms. In this study, we tried to modify DOD molecules by the enzymatic or physical reaction to create new functionality or to enhance the antimicrobial activity of DOD. After modification of DOD molecules by different ways, we confirmed that the antimicrobial activity of DOD was highly enhanced and presented strong antimicrobial activities against multidrug-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, suggesting that DOD and its derivatives can be used as efficient antimicrobial agents for medical and industrial applications.

Keywords: biocatalysis, antimicrobial agent, multidrug-resistant bacteria, vegetable oil

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5464 Composition and in Vitro Antimicrobial Activity of Three Eryngium L. Species

Authors: R. Mickiene, A. Friese, U. Rosler, A. Maruska, O. Ragazinskiene

Abstract:

This research focuses on phytochemistry and antimicrobial activities of compounds isolated and identified from three species of Eryngium. The antimicrobial activity of extracts from Eryngiumplanum L., Eryngium maritimum L., Eryngium campestre L. grown in Lithuania, were tested by the method of series dilutions, against different bacteria species: Escherichia coli, Proteus vulgaris and Staphylococcus aureus with and without antibiotic resistances, originating from livestock. The antimicrobial activity of extracts was described by determination of the minimal inhibitory concentration. Preliminary results show that the minimal inhibitory concentration range between 8.0 % and 17.0 % for the different Eryngium extracts and bacterial species.The total amounts ofphenolic compounds and total amounts of flavonoids were tested in the methanolic extracts of the plants. Identification and evaluation of the phenolic compounds were performed by liquid chromatography. The essential oils were analyzed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry.

Keywords: antimicrobial activities, Eryngium L. species, essential oils, gas chromatography mass spectrometry

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5463 Antimicrobial Activity of a Single Wap Domain (SWD)-Containing Protein from Litopenaeus vannamei against Vibrio parahaemolyticus Acute Hepatopancreatic Necrosis Disease (AHPND)

Authors: Suchao Donpudsa, Suwattana Visetnan, Anchalee Tassanakajon, Vichien Rimphanitchayakit

Abstract:

The Single Wap Domain (SWD) is a type III crustin antimicrobial peptide whose function is to defense the host animal against the bacterial infection by means of antimicrobial and antiproteinase activities. A study of LvSWD from Litopenaeus vannamei is reported herein about its activities and function against bacteria, particularly the Vibrio parahaemolyticus AHPND (VPAHPND) that causes acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease. The over-expressed mature recombinant (r)LvSWD exhibits antimicrobial activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, especially VPAHPND. With four times the MIC of rLvSWD, the treated post larval shrimp infected by VPAHPND is able to survive longer with the 50% survival rate as long as 78 h as compared to 36 h of the infected shrimp without rLvSWD. To a certain extent, we have demonstrated that the rLvSWD can be applied to protect the post larval shrimp.

Keywords: crustin, Litopenaeus vannamei, Vibrio parahaemolyticus AHPND, antimicrobial activity

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5462 Chemical Composition, Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activities of the Essential Oils of Different Pinus Species from Kosovo

Authors: Fatbardhë Kurti, Giangiacomo Beretta, Behxhet Mustafa, Fabrizio Gelmini, Avni Hajdari

Abstract:

Chemical profile, antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of total and fractionated essential oils (EOs) (F1 – hexane, F2 – hexane/diethyl ether, F3 – diethyl ether) derived from five Pinus species (Pinus heldreichii, P. peuce, P. mugo, Pinus nigra, P. sylvestris), were investigated. The hydrodistilled EOs and their chromatographic fractions (direct solid phase extraction, SPE) were analysed by GC-MS and 112 compounds separated and identified. The main constituents were α-pinene, β-pinene, D-limonene, β-caryophyllene, germacrene D, bornyl acetate and 3-carene. The antioxidant activities of total EOs were lower than those of the corresponding fractions, with F2 the strongest in all cases. EOs and fractions showed different degrees of antibacterial efficacy against different microbial pathogens (moderately strong antimicrobial activity against C. albicans and C. krusei ,while low or no activity against E. faecalis and E. coli strains). The detected inhibition zones and MICs for the EOs and fractions were in the range of 14 -35 mm and 0.125 - 1% (v/v), respectively. The components responsible for the antioxidant and antimicrobial activity were oxygenated monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes recovered in the polar EO fractions. These activities seem to be regulated by reciprocal interactions among the different subclasses of phytochemical species present in the EOs.

Keywords: antagonism, antioxidant activity, antibacterial activity, essential oil, fractions, GC-MS, pinus

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5461 Chemical Composition and Antimicrobial Activity of the Essential Oil of Thymus lanceolatus Desf. an Endemic Thyme from Algeria

Authors: Ahmed Nouasri, Tahar Dob, Toumi Mohamed, Dahmane Dahmane, Soumioa Krimat, Lynda Lamari, Chabane Chelghom

Abstract:

The aim of this study is to investigate the chemical composition for the first time, and antimicrobial activities of essential oil (EO) of Thymus lanceolatus Desf., an endemic thyme from Tiaret province of Algeria. The chemical composition of hydrodistilled essential oil from flowering aerial parts has been analyzed by GC and GC/MS techniques, the antimicrobial activity was realised by agar disc diffusion method and MIC was determined in solid medium by direct contact. Essential oil of T. lanceolataus has been yielded of 2.336 (w/w) based on dry weight, the analyses cited above, led to the identification of 29 components, which accounted for 97.34% of the total oil. Oxygenated monoterpenes was the main fraction (88.31%) dominated by thymol (80.2%) as major component of this oil, followed by carvacrol (6.25%). The oil was found effective against all tested strains especially fungus, except Pseudomonas aeruginosa were low activity observed, in addition Gram (+) bacteria found to be more sensitive to the EO than Gram (-) bacteria. This activity was ranging from12±2.65mm to 60.00±0.00mm Ø, with the lowest MIC value of under 0.06mg/ml to 12.53mg/ml. This results provided the evidence that the studied plant might indeed be potential sources of natural antimicrobial agents

Keywords: Thymus lanceolatus Desf., essential oil, chemical composition, antimicrobial activities

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5460 Quinazolino-Thiazoles: Fused Pharmacophores as Antimicrobial Agents

Authors: Sanjay Bari, Vinod Ugale, Kamalkishor Patil

Abstract:

Over the past several years the emergence of micro-organisms resistant to nearly all the class of antimicrobial agents has become a serious public health concern. In the present research, we report the synthesis and in-vitro antimicrobial activity of a new series of novel quinazolino-thiadiazoles 3 (a-j). The synthesized compounds were confirmed by melting point, IR, 1H-NMR, 13C NMR and Mass spectroscopy. In general, the results of the in-vitro antibacterial activity are encouraging, as out of 10 compounds tested, Compound 3f and 3i with a 4-chloro phenyl and 4-nitro phenyl at C-2 of thiadiazolyl of quinazolino-thiadiazoles, displayed the excellent antibacterial and antifungal activities against all the tested microorganisms (Bacterial and Fungal strain) with MIC values of 62.5 μg/mL. It is worth to mention that the combination of two biologically active moieties quinazoline and thiadiazole profoundly influences the biological activity. While evaluating the antimicrobial activity, it was observed that compounds having electron withdrawing groups on thiazole has shown profound activity in comparison to compounds having electron releasing groups. As a result of this study, it can be concluded that halogen substituent on thiazole ring increases antimicrobial activity. Possible improvements in the antimicrobial activity can be further achieved by slight modifications in the substituent’s and/or additional structural activity investigations to have good antimicrobial activity.

Keywords: antifungal, antimicrobial, quinazolino-thiazoles, synthesis

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5459 Chemical Compositon and Antimicrobial Activity of Daucus aristidis Coss. Essential Oil in Pre-Flowering Stage from Algeria

Authors: M. Lamamra, H. Laouer, A. Adjaoud, Sahli Farida

Abstract:

Essential oils can have significant antimicrobial activities and can successfully replace antibiotics that show their ineffectiveness against resistant germs. The chemical composition of the essential oil obtained by hydrodistillation from the aerial part of Daucus aristidis (Apiaceae) at the pre-flowering stage was investigated for the first time, by GC and GC-MS and evaluated for in vitro antimicrobial activity by the disk diffusion method. The Main components of D. aristidis oil were α-pinene (20.13%), cedrol (20.11%), and E- asarone (18.53%). The oil exhibited an antibacterial activity against almost strains tested except for Klebsiella pneumoniae ATCC 700603 K6 and Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 49452, the oil of D. aristidis had no activity against all fungi tested.

Keywords: α-pinene, antimicrobial activity, Daucus aridtidis, essential oil

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5458 The Possible Antioxidant, Hypoglycemic Effect and Antimicrobial Potential of Mangifera Indicia Leaves Aqueous Extract in Albino Rats

Authors: Sahar B. Ahmed, M. Mostafa Said, Mona I. Mohamed

Abstract:

Streptozotocin (STZ) caused a significant increase in blood glucose and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in serum accompanied by a significant decrease in blood reduced glutathione (GSH) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities. Also, ALT, AST, albumin and urea were markedly affected by STZ injection. The oral administration of Mango leaves extract (MLE) one hour before STZ injection was significantly improved the blood glucose level, ALT, AST activities, albumin and urea that associated with the regulation of MDA, GSH and SOD levels. The antimicrobial activity of MLE showed a significant inhibitory activity against multidrug resistant gram positive and gram negative bacteria isolated from patients in Egyptian hospitals especially Salmonella typhi and typhimurium. In conclusion, results revealed the antioxidant, hypoglycemic effect and antimicrobial potentials of MLE under investigation. Further studies will be needed to investigate the prolonged period of MLE administration and its possible side effects.

Keywords: aqueous extract of mango leaves, STZ, antioxidant, hypoglycemic effect, antimicrobial potentials.

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5457 Discerning of Antimicrobial Potential of Phenylpropanoic Acid Derived Oxadiazoles

Authors: Neeraj Kumar Fuloria, Shivkanya Fuloria, Amit Singh

Abstract:

2-Phenyl propionic acid and oxadiazoles possess antimicrobial potential. 2-Phenyl propane hydrazide (1), on cyclization with aromatic acids offered 2-aryl-5-(1-phenylethyl)-1,3,4-oxadiazole derivatives (1A-E). The PPA derived oxadiazoles were characterized by elemental analysis and spectral studies. The compounds were screened for antimicrobial potential. The compound 1D bearing strong electron withdrawing group showed maximum antimicrobial potential. Other compounds also displayed antimicrobial potential to a certain extent. The SAR of newer oxadiazoles indicated that substitution of strong electronegative group in the PPA derived oxadiazoles enhanced their antimicrobial potential.

Keywords: antimicrobial, imines, oxadiazoles, PPA

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5456 Phenolic Analysis, Antioxidant Capacity and Antimicrobial Activity of Origanum glandulosum Desf Extract from Algeria

Authors: Abdelkader Basli, Jean-Claude Delaunay, Eric Pedrot, Jean-Michel Mérillon, Jean-Pierre Monti, Khodir Madani, Mohamed Chibane, Tristan Richard

Abstract:

The antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of Origanum glandulosum collected in Algeria have been studied. Extract was prepared from aerial part of endemic Algerian oregano. The produced extract has been characterized in terms of total phenols (using Folin method), total flavonoid, antioxidant activities (using the DPPH radical scavenging method and ORAC assay) and microbial activity against four bacteria: Streptococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae one yeast: Candida albicans and one fungi: Aspergillus niger. The results pointed the antioxidant activities of the extract of O. glandulosum and antimicrobial activities against all bacteria and C. Candida, but no effect on A. niger. High performance liquid chromatography combined with mass spectrometry (LC-MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (LC-NMR) were used to separate and identify the major compounds present in the oregano extract. Rosmarinic acid, globoidnan A and B, lithospermic acid B and three flavonoids were identified.

Keywords: origanum glandulosum, antioxidant, microbial activity, polyphenol, LC-MS, LC-NMR

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5455 Antimicrobial, Antioxidant Activities and Phytochemical Screening of Five Species from Acacia Used in Sudanese Ethnomedicine

Authors: Hajir Abdllha, Alaa Mohamed, Khansa Almoniem, Naga Adam, Wdeea Alhaadi, Ahmed Elshikh, Ahmed Ali, Ismail Makuar, Anas Elnazeer, Nagat Elrofaei, Samir Abdoelftah, Monier Hemidan

Abstract:

The present study was designed to investigate antimicrobial, and antioxidant activities of five species from Acacia (Acacia albidia, Acacia mellifera, Acacia nubica, Acacia seyal var. seyal and Acacia tortilis). Phytochemical study was piloted to detect the bioactive compounds, which have been responsible from the biological activities. The ethanol, chloroform and acetone plant extracts were seasoned against standard bacteria strains of gram +ve bacteria Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923), Gram -ve bacteria Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 27853) and standard fungi Candida albicans (ATCC 90028), using cup-plate method. The antioxidant activities were conducted via DPPH radical scavenging and metal chelating assays. Prospective activity against the five species was observed in acetone extract. Ethanol extract showed highest activities against Staphylococcus aureus, and Candida albicans. Potential antioxidant activity was presented by ethanol. Cholorophorm and acetone extracts via DPPH, the radical scavenging activities were found to be 91±0.03, 88±0.01 and 85±0.04 respectively. The results of phytochemical screening showed that all extracts of studied plant contain flavonoids, saponins, terpenoids, steroids, alkaloids, phenols and tannins. This study gives rise to antioxidant, antimicrobial properties of studied plant, and showed interesting correlation with the phytochemical constituents and biological activities.

Keywords: antimicrobial, antioxidant, Acacia albidia, Acacia mellifera, Acacia nubica, Acacia seyal var. seyal, Acacia tortilis

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5454 Antimicrobial, Antioxidant Activities, and Phytochemical Screening of Five Species from Acacia Used in Sudanese Ethnomedicine

Authors: Hajir, B. Abdllha, , Alaa, I. Mohamed, Khansa, A. Almoniem, Naga, I. Adam, Wdeea, Alhaadi, Ahmed, A. Elshikh, Ahmed, J. Ali, Ismail, G. Makuar, Anas, M. Elnazeer, Nagat, A. Elrofaei, Samir, F. Abdoelftah, Monier, N. Hemidan

Abstract:

The present study was designed to investigate antimicrobial, and antioxidant activities of five species from Acacia (Acacia albidia, Acacia mellifera, Acacia nubica, Acacia seyal var.seyal and Acacia tortilis). Phytochemical study was piloted to detect the bioactive compounds, which have been responsible from the biological activities. The ethanol, chloroform and acetone plant extracts were seasoned against standard bacteria strains of gram +ve bacteria Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923) ,Gram -ve bacteria Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 27853) and standard fungi Candida albicans (ATCC 90028), using cup-plate method. The antioxidant activities were conducted via DPPH radical scavenging and metal chelating assays. Prospective activity against the five species was observed in acetone extract. Ethanol extract showed highest activities against Staphylococcus aureus, and Candida albicans. Potential antioxidant activity was presented by ethanol. Cholorophorm and acetone extracts via DPPH, the radical scavenging activities were found to be 91±0.03, 88±0.01 and 85±0.04 respectively. The results of phytochemical screening showed that all extracts of studied plant contain flavonoids, saponins, terpenoids, steroids, alkaloids, phenols and tannins. This study give rise to antioxidant, antimicrobial properties of studied plant, and showed interesting correlation with the phytochemical constituents and biological activities.

Keywords: antimicrobial, Antioxidant, Acacia albidia, Acacia mellifera, acacia nubica, acacia seyal var.seyal, Acacia tortilis

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5453 In-silico Antimicrobial Activity of Bioactive Compounds of Ricinus communis against DNA Gyrase of Staphylococcus aureus as Molecular Target

Authors: S. Rajeswari

Abstract:

Medicinal Plant extracts and their bioactive compounds have been used for antimicrobial activities and have significant remedial properties. In the recent years, a wide range of investigations have been carried out throughout the world to confirm antimicrobial properties of different medicinally important plants. A number of plants showed efficient antimicrobial activities, which were comparable to that of synthetic standard drugs or antimicrobial agents. The large family Euphorbiaceae contains nearly about 300 genera and 7,500 speciesand one among is Ricinus communis or castor plant which has high traditional and medicinal value for disease free healthy life. Traditionally the plant is used as laxative, purgative, fertilizer and fungicide etc. whereas the plant possess beneficial effects such as anti-oxidant, antihistamine, antinociceptive, antiasthmatic, antiulcer, immunomodulatory anti diabetic, hepatoprotective, anti inflammatory, antimicrobial, and many other medicinal properties. This activity of the plant possess due to the important phytochemical constituents like flavonoids, saponins, glycosides, alkaloids and steroids. The presents study includes the phytochemical properties of Ricinus communis and to prediction of the anti-microbial activity of Ricinus communis using DNA gyrase of Staphylococcus aureus as molecular target. Docking results of varies chemicals compounds of Ricinus communis against DNA gyrase of Staphylococcus aureus by maestro 9.8 of Schrodinger show that the phytochemicals are effective against the target protein DNA gyrase. our studies suggest that the phytochemical from Ricinus communis such has INDICAN (G.Score 4.98) and SUPLOPIN-2(G.Score 5.74) can be used as lead molecule against Staphylococcus infections.

Keywords: euphorbiaceae, antimicrobial activity, Ricinus communis, Staphylococcus aureus

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5452 The Investigation of the Antimicrobial Activities of Piper betle L.

Authors: Disaya Jaroensattayatham

Abstract:

Nowadays, infectious diseases are prevalent and severe health problems as they render the increment of casualty, illness, and global economic recession. Along with the emergence of antimicrobial resistance, the potency of typically used antibiotics can be affected to a considerable degree. As a result, unorthodox antibiotics have become an urgent issue in the pharmaceutical field. Piper betle L., known as betle leaf, has been used for many purposes, such as a traditional home remedy, and has shown its ability in inhibiting bacteria as well as fungus. Thus, in this study, the investigation of antimicrobial activities of the Piper betle L. extracts was carried out using the Agar disk-diffusion method and Broth microdilution, aiming to evaluate and determine its efficacy to inhibit bacterial and fungal growth of Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhi, and Candida albicans. In the agar disk-diffusion test, the extracts of Piper betle L. gave the maximum zone of inhibition of 15.1 mm (S. aureus), 7.7 mm (S. typhi), and 11.7 mm (C. albicans), while its MIC values were 1000 µg/ml in S. aureus and greater than 2000 µg/ml in S. typhi and C. albicans. According to the results, the Piper betle L. obtains an antimicrobial activity and shows a higher effect towards gram-positive bacteria than gram-negative bacteria. To determine the mechanism behind its ability, more research is needed to be performed in the future.

Keywords: antimicrobial activity, Candida albicans, Piper betle L., Salmonella typhi, Staphylococcus aureus

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5451 Synthesis and Antimicrobial Activity of Tolyloxy Derived Oxadiazoles

Authors: Shivkanya Fuloria, Neeraj Kumar Fuloria, Sokinder Kumar

Abstract:

m-Cresol and oxadiazoles are the potent antimicrobial moieties. 2-(m-Tolyloxy)acetohydrazide (1) on cyclization with aromatic acids yielded 2-(aryl)-5-(m-tolyloxymethyl)-1,3,4-oxadiazole (1A-E). The structures of newer oxadiazoles were confirmed by elemental and spectral analysis. The newer compounds were evaluated for their antimicrobial potential. The compound 1E containing strong electron withdrawing group showed maximum antimicrobial potential. Other compounds also displayed antimicrobial potential to certain extent. The SAR of newer oxadiazoles indicated that substitution of strong electronegative group in the tolyloxy derived oxadiazoles enhanced their antimicrobial potential.

Keywords: antibacterial, cresol, hydrazide, oxadiazoles

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5450 Synergistic Interactions between Secondary Metabolites in Rosmarinus officinalis L.

Authors: Ruta Mickiene, Audrius Maruska, Ona Ragazinskiene

Abstract:

This research focuses on phytochemistry and antimicrobial activities of compounds isolated and identified from species Rosmarinus officinalis L. This is a study of synergistic effects between phenolic fraction and essential oils. The antimicrobial activity of extracts from Rosmarinus officinalis L. originated from the sector of medicinal plants, Kaunas botanical garden of Vytautas Magnus University Lithuania, were tested by the method of series dilutions, against different bacteria species. Investigated microorganisms were Escherichia coli, Proteus vulgaris and Staphylococcus aureus with and without antibiotic resistances originating from livestock. The antimicrobial activities of extracts were described by determination of the Minimal Inhibitory Concentration (MIC). Preliminary results show that the MIC range between 9.0 % and 12.0 % for the different Rosmarinus officinalis L. extracts and bacterial species. The total amounts of phenolic compounds and total amounts of flavonoids were tested in the methanolic extracts of the plants. The chemical composition for essential oils analysed by GC/MS. Predominant components were alpha pinene (20%), camphor (10%), 1.8‐cineole (5%), phellandrene (6%), camphene (5%), beta pinene (4%), bornylacetate (4%), limonene (2%), borneol (3%), alpha terpineol (3%), cymene (2%), caryophyllene (15%), verbenone (7%), alpha terpinene (3%), eucalyptol (11%).

Keywords: antimicrobial activity, essential oil, Rosmarinus officinalis L., escherichia coli

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5449 Cotton Treated with Spent Coffee Extract for Realizing Functional Textiles

Authors: Kyung Hwa Hong

Abstract:

The objective of this study was to evaluate the ability of spent coffee extract to enhance the antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of cotton fabrics. The emergence and spread of infectious diseases has raised a global interest in the antimicrobial substances. The safety of chemical agents, such as antimicrobials and dyes, which may irritate the skin, cause cellular and organ damage, and have adverse environmental impacts during their manufacturing, in relation to the human body has not been established. Nevertheless, there is a growing interest in natural antimicrobials that kill microorganisms or stop their growth without dangerous effects on human health. Spent coffee is the by-product of coffee brewing and amounted to 96,000 tons worldwide in 2015. Coffee components such as caffeine, melanoidins, and chlorogenic acid have been reported to possess multifunctional properties, including antimicrobial, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory activities. Therefore, the current study examined the possibility of applying spent coffee in functional textile finishing. Spent coffee was extracted with 60% methanol solution, and the major components of the extract were quantified. In addition, cotton fabrics treated with spent coffee extract through a pad-dry-cure process were investigated for antioxidant and antimicrobial activities. The cotton fabrics finished with the spent coffee extract showed an increase in yellowness, which is an unfavorable outcome from the fabric finishing process. However, the cotton fabrics finished with the spent coffee extract exhibited considerable antioxidant activity. In particular, the antioxidant ability significantly increased with increasing concentrations of the spent coffee extract. The finished cotton fabrics showed antimicrobial ability against S. aureus but relatively low antimicrobial ability against K. pneumoniae. Therefore, further investigations are needed to determine the appropriate concentration of spent coffee extract to inhibit the growth of various pathogenic bacteria.

Keywords: spent coffee grounds, cotton, natural finishing agent, antioxidant activity, antimicrobial activity

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5448 Comparison of Phenolic and Urushiol Contents of Different Parts of Rhus verniciflua and Their Antimicrobial Activity

Authors: Jae Young Jang, Jong Hoon Ahn, Jae-Woong Lim, So Young Kang, Mi Kyeong Lee

Abstract:

Rhus verniciflua is commonly known as a lacquer tree in Korea. Stem barks of R. verniciflua have been used as an immunostimulator in traditional medicine. It contains phenolic compounds and is known for diverse biological activities such as antioxidant and antimicrobial activity. However, it also causes allergic dermatitis due to urushiols derivatives. For the development of active natural resources with less toxicity, the content of phenolic compounds and urushiols of different parts of R. verniciflua such as stem barks, lignum and leaves were quantitated by colorimetric assay and HPLC analysis. The urushiols content were the highest in stem barks, and followed by leaves. The lignum contained trace amount of urushiols. The phenolic contents, however, were the most abundant in lignum, and followed by leaves and stem barks. These results clear showed that the content of urushiols and phenolic differs depending on the parts of R. verniciflua. Antimicrobial activity of different parts of R. verniciflua against fish pathogenic bacteria was also investigated using Edwardsiella tarda. Lignum of R. verniciflua was the most effective in antimicrobial activity against E. tarda and phenolic constituents are suggested to be active constituents for activity. Taken together, phenolic compounds are responsible for antimicrobial activity of R. verniciflua. The lignum of R. verniciflua contains high content of phenolic compounds with less urushiols, which suggests efficient antimicrobial activity with less toxicity. Therefore, lignum of R. verniciflua are suggested as good sources for antimicrobial activity against fish bacterial diseases.

Keywords: different parts, phenolic compounds, Rhus verniciflua, urushiols

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5447 Determination of Antimicrobial Effect and Essential Oil Composition Salvia verticillata L. Subsp. amasiaca

Authors: Tanju Teker, Yener Tekeli̇, Esra Karpuz

Abstract:

Salvia species are known as medicinal plant and often used in public. The antimicrobial effects and essential oil composition of Salvia verticillata L. subsp. amasiaca were determined. The antimicrobial activity is determined by using disk diffusion method against two Gram-positive bacteria, two Gram-negative bacteria and one kind of yeast and essential oil composition was determined by GC - MS. As a result of antimicrobial analysis while sample has shown very strong antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, moderately effective against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and low effective against Enterococcus faecalis, it has not shown antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli and C. albicans. Trans-caryophyllene (% 35.07), germacrene-d (% 10.98) and caryopyllene oxide (% 5.81) are the main components of essential oil composition.

Keywords: salvia, medicinal plant, antimicrobial activity, essential oil

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5446 Antimicrobial, Antioxidant and Cytotoxicity Properties of Some Selected Wild Edible Fruits Used Traditionally as a Source of Food

Authors: Thilivhali Emmanuel Tshikalange, Darky Cheron Modishane, Frederick Tawi Tabit

Abstract:

The fruit pulp extracts of twelve selected ethnobotanical wild edible fruits from Mutale local municipality in Venda (Limpopo Province, South Africa) were investigated for their antimicrobial, antioxidant and cytotoxicity activities. Methanol extracts were prepared and tested against six micro-organisms (Salmonella typhi, Streptococcus pyogenes, Bacillus cereus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Prevotella intermedia and Candida albicans). The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) were determined using the micro-dilution method, while for antioxidant activity the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl method was used. Of the 12 extracts tested, Adonsonia digitata, Berchemia discolor, Manilkara mochisia, Xanthocercis zambesiaca, Landolphia kirkii and Garcinia livingstonei showed antimicrobial activity, with MIC values ranging from 12.5 to 0.4 mg/ml. Gram negative bacteria were more resistant to the extracts in comparison to Gram positive bacteria. Antioxidant activity was only detected in Adonsonia digitata extract and the IC50 (substrate concentration to produce 50% reduction) was found to be 16.18µg/ml. The cytotoxicity of the extracts that showed antimicrobial and antioxidant activities was also determined. All plant extracts tested were non-toxic against human kidney cells (HEK293), with IC50 values of >400 µg/ml. The results presented in this study provide support to some traditional uses of wild edible fruits.

Keywords: antimicrobial, antioxidant, cytotoxicity, ethnobotanical, fruits

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5445 Phytochemical and Antimicrobial Studies of Root Bark Extracts from Glossonema boveanum (Decne.)

Authors: Ahmed Jibrin Uttu, Maimuna Waziri

Abstract:

The root bark of Glossonema boveanum (Decne), a member of Apocynaceae family, is used by traditional medicine practitioner to treat urinary and respiratory tract infections, bacteremia, typhoid fever, bacillary dysentery, diarrhea and stomach pain. This present study aims to validate the medicinal claims ascribed to the root bark of the plant. Preliminary phytochemical study of the root bark extracts (n-hexane, ethyl acetate, chloroform and methanol extracts) showed the presence of alkaloids, carbohydrates, steroids, triterpenes, cardiac glycosides, saponins, tannins and flavonoids. Antimicrobial study of the extracts showed activities against Staphylococus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Salmonella typhii, Shigella dysenteriae, Escherichia coli, Enterobacter cloacae, Streptococcus agalactiae and Candida albicans while Micrococcus luteus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella Pneumoniae showed resistance to all the extracts. The inhibitory effect was compared with the standard drug ciprofloxacin and fluconazole. MIC and MBC for both extracts were also determined using the tube dilution method. This study concluded that the root bark of G. boveanum, used traditionally as a medicinal plant, has antimicrobial activities against some causative organisms.

Keywords: Glossonema boveanum (Decne.), phytochemical, antimicrobial, minimum inhibitory concentration, minimum bactericidal concentration

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5444 Biosynthesis of Silver Nanoparticles from Leaf Extract of Tithonia diversifolia and Its Antimicrobial Properties

Authors: Babatunde Oluwole Ogunsile, Omosola Monisola Fasoranti

Abstract:

High costs and toxicological hazards associated with the physicochemical methods of producing nanoparticles have limited their widespread use in clinical and biomedical applications. An ethically sound alternative is the utilization of plant bioresources as a low cost and eco–friendly biological approach. Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were synthesized from aqueous leaf extract of Tithonia diversifolia plant. The UV-Vis Spectrophotometer was used to monitor the formation of the AgNPs at different time intervals and different ratios of plant extract to the AgNO₃ solution. The biosynthesized AgNPs were characterized by FTIR, X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). Antimicrobial activities of the AgNPs were investigated against ten human pathogens using agar well diffusion method. The AgNPs yields were modeled using a second-order factorial design. The result showed that the rate of formation of the AgNPs increased with respect to time while the optimum ratio of plant extract to the AgNO₃ solution was 1:1. The hydroxyl group was strongly involved in the bioreduction of the silver salt as indicated by the FTIR spectra. The synthesized AgNPs were crystalline in nature, with a uniformly distributed network of the web-like structure. The factorial model predicted the nanoparticles yields with minimal errors. The nanoparticles were active against all the tested pathogens and thus have great potentials as antimicrobial agents.

Keywords: antimicrobial activities, green synthesis, silver nanoparticles, Tithonia diversifolia

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5443 Crude Extracts of Medicinal Plants Can Inhibit Some Bacteria of Clinical Importance in Minced Meat

Authors: Chika C. Ogueke, Ijeoma M. Agunwah

Abstract:

The antimicrobial activities and preservative potentials of crude extracts of Alstonia boonei stem bark and Euphorbia hirta leaves were studied. Soxhlet extraction and cold ethanol extraction methods were used for the extraction of the dried and ground plant samples. Well in agar diffusion method was used for the antimicrobial screening at different concentrations of 25mg/ml, 50mg/ml, 100mg/ml and 200mg/ml on E.coli and B.subtilis. The preservative effects of the extracts at 0.1%, 0.2% and 0.3% singly and in combination were determined in minced meat using E. coli and B. subtilis as test isolates. Phytochemical analysis was also conducted on the extracts using standard analytical methods. E.hirta cold and A.boonei cold extracts gave the highest zone of growth inhibition on E. coli and B.substilis with 20mm zone diameter at 200mg/ml concentration. Phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, saponins and cardiac glycosides. A.boonei at 0.1, 0.2 and 0.3% produced a log cycle reduction on the growth of E.coli. Mixture of A. boonei and E. hirta extracts (1:1) at 0.1% and 0.2% also produced a log cycle reduction on the growth of E.coli and B. subtilis, however the A. boonei extracts had more significant effect on the isolates. The observed antimicrobial activities are attributed to the phytochemicals identified in the extracts. The results reveal the potentials of plant extracts as natural antimicrobial preservatives in minced meat. Thus the crude extracts can act as inhibitors of bacteria in a food system. Upon further purification better results may be obtained.

Keywords: antimicrobial preservative, crude extracts, minced meat, test isolates

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5442 Environmentally Benign Synthesis of 2-Pyrazolines and Cyclohexenones Incorporating Naphthalene Moiety and Their Antimicrobial Evaluation

Authors: Al-Bogami Abdullah Saad

Abstract:

We reported the environmental benign synthesis of chalcones, 2-pyrazolines and cyclohexanones under microwave irradiation. Chalcones were obtained by the condensation of each of 2-hydroxyacetophenone derivatives with α-naphthaldehyde under microwave irradiation. The condensation reactions of each of synthesized chalcones with phenyl hydrazine under microwave irradiation in the presence of dry acetic acid as a cyclizing agent gave 2-pyrazolines. Also, the new cyclohexenone derivatives, valuable intermediates to synthesize fused heterocycles, have been prepared by the cyclocondensation of each of hydroxychalcones with ethyl acetoacetate. The structures of the synthesized compounds were elucidated by Infrared (IR) spectrometry, Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR), Mass Spectrometry(MS) and elmental analysis. The results indicate that unlike classical heating, microwave irradiation results in higher yields with shorter and cleaner reactions. The synthesized compounds were screened for antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Candida Albicans and Aspergillus niger. We clarified the effects of different substituents in the tested compounds on the obtaind antibacterial activities and antifungal activities.

Keywords: microwave irradiation, 2-Hydroxyacetophenone, α-Naphthaldehyde, pyrazoline, cyclohexenone, antimicrobial activity

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5441 Assessing Antimicrobial Activity of Various Plant Extracts on Midgutmicroflora of Aedesaegypti

Authors: V. Baweja, K. K. Gupta, V. Dubey, C. Keshavam

Abstract:

Antimicrobial activity of six indigenous plants such as Tulsi Ocimum sanctum, Neem Azadirachta indica, Aloe vera, Turmeric Curcuma longa, Lantana Lantana camara, and Clove Syzygium aromaticum was assessed against the gut microbiota of the dengue fever mosquito Aedes aegypti, keeping in view that the presence of midgut bacteria may affect the ability of the vector to transmit pathogens. Eleven different types of bacterial clones were isolated from the midgut of lab-reared fourth instar larvae of Aedes aegypti and were grown on LB agar medium at an optimum temperature of 25 ºC. Identification of these bacteria was done on the basis of their colony characteristic such as colony size, shape, opacity, elevation, consistency, and growth. Light microscopic studies of the gut microbiota revealed dominance of Gram-negative cocci over gram positive cocci and bacilli and Gram-negative bacilli. Identification of species was done by chemical characterization of the colonies. Crude extracts of all test plants were screened for their antimicrobial activities against gut microbiota by disc diffusion assay. The zone of exclusion seen after 24 hr of incubation in different assays revealed the most potent antibacterial activities in neem followed by clove and turmeric. Lantana and Aloe vera were least effective.

Keywords: plant extract, aedes, dengue, antimicrobial activity

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5440 Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activities of Matricaria pubscens Extracts: A Wild Space of North African Pharmacopeia

Authors: Abdelouahab Dehimati, Fatiha Bedjou

Abstract:

This study focused on the antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of four extracts from the plant Matricaria pubscens (Asteraceae) harvest in the region of Ghardaia, the northern Sahara of Algeria. The different extracts were analyzed for their content of phenolic compounds and their biological activities. The ethanol extract expresses a better extraction yield (44.22%). We have first performed the quantitative colorimetric methods for total polyphenols. Wherein the aqueous extract shows the highest total polyphenol content and total flavonoid (216.66±2.58 mg Eq GA/g and 111.04±0.49 mg Eq Q/g E, respectively) and ethanol extract 50% total tannins content (68.88±2.72 mg Eq AT/g E). The evaluation of the antioxidant activity of extracts of Matricaria pubscens by the arbitrary value IC50. The ethanol 50% extract is expressed strong activity with an IC50 14.19±1.25 mg/m against the DPPH radical and 11.66±0.53 mg/ml against the ABTS radical). In addition, the aqueous extract showed strong reducing power with an IC50 (48.61±1.14 mg/ml). However, the results obtained by the reducing power of phosphomolybdat the test are calculated by the iron maximum absorbance where ethanol extract 50% gives an absorbance of about 1.641 ± 0.01nm. Otherwise, methanol 70% and butanol 80% extracts gave a very large chelating effect of iron with an IC50 (38.38±0.01 μg/ml and 38.58±0.04 μg/ml respectively). By the method of disc Diffuson, the results of the antimicrobial activity are achieved butanolic extract 80% shows high activity towards MRSA (MIC: 3.51mg/ml; BMC>100 mg/ml). Their shares, the extracts were the most active for the antifungal test, the butanol 80% extract was the most active against A. niger (MIC: 12.5 mg/ml; FMC>100 mg/ml). These preliminary results could be used to justify the traditional use of this plant and their phenolic compounds could be exploited for therapeutic purposes, such as antioxidants and antimicrobial effects.

Keywords: Matricaria pubscens, phenolic compounds, antioxidant activity, antimicrobial activity, IC50, MIC

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5439 Natural Preservatives: An Alternative for Chemical Preservative Used in Foods

Authors: Zerrin Erginkaya, Gözde Konuray

Abstract:

Microbial degradation of foods is defined as a decrease of food safety due to microorganism activity. Organic acids, sulfur dioxide, sulfide, nitrate, nitrite, dimethyl dicarbonate and several preservative gases have been used as chemical preservatives in foods as well as natural preservatives which are indigenous in foods. It is determined that usage of herbal preservatives such as blueberry, dried grape, prune, garlic, mustard, spices inhibited several microorganisms. Moreover, it is determined that animal origin preservatives such as whey, honey, lysosomes of duck egg and chicken egg, chitosan have antimicrobial effect. Other than indigenous antimicrobials in foods, antimicrobial agents produced by microorganisms could be used as natural preservatives. The antimicrobial feature of preservatives depends on the antimicrobial spectrum, chemical and physical features of material, concentration, mode of action, components of food, process conditions, and pH and storage temperature. In this review, studies about antimicrobial components which are indigenous in food (such as herbal and animal origin antimicrobial agents), antimicrobial materials synthesized by microorganisms, and their usage as an antimicrobial agent to preserve foods are discussed.

Keywords: animal origin preservatives, antimicrobial, chemical preservatives, herbal preservatives

Procedia PDF Downloads 281
5438 Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activities of Phenolic Extracts of Endemic Plants Marrubium deserti and Ammodaucus leucotrichus from Algeria

Authors: Sifi Ibrahim, Benaddou Fatima Zohra, Yousfi Mohamed

Abstract:

The Marrubium deserti and Ammodaucus leucotrichus L. an Algerian endemic species, has several applications in traditional medicine for example as a remedy for asthma and diabetes, and was found to have antibacterial properties. In this work, an antioxidant and antimicrobial activities was performed on phenolic extracts of Marrubium deserti, Ammodaucus leucotrichus plants. The yield of methanol maceration of these plants is 12.4% and 20.4% respectively. The content of total polyphenols, flavonoids and anthocyanin in methanolic extracts, are varied between 19.52±1.88 and 59.24±3.45 mg/g gallic acid equivalent, and 2.08±0.29 to 1.46±0.39 mg/g quercetin equivalent, and 0.395 to 1.934µmol/g respectively. The total chlorophylls and carotenoids were be ranged from 0.149±0.20 to 1.537±0.20 g/ml and 1.537±0.20 to 0.149 ± 0.20 g/ml, respectively. According to DPPH and FRAP test, the values of EC50 was shows a higher activity of Marrubium deserti than Ammodaucus leucotrichus with EC50 values (DPPH) were 34.53±0.71 μg/mL and 258.60±15.67 mg/ml respectively. The TEAC values of FRAP test was a highly superior for Marrubium deserti 209.66±0.26 mg Equivalent Trolox/g dry residue than Ammodaucus leucotrichus 45.88±2.93 mg Trolox Equivalent/g dry residue. The antimicrobial activity against nine strains of bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus(+), Staphylococcus aureus (-), Bacillus cereus, Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Salmonella typhi), was showed that the tested extracts are a significant antibacterial activity with inhibition zones ranging from 10 to 50 mm. the value of CMI were ranging from 0.89 to 14.29 mg/ml.

Keywords: phenolic extract, antioxidant activity, antimicrobial activity, Marrubium deserti, Ammodaucus leucotrichus

Procedia PDF Downloads 320