Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 4269

Search results for: microbial fuel cells

4269 Landfill Leachate: A Promising Substrate for Microbial Fuel Cells

Authors: Jayesh M. Sonawane, Prakash C. Ghosh


Landfill leachate emerges as a promising feedstock for microbial fuel cells (MFCs). In the present investigation, direct air-breathing cathode-based MFCs are fabricated to investigate the potential of landfill leachate. Three MFCs that have different cathode areas are fabricated and investigated for 17 days under open circuit conditions. The maximum open circuit voltage (OCV) is observed to be as high as 1.29 V. The maximum cathode area specific power density achieved in the reactor is 1513 mW m-2. Further studies are under progress to understand the origin of high OCV obtained from landfill leachate-based MFCs.

Keywords: microbial fuel cells, landfill leachate, air-breathing cathode, performance study

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4268 Microbial Fuel Cells in Waste Water Treatment and Electricity Generation

Authors: Rajalaxmi N., Padma Bhat, Pooja Garag, Pooja N. M., V. S. Hombalimath


Microbial fuel cell (MFC) is the advancement of science that aims at utilizing the oxidizing potential of bacteria for wastewater treatment and production of bio-hydrogen and bio-electricity. Salt-bridge is the economic alternative to highly priced proton-exchange membrane in the construction of a microbial fuel cell. This paper studies the electricity generating capacity of E.coli and Clostridium sporogenes in microbial fuel cells (MFCs). Unlike most of MFC research, this targets the long term goals of renewable energy production and wastewater treatment. In present study the feasibility and potential of bioelectricity production from different wastewater was observed. Different wastewater was primarily treated which were confirmed by the COD tests which showed reduction of COD. We observe that the electricity production of MFCs decreases almost linearly after 120 hrs. The sewage wastewater containing Clostridium sporogenes showed bioelectricity production up to 188mV with COD removal of 60.52%. Sewage wastewater efficiently produces bioelectricity and this also helpful to reduce wastewater pollution load.

Keywords: microbial fuel cell, bioelectricity, wastewater, salt bridge, COD

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4267 Microbial Fuel Cells and Their Applications in Electricity Generating and Wastewater Treatment

Authors: Shima Fasahat


This research is an experimental research which was done about microbial fuel cells in order to study them for electricity generating and wastewater treatment. These days, it is very important to find new, clean and sustainable ways for energy supplying. Because of this reason there are many researchers around the world who are studying about new and sustainable energies. There are different ways to produce these kind of energies like: solar cells, wind turbines, geothermal energy, fuel cells and many other ways. Fuel cells have different types one of these types is microbial fuel cell. In this research, an MFC was built in order to study how it can be used for electricity generating and wastewater treatment. The microbial fuel cell which was used in this research is a reactor that has two tanks with a catalyst solution. The chemical reaction in microbial fuel cells is a redox reaction. The microbial fuel cell in this research is a two chamber MFC. Anode chamber is an anaerobic one (ABR reactor) and the other chamber is a cathode chamber. Anode chamber consists of stabilized sludge which is the source of microorganisms that do redox reaction. The main microorganisms here are: Propionibacterium and Clostridium. The electrodes of anode chamber are graphite pages. Cathode chamber consists of graphite page electrodes and catalysts like: O2, KMnO4 and C6N6FeK4. The membrane which separates the chambers is Nafion117. The reason of choosing this membrane is explained in the complete paper. The main goal of this research is to generate electricity and treating wastewater. It was found that when you use electron receptor compounds like: O2, MnO4, C6N6FeK4 the velocity of electron receiving speeds up and in a less time more current will be achieved. It was found that the best compounds for this purpose are compounds which have iron in their chemical formula. It is also important to pay attention to the amount of nutrients which enters to bacteria chamber. By adding extra nutrients in some cases the result will be reverse.  By using ABR the amount of chemical oxidation demand reduces per day till it arrives to a stable amount.

Keywords: anaerobic baffled reactor, bioenergy, electrode, energy efficient, microbial fuel cell, renewable chemicals, sustainable

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4266 Bio Energy from Metabolic Activity of Bacteria in Plant and Soil Using Novel Microbial Fuel Cells

Authors: B. Samuel Raj, Solomon R. D. Jebakumar


Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) are an emerging and promising method for achieving sustainable energy since they can remove contaminated organic matter and simultaneously generate electricity. Our approach was driven in three different ways like Bacterial fuel cell, Soil Microbial fuel cell (Soil MFC) and Plant Microbial fuel cell (Plant MFC). Bacterial MFC: Sulphate reducing bacteria (SRB) were isolated and identified as the efficient electricigens which is able to produce ±2.5V (689mW/m2) and it has sustainable activity for 120 days. Experimental data with different MFC revealed that high electricity production harvested continuously for 90 days 1.45V (381mW/m2), 1.98V (456mW/m2) respectively. Biofilm formation was confirmed on the surface of the anode by high content screening (HCS) and scanning electron Microscopic analysis (SEM). Soil MFC: Soil MFC was constructed with low cost and standard Mudwatt soil MFC was purchased from keegotech (USA). Vermicompost soil (V1) produce high energy (± 3.5V for ± 400 days) compared to Agricultural soil (A1) (± 2V for ± 150 days). Biofilm formation was confirmed by HCS and SEM analysis. This finding provides a method for extracting energy from organic matter, but also suggests a strategy for promoting the bioremediation of organic contaminants in subsurface environments. Our Soil MFC were able to run successfully a 3.5V fan and three LED continuously for 150 days. Plant MFC: Amaranthus candatus (P1) and Triticum aestivium (P2) were used in Plant MFC to confirm the electricity production from plant associated microbes, four uniform size of Plant MFC were constructed and checked for energy production. P2 produce high energy (± 3.2V for 40 days) with harvesting interval of two times and P1 produces moderate energy without harvesting interval (±1.5V for 24 days). P2 is able run 3.5V fan continuously for 10days whereas P1 needs optimization of growth conditions to produce high energy.

Keywords: microbial fuel cell, biofilm, soil microbial fuel cell, plant microbial fuel cell

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4265 Nano-MFC (Nano Microbial Fuel Cell): Utilization of Carbon Nano Tube to Increase Efficiency of Microbial Fuel Cell Power as an Effective, Efficient and Environmentally Friendly Alternative Energy Sources

Authors: Annisa Ulfah Pristya, Andi Setiawan


Electricity is the primary requirement today's world, including Indonesia. This is because electricity is a source of electrical energy that is flexible to use. Fossil energy sources are the major energy source that is used as a source of energy power plants. Unfortunately, this conversion process impacts on the depletion of fossil fuel reserves and causes an increase in the amount of CO2 in the atmosphere, disrupting health, ozone depletion, and the greenhouse effect. Solutions have been applied are solar cells, ocean wave power, the wind, water, and so forth. However, low efficiency and complicated treatment led to most people and industry in Indonesia still using fossil fuels. Referring to this Fuel Cell was developed. Fuel Cells are electrochemical technology that continuously converts chemical energy into electrical energy for the fuel and oxidizer are the efficiency is considerably higher than the previous natural source of electrical energy, which is 40-60%. However, Fuel Cells still have some weaknesses in terms of the use of an expensive platinum catalyst which is limited and not environmentally friendly. Because of it, required the simultaneous source of electrical energy and environmentally friendly. On the other hand, Indonesia is a rich country in marine sediments and organic content that is never exhausted. Stacking the organic component can be an alternative energy source continued development of fuel cell is A Microbial Fuel Cell. Microbial Fuel Cells (MFC) is a tool that uses bacteria to generate electricity from organic and non-organic compounds. MFC same tools as usual fuel cell composed of an anode, cathode and electrolyte. Its main advantage is the catalyst in the microbial fuel cell is a microorganism and working conditions carried out in neutral solution, low temperatures, and environmentally friendly than previous fuel cells (Chemistry Fuel Cell). However, when compared to Chemistry Fuel Cell, MFC only have an efficiency of 40%. Therefore, the authors provide a solution in the form of Nano-MFC (Nano Microbial Fuel Cell): Utilization of Carbon Nano Tube to Increase Efficiency of Microbial Fuel Cell Power as an Effective, Efficient and Environmentally Friendly Alternative Energy Source. Nano-MFC has the advantage of an effective, high efficiency, cheap and environmental friendly. Related stakeholders that helped are government ministers, especially Energy Minister, the Institute for Research, as well as the industry as a production executive facilitator. strategic steps undertaken to achieve that begin from conduct preliminary research, then lab scale testing, and dissemination and build cooperation with related parties (MOU), conduct last research and its applications in the field, then do the licensing and production of Nano-MFC on an industrial scale and publications to the public.

Keywords: CNT, efficiency, electric, microorganisms, sediment

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4264 Construction of Microbial Fuel Cells from Local Benthic Zones

Authors: Maria Luiza D. Ramiento, Maria Lissette D. Lucas


Electricity is said to serve as the backbone of modern technology. Considering this, electricity consumption has dynamically grown due to the continuous demand. An alternative producer of energy concerning electricity must therefore be given focus. Microbial fuel cell wholly characterizes a new method of renewable energy recovery: the direct conversion of organic matter to electricity using bacteria. Electricity is produced as fuel or new food is given to the bacteria. The study concentrated in determining the feasibility of electricity production from local benthic zones. Microbial fuel cells were constructed to harvest the possible electricity and to test the presence of electricity producing microorganisms. Soil samples were gathered from Calumpang River, Palawan Mangrove Forest, Rosario River and Batangas Port. Eleven modules were constructed for the different trials of the soil samples. These modules were made of cathode and anode chambers connected by a salt bridge. For 85 days, the harvested voltage was measured daily. No parameter is added for the first 24 days. For the next 61 days, acetic acid was included in the first and second trials of the modules. Each of the trials of the soil samples gave a positive result in electricity production.There were electricity producing microbes in local benthic zones. It is observed that the higher the organic content of the soil sample, the higher the electricity harvested from it. It is recommended to identify the specific species of the electricity-producing microorganism present in the local benthic zone. Complement experiments are encouraged like determining the kind of soil particles to test its effect on the amount electricity that can be harvested. To pursue the development of microbial fuel cells by building a closed circuit in it is also suggested.

Keywords: microbial fuel cell, benthic zone, electricity, reduction-oxidation reaction, bacteria

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4263 High-Throughput Screening and Selection of Electrogenic Microbial Communities Using Single Chamber Microbial Fuel Cells Based on 96-Well Plate Array

Authors: Lukasz Szydlowski, Jiri Ehlich, Igor Goryanin


We demonstrate a single chamber, 96-well-plated based Microbial Fuel Cell (MFC) with printed, electronic components. This invention is aimed at robust selection of electrogenic microbial community under specific conditions, e.g., electrode potential, pH, nutrient concentration, salt concentration that can be altered within the 96 well plate array. This invention enables robust selection of electrogenic microbial community under the homogeneous reactor, with multiple conditions that can be altered to allow comparative analysis. It can be used as a standalone technique or in conjunction with other selective processes, e.g., flow cytometry, microfluidic-based dielectrophoretic trapping. Mobile conductive elements, like carbon paper, carbon sponge, activated charcoal granules, metal mesh, can be inserted inside to increase the anode surface area in order to collect electrogenic microorganisms and to transfer them into new reactors or for other analytical works. An array of 96-well plate allows this device to be operated by automated pipetting stations.

Keywords: bioengineering, electrochemistry, electromicrobiology, microbial fuel cell

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4262 Electricity Production Enhancement in a Constructed Microbial Fuel Cell MFC Using Iron Nanoparticles

Authors: Khaoula Bensaida, Osama Eljamal


The electrical energy generation through Microbial Fuel Cells (MFCs) using microorganisms is a renewable and sustainable approach. It creates truly an efficient technology for power production and wastewater treatment. MFC is an electrochemical device which turns wastewater into electricity. The most important part of MFC is microbes. Nano zero-valent Iron NZVI technique was successfully applied in degrading the chemical pollutants and cleaning wastewater. However, the use of NZVI for enhancing the current production is still not confirmed yet. This study aims to confirm the effect of these particles on the current generation by using MFC. A constructed microbial fuel cell, which utilizes domestic wastewater, has been considered for wastewater treatment and bio-electricity generation. The two electrodes were connected to an external resistor (200 ohms). Experiments were conducted in two steps. First, the MFC was constructed without adding NZVI particles (Control) while at a second step, nanoparticles were added with a concentration of 50mg/L. After 20 hours, the measured voltage increased to 5 and 8mV, respectively. To conclude, the use of zero-valent iron in an MFC system can increase electricity generation.

Keywords: bacterial growth, electricity generation, microbial fuel cell MFC, nano zero-valent iron NZVI.

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4261 Electricity Production from Vermicompost Liquid Using Microbial Fuel Cell

Authors: Pratthana Ammaraphitak, Piyachon Ketsuwan, Rattapoom Prommana


Electricity production from vermicompost liquid was investigated in microbial fuel cells (MFCs). The aim of this study was to determine the performance of vermicompost liquid as a biocatalyst for electricity production by MFCs. Chemical and physical parameters of vermicompost liquid as total nitrogen, ammonia-nitrogen, nitrate, nitrite, total phosphorus, potassium, organic matter, C:N ratio, pH, and electrical conductivity in MFCs were studied. The performance of MFCs was operated in open circuit mode for 7 days. The maximum open circuit voltage (OCV) was 0.45 V. The maximum power density of 5.29 ± 0.75 W/m² corresponding to a current density of 0.024 2 ± 0.0017 A/m² was achieved by the 1000 Ω on day 2. Vermicompost liquid has efficiency to generate electricity from organic waste.

Keywords: vermicompost liquid, microbial fuel cell, nutrient, electricity production

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4260 Application of Electrochemically Prepared PPy/MWCNT:MnO2 Nano-Composite Film in Microbial Fuel Cells for Sustainable Power Generation

Authors: Rajeev jain, D. C. Tiwari, Praveena Mishra


Nano-composite of polypyrrole/multiwalled carbon nanotubes:mangenese oxide (PPy/MWCNT:MnO2) was electrochemically deposited on the surface of carbon cloth (CC). The nano-composite was structurally characterized by FTIR, SEM, TEM and UV-Vis studies. Nano-composite was also characterized by cyclic voltammetry (CV), current voltage measurements (I-V) and the optical band gaps of film were evaluated from UV-Vis absorption studies. The PPy/MWCNT:MnO2 nano-composite was used as anode in microbial fuel cell (MFC) for sewage waste water treatment, power and coulombic efficiency measurement. The prepared electrode showed good electrical conductivity (0.1185 S m-1). This was also supported by band gap measurements (direct 0.8 eV, indirect 1.3 eV). The obtained maximum power density was 1125.4 mW m-2, highest chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiency was 93% and the maximum coulombic efficiency was 59%. For the first time PPy/MWCNT:MnO2 nano-composite for MFC prepared from nano-composite electrode having the potential for the use in MFC with good stability and better adhesion of microbes is being reported. The SEM images confirm the growth and development of microbe’s colony.

Keywords: carbon cloth, electro-polymerization, functionalization, microbial fuel cells, multi walled carbon nanotubes, polypyrrole

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4259 Experimental Investigation of Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells Operated with Nano Fiber and Nano Fiber/Nano Particle

Authors: Kevser Dincer, Basma Waisi, M. Ozan Ozdemir, Ugur Pasaogullari, Jeffrey McCutcheon


Nanofibers are defined as fibers with diameters less than 100 nanometers. They can be produced by interfacial polymerization, electrospinning and electrostatic spinning. In this study, behaviours of activated carbon nano fiber (ACNF), carbon nano-fiber (CNF), Polyacrylonitrile/carbon nanotube (PAN/CNT), Polyvinyl alcohol/nano silver (PVA/Ag) in PEM fuel cells are investigated experimentally. This material was used as gas diffusion layer (GDL) in PEM fuel cells. When the performances of these cells are compared to each other at 5x5 cm2 cell, it is found that the PVA/Ag exhibits the best performance among all. In this work, nano fiber and nano fiber/nano particles electrical conductivities have been studied to understand their effects on PEM fuel cell performance. According to the experimental results, the maximum electrical conductivity performance of the fuel cell with nanofiber was found to be at PVA/Ag. The electrical conductivities of CNF, ACNF, PAN/CNT are lower for PEM. The resistance of cell with PVA/Ag is lower than the resistance of cell with PAN/CNT, ACNF, CNF.

Keywords: proton exchange membrane fuel cells, electrospinning, carbon nano fiber, activate carbon nano-fiber, PVA fiber, PAN fiber, carbon nanotube, nano particle nanocomposites

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4258 Unraveling Biostimulation of Decolorized Mediators for Microbial Fuel Cell-Aided Textile Dye Decontamination

Authors: Pei-Lin Yueh, Bor-Yann Chen, Chuan-Chung Hsueh


This first-attempt study revealed that decolorized intermediates of azo dyes could act as redox mediators to assist wastewater (WW) decolorization due to enhancement of electron-transport phenomena. Electrochemical impedance spectra indicated that hydroxyl and amino-substituent(s) were functional group(s) as redox-mediator(s). As azo dyes are usually multiple benzene rings structured, their derived decolorized intermediates are likely to play roles of electron shuttles due to lower barrier of energy gap for electron shuttling. According to cyclic voltammetric profiles, redox-mediating characteristics of decolorized intermediates of azo dyes (e.g., RBu171, RR198, RR141, and RBk5) were clearly disclosed. With supplementation of biodecolorized metabolites of RR141 and 198, decolorization performance of could be evidently augmented. This study also suggested the optimal modes of microbial fuel cell (MFC)-assisted WW decolorization would be plug-flow or batch mode of operation with no mix. Single chamber-MFCs would be more favourable than double chamber MFCs due to non-mixing contacting reactor scheme for operation.

Keywords: redox mediators, dye decolorization, bioelectricity generation, microbial fuel cells

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4257 Bacterio-Algal Microbial Fuel Cells for Sustainable Power Production, Wastewater Treatment, and Desalination

Authors: Ann D. Christy, Beenish Saba


The Microbial fuel Cell (MFC) is a successful integrated technology for power production and wastewater treatment. MFCs are recognized for their dual function, but research in this field is still ongoing to increase efficiency and power output. One such effort is successful integration of phototrophic and autotrophic microorganisms to create bacterio-algal MFCs for sustainable electricity production along with wastewater treatment and algal biomass production. An MFC is typically configured with an anaerobic anodic chamber containing exoelectrogenic microorganisms separated by a cation exchange membrane from an adjacent aerobic cathodic chamber. The two electrodes are connected by an external circuit. This conventional MFC can be converted into a phototrophic MFC by introducing photosynthetic microorganisms into the cathode chamber. This study examines adding a third desalination chamber to a two-chamber bacterio-algal MFC. Successful results have been observed from these three-chamber MFCs demonstrating wastewater treatment in the anodic chamber, phototrophic algal growth in the cathodic chamber, and desalination in the middle chamber. The present article will summarize successful results of the bacterio-algal fuel cells and offer insights about the mechanisms involved. Tables summarizing the input substrate along with optimized operational conditions and output performance in terms of power production and efficiencies of water and wastewater treatment will be presented. The negative impacts and challenges will be discussed, along with possible future research directions. Results suggest that the three chamber bacterio-algal desalination cell has potential as a feasible technology for power production, wastewater treatment and desalination, but it needs further investigation under optimized conditions.

Keywords: bacterio-algal MFC, three chamber, microbial fuel cell, wastewater treatment and desalination

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4256 Optimal Feedback Linearization Control of PEM Fuel Cell

Authors: E. Shahsavari, R. Ghasemi, A. Akramizadeh


This paper presents a new method to design nonlinear feedback linearization controller for polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs). A nonlinear controller is designed based on nonlinear model to prolong the stack life of PEM fuel cells. Since it is known that large deviations between hydrogen and oxygen partial pressures can cause severe membrane damage in the fuel cell, feedback linearization is applied to the PEM fuel cell system so that the deviation can be kept as small as possible during disturbances or load variations. To obtain an accurate feedback linearization controller, tuning the linear parameters are always important. So in proposed study NSGA_II method was used to tune the designed controller in aim to decrease the controller tracking error. The simulation result showed that the proposed method tuned the controller efficiently.

Keywords: nonlinear dynamic model, polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells, feedback linearization, optimal control, NSGA_II

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4255 Experimental Investigation of the Effect of Temperature on A PEM Fuel Cell Performance

Authors: Remzi Şahin, Sadık Ata, Kevser Dincer


In this study, performance of proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell was experimentally investigated. The efficiency of energy conversion in PEM fuel cells is dependent on the catalytic activities of the catalysts used in the cathode and anode of membrane electrode assemblies. Membrane is considered the heart of PEM fuel cells without which they cannot produce electricity. PEM fuel cell performance increased with coating carbon nanotube (CNT). CNT show a unique combination of stiffness, strength, and tenacity compared to other fiber materials which usually lack one or more of these properties. Two different experiments were performed and the membrane performance has been determined by repeating the two experiments that were done before coating. The purposes of these experiments are the observation of power change due to a temperature change in the same voltage value.

Keywords: carbon nanotube (CNT), proton exchange membrane (PEM), fuel cell, spin method

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4254 Preparation and Characterization of Nanostructured FeN Electrocatalyst for Air Cathode Microbial Fuel Cell (MFC)

Authors: Md. Maksudur Rahman Khan, Chee Wai Woon, Huei Ruey Ong, Vignes Rasiah, Chin Kui Cheng, Kar Min Chan, E. Baranitharan


The present work represents a preparation of non-precious iron-based electrocatalyst (FeN) for ORR in air-cathode microbial fuel cell by pyrolysis treatment. Iron oxalate which recovered from the industrial wastewater and Phenanthroline (Phen) were used as the iron and nitrogen precursors, respectively in preparing FeN catalyst. The performance of as prepared catalyst (FeN) was investigated in a single chambered air cathode MFC in which anaerobic sludge was used as inoculum and palm oil mill effluent as substrate. The maximum open circuit potential (OCV) and the highest power density recorded were 0.543 V and 4.9 mW/m2, respectively. Physical characterization of FeN was elucidated by using Brunauner Emmett Teller (BET), X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) analysis and Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM) while the electrochemical properties were characterized by cyclic voltammetry (CV) analysis. The presence of biofilm on anode surface was examined using FESEM and confirmed using Infrared Spectroscopy and Thermogravimetric Analysis. The findings of this study demonstrated that FeN is electrochemically active and further modification is needed to increase the ORR catalytic activity.

Keywords: iron based catalyst, microbial fuel cells, oxygen reduction reaction, palm oil mill effluent

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4253 CoFe₂O₄ as Anode for Enhanced Energy Recovery in Microbial Fuel Cell

Authors: Mehak Munjal, Raj Kishore Sharma, Gurmeet Singh


Microbial Fuel Cells (MFCs) are an alternative sustainable approach that utilize bacteria present in waste water as a bio-catalyst for the production of energy. It is a promising growing technology with minimal requirement for chemical supplements. Here electrode material plays a vital role in its performance. The present study represents CoFe2O4 spinel as a novel anode material in the MFC. It not only improve the bacterial metabolics but also enhance the power output. Generally, biocompatible conductive carbon paper/cloth, graphite and stainless steel are utilised as anode in MFCs. However, these materials lack electrochemical activity for anodic microbial reaction. Therefore, we developed CoFe2O4 on graphite sheet which enhanced the anodic charge transfer process. Redox pair in CoFe2O4 helped in improvement of extracellular electron transfer, thereby enhancing the performance. The physical characterizations (FT-IR, XRD, Raman) and electrochemical measurements demonstrate the strong interaction with E.coli bacteria and thus providing an excellent power density i.e. 1850 mW/m2 .The maximum anode half -cell potential is measured to be 0.65V. Therefore, use of noble metal free anodic material further decrease the cost and the long term cell stability makes it an effective material for practical applications.

Keywords: microbial fuel cell, cobalt ferrite, E. coli, bioelectricity

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4252 Synchrotron X-Ray Based Investigation of Fe Environment in Porous Anode of Shewanella oneidensis Microbial Fuel Cell

Authors: Sunil Dehipawala, Gayathrie Amarasuriya, N. Gadura, G. Tremberger Jr, D.Lieberman, Harry Gafney, Todd Holden, T. Cheung


The iron environment in Fe-doped Vycor Anode was investigated with EXAFS using Brookhaven Synchrotron Light Source. The iron-reducing Shewanella oneidensis culture was grown in a microbial fuel cell under anaerobic respiration. The Fe bond length was found to decrease and correlate with the amount of biofilm growth on the Fe-doped Vycor Anode. The data suggests that Fe-doped Vycor Anode would be a good substrate to study the Shewanella oneidensis nanowire structure using EXAFS.

Keywords: EXAFS, fourier transform, Shewanella oneidensis, microbial fuel cell

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4251 Pre-Treatment of Anodic Inoculum with Nitroethane to Improve Performance of a Microbial Fuel Cell

Authors: Rajesh P.P., Md. Tabish Noori, Makarand M. Ghangrekar


Methanogenic substrate loss is reported to be a major bottleneck in microbial fuel cell which significantly reduces the power production capacity and coulombic efficiency (CE) of microbial fuel cell (MFC). Nitroethane is found to be a potent inhibitor of hydrogenotrophic methanogens in rumen fermentation process. Influence of nitroethane pre-treated sewage sludge inoculum on suppressing the methanogenic activity and enhancing the electrogenesis in MFC was evaluated. MFC inoculated with nitroethane pre-treated anodic inoculum demonstrated a maximum operating voltage of 541 mV, with coulombic efficiency and sustainable volumetric power density of 39.85 % and 14.63 W/m3 respectively. Linear sweep voltammetry indicated a higher electron discharge on the anode surface due to enhancement of electrogenic activity while suppressing methanogenic activity. A 63 % reduction in specific methanogenic activity was observed in anaerobic sludge pre-treated with nitroethane; emphasizing significance of this pretreatment for suppressing methanogenesis and its utility for enhancing electricity generation in MFC.

Keywords: coulombic efficiency, methanogenesis inhibition, microbial fuel cell, nitroethane

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4250 Transition to Hydrogen Cities in Korea and Japan

Authors: Minhee Son, Kyung Nam Kim


This study explores the plan of the Korean and Japanese governments to transition into the hydrogen economy. Two motor companies, Hyundai Motor Company from Korea and Toyota from Japan, released the Hydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicle to monopolize the green energy automobile market. Although, they are the main countries which emit greenhouse gas, hydrogen energy can bring from a certain industry places, such as chemical plants and steel mills. Recent, the two countries have been focusing on the hydrogen industry including a fuel cell vehicle, a hydrogen station, a fuel cell plant, a residential fuel cell. The purpose of this paper is to find out the differences of the policies in the two countries to be hydrogen societies. We analyze the behavior of the public and private sectors in Korea and Japan about hydrogen energy and fuel cells for the transition of the hydrogen economy. Finally we show the similarities and differences of both countries in hydrogen fuel cells. And some cities have feature such as Hydrogen cities. Hydrogen energy can make impact environmental sustainability.

Keywords: fuel cell, hydrogen city, hydrogen fuel cell vehicle, hydrogen station, hydrogen energy

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4249 Microbial Fuel Cells: Performance and Applications

Authors: Andrea Pietrelli, Vincenzo Ferrara, Bruno Allard, Francois Buret, Irene Bavasso, Nicola Lovecchio, Francesca Costantini, Firas Khaled


This paper aims to show some applications of microbial fuel cells (MFCs), an energy harvesting technique, as clean power source to supply low power device for application like wireless sensor network (WSN) for environmental monitoring. Furthermore, MFC can be used directly as biosensor to analyse parameters like pH and temperature or arranged in form of cluster devices in order to use as small power plant. An MFC is a bioreactor that converts energy stored in chemical bonds of organic matter into electrical energy, through a series of reactions catalysed by microorganisms. We have developed a lab-scale terrestrial microbial fuel cell (TMFC), based on soil that acts as source of bacteria and flow of nutrient and a lab-scale waste water microbial fuel cell (WWMFC), where waste water acts as flow of nutrient and bacteria. We performed large series of tests to exploit the capability as biosensor. The pH value has strong influence on the open circuit voltage (OCV) delivered from TMFCs. We analyzed three condition: test A and B were filled with same soil but changing pH from 6 to 6.63, test C was prepared using a different soil with a pH value of 6.3. Experimental results clearly show how with higher pH value a higher OCV was produced; indeed reactors are influenced by different values of pH which increases the voltage in case of a higher pH value until the best pH value of 7 is achieved. The influence of pH on OCV of lab-scales WWMFC was analyzed at pH value of 6.5, 7, 7.2, 7.5 and 8. WWMFCs are influenced from temperature more than TMFCs. We tested the power performance of WWMFCs considering four imposed values of ambient temperature. Results show how power performance increase proportionally with higher temperature values, doubling the output power from 20° to 40°. The best value of power produced from our lab-scale TMFC was equal to 310 μW using peaty soil, at 1KΩ, corresponding to a current of 0.5 mA. A TMFC can supply proper energy to low power devices of a WSN by means of the design of three stages scheme of an energy management system, which adapts voltage level of TMFC to those required by a WSN node, as 3.3V. Using a commercial DC/DC boost converter, that needs an input voltage of 700 mV, the current source of 0.5 mA, charges a capacitor of 6.8 mF until it will have accumulated an amount of charge equal to 700 mV in a time of 10 s. The output stage includes an output switch that close the circuit after a time of 10s + 1.5ms because the converter can boost the voltage from 0.7V to 3.3V in 1.5 ms. Furthermore, we tested in form of clusters connected in series up to 20 WWMFCs, we have obtained a high voltage value as output, around 10V, but low current value. MFC can be considered a suitable clean energy source to be used to supply low power devices as a WSN node or to be used directly as biosensor.

Keywords: energy harvesting, low power electronics, microbial fuel cell, terrestrial microbial fuel cell, waste-water microbial fuel cell, wireless sensor network

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4248 Performance of Osmotic Microbial Fuel Cell in Wastewater Treatment and Electricity Generation: A Critical Review

Authors: Shubhangi R. Deshmukh, Anupam B. Soni


Clean water and electricity are vital services needed in all communities. Bio-degradation of wastewater contaminants and desalination technologies are the best possible alternatives for the global shortage of fresh water supply. Osmotic microbial fuel cell (OMFC) is a versatile technology that uses microorganism (used for biodegradation of organic waste) and membrane technology (used for water purification) for wastewater treatment and energy generation simultaneously. This technology is the combination of microbial fuel cell (MFC) and forward osmosis (FO) processes. OMFC can give more electricity and clean water than the MFC which has a regular proton exchange membrane. FO gives many improvements such as high contamination removal, lower operating energy, raising high proton flux than other pressure-driven membrane technology. Lower concentration polarization lowers the membrane fouling by giving osmotic water recovery without extra cost. In this review paper, we have discussed the principle, mechanism, limitation, and application of OMFC technology reported to date. Also, we have interpreted the experimental data from various literature on the water recovery and electricity generation assessed by a different component of OMFC. The area of producing electricity using OMFC has further scope for research and seems like a promising route to wastewater treatment.

Keywords: forward osmosis, microbial fuel cell, osmotic microbial fuel cell, wastewater treatment

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4247 Soil Bioremediation Monitoring Systems Powered by Microbial Fuel Cells

Authors: András Fülöp, Lejla Heilmann, Zsolt Szabó, Ákos Koós


Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) present a sustainable biotechnological solution to future energy demands. The aim of this study was to construct soil based, single cell, membrane-less MFC systems, operated without treatment to continuously power on-site monitoring and control systems during the soil bioremediation processes. Our Pseudomonas aeruginosa 541 isolate is an ideal choice for MFCs, because it is able to produce pyocyanin which behaves as electron-shuttle molecule, furthermore, it also has a significant antimicrobial effect. We tested several materials and structural configurations to obtain long term high power output. Comparing different configurations, a proton exchange membrane-less, 0.6 m long with 0.05 m diameter MFC tubes offered the best long-term performances. The long-term electricity production were tested from starch, yeast extract (YE), carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) with humic acid (HA) as a mediator. In all cases, 3 kΩ external load have been used. The two best-operated systems were the Pseudomonas aeruginosa 541 containing MFCs with 1 % carboxymethyl cellulose and the MFCs with 1% yeast extract in the anode area and 35% hydrogel in the cathode chamber. The first had 3.3 ± 0.033 mW/m2 and the second had 4.1 ± 0.065 mW/m2 power density values. These systems have operated for 230 days without any treatment. The addition of 0.2 % HA and 1 % YE referred to the volume of the anode area resulted in 1.4 ± 0.035 mW/m2 power densities. The mixture of 1% starch with 0.2 % HA gave 1.82 ± 0.031 mW/m2. Using CMC as retard carbon source takes effect in the long-term bacterial survivor, thus enable the expression of the long term power output. The application of hydrogels in the cathode chamber significantly increased the performance of the MFC units due to their good water retention capacity.

Keywords: microbial fuel cell, bioremediation, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, biotechnological solution

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4246 Cryogenic Separation of CO2 from Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell Anode Outlet—Experimental Guidelines

Authors: Jarosław Milewski, Rafał Bernat


This paper presents an analysis of using cryogenic separation unit for recovering fuel from anode off gas of molten carbonate fuel cells (MCFCs) in order to upgrade the efficiently of the unit. In the proposed solution, the CSU is used for condensing water and carbon dioxide from anode off gas, and re-cycling the rest of the stream to the anode, saving certain amount of fuel (at least 30%). The resulting system efficiency is increased considerably. CSU, virtually consumes power, thus this solution has energy penalty as well, on the other hand, MCFC generates large amount of heat at elevated temperature, thus part of the CSU can be based on absorption chiller. In all cases, a high amount of fuel is obtained after condensation of water and carbon dioxide and re-cycled to the anode inlet. Based on mathematical modeling done previously, the concept and guidelines for forthcoming experimental investigations are presented in this paper. During planned experiments, an existing single cell laboratory stand will be equipped with re-cycle device (a fan, a peristaltic pump, etc.). Parallel, a mixture of anode off gas will be cooled down for determining the proper temperature for the separation of water and carbon dioxide.

Keywords: cryogenic separation, experiments, fuel cells, molten carbonate fuel cells

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4245 Power Generation and Treatment potential of Microbial Fuel Cell (MFC) from Landfill Leachate

Authors: Beenish Saba, Ann D. Christy


Modern day municipal solid waste landfills are operated and controlled to protect the environment from contaminants during the biological stabilization and degradation of the solid waste. They are equipped with liners, caps, gas and leachate collection systems. Landfill gas is passively or actively collected and can be used as bio fuel after necessary purification, but leachate treatment is the more difficult challenge. Leachate, if not recirculated in a bioreactor landfill system, is typically transported to a local wastewater treatment plant for treatment. These plants are designed for sewage treatment, and often charge additional fees for higher strength wastewaters such as leachate if they accept them at all. Different biological, chemical, physical and integrated techniques can be used to treat the leachate. Treating that leachate with simultaneous power production using microbial fuel cells (MFC) technology has been a recent innovation, reported its application in its earliest starting phase. High chemical oxygen demand (COD), ionic strength and salt concentration are some of the characteristics which make leachate an excellent substrate for power production in MFCs. Different materials of electrodes, microbial communities, carbon co-substrates and temperature conditions are some factors that can be optimized to achieve simultaneous power production and treatment. The advantage of the MFC is its dual functionality but lower power production and high costs are the hurdles in its commercialization and more widespread application. The studies so far suggest that landfill leachate MFCs can produce 1.8 mW/m2 with 79% COD removal, while amendment with food leachate or domestic wastewater can increase performance up to 18W/m3 with 90% COD removal. The columbic efficiency is reported to vary between 2-60%. However efforts towards biofilm optimization, efficient electron transport system studies and use of genetic tools can increase the efficiency of the MFC and can determine its future potential in treating landfill leachate.

Keywords: microbial fuel cell, landfill leachate, power generation, MFC

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4244 Formaldehyde Degradation from Indoor Air by Encapsulated Microbial Cells

Authors: C. C. Castro, T. Senechal, D. Lahem, A. L. Hantson


Formaldehyde is one of the most representative volatile organic compounds present in the indoor air of residential units and workplaces. Increased attention has been given to this toxic compound because of its carcinogenic effect in health. Biological or enzymatic transformation is being explored to degrade this pollutant. Pseudomonas putida is a bacteria able to synthesize formaldehyde dehydrogenase, an enzyme known to use formaldehyde as a substrate and transform it into less toxic compounds. The immobilization of bacterial cells in the surface of different supports through spraying or dip-coating is herein proposed. The determination of the enzymatic activity on the coated surfaces was performed as well as the study of its effect on formaldehyde degradation in an isolated chamber. Results show that the incorporation of microbial cells able to synthesize depolluting enzymes can be an innovative, low-cost, effective and environmentally friendly solution for indoor air depollution.

Keywords: cells encapsulation, formaldehyde, formaldehyde dehydrogenase, indoor air depollution

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4243 SPR Immunosensor for the Detection of Staphylococcus aureus

Authors: Muhammad Ali Syed, Arshad Saleem Bhatti, Chen-zhong Li, Habib Ali Bokhari


Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biosensors have emerged as a promising technique for bioanalysis as well as microbial detection and identification. Real time, sensitive, cost effective, and label free detection of biomolecules from complex samples is required for early and accurate diagnosis of infectious diseases. Like many other types of optical techniques, SPR biosensors may also be successfully utilized for microbial detection for accurate, point of care, and rapid results. In the present study, we have utilized a commercially available automated SPR biosensor of BI company to study the microbial detection form water samples spiked with different concentration of Staphylococcus aureus bacterial cells. The gold thin film sensor surface was functionalized to react with proteins such as protein G, which was used for directed immobilization of monoclonal antibodies against Staphylococcus aureus. The results of our work reveal that this immunosensor can be used to detect very small number of bacterial cells with higher sensitivity and specificity. In our case 10^3 cells/ml of water have been successfully detected. Therefore, it may be concluded that this technique has a strong potential to be used in microbial detection and identification.

Keywords: surface plasmon resonance (SPR), Staphylococcus aureus, biosensors, microbial detection

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4242 Laser Welding Technique Effect for Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell Application

Authors: Chih-Chia Lin, Ching-Ying Huang, Cheng-Hong Liu, Wen-Lin Wang


A complete fuel cell stack comprises several single cells with end plates, bipolar plates, gaskets and membrane electrode assembly (MEA) components. Electrons generated from cells are conducted through bipolar plates. The amount of cells' components increases as the stack voltage increases, complicating the fuel cell assembly process and mass production. Stack assembly error influence cell performance. PEM fuel cell stack importing laser welding technique could eliminate transverse deformation between bipolar plates to promote stress uniformity of cell components as bipolar plates and MEA. Simultaneously, bipolar plates were melted together using laser welding to decrease interface resistance. A series of experiments as through-plan and in-plan resistance measurement test was conducted to observe the laser welding effect. The result showed that the through-plane resistance with laser welding was a drop of 97.5-97.6% when the contact pressure was about 1MPa to 3 MPa, and the in-plane resistance was not significantly different for laser welding.

Keywords: PEM fuel cell, laser welding, through-plan, in-plan, resistance

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4241 Use of Microbial Fuel Cell for Metal Recovery from Wastewater

Authors: Surajbhan Sevda


Metal containing wastewater is generated in large quintiles due to rapid industrialization. Generally, the metal present in wastewater is not biodegradable and can be accumulated in living animals, humans and plant tissue, causing disorder and diseases. The conventional metal recovery methods include chemical, physical and biological methods, but these are chemical and energy intensive. The recent development in microbial fuel cell (MFC) technology provides a new approach for metal recovery; this technology offers a flexible platform for both reduction and oxidation reaction oriented process. The use of MFCs will be a new platform for more efficient and low energy approach for metal recovery from the wastewater. So far metal recover was extensively studied using chemical, physical and biological methods. The MFCs present a new and efficient approach for removing and recovering metals from different wastewater, suggesting the use of different electrode for metal recovery can be a new efficient and effective approach.

Keywords: metal recovery, microbial fuel cell, wastewater, bioelectricity

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4240 Performance Improvement of The Nano-Composite Based Proton Exchange Membranes (PEMs)

Authors: Yusuf Yılmaz, Kevser Dincer, Derya Saygılı


In this study, performance of PEMs was experimentally investigated. Coating on the cathode side of the PEMs fuel cells was accomplished with the spray method by using NaCaNiBO. A solution having 0,1 gr NaCaNiBO +10 mL methanol was prepared. This solution was taken out and filled into a spray. Then the cathode side of PEMs fuel cells was cladded with NaCaNiBO by using spray method. After coating, the membrane was left out to dry for 24 hours. The PEM fuel cells were mounted to the system in single, double, triple and fourfold manner in order to spot the best performance. The performance parameter considered was the power to current ratio. The best performance was found to occur at the 300th second with the power/current ratio of 3.55 Watt/Ampere and on the fourfold parallel mounting after the coating; whereas the poorest performance took place at the 210th second, power to current ratio of 0.12 Watt/Ampere and on the twofold parallel connection after the coating.

Keywords: nano-composites, proton exchange membranes, performance improvement, fuel cell

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