Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 162

Search results for: Arshad Saleem Bhatti

162 SPR Immunosensor for the Detection of Staphylococcus aureus

Authors: Muhammad Ali Syed, Arshad Saleem Bhatti, Chen-zhong Li, Habib Ali Bokhari


Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biosensors have emerged as a promising technique for bioanalysis as well as microbial detection and identification. Real time, sensitive, cost effective, and label free detection of biomolecules from complex samples is required for early and accurate diagnosis of infectious diseases. Like many other types of optical techniques, SPR biosensors may also be successfully utilized for microbial detection for accurate, point of care, and rapid results. In the present study, we have utilized a commercially available automated SPR biosensor of BI company to study the microbial detection form water samples spiked with different concentration of Staphylococcus aureus bacterial cells. The gold thin film sensor surface was functionalized to react with proteins such as protein G, which was used for directed immobilization of monoclonal antibodies against Staphylococcus aureus. The results of our work reveal that this immunosensor can be used to detect very small number of bacterial cells with higher sensitivity and specificity. In our case 10^3 cells/ml of water have been successfully detected. Therefore, it may be concluded that this technique has a strong potential to be used in microbial detection and identification.

Keywords: surface plasmon resonance (SPR), Staphylococcus aureus, biosensors, microbial detection

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161 Electrochemical Performance of Al-Mn2O3 Based Electrode Materials

Authors: Noor Ul Ain Bhatti, M. Junaid Khan, Javed Ahmad, Murtaza Saleem, Shahid M. Ramay, Saadat A. Siddiqi


Manganese oxide is being recently used as electrode material for rechargeable batteries. In this study, Al incorporated Mn2O3 compositions were synthesized to study the effect of Al doping on electrochemical performance of host material. Structural studies were carried out using X-ray diffraction analysis to confirm the phase stability and explore the lattice parameters, crystallite size, lattice strain, density and cell volume. Morphology and composition were analyzed using field emission scanning electron microscope and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, respectively. Dynamic light scattering analysis was performed to observe the average particle size of the compositions. FTIR measurements exhibit the O-Al-O and O-Mn-O and Al-O bonding and with increasing the concentration of Al, the vibrational peaks of Mn-O become sharper. An enhanced electrochemical performance was observed in compositions with higher Al content.

Keywords: Mn2O3, electrode materials, energy storage and conversion, electrochemical performance

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160 A Comparative Study on the Synthesis, Characterizations and Biological (Antibacterial and Antifungal) Activities of Zinc Doped Silica Oxide Nanoparticles Based on Various Solvents

Authors: Muhammad Arshad, Ghulam Hussain Bhatti, Abdul Qayyum


Zinc-doped silica oxide nanoparticles having size 7.93nm were synthesized by the deposition precipitation method by using different solvents (acetonitrile, n-hexane, isoamylalchol). Biological potential such as antibacterial activities against Bacillussubtilusand Escherichia coli, and antifungal activities against Candida parapsilosis and Aspergilusniger were also investigated by Disc diffusion method. Different characterizations techniques including Fournier Transmission Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM), Thermo-gravimeteric Analysis (TGA), Atomic forced microscopy (AFM), and Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS) were used. FT-IR characterization confirmed the presence of metal oxide bond (SiO2) while XRD showed the hexagonal structure. SEM and TEM characterization showed the morphology of nanoparticles. AFM study showed good particle size distribution as depicted by a histogram. DLS study showed the gradual decease in the size of nanoparticles from 24.86nm to 13.24 nm. Highest antibacterial activities revealed by acetonitrile solvents (6%and 4.5%) followed by isoamylalchol (3% and 2.4%) while n-hexane solvent showed the lowest activity (2%and 1%) respectively. Higher antifungal activities exhibited by n-hexane (0.34 % and 0.43%) followed by isoamylalchol (0.27% and 0.19%) solvent while acetonitrile (0.21% and 0.17%) showed least activity respectively. Statistical analysis by using one-way ANOVA also indicated the significant results of both biological activities.

Keywords: nanoparticles, precipitation methods, antibacterial, antifungal, characterizations

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159 Helicoverpa armigera Hubner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) Susceptibility to Bacillus thuringiensis Crystal Toxins

Authors: Muhammad Jawad Saleem, Faisal Hafeez, Muhammad Arshad, Afifa Naeem, Ayesha Iftekhar


Bacillus thuringiensis is a gram-positive spore-forming bacterium that belongs to the Bacillus cereus group of Bacilli and it produces ICP (insecticidal crystal protein) Cry toxins or Cysts toxins. Spores are produced as parasporal crystalline inclusions bodies (also known as endotoxins) at the onset of sporulation during the stationary growth phase. During vegetative growth that does not form crystals and is called vegetative insecticidal proteins (VIP) and secreted an insecticidal protein (SIP). Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) is important for pest management either in the form of insecticides or through incorporated in the gene of the crop. Bioassays were conducted on the F2 generation of 1st instar larvae of H. armigera by the diet incorporation method to determine the susceptibility to Bt Cry toxins (Cry1Ac, Cry2Ab, Cry2A). The median lethal concentration (LC₅₀) of Cry1Ac, Cry2Ab, Cry2A ranged from 0.11 to 1.06 µg/ml and moult inhibitory concentration (MIC₅₀) of Cry1Ac, Cry2Ab, Cry2A ranged from 0.05 to 0.25 µg/ml. Cry1Ac was found most toxic to 1st instar larvae of H. armigera as compared to other Bt Cry toxins (Cry1Ac, Cry2Ab, Cry2A). The experimental results are important to policy-makers and technology providers to develop strategies for the exploitation of transgenic Bt cotton varieties as a component of integrated pest management.

Keywords: Bt toxin, Cry1Ac, Cry2Ab, Cry2A, susceptibility, Helicoverpa armigera

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158 Effects of Bile Acids and Lipase Supplementation in Low-Energy Diets on Growth Performance and Meat Quality in Broiler Chickens

Authors: Muhammad Adeel Arshad, Shaukat Ali Bhatti


The study aimed to investigate the effect of bile acids and lipase supplementation in low-energy diets on growth performance and meat quality of broilers. Seven hundred day-old Cobb-500 broiler chicks with an average initial body weight of 45.9 ± 0.3 g were assigned to 5 dietary treatments, with five replications of 28 birds each in a completely randomized design. The five treatments were as follows: (i) HE: broilers received a diet with high energy content; (ii) LE: broilers received a diet with low energy content and energy content reduced by 100 kcal/kg as compared to HE; (iii) LEB: broilers received a diet similar to the LE group supplemented with 300 g/ton bile acids; (iv) LEL: broilers received a diet similar to the LE group supplemented with 180 g/ton lipase enzyme and (v) LEBL: broilers received a diet similar to the LE group supplemented with both 300 g/ton bile acids and 180 g/ton lipase enzyme. The experimental period lasted for 35 days. Broilers fed HE had a lower (P < 0.05) body weight (BW) gain and lower feed intake (1-35 d), but during finisher period (21-35 d), BW gain was similar with other treatments. Feed conversion ratio (FCR) was lower in HE and higher in LEBL group (P < 0.05), while the LE, LEB, and LEL had intermediate values. At 35 d no difference occurred between treatment for water holding capacity and pH of breast and thigh muscles (P > 0.05). The relative weight of pancreas was higher (P < 0.05) in LEB treatment but lower (P < 0.05) in LEL treatment. In conclusion, bile acids and lipase supplementation at 300 g/ton and 150g/ton of feed in low-energy diets respectively had no effect on broiler performance and meat quality. However, FCR was improved in HE treatment.

Keywords: bile acids, energy, enzyme, growth

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157 Direct Fed Microbes: A Better Approach to Maximize Utilization of Roughages in Tropical Ruminants

Authors: Muhammad Adeel Arshad, Shaukat Ali Bhatti, Faiz-ul Hassan


Manipulating microbial ecosystem in the rumen is considered as an important strategy to optimize production efficiency in ruminants. In the past, antibiotics and synthetic chemical compounds have been used for the manipulation of rumen fermentation. However, since the non-therapeutic use of antibiotics has been banned, efforts are being focused to search out safe alternative products. In tropics, crop residues and forage grazing are major dietary sources for ruminants. Poor digestibility and utilization of these feedstuffs by animals is a limiting factor to exploit the full potential of ruminants in this area. Hence, there is a need to enhance the utilization of these available feeding resources. One of the potential strategies in this regard is the use of direct-fed microbes. Bacteria and fungi are mostly used as direct-fed microbes to improve animal health and productivity. Commonly used bacterial species include lactic acid-producing and utilizing bacteria (Lactobacillus, Streptococcus, Enterococcus, Bifidobacterium, and Bacillus) and fungal species of yeast are Saccharomyces and Aspergillus. Direct-fed microbes modulate microbial balance in the gastrointestinal tract through the competitive exclusion of pathogenic species and favoring beneficial microbes. Improvement in weight gain and feed efficiency has been observed as a result of feeding direct-fed bacteria. The use of fungi as a direct-fed microbe may prevent excessive production of lactate and harmful oxygen in the rumen leading to better feed digestibility. However, the mechanistic mode of action for bacterial or fungal direct-fed microbes has not been established yet. Various reports have confirmed an increase in dry matter intake, milk yield, and milk contents in response to the administration of direct-fed microbes. However, the application of a direct-fed microbe has shown variable responses mainly attributed to dosages and strains of microbes. Nonetheless, it is concluded that the inclusion of direct-fed microbes may mediate the rumen ecosystem to manage lactic acid production and utilization in both clinical and sub-acute rumen acidosis.

Keywords: microbes, roughages, rumen, feed efficiency, production, fermentation

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156 Influence of Preparation, Characterisation and Application of Carbon Nano Tube

Authors: Dhaivat S. Soni, Snehal Thakor, Afroz Bhatti


The prepare CNTs in bulk quantity by as easiest as possible method with highly pure and small diameter. Prepared CNTs first charactered its structural parameter for the conformation of CNTs and purity. Surface morphology of CNTs stured by using various instruments finally study application of prepared CNTs in various field. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were synthesized in large scale by pyrolyzing activated carbon in sealed autoclaves.

Keywords: nanostructures, nanotubes, carbon, pyrolysis

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155 Direct and Residual Effects of Boron and Zinc on Growth and Nutrient Status of Rice and Wheat Crop

Authors: M. Saleem, M. Shahnawaz, A. W. Gandahi, S. M. Bhatti


The micronutrients boron and zinc deficiencies are extensive in the areas of rice-wheat cropping system. Optimum levels of these nutrients in soil are necessary for healthy crop growth. Since rice and wheat are major staple food of worlds’ populace, the higher yields and nutrition status of these crops has direct effect on the health of human being and economy of the country. A field study was conducted to observe the direct and residual effect of two selected micronutrients boron (B) and zinc (Zn)) on rice and wheat crop growth and its grain nutrient status. Each plot received either B or Zn at the rates of 0, 1, 2, 3 and 4 kg B ha⁻¹, and 5, 10, 15 and 20 kg Zn ha⁻¹, combined B and Zn application at 1 kg B and 5 kg Zn ha⁻¹, 2 kg B and 10 kg Zn ha⁻¹. Colemanite ore were used as source of B and zinc sulfate for Zn. The second season wheat crop was planted in the same plots after the interval period of 30 days and during this time gap soil was fallow. Boron and Zn application significantly enhanced the plant height, number of tillers, Grains panicle⁻¹ seed index fewer empty grains panicle⁻¹ and yield of rice crop at all defined levels as compared to control. The highest yield (10.00 tons/ha) was recorded at 2 Kg B, 10 Kg Zn ha⁻¹ rates. Boron and Zn concentration in grain and straw significantly increased. The application of B also improved the nutrition status of rice as B, protein and total carbohydrates content of grain augmented. The analysis of soil samples collected after harvest of rice crop showed that the B and Zn content in post-harvest soil samples was high in colemanite and zinc sulfate applied plots. The residual B and Zn were also effectual for the second season wheat crop, as the growth parameters plant height, number of tillers, earhead length, weight 1000 grains, B and Zn content of grain significantly improved. The highest wheat grain yield (4.23 tons/ha) was recorded at the residual rates of 2 kg B and 10 kg Zn ha⁻¹ than the other treatments. This study showed that one application of B and Zn can increase crop yields for at least two consecutive seasons and the mineral colemanite can confidently be used as source of B for rice crop because very small quantities of these nutrients are consumed by first season crop and remaining amount was present in soil which were used by second season wheat crop for healthy growth. Consequently, there is no need to apply these micronutrients to the following crop when it is applied on the previous one.

Keywords: residual boron, zinc, rice, wheat

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154 Enhancing of Laser Imaging by Using Ultrasound Effect

Authors: Hayder Raad Hafuze, Munqith Saleem Dawood, Jamal Abdul Jabbar


The effect of using both ultrasounds with laser in medical imaging of the biological tissue has been studied in this paper. Different wave lengths of incident laser light (405 nm, 532 nm, 650 nm, 808 nm and 1064 nm) were used with different ultrasound frequencies (1MHz and 3.3MHz). The results showed that, the change of acoustic intensity enhance the laser penetration of the tissue for different thickness. The existence of the ideal Raman-Nath diffraction pattern were investigated in terms of phase delay and incident angle.

Keywords: tissue, laser, ultrasound, effect, imaging

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153 Estimating the Life-Distribution Parameters of Weibull-Life PV Systems Utilizing Non-Parametric Analysis

Authors: Saleem Z. Ramadan


In this paper, a model is proposed to determine the life distribution parameters of the useful life region for the PV system utilizing a combination of non-parametric and linear regression analysis for the failure data of these systems. Results showed that this method is dependable for analyzing failure time data for such reliable systems when the data is scarce.

Keywords: masking, bathtub model, reliability, non-parametric analysis, useful life

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152 Design and Analysis of a Clustered Nozzle Configuration and Comparison of Its Thrust

Authors: Abdul Hadi Butt, Asfandyar Arshad


The purpose of this paper is to study the thrust variation in different configurations of clustered nozzles. It involves the design and analysis of clustered configuration of nozzles using Ansys fluent. Clustered nozzles with different configurations are simulated and compared on basis of effective exhaust thrust. Mixing length for the flow interaction is also calculated. Further clustered configurations are analyzed over different altitudes. An optimum value of the thrust among different configurations is proposed at the end of comparisons.

Keywords: CD nozzle, cluster, thrust, fluent, ANSYS

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151 Review of Different Machine Learning Algorithms

Authors: Syed Romat Ali Shah, Bilal Shoaib, Saleem Akhtar, Munib Ahmad, Shahan Sadiqui


Classification is a data mining technique, which is recognizedon Machine Learning (ML) algorithm. It is used to classifythe individual articlein a knownofinformation into a set of predefinemodules or group. Web mining is also a portion of that sympathetic of data mining methods. The main purpose of this paper to analysis and compare the performance of Naïve Bayse Algorithm, Decision Tree, K-Nearest Neighbor (KNN), Artificial Neural Network (ANN)and Support Vector Machine (SVM). This paper consists of different ML algorithm and their advantages and disadvantages and also define research issues.

Keywords: Data Mining, Web Mining, classification, ML Algorithms

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150 Investigating the Glass Ceiling Phenomenon: An Empirical Study of Glass Ceiling's Effects on Selection, Promotion and Female Effectiveness

Authors: Sharjeel Saleem


The glass ceiling has been a burning issue for many researchers. In this research, we examine gender of the BOD, training and development, workforce diversity, positive attitude towards women, and employee acts as antecedents of glass ceiling. Furthermore, we also look for effects of glass ceiling on likelihood of female selection and promotion and on female effectiveness. Multiple linear regression conducted on data drawn from different public and private sector organizations support our hypotheses. The research, however, is limited to Faisalabad city and only females from minority group are targeted here.

Keywords: glass ceiling, stereotype attitudes, female effectiveness

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149 Synthesis, Spectroscopic and Thermal Studies of Copper(I) Chlorido Complexes of Thioureas

Authors: Muhammad Mufakkar, Ghulam Hussain Bhatti, Maryem Rana


The study of the coordination behavior of thiones is of considerable interest due to the similarity of their binding sites to those in living systems. The complexation of thiones towards Copper(I) has also received considerable attraction in view of their variable bonding modes, structural diversity and promising biological implications. Copper (I) complexes of thioureas of the general formula: CuLCl, CuL2Cl and CuL3Cl [where L= Thiourea and its N- and N, N/- mono and di alkyl and phenyl derivatives] have been prepared using Cu(I)CN in the presence of HCl. The complexes have been characterized by thermal, IR and NMR(1H and 13C) spectroscopy. An upfield shift in 13C NMR and downfield shifts in 1H NMR are consistent with the sulfur coordination to Copper(I). The disappearance of a band around 2200 cm⁻¹ in IR and a resonance around 146 ppm in 13C NMR indicates that during the course of reaction the cyanide group of the Copper(I) salt has been replaced by chloride leading to the formation of chlorido complexes.

Keywords: Thiones, complexation, spectra, TGA, thermogram, chemical shifts, deshielding, resonance

Procedia PDF Downloads 147
148 Comparing the Motion of Solar System with Water Droplet Motion to Predict the Future of Solar System

Authors: Areena Bhatti


The geometric arrangement of planet and moon is the result of a self-organizing system. In our solar system, the planets and moons are constantly orbiting around the sun. The aim of this theory is to compare the motion of a solar system with the motion of water droplet when poured into a water body. The basic methodology is to compare both motions to know how they are related to each other. The difference between both systems will be that one is extremely fast, and the other is extremely slow. The role of this theory is that by looking at the fast system we can conclude how slow the system will get to an end. Just like ripples are formed around water droplet that move away from the droplet and water droplet forming those ripples become small in size will tell us how solar system will behave in the same way. So it is concluded that large and small systems can work under the same process but with different motions of time, and motion of the solar system is the slowest form of water droplet motion.

Keywords: motion, water, sun, time

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147 Comparative Study of Computer Assisted Instruction and Conventional Method in Attaining and Retaining Mathematical Concepts

Authors: Nirupma Bhatti


This empirical study was aimed to compare the effectiveness of Computer Assisted Instruction (CAI) and Conventional Method (CM) in attaining and retaining mathematical concepts. Instructional and measuring tools were developed for five units of Matrix Algebra, two of Calculus and five of Numerical Analysis. Reliability and validity of these tools were also examined in pilot study. Ninety undergraduates participated in this study. Pre-test – post-test equivalent – groups research design was used. SPSS v.16 was used for data analysis. Findings supported CAI as better mode of instruction for attainment and retention of basic mathematical concepts. Administrators should motivate faculty members to develop Computer Assisted Instructional Material (CAIM) in mathematics for higher education.

Keywords: attainment, CAI, CAIM, conventional method, retention

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146 Software Architecture Optimization Using Swarm Intelligence Techniques

Authors: Arslan Ellahi, Syed Amjad Hussain, Fawaz Saleem Bokhari


Optimization of software architecture can be done with respect to a quality attributes (QA). In this paper, there is an analysis of multiple research papers from different dimensions that have been used to classify those attributes. We have proposed a technique of swarm intelligence Meta heuristic ant colony optimization algorithm as a contribution to solve this critical optimization problem of software architecture. We have ranked quality attributes and run our algorithm on every QA, and then we will rank those on the basis of accuracy. At the end, we have selected the most accurate quality attributes. Ant colony algorithm is an effective algorithm and will perform best in optimizing the QA’s and ranking them.

Keywords: complexity, rapid evolution, swarm intelligence, dimensions

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145 Assessment of Mechanical Properties of Induction Furnace Slag as Partial Replacement of Fine Aggregate in Concrete

Authors: Muhammad Javed Bhatti, Tariq Ali, Muazz Ali


Due to growing environmental awareness in Pakistan, the researchers are increasingly turning to assess and analyze properties of industrial waste and finding solutions on using industrial waste as secondary material. Due to industrialization, enormous by-products are produced and to utilize these by-products is the main challenge faced in Pakistan. Induction furnace slag is one of the industrial by-products from the iron and steel making industries. This paper highlights the true utilization of induction furnace slag as partial replacement of fine aggregate. For the experimental investigation, mixes were prepared with fine aggregate replacement using 0 percent, 5 percent, 10 percent, 15 percent, 20 percent, 25 percent, 30 percent, 35 percent and 40 percent induction furnace slag to evaluate the workability, compaction factor, compressive strength, flexural strength, modulus of elasticity.

Keywords: compressive strength, deflection, induction furnace slag, workability

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144 The Effects of SMS on the Formal Writings of the Students: A Comparative Study among the Students of Different Departments of IUB

Authors: Sumaira Saleem


This study reveals that the use of SMS effect the formal writing of the students. SMS is in vogue sine the last decade but its detrimental effects are effecting not only to the set norms but also deviant forms of expressions have come into the community to which all are not acquainted and it creates a hurdle in effective communication. It also determines the reasons behind the usage of SMS practices in the formal writings like in assignments and examinations. For this study a questionnaire was designed for faculty and students the data was collected from The Islamia University Bahawalpur and the formal work of the students was also collected to check the manifestation of SMS practices in writings. Data was analysed on excel sheet and the tables and graphs are used to explain the ratios and percentages of SMS usage. The results show that the usage of SMS has very strong effect upon the students writing.

Keywords: technology, writing, effects, SMS

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143 Hybridization and Dynamic Performance Analysis of Three-Wheeler Electric Auto Rickshaw

Authors: Muhammad Asghar, A. I. Bhatti, T. Izhar


The three-wheeled auto-rickshaw with a two or four-stroke Gasoline, Liquid Petrolium Gas (LPG) or Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) engine is a petite, highly maneuverable vehicle and best suited for the small and heavily-congested roads and is an affordable means of transportation in Pakistan cities. However due to in-efficient engine design, it is a main cause of air-pollution in the shape of white smoke (CO2) (greenhouse gases) at the tail pipe. Due to the environmental pollution, a huge number of battery powered vehicles have been imported from all over the world to fulfill the need of country. Effect of degree of hybridization on fuel economy and acceleration performance has been discussed in this paper. From mild to full hybridization stages have been examined. Optimal level of hybridization ranges depending on the total driving power of vehicle are suggested. The degree of hybridization is varied and fuel economy is seen accordingly by using Advisor (NREL) software. The novel vehicle drive-train is modeled and simulated in the Advisor software.

Keywords: advisor, hybridization, fuel economy, Three-Wheeled Rickshaw

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142 The Impact of Corporate Social Responsibility and Relationship Marketing on Relationship Maintainer and Customer Loyalty by Mediating Role of Customer Satisfaction

Authors: Anam Bhatti, Sumbal Arif, Mariam Mehar, Sohail Younas


CSR has become one of the imperative implements in satisfying customers. The impartial of this research is to calculate CSR, relationship marketing, and customer satisfaction. In Pakistan, there is not enough research work on the effect of CSR and relationship marketing on relationship maintainer and customer loyalty. To find out deductive approach and survey method is used as research approach and research strategy respectively. This research design is descriptive and quantitative study. For data, collection questionnaire method with semantic differential scale and seven point scales are adopted. Data has been collected by adopting the non-probability convenience technique as sampling technique and the sample size is 400. For factor confirmatory factor analysis, structure equation modeling and medication analysis, regression analysis Amos software were used. Strong empirical evidence supports that the customer’s perception of CSR performance is highly influenced by the values.

Keywords: CSR, Relationship marketing, Relationship maintainer, Customer loyalty, Customer satisfaction

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141 Enhancing Academic Achievement of University Student through Stress Management Training: A Study from Southern Punjab, Pakistan

Authors: Rizwana Amin, Afshan Afroze Bhatti


The study was a quasi-experimental pre-post test design including two groups. Data was collected from 127 students through non-probability random sampling from Bahaudin Zakariya University Multan. The groups were given pre-test using perceived stress scale and information about academic achievement was taken by self-report. After screening, 27 participants didn’t meet the criterion. Remaining 100 participants were divided into two groups (experimental and control). Further, 4 students of experimental group denied taking intervention. Then 46 understudies were separated into three subgroups (16, 15 and 15 in each) for training. The experimental groups were given the stress management training, each of experimental group attended one 3-hour training sessions separately while the control group was only given pre-post assessment. The data were analyzed using ANCOVA method (analysis of covariance) t–test. Results of the study indicate that stress training will lead to increased emotional intelligence and academic achievement of students.

Keywords: stress, stress management, academic achievement, students

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140 Control the Flow of Big Data

Authors: Shizra Waris, Saleem Akhtar


Big data is a research area receiving attention from academia and IT communities. In the digital world, the amounts of data produced and stored have within a short period of time. Consequently this fast increasing rate of data has created many challenges. In this paper, we use functionalism and structuralism paradigms to analyze the genesis of big data applications and its current trends. This paper presents a complete discussion on state-of-the-art big data technologies based on group and stream data processing. Moreover, strengths and weaknesses of these technologies are analyzed. This study also covers big data analytics techniques, processing methods, some reported case studies from different vendor, several open research challenges and the chances brought about by big data. The similarities and differences of these techniques and technologies based on important limitations are also investigated. Emerging technologies are suggested as a solution for big data problems.

Keywords: computer, it community, industry, big data

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139 Ziegler Nichols Based Integral Proportional Controller for Superheated Steam Temperature Control System

Authors: Amil Daraz, Suheel Abdullah Malik, Tahir Saleem, Sajid Ali Bhati


In this paper, Integral Proportional (I-P) controller is employed for superheated steam temperature control system. The Ziegler-Nichols (Z-N) method is used for the tuning of I-P controller. The performance analysis of Z-N based I-P controller is assessed on superheated steam system of 500-MW boiler. The comparison of transient response parameters such as rise time, settling time, and overshoot is made with Z-N based Proportional Integral (PI) controller. It is observed from the results that Z-N based I-P controller completely eliminates the overshoot in the output response.

Keywords: superheated steam, process reaction curve, PI and I-P controller, Ziegler-Nichols Tuning

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138 Experimental Assessment of Polypropylene Plastic Aggregates(PPA) for Pavement Construction: Their Mechanical Properties via Marshall Test

Authors: Samiullah Bhatti, Safdar Abbas Zaidi, Syed Murtaza Ali Jafri


This research paper presents the results of using plastic aggregate in flexible pavement. Plastic aggregates have been prepared with polypropylene (PP) recycled products and have been tested with Marshall apparatus. Grade 60/70 bitumen has been chosen for this research with a total content of 2.5 %, 3 % and 3.5 %. Plastic aggregates are mixed with natural aggregates with different proportions and it ranges from 10 % to 100 % with an increment of 10 %. Therefore, a total of 10 Marshall cakes were prepared with plastic aggregates in addition to a standard pavement sample. In total 33 samples have been tested for Marshall stability, flow and voids in mineral aggregates. The results show an increase in the value when it changes from 2.5 % bitumen to 3 % and after then it goes again toward declination. Thus, 3 % bitumen content has been found as the most optimum value for flexible pavements. Among all the samples, 20 % PP aggregates sample has been found satisfactory with respect to all the standards provided by ASTM. Therefore, it is suggested to use 20 plastic aggregates in flexible pavement construction. A comparison of bearing capacity and skid resistance is also observed.

Keywords: marshall test, polypropylene plastic, plastic aggregates, flexible pavement alternative, recycling of plastic waste

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137 Deposition of Diamond Like Carbon Thin Film by Pulse Laser Deposition for Surgical Instruments

Authors: M. Khalid Alamgir, Javed Ahsan Bhatti, M. Zafarullah Khan


Thin film of amorphous carbon (DLC) was deposited on 316 steel using Nd: YAG laser having energy 300mJ. Pure graphite was used as a target. The vacuum in the deposition chamber was generated in the range of 10-6 mbar by turbo molecular pump. Ratio of sp3 to sp2 content shows amorphous nature of the film. This was confirmed by Raman spectra having two peaks around 1300 cm-1 i.e. D-band to 1700 cm-1 i.e. G-band. If sp3 bonding ratio is high, the films behave like diamond-like whereas, with high sp2, films are graphite-like. The ratio of sp3 and sp2 contents in the film depends upon the deposition method, hydrogen contents and system parameters. The structural study of the film was carried out by XRD. The hardness of the films as measured by Vickers hardness tester and was found to be 28 GPa. The EDX result shows the presence of carbon contents on the surface in high rate and optical microscopy result shows the smoothness of the film on substrate. The film possesses good adhesion and can be used to coat surgical instruments.

Keywords: DLC, thin film, Raman spectroscopy, XRD, EDX

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136 Development Framework Based on Mobile Augmented Reality for Pre-Literacy Kit

Authors: Nazatul Aini Abd Majid, Faridah Yunus, Haslina Arshad, Mohammad Farhan Mohammad Johari


Mobile technology, augmented reality, and game-based learning are some of the key learning technologies that can be fully optimized to promote pre-literacy skills. The problem is how to design an effective pre-literacy kit that utilizes some of the learning technologies. This paper presents a framework based on mobile augmented reality for the development of pre-literacy kit. This pre-literacy kit incorporates three main components which are contents, design, and tools. A prototype of a mobile app based on the three main components was developed for promoting pre-literacy. The results show that the children and teachers gave positive feedbacks after using the mobile app for the pre-literacy.

Keywords: framework, mobile technology, augmented reality, pre-literacy skills

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135 Binary Programming for Manufacturing Material and Manufacturing Process Selection Using Genetic Algorithms

Authors: Saleem Z. Ramadan


The material selection problem is concerned with the determination of the right material for a certain product to optimize certain performance indices in that product such as mass, energy density, and power-to-weight ratio. This paper is concerned about optimizing the selection of the manufacturing process along with the material used in the product under performance indices and availability constraints. In this paper, the material selection problem is formulated using binary programming and solved by genetic algorithm. The objective function of the model is to minimize the total manufacturing cost under performance indices and material and manufacturing process availability constraints.

Keywords: optimization, material selection, process selection, genetic algorithm

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134 Effect of Chemicals on Keeping Quality and Vase Life of Carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.) Cv. Eskimo

Authors: Qurrat Ul Ain Farooq, Misha Arshad, Malik Abid Mehmood


The experiment under discussion was carried out to check the effect of different concentrations of sucrose (2%, 4%, 6%), CuSO4 (200ppm, 300ppm, 400 ppm), GA3 (25ppm, 50ppm, 75 ppm), and combinations of sucrose and GA3 (2% +25 ppm), (4%+50 ppm), (6%+75 ppm) on the carnation cut flower. Visual symptoms of flower senescence, changes in weight (g) of a flower was observed and recorded by using weight balance. The experiment was laid out according to CRD (Complete Randomized Design) it was two-factor factorial, the software used for the analysis was Statistix. Maximum TSS were found in 6% sucrose + 75 ppm GA3 (8.3 %) followed by CuSO4 400 ppm, 4% sucrose + 50 ppm GA3 and 6% sucrose + 75 ppm GA3. Maximum vase life in term of days was recorded in treatment. CuSO4 400 ppm and 6% sucrose + 75 ppm GA3 (8 days) followed by CuSO4 200 ppm (7.7 days). CuSO4 300 ppm & 6% sucrose + 75 ppm GA3 were at par (7 days). Maximum water uptake was also observed in 6% sucrose + 75 ppm GA3 (56.7 ml) followed by CuSO4 400 ppm (49.7 ml) and 50 ppm GA3 (45 ml). Hence, CuSO4 400 ppm found best in all aspects.

Keywords: carnation, vaselife, GA3, CuSO4, sucrose

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133 Evaluation of the Impact of Pavement Roughness on Vehicle Emissions by HDM-4

Authors: Muhammad Azhar, Arshad Hussain


Vehicular emissions have increased in recent years due to rapid growth in world traffic resulting in an increase in associated problems such as air pollution and climate change, therefore it’s necessary to control vehicle emissions. This study looks at the effect of road maintenance on vehicle emissions. The Highway Development and Management Tool (HDM-4) was used to find the effect of road maintenance on vehicle emissions. Key data collected were traffic volume and composition, vehicle characteristics, pavement characteristics and climate data of the study area. Two options were analysed using the HDM-4 software; the base case or do nothing while the second is overlay maintenance. The study also showed a strong correlation between average roughness and yearly emission levels in both the alternatives. Finally, the study showed that proper maintenance reduces the roughness and emissions.

Keywords: vehicle emissions, road roughness, IRI, maintenance, HDM-4, CO2

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