Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2470

Search results for: microbial contribution

2470 Contributions of Microbial Activities to Tomato Growth and Yield under an Organic Production System

Authors: O. A. Babalola, A. F Adekunle, F. Oladeji, A. T. Osungbade, O. A. Akinlaja

Abstract:

Optimizing microbiological activities in an organic crop production system is crucial to the realization of optimum growth and development of the crops. Field and pot experiments were conducted to assess soil microbial activities, growth and yield of tomato varieties in response to 4 rates of composted plant and animal residues. The compost rates were 0, 5, 10 and 20 t ha-1, and improved Ibadan and Ibadan local constituted the varieties. Fungi population, microbial biomass nitrogen, cellulase and proteinase activities were significantly higher (P≤ 0.05) at the rhizosphere of the local variety than that of improved variety. This led to a significantly higher number of branches, plant height, leaf area, number of fruits and less days to maturity in the local variety. Furthermore, compost-amended soil had significantly higher microbial populations, microbial biomass N, P and C, enzyme activities, soil N, P and organic carbon than control, but amendment of 20 t ha-1 gave significantly higher values than other compost rates. Consequently, growth parameters and tissue N significantly increased in all compost treatments while dry matter yield and weight of fruits were significantly higher in soil amended with 20 t ha-1. Correlation analysis showed that microbial activities at 6 weeks after transplanting (6 WAT) were more consistently and highly correlated with growth and yield parameters. It was concluded that microbial activities could be optimized to improve the yield of the two tomato varieties in an organic production system, through the application of compost, particularly at 20 t ha-1.

Keywords: compost, microbial activities, microbial contribution, tomato growth and yield

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2469 Synthesis, Characterization, Validation of Resistant Microbial Strains and Anti Microbrial Activity of Substitted Pyrazoles

Authors: Rama Devi Kyatham, D. Ashok, K. S. K. Rao Patnaik, Raju Bathula

Abstract:

We have shown the importance of pyrazoles as anti-microbial chemical entities. These compounds have generally been considered significant due to their wide range of pharmacological acivities and their discovery motivates new avenues of research.The proposed pyrazoles were synthesized and evaluated for their anti-microbial activities. The Synthesized compounds were analyzed by different spectroscopic methods.

Keywords: pyrazoles, validation, resistant microbial strains, anti-microbial activities

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2468 LIFirr with an Indicator of Microbial Activity in Paraffinic Oil

Authors: M. P. Casiraghi, C. M. Quintella, P. Almeida

Abstract:

Paraffinic oils were submitted to microbial action. The microorganisms consisted of bacteria of the genera Pseudomonas sp and Bacillus lincheniforms. The alterations in interfacial tension were determined using a tensometer and applying the hanging drop technique at room temperature (299 K ±275 K). The alteration in the constitution of the paraffins was evaluated by means of gas chromatography. The microbial activity was observed to reduce interfacial tension by 54 to 78%, as well as consuming the paraffins C19 to C29 and producing paraffins C36 to C44. The LIFirr technique made it possible to determine the microbial action quickly.

Keywords: paraffins, biosurfactants, LIFirr, microbial activity

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2467 Short-Term Impact of a Return to Conventional Tillage on Soil Microbial Attributes

Authors: Promil Mehra, Nanthi Bolan, Jack Desbiolles, Risha Gupta

Abstract:

Agricultural practices affect the soil physical and chemical properties, which in turn influence the soil microorganisms as a function of the soil biological environment. On the return to conventional tillage (CT) from continuing no-till (NT) cropping system, a very little information is available from the impact caused by the intermittent tillage on the soil biochemical properties from a short-term (2-year) study period. Therefore, the contribution made by different microorganisms (fungal, bacteria) was also investigated in order to find out the effective changes in the soil microbial activity under a South Australian dryland faring system. This study was conducted to understand the impact of microbial dynamics on the soil organic carbon (SOC) under NT and CT systems when treated with different levels of mulching (0, 2.5 and 5 t/ha). Our results demonstrated that from the incubation experiment the cumulative CO2 emitted from CT system was 34.5% higher than NT system. Relatively, the respiration from surface layer (0-10 cm) was significantly (P<0.05) higher by 8.5% and 15.8 from CT; 8% and 18.9% from NT system w.r.t 10-20 and 20-30 cm respectively. Further, the dehydrogenase enzyme activity (DHA) and microbial biomass carbon (MBC) were both significantly lower (P<0.05) under CT, i.e., 7.4%, 7.2%, 6.0% (DHA) and 19.7%, 15.7%, 4% (MBC) across the different mulching levels (0, 2.5, 5 t/ha) respectively. In general, it was found that from both the tillage system the enzyme activity and MBC decreased with the increase in depth (0-10, 10-20 and 20-30 cm) and with the increase in mulching rate (0, 2.5 and 5 t/ha). From the perspective of microbial stress, there was 28.6% higher stress under CT system compared to NT system. Whereas, the microbial activity of different microorganisms like fungal and bacterial activities were determined by substrate-induced inhibition respiration using antibiotics like cycloheximide (16 mg/gm of soil) and streptomycin sulphate (14 mg/gm of soil), by trapping the CO2 using an alkali (0.5 M NaOH) solution. The microbial activities were confirmed through platting technique, where it was that found bacterial activities were 46.2% and 38.9% higher than fungal activity under CT and NT system. In conclusion, it was expected that changes in the relative abundance and activity of different microorganisms (bacteria and fungi) under different tillage systems could significantly affect the C cycling and storage due to its unique structures and differential interactions with the soil physical properties.

Keywords: tillage, soil respiration, MBC, fungal-bacterial activity

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2466 Nitrogen Fixation in Hare Gastrointestinal Tract

Authors: Tatiana A. Kuznetsova, Maxim V. Vechersky, Natalia V. Kostina, Marat M. Umarov, Elena I. Naumova

Abstract:

One of the main problems of nutrition of phytophagous animals is the insufficiency of protein in their forage. Usually, symbiotic microorganisms highly contribute both to carbohydrates and nitrogen compounds of the food. But it is not easy to utilize microbial biomass in the large intestine and caecum for the animals with hindgut fermentation. So that, some animals, as well hares, developed special mechanism of contribution of such biomass - obligate autocoprophagy, or reingestion. Hares have two types of feces - the hard and the soft. Hard feces are excreted at night, while hares are vigilance ("foraging period"), and the soft ones (caecotrophs) are produced and reingested in the day-time during hares "resting-period". We examine the role of microbial digestion in providing nitrogen nutrition of hare (Lepus europaeus). We determine the ability of nitrogen fixation in fornix and stomach body, small intestine, caecum and colon of hares' gastro-intestinal tract in two main period of hares activity - "resting-period" (day time) and "foraging period" (late-evening and very-early-morning). We use gas chromatography to measure levels of nitrogen fixing activity (acetylene reduction). Nitrogen fixing activity was detected in the contents of all analyzed parts of the gastrointestinal tract. Maximum values were recorded in the large intestine. Also daily dynamics of the process was detected. Thus, during hare “resting-period” (caecotrophs formation) N2-fixing activity was significantly higher than during “foraging period”, reaching 0,3 nmol C2H4/g*h. N2-fixing activity in the gastrointestinal tract can allocate to significant contribution of nitrogen fixers to microbial digestion in hare and confirms the importance of coprophagy as a nitrogen source in lagomorphs.

Keywords: coprophagy, gastrointestinal tract, lagomorphs, nitrogen fixation

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2465 Influence of the Reliability Index on the Safety Factor of the Concrete Contribution to Shear Strength of HSC Beams

Authors: Ali Sagiroglu, Sema Noyan Alacali, Guray Arslan

Abstract:

This paper presents a study on the influence of the safety factor in the concrete contribution to shear strength of high-strength concrete (HSC) beams according to TS500. In TS500, the contribution of concrete to shear strength is obtained by reducing diagonal cracking strength with a safety factor of 0.8. It was investigated that the coefficient of 0.8 considered in determining the contribution of concrete to the shear strength corresponds to which value of failure probability. Also, the changes in the reduction factor depending on different coefficients of variation of concrete were examined.

Keywords: reinforced concrete, beam, shear strength, failure probability, safety factor

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2464 Microbial Contamination of Haemolymph of Honeybee (Apis mellifera intermissa) Parasitized by Varroa Destructor

Authors: Messaouda Belaid, Salima Kebbouche-Gana

Abstract:

The negative effect of the Varroa bee colony is very important. They cause morphological and physiological changes, causing a decrease in performance of individuals and long-term death of the colony. Indirectly, they weaken the bees become much more sensitive to the different pathogenic organisms naturally present in the colony. This work aims to research secondary infections of microbial origin occurred in the worker bee nurse due to parasitism by Varroa destructor. The feeding behaviour of Varroa may causes damaging host integument. The results show that the microbial contamination enable to be transmitted into honeybee heamocoel are Bacillus sp, Pseudomonas sp, Enterobacter, Aspergillus.

Keywords: honeybee, Apis mellifera intermissa, microbial contamination, Varroa destructor

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2463 High-Throughput Screening and Selection of Electrogenic Microbial Communities Using Single Chamber Microbial Fuel Cells Based on 96-Well Plate Array

Authors: Lukasz Szydlowski, Jiri Ehlich, Igor Goryanin

Abstract:

We demonstrate a single chamber, 96-well-plated based Microbial Fuel Cell (MFC) with printed, electronic components. This invention is aimed at robust selection of electrogenic microbial community under specific conditions, e.g., electrode potential, pH, nutrient concentration, salt concentration that can be altered within the 96 well plate array. This invention enables robust selection of electrogenic microbial community under the homogeneous reactor, with multiple conditions that can be altered to allow comparative analysis. It can be used as a standalone technique or in conjunction with other selective processes, e.g., flow cytometry, microfluidic-based dielectrophoretic trapping. Mobile conductive elements, like carbon paper, carbon sponge, activated charcoal granules, metal mesh, can be inserted inside to increase the anode surface area in order to collect electrogenic microorganisms and to transfer them into new reactors or for other analytical works. An array of 96-well plate allows this device to be operated by automated pipetting stations.

Keywords: bioengineering, electrochemistry, electromicrobiology, microbial fuel cell

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2462 An Assessment of the Effects of Microbial Products on the Specific Oxygen Uptake in Submerged Membrane Bioreactor

Authors: M. F. R. Zuthi, H. H. Ngo, W. S. Guo, S. S. Chen, N. C. Nguyen, L. J. Deng, T. D. C Tran

Abstract:

Sustaining a desired rate of oxygen transfer for microbial activity is a matter of major concern for Biological Wastewater Treatment (MBR). The study reported in the paper was aimed at assessing the effects of microbial products on the Specific Oxygen Uptake Rate (SOUR) in a Conventional Membrane Bioreactor (CMBR) and that in a Sponge Submerged MBR (SSMBR). The production and progressive accumulation of Soluble Microbial Products (SMP) and Bound-Extracellular Polymeric Substances (BEPS) were found affecting the SOUR of the microorganisms which varied at different stages of operation of the MBR systems depending on the variable concentrations of the SMP/bEPS. The effect of bEPS on the SOUR was stronger in the SSMBR compared to that of the SMP, while relative high concentrations of SMP had adverse effects on the SOUR of the CMBR system. Of the different mathematical correlations analyzed in the study, logarithmic mathematical correlations could be established between SOUR and bEPS in SSMBR, and similar correlations could also be found between SOUR and SMP concentrations in the CMBR.

Keywords: microbial products, microbial activity, specific oxygen uptake rate, membrane bioreactor

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2461 Microbial Activity and Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emissions in Recovery Process in a Grassland of China

Authors: Qiushi Ning

Abstract:

The nitrogen (N) is an important limiting factor of various ecosystems, and the N deposition rate is increasing unprecedentedly due to anthropogenic activities. The N deposition altered the microbial growth and activity, and microbial mediated N cycling through changing soil pH, the availability of N and carbon (C). The CO2, CH4 and N2O are important greenhouse gas which threaten the sustainability and function of the ecosystem. With the prolonged and increasing N enrichment, the soil acidification and C limitation will be aggravated, and the microbial biomass will be further declined. The soil acidification and lack of C induced by N addition are argued as two important factors regulating the microbial activity and growth, and the studies combined soil acidification with lack of C on microbial community are scarce. In order to restore the ecosystem affected by chronic N loading, we determined the responses of microbial activity and GHG emssions to lime and glucose (control, 1‰ lime, 2‰ lime, glucose, 1‰ lime×glucose and 2‰ lime×glucose) addition which was used to alleviate the soil acidification and supply C resource into soils with N addition rates 0-50 g N m–2yr–1. The results showed no significant responses of soil respiration and microbial biomass (MBC and MBN) to lime addition, however, the glucose substantially improved the soil respiration and microbial biomass (MBC and MBN); the cumulative CO2 emission and microbial biomass of lime×glucose treatments were not significantly higher than those of only glucose treatment. The glucose and lime×glucose treatments reduced the net mineralization and nitrification rate, due to inspired microbial growth via C supply incorporating more inorganic N to the biomass, and mineralization of organic N was relatively reduced. The glucose addition also increased the CH4 and N2O emissions, CH4 emissions was regulated mainly by C resource as a substrate for methanogen. However, the N2O emissions were regulated by both C resources and soil pH, the C was important energy and the increased soil pH could benefit the nitrifiers and denitrifiers which were primary producers of N2O. The soil respiration and N2O emissions increased with increasing N addition rates in all glucose treatments, as the external C resource improved microbial N utilization. Compared with alleviated soil acidification, the improved availability of C substantially increased microbial activity, therefore, the C should be the main limiting factor in long-term N loading soils. The most important, when we use the organic C fertilization to improve the production of the ecosystems, the GHG emissions and consequent warming potentials should be carefully considered.

Keywords: acidification and C limitation, greenhouse gas emission, microbial activity, N deposition

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2460 Study on the Treatment of Waste Water Containing Nitrogen Heterocyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons by Phenol-Induced Microbial Communities

Authors: Zhichao Li

Abstract:

This project has treated the waste-water that contains the nitrogen heterocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, by using the phenol-induced microbial communities. The treatment of nitrogen heterocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons is a difficult problem for coking waste-water treatment. Pyridine, quinoline and indole are three kinds of most common nitrogen heterocyclic compounds in the f, and treating these refractory organics biologically has always been a research focus. The phenol-degrading bacteria can be used in the enhanced biological treatment effectively, and has a good treatment effect. Therefore, using the phenol-induced microbial communities to treat the coking waste-water can remove multiple pollutants concurrently, and improve the treating efficiency of coking waste-water. Experiments have proved that the phenol-induced microbial communities can degrade the nitrogen heterocyclic ring aromatic hydrocarbon efficiently.

Keywords: phenol, nitrogen heterocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, phenol-degrading bacteria, microbial communities, biological treatment technology

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2459 Study on Microbial Pretreatment for Enhancing Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Corncob

Authors: Kessara Seneesrisakul, Erdogan Gulari, Sumaeth Chavadej

Abstract:

The complex structure of lignocellulose leads to great difficulties in converting it to fermentable sugars for the ethanol production. The major hydrolysis impediments are the crystallinity of cellulose and the lignin content. To improve the efficiency of enzymatic hydrolysis, microbial pretreatment of corncob was investigated using two bacterial strains of Bacillus subtilis A 002 and Cellulomonas sp. TISTR 784 (expected to break open the crystalline part of cellulose) and lignin-degrading fungus, Phanerochaete sordida SK7 (expected to remove lignin from lignocellulose). The microbial pretreatment was carried out with each strain under its optimum conditions. The pretreated corncob samples were further hydrolyzed to produce reducing glucose with low amounts of commercial cellulase (25 U•g-1 corncob) from Aspergillus niger. The corncob samples were determined for composition change by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and scanning electron microscope (SEM). According to the results, the microbial pretreatment with fungus, P. sordida SK7 was the most effective for enhancing enzymatic hydrolysis, approximately, 40% improvement.

Keywords: corncob, enzymatic hydrolysis, glucose, microbial pretreatment

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2458 Microbial Quality of Beef and Mutton in Bauchi Metropolis

Authors: Abdullahi Mohammed

Abstract:

The microbial quality of beef and mutton sold in four major markets of Bauchi metropolis was assessed in order to assist in ascertaining safety. Shops were selected from 'Muda Lawal', 'Yelwa', 'Wunti', and 'Gwallameji' markets. The total bacterial count was used as index of quality. A total of thirty two (32) samples were collected in two successive visits. The samples were packed and labelled in a sterile polythene bags for transportation to the laboratory. Microbial analysis was carried out immediately upon arrival under a septic condition, where aerobic plate was used in determining the microbial load. Result showed that beef and mutton from Gwallameji had the highest bacterial count of 9.065 X 105 cfu/ml and 8.325 X 105 cfu/ml for beef and mutton respectively followed by Wunti market (6.95 X 105 beef and 4.838 X 105 motton) and Muda Lawal (4.86 X 105 cfu/ml beef and 5.998 X 105 cfu/ml mutton). Yelwa had 5.175 X 105 and 5.30 X 105 for beef and mutton respectively. Bacterial species isolated from the samples were Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp, Streptococcus species and Staphylococcus species. However, results obtained from all markets showed that there was no significant differences between beef and mutton in terms of microbial quality.

Keywords: beef, mutton, salmonella, sterile

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2457 Effect of Fertilization and Combined Inoculation with Azospirillum brasilense and Pseudomonas fluorescens on Rhizosphere Microbial Communities of Avena sativa (Oats) and Secale Cereale (Rye) Grown as Cover Crops

Authors: Jhovana Silvia Escobar Ortega, Ines Eugenia Garcia De Salamone

Abstract:

Cover crops are an agri-technological alternative to improve all properties of soils. Cover crops such as oats and rye could be used to reduce erosion and favor system sustainability when they are grown in the same agricultural cycle of the soybean crop. This crop is very profitable but its low contribution of easily decomposable residues, due to its low C/N ratio, leaves the soil exposed to erosive action and raises the need to reduce its monoculture. Furthermore, inoculation with the plant growth promoting rhizobacteria contributes to the implementation, development and production of several cereal crops. However, there is little information on its effects on forage crops which are often used as cover crops to improve soil quality. In order to evaluate the effect of combined inoculation with Azospirillum brasilense and Pseudomonas fluorescens on rhizosphere microbial communities, field experiments were conducted in the west of Buenos Aires province, Argentina, with a split-split plot randomized complete block factorial design with three replicates. The factors were: type of cover crop, inoculation and fertilization. In the main plot two levels of fertilization 0 and 7 40-0-5 (NPKS) were established at sowing. Rye (Secale cereale cultivar Quehué) and oats (Avena sativa var Aurora.) were sown in the subplots. In the sub-subplots two inoculation treatments are applied without and with application of a combined inoculant with A. brasilense and P. fluorescens. Due to the growth of cover crops has to be stopped usually with the herbicide glyphosate, rhizosphere soil of 0-20 and 20-40 cm layers was sampled at three sampling times which were: before glyphosate application (BG), a month after glyphosate application (AG) and at soybean harvest (SH). Community level of physiological profiles (CLPP) and Shannon index of microbial diversity (H) were obtained by multivariate analysis of Principal Components. Also, the most probable number (MPN) of nitrifiers and cellulolytics were determined using selective liquid media for each functional group. The CLPP of rhizosphere microbial communities showed significant differences between sampling times. There was not interaction between sampling times and both, types of cover crops and inoculation. Rhizosphere microbial communities of samples obtained BG had different CLPP with respect to the samples obtained in the sampling times AG and SH. Fertilizer and depth of sampling also caused changes in the CLPP. The H diversity index of rhizosphere microbial communities of rye in the sampling time BG were higher than those associated with oats. The MPN of both microbial functional types was lower in the deeper layer since these microorganisms are mostly aerobic. The MPN of nitrifiers decreased in rhizosphere of both cover crops only AG. At the sampling time BG, the NMP of both microbial types were larger than those obtained for AG and SH. This may mean that the glyphosate application could cause fairly permanent changes in these microbial communities which can be considered bio-indicators of soil quality. Inoculation and fertilizer inputs could be included to improve management of these cover crops because they can have a significant positive effect on the sustainability of the agro-ecosystem.

Keywords: community level of physiological profiles, microbial diversity, plant growth promoting rhizobacteria, rhizosphere microbial communities, soil quality, system sustainability

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2456 Analysis of a Lignocellulose Degrading Microbial Consortium to Enhance the Anaerobic Digestion of Rice Straws

Authors: Supanun Kangrang, Kraipat Cheenkachorn, Kittiphong Rattanaporn, Malinee Sriariyanun

Abstract:

Rice straw is lignocellulosic biomass which can be utilized as substrate for the biogas production. However, due to the property and composition of rice straw, it is difficult to be degraded by hydrolysis enzymes. One of the pretreatment method that modifies such properties of lignocellulosic biomass is the application of lignocellulose-degrading microbial consortia. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of microbial consortia to enhance biogas production. To select the high efficient consortium, cellulase enzymes were extracted and their activities were analyzed. The results suggested that microbial consortium culture obtained from cattle manure is the best candidate compared to decomposed wood and horse manure. A microbial consortium isolated from cattle manure was then mixed with anaerobic sludge and used as inoculum for biogas production. The optimal conditions for biogas production were investigated using response surface methodology (RSM). The tested parameters were the ratio of amount of microbial consortium isolated and amount of anaerobic sludge (MI:AS), substrate to inoculum ratio (S:I) and temperature. Here, the value of the regression coefficient R2 = 0.7661 could be explained by the model which is high to advocate the significance of the model. The highest cumulative biogas yield was 104.6 ml/g-rice straw at optimum ratio of MI:AS, ratio of S:I, and temperature of 2.5:1, 15:1 and 44°C respectively.

Keywords: lignocellulolytic biomass, microbial consortium, cellulase, biogas, Response Surface Methodology (RSM)

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2455 Microbial Fuel Cells in Waste Water Treatment and Electricity Generation

Authors: Rajalaxmi N., Padma Bhat, Pooja Garag, Pooja N. M., V. S. Hombalimath

Abstract:

Microbial fuel cell (MFC) is the advancement of science that aims at utilizing the oxidizing potential of bacteria for wastewater treatment and production of bio-hydrogen and bio-electricity. Salt-bridge is the economic alternative to highly priced proton-exchange membrane in the construction of a microbial fuel cell. This paper studies the electricity generating capacity of E.coli and Clostridium sporogenes in microbial fuel cells (MFCs). Unlike most of MFC research, this targets the long term goals of renewable energy production and wastewater treatment. In present study the feasibility and potential of bioelectricity production from different wastewater was observed. Different wastewater was primarily treated which were confirmed by the COD tests which showed reduction of COD. We observe that the electricity production of MFCs decreases almost linearly after 120 hrs. The sewage wastewater containing Clostridium sporogenes showed bioelectricity production up to 188mV with COD removal of 60.52%. Sewage wastewater efficiently produces bioelectricity and this also helpful to reduce wastewater pollution load.

Keywords: microbial fuel cell, bioelectricity, wastewater, salt bridge, COD

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2454 Contribution of Soluble Microbial Products on Dissolved Organic Nitrogen in Wastewater Effluent from Moving Bed Biofilm Reactor

Authors: Boonsiri Dandumrongsin, Halis Simsek, Chaiwat Rongsayamanont

Abstract:

Dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) is known as one of the persistence nitrogenous pollutant being originated from secondary treated effluent of municipal sewage treatment plant. However, effect of key system operating condition on the fate and behavior of residual DON in the treated effluent is still not known. This study aims to investigate effect of organic loading rate (OLR) on the residual level of DON in the biofilm reactor effluent. Synthetic municipal wastewater was fed into moving bed biofilm reactors at OLR of 1.6x10-3 and 3.2x10-3 kg SCOD/m3-d. The results showed higher organic removal efficiency was found in the reactor operating at higher OLR. However, DON was observed at higher value in the effluent of the higher OLR reactor than that of the lower OLR reactor evidencing a clear influence of OLR on the residual DON level in the treated effluent of the biofilm reactors. It is possible that the lower DON being observed in the reactor at lower OLR is likely to be a result of providing the microbe with the additional period for utilizing the refractory DON molecules during operation at lower organic loading. All the experiments were repeated using raw wastewaters and similar trend was obtained.

Keywords: dissolved organic nitrogen, hydraulic retention time, moving bed biofilm reactor, soluble microbial products

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2453 Investigating the Encouraging Factors for Scholarly Works Contribution towards Institutional Repository: A Case Study at a Malaysian University

Authors: Mohd Rashid bin Ab Hamid, Noor Azura binti Omar, Zainol Bin Mustafa

Abstract:

Purpose: The aim of this paper is to study the encouraging factors for scholarly works contribution towards among academicians at Malaysian university. Methods: This paper uses questionnaire for data collection on the respondents’ perceptional level on the institutional repository efforts in one of the university under study. Several encouraging factors have been identified and to be measured using descriptive statistics. The factors are related to content contribution, i.e. personal factor, professional factor, organizational factor and technological factor. Findings: The study found that all these four encouraging factors did have a relation to the contribution of scholarly works in the university by the academician. Research Limitations: This study used a case study and generalization to all Malaysian universities should be well taken care of. Practical implications: The library at the university should look into these four encouraging factors in order to enhance the contribution from academician towards the repository. Originality/value: This research paper provides basic information for the knowledge management officers in the university by endeavouring more efforts in order to attract more contributions.

Keywords: institutional repository, information retrieval, information storage and retrieval

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2452 Nanopack: A Nanotechnology-Based Antimicrobial Packaging Solution for Extension of Shelf Life and Food Safety

Authors: Andy Sand, Naama Massad – Ivanir, Nadav Nitzan, Elisa Valderrama, Alfred Wegenberger, Koranit Shlosman, Rotem Shemesh, Ester Segal

Abstract:

Microbial spoilage of food products is of great concern in the food industry due to the direct impact on the shelf life of foods and the risk of foodborne illness. Therefore, food packaging may serve as a crucial contribution to keep the food fresh and suitable for consumption. Active packaging solutions that have the ability to inhibit the development of microorganism in food products attract a lot of interest, and many efforts have been made to engineer and assimilate such solutions on various food products. NanoPack is an EU-funded international project aiming to develop state-of-the-art antimicrobial packaging systems for perishable foods. The project is based on natural essential oils which possess significant antimicrobial activity against many bacteria, yeasts and molds. The essential oils are encapsulated in natural aluminosilicate clays, halloysite nanotubes (HNT's), that serves as a carrier for the volatile essential oils and enable their incorporation into polymer films. During the course of the project, several polyethylene films with diverse essential oils combinations were designed based on the characteristics of their target food products. The antimicrobial activity of the produced films was examined in vitro on a broad spectrum of microorganisms including gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, aerobic and anaerobic bacteria, yeasts and molds. The films that showed promising in vitro results were successfully assimilated on in vivo active packaging of several food products such as cheese, bread, fruits and raw meat. The results of the in vivo analyses showed significant inhibition of the microbial spoilage, indicating the strong contribution of the NanoPack packaging solutions on the extension of shelf life and reduction of food waste caused by early spoilage throughout the supply chain.

Keywords: food safety, food packaging, essential oils, nanotechnology

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2451 Microbial Quality of Raw Camel Milk Produced in South of Morocco

Authors: Maha Alaoui Ismaili, Bouchta Saidi, Mohamed Zahar, Abed Hamama

Abstract:

Thirty one samples of raw camel milk obtained from the region of Laâyoune (South of Morocco) were examined for their microbial quality and presence of some pathogenic bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella sp.). pH of the samples ranged from 6.31 to 6.64 and their titratable acidity had a mean value of 18.56 °Dornic. Data obtained showed a strong microbial contamination with an average total aerobic flora of 1.76 108 ufc ml-1 and a very high fecal counts: 1.82 107 ; 3.25 106 and 3.75 106 ufc.ml-1 in average for total coliforms, fecal coliforms and enterococci respectively. Yeasts and moulds were also found at average respective levels of 3.13 106 and 1.60 105 ufc.ml-1. Salmonella sp. and S. aureus was detected respectively in 13% and 30% of the milk samples. These results indicate clearly the lack of hygienic conditions of camel milk production and storage in this region. Lactic acid bacteria were found at the following average numbers: 4.25 107 ; 4.45 107 and 3.55 107 ufc.ml-1 for Lactococci, Leuconostocs and Lactobacilli respectively.

Keywords: camel milk, microbial quality, Salmonella, Staphylococcus aureus

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2450 Lipid Extraction from Microbial Cell by Electroporation Technique and Its Influence on Direct Transesterification for Biodiesel Synthesis

Authors: Abu Yousuf, Maksudur Rahman Khan, Ahasanul Karim, Amirul Islam, Minhaj Uddin Monir, Sharmin Sultana, Domenico Pirozzi

Abstract:

Traditional biodiesel feedstock like edible oils or plant oils, animal fats and cooking waste oil have been replaced by microbial oil in recent research of biodiesel synthesis. The well-known community of microbial oil producers includes microalgae, oleaginous yeast and seaweeds. Conventional transesterification of microbial oil to produce biodiesel is lethargic, energy consuming, cost-ineffective and environmentally unhealthy. This process follows several steps such as microbial biomass drying, cell disruption, oil extraction, solvent recovery, oil separation and transesterification. Therefore, direct transesterification of biodiesel synthesis has been studying for last few years. It combines all the steps in a single reactor and it eliminates the steps of biomass drying, oil extraction and separation from solvent. Apparently, it seems to be cost-effective and faster process but number of difficulties need to be solved to make it large scale applicable. The main challenges are microbial cell disruption in bulk volume and make faster the esterification reaction, because water contents of the medium sluggish the reaction rate. Several methods have been proposed but none of them is up to the level to implement in large scale. It is still a great challenge to extract maximum lipid from microbial cells (yeast, fungi, algae) investing minimum energy. Electroporation technique results a significant increase in cell conductivity and permeability caused due to the application of an external electric field. Electroporation is required to alter the size and structure of the cells to increase their porosity as well as to disrupt the microbial cell walls within few seconds to leak out the intracellular lipid to the solution. Therefore, incorporation of electroporation techniques contributed in direct transesterification of microbial lipids by increasing the efficiency of biodiesel production rate.

Keywords: biodiesel, electroporation, microbial lipids, transesterification

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2449 SPR Immunosensor for the Detection of Staphylococcus aureus

Authors: Muhammad Ali Syed, Arshad Saleem Bhatti, Chen-zhong Li, Habib Ali Bokhari

Abstract:

Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biosensors have emerged as a promising technique for bioanalysis as well as microbial detection and identification. Real time, sensitive, cost effective, and label free detection of biomolecules from complex samples is required for early and accurate diagnosis of infectious diseases. Like many other types of optical techniques, SPR biosensors may also be successfully utilized for microbial detection for accurate, point of care, and rapid results. In the present study, we have utilized a commercially available automated SPR biosensor of BI company to study the microbial detection form water samples spiked with different concentration of Staphylococcus aureus bacterial cells. The gold thin film sensor surface was functionalized to react with proteins such as protein G, which was used for directed immobilization of monoclonal antibodies against Staphylococcus aureus. The results of our work reveal that this immunosensor can be used to detect very small number of bacterial cells with higher sensitivity and specificity. In our case 10^3 cells/ml of water have been successfully detected. Therefore, it may be concluded that this technique has a strong potential to be used in microbial detection and identification.

Keywords: surface plasmon resonance (SPR), Staphylococcus aureus, biosensors, microbial detection

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2448 Anaerobic Digestion Batch Study of Taxonomic Variations in Microbial Communities during Adaptation of Consortium to Different Lignocellulosic Substrates Using Targeted Sequencing

Authors: Priyanka Dargode, Suhas Gore, Manju Sharma, Arvind Lali

Abstract:

Anaerobic digestion has been widely used for production of methane from different biowastes. However, the complexity of microbial communities involved in the process is poorly understood. The performance of biogas production process concerning the process productivity is closely coupled to its microbial community structure and syntrophic interactions amongst the community members. The present study aims at understanding taxonomic variations occurring in any starter inoculum when acclimatised to different lignocellulosic biomass (LBM) feedstocks relating to time of digestion. The work underlines use of high throughput Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) for validating the changes in taxonomic patterns of microbial communities. Biomethane Potential (BMP) batches were set up with different pretreated and non-pretreated LBM residues using the same microbial consortium and samples were withdrawn for studying the changes in microbial community in terms of its structure and predominance with respect to changes in metabolic profile of the process. DNA of samples withdrawn at different time intervals with reference to performance changes of the digestion process, was extracted followed by its 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing analysis using Illumina Platform. Biomethane potential and substrate consumption was monitored using Gas Chromatography(GC) and reduction in COD (Chemical Oxygen Demand) respectively. Taxonomic analysis by QIIME server data revealed that microbial community structure changes with different substrates as well as at different time intervals. It was observed that biomethane potential of each substrate was relatively similar but, the time required for substrate utilization and its conversion to biomethane was different for different substrates. This could be attributed to the nature of substrate and consequently the discrepancy between the dominance of microbial communities with regards to different substrate and at different phases of anaerobic digestion process. Knowledge of microbial communities involved would allow a rational substrate specific consortium design which will help to reduce consortium adaptation period and enhance the substrate utilisation resulting in improved efficacy of biogas process.

Keywords: amplicon sequencing, biomethane potential, community predominance, taxonomic analysis

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2447 Biological Treatment of a Mixture of Iodine-Containing Aromatic Compounds from Industrial Wastewaster

Authors: A. Elain, M. Le Fellic, A. Le Pemp, N. Hachet

Abstract:

Iodinated Compounds (IC) are widely detected contaminants in most aquatic environments including sewage treatment plant, surface water, ground water and even drinking water, up to the µg.L-1 range. As IC contribute in the adsorbable organic halides (AOX) level, their removal or dehalogenation is expected. We report here on the biodegradability of a mixture of IC from an industrial effluent using a microbial consortium adapted to grow on IC as well as the native microorganisms. Both aerobic and anaerobic treatments were studied during batch experiments in 500-mL flasks. The degree of mineralization and recovery of iodide were monitored by HPLC-UV, TOC analysis and potentiometric titration. Providing ethanol as an electron acceptor was found to stimulate anaerobic reductive deiodination of IC while sodium chloride even at high concentration (22 g.l-1) had no influence on the degradation rates nor on the microbial viability. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S RNA gene sequence (MicroSeq®) was applied to provide a better understanding of the degradative microbial community.

Keywords: iodinated compounds, biodegradability, deiodination, electron-accepting conditions, microbial consortium

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2446 Efficiency of Background Chlorine Residuals against Accidental Microbial Episode in Proto-Type Distribution Network (Rig) Using Central Composite Design (CCD)

Authors: Sajida Rasheed, Imran Hashmi, Luiza Campos, Qizhi Zhou, Kim Keu

Abstract:

A quadratic model (p ˂ 0.0001) was developed by using central composite design of 50 experimental runs (42 non-center + 8 center points) to assess efficiency of background chlorine residuals in combating accidental microbial episode in a prototype distribution network (DN) (rig). A known amount of background chlorine residuals were maintained in DN and a required number of bacteria, Escherichia coli K-12 strain were introduced by an injection port in the pipe loop system. Samples were taken at various time intervals at different pipe lengths. Spread plate count was performed to count bacterial number. The model developed was significant. With microbial concentration and time (p ˂ 0.0001), pipe length (p ˂ 0.022), background chlorine residuals (p ˂ 0.07) and time^2 (p ˂ 0.09) as significant factors. The ramp function of variables shows that at the microbial count of 10^6, at 0.76 L/min, and pipe length of 133 meters, a background residual chlorine 0.16 mg/L was enough for complete inactivation of microbial episode in approximately 18 minutes.

Keywords: central composite design (CCD), distribution network, Escherichia coli, residual chlorine

Procedia PDF Downloads 358
2445 Influence of Different Ripening Agents on the Shelf-Life and Microbial Load of Organic and Inorganic Musaceae, during the Ripening Process, and the Health Implication for Food Security

Authors: Wisdom Robert Duruji

Abstract:

Local farmers and fruit processors in developing countries of West Africa use different ripening agents to accelerate the ripening process of plantain and banana. This study reports on the influence of different ripening agents on the shelf-life and microbial load of organic and inorganic plantain (Musa paradisiaca) and banana (Musa sapientum) during ripening process and the health implication for food security in Nigeria. The experiment consisted of four treatments, namely: Calcium carbide, Irvingia gabonensis fruits, Newbouldia laevis leaves and a control, where no ripening agent was applied to the fingers of plantain and banana. The unripe and ripened plantain and banana were subjected to microbial analysis by isolating their micro flora (Bacteria, Yeast and Mould) using pour plate method. Microbes present in the samples were enumerated, characterized and classified to genera and species. The result indicated that the microbial load of inorganic plantain from (Urban day) open market in Ile-Ife increased from 8.00 for unripe to 12.11 cfu/g for ripened; and the microbial load of organic plantain from Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching and Research Farm (OAUTRF) increased from 6.00 for unripe to 11.60 cfu/g for ripened. Also, the microbial load of inorganic banana from (Urban day) open market in Ile-Ife increased from 8.00 for unripe to 11.50 cfu/g for ripened; while the microbial load of organic banana from OAUTRF increased from 6.50 for unripe to 9.40 cfu/g for ripened. The microbial effects of the ripening agents increased from 10.00 for control to 16.00 cfu/g for treated (ripened) organic and inorganic plantain; while that of organic and inorganic banana increased from 7.50 for control to 14.50 cfu/g for ripened. Visual observation for the presence of fungal colonies and deterioration rates were monitored till seven days after the plantain and banana fingers have fully ripened. Inorganic plantain and banana from (Urban day) open market in Ile-Ife are more contaminated than organic plantain and banana fingers from OAUTRF. The ripening accelerators reduced the shelf life, increased senescence, and microbial load of plantain and banana. This study concluded that organic Agriculture is better and microbial friendlier than inorganic farming.

Keywords: organic agriculture, food security, Musaceae, calcium carbide, Irvingia gabonensis, Newbouldia laevis

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2444 Bio Energy from Metabolic Activity of Bacteria in Plant and Soil Using Novel Microbial Fuel Cells

Authors: B. Samuel Raj, Solomon R. D. Jebakumar

Abstract:

Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) are an emerging and promising method for achieving sustainable energy since they can remove contaminated organic matter and simultaneously generate electricity. Our approach was driven in three different ways like Bacterial fuel cell, Soil Microbial fuel cell (Soil MFC) and Plant Microbial fuel cell (Plant MFC). Bacterial MFC: Sulphate reducing bacteria (SRB) were isolated and identified as the efficient electricigens which is able to produce ±2.5V (689mW/m2) and it has sustainable activity for 120 days. Experimental data with different MFC revealed that high electricity production harvested continuously for 90 days 1.45V (381mW/m2), 1.98V (456mW/m2) respectively. Biofilm formation was confirmed on the surface of the anode by high content screening (HCS) and scanning electron Microscopic analysis (SEM). Soil MFC: Soil MFC was constructed with low cost and standard Mudwatt soil MFC was purchased from keegotech (USA). Vermicompost soil (V1) produce high energy (± 3.5V for ± 400 days) compared to Agricultural soil (A1) (± 2V for ± 150 days). Biofilm formation was confirmed by HCS and SEM analysis. This finding provides a method for extracting energy from organic matter, but also suggests a strategy for promoting the bioremediation of organic contaminants in subsurface environments. Our Soil MFC were able to run successfully a 3.5V fan and three LED continuously for 150 days. Plant MFC: Amaranthus candatus (P1) and Triticum aestivium (P2) were used in Plant MFC to confirm the electricity production from plant associated microbes, four uniform size of Plant MFC were constructed and checked for energy production. P2 produce high energy (± 3.2V for 40 days) with harvesting interval of two times and P1 produces moderate energy without harvesting interval (±1.5V for 24 days). P2 is able run 3.5V fan continuously for 10days whereas P1 needs optimization of growth conditions to produce high energy.

Keywords: microbial fuel cell, biofilm, soil microbial fuel cell, plant microbial fuel cell

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2443 Synchrotron X-Ray Based Investigation of Fe Environment in Porous Anode of Shewanella oneidensis Microbial Fuel Cell

Authors: Sunil Dehipawala, Gayathrie Amarasuriya, N. Gadura, G. Tremberger Jr, D.Lieberman, Harry Gafney, Todd Holden, T. Cheung

Abstract:

The iron environment in Fe-doped Vycor Anode was investigated with EXAFS using Brookhaven Synchrotron Light Source. The iron-reducing Shewanella oneidensis culture was grown in a microbial fuel cell under anaerobic respiration. The Fe bond length was found to decrease and correlate with the amount of biofilm growth on the Fe-doped Vycor Anode. The data suggests that Fe-doped Vycor Anode would be a good substrate to study the Shewanella oneidensis nanowire structure using EXAFS.

Keywords: EXAFS, fourier transform, Shewanella oneidensis, microbial fuel cell

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2442 Pre-Treatment of Anodic Inoculum with Nitroethane to Improve Performance of a Microbial Fuel Cell

Authors: Rajesh P.P., Md. Tabish Noori, Makarand M. Ghangrekar

Abstract:

Methanogenic substrate loss is reported to be a major bottleneck in microbial fuel cell which significantly reduces the power production capacity and coulombic efficiency (CE) of microbial fuel cell (MFC). Nitroethane is found to be a potent inhibitor of hydrogenotrophic methanogens in rumen fermentation process. Influence of nitroethane pre-treated sewage sludge inoculum on suppressing the methanogenic activity and enhancing the electrogenesis in MFC was evaluated. MFC inoculated with nitroethane pre-treated anodic inoculum demonstrated a maximum operating voltage of 541 mV, with coulombic efficiency and sustainable volumetric power density of 39.85 % and 14.63 W/m3 respectively. Linear sweep voltammetry indicated a higher electron discharge on the anode surface due to enhancement of electrogenic activity while suppressing methanogenic activity. A 63 % reduction in specific methanogenic activity was observed in anaerobic sludge pre-treated with nitroethane; emphasizing significance of this pretreatment for suppressing methanogenesis and its utility for enhancing electricity generation in MFC.

Keywords: coulombic efficiency, methanogenesis inhibition, microbial fuel cell, nitroethane

Procedia PDF Downloads 205
2441 The Effect of Accounting Quality on Contribution-In-Kind Valuation

Authors: Catherine Heyjung Sonu

Abstract:

This paper examines the effect of accounting quality on the process in which stock price is determined by focusing on contribution-in-kind valuations using Korean setting. In Korea, a number of chaebol firms have transformed into holding company system starting in 2003. With an attempt to gain as much voting right, management sold shares of subsidiaries to purchase shares of the holding company. In so doing, management of these firms received share issues for the contribution in kind that has been made to obtain additional shares of the holding company. The price of these share issues against contribution in kind is allowed to be discounted up to 30%. Using this interesting setting in Korea, this paper examines whether accounting quality affects the extent of the discount applied to the share issues. If the accounting quality of the firm for which the management is receiving share issues is poor, the extent of discount is likely to be high. The extent of discount is likely lower for firms with superior accounting quality. Using 24 cases, we find that, on average, the extent of discount is larger for share issues in which the accounting quality, proxied by the absolute value of discretionary accruals, is poor. This paper provides insight by examining the effect of accounting quality on the stock market. It sheds light on the intersection between finance and accounting research and should be of interest to researchers and practitioners.

Keywords: Accounting quality, Contribution-in-kind, discount, holding company

Procedia PDF Downloads 112