Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 20916

Search results for: taxonomic analysis

20916 Anaerobic Digestion Batch Study of Taxonomic Variations in Microbial Communities during Adaptation of Consortium to Different Lignocellulosic Substrates Using Targeted Sequencing

Authors: Priyanka Dargode, Suhas Gore, Manju Sharma, Arvind Lali

Abstract:

Anaerobic digestion has been widely used for production of methane from different biowastes. However, the complexity of microbial communities involved in the process is poorly understood. The performance of biogas production process concerning the process productivity is closely coupled to its microbial community structure and syntrophic interactions amongst the community members. The present study aims at understanding taxonomic variations occurring in any starter inoculum when acclimatised to different lignocellulosic biomass (LBM) feedstocks relating to time of digestion. The work underlines use of high throughput Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) for validating the changes in taxonomic patterns of microbial communities. Biomethane Potential (BMP) batches were set up with different pretreated and non-pretreated LBM residues using the same microbial consortium and samples were withdrawn for studying the changes in microbial community in terms of its structure and predominance with respect to changes in metabolic profile of the process. DNA of samples withdrawn at different time intervals with reference to performance changes of the digestion process, was extracted followed by its 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing analysis using Illumina Platform. Biomethane potential and substrate consumption was monitored using Gas Chromatography(GC) and reduction in COD (Chemical Oxygen Demand) respectively. Taxonomic analysis by QIIME server data revealed that microbial community structure changes with different substrates as well as at different time intervals. It was observed that biomethane potential of each substrate was relatively similar but, the time required for substrate utilization and its conversion to biomethane was different for different substrates. This could be attributed to the nature of substrate and consequently the discrepancy between the dominance of microbial communities with regards to different substrate and at different phases of anaerobic digestion process. Knowledge of microbial communities involved would allow a rational substrate specific consortium design which will help to reduce consortium adaptation period and enhance the substrate utilisation resulting in improved efficacy of biogas process.

Keywords: amplicon sequencing, biomethane potential, community predominance, taxonomic analysis

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20915 Palyno-Morphological Characteristics of Gymnosperm Flora of Pakistan and Its Taxonomic Implications with Light Microscope and Scanning Electron Microscopy Methods

Authors: Raees Khan, Sheikh Z. Ul Abidin, Abdul S. Mumtaz, Jie Liu

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The present study is intended to assess gymnosperms pollen flora of Pakistan using Light Microscope (LM) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) for its taxonomic significance in identification of gymnosperms. Pollens of 35 gymnosperm species (12 genera and five families) were collected from its various distributional sites of gymnosperms in Pakistan. LM and SEM were used to investigate different palyno-morphological characteristics. Five pollen types (i.e., Inaperturate, Monolete, Monoporate, Vesiculate-bisaccate, and Polyplicate) were observed. In equatorial view seven types of pollens were observed, in which ten species were sub-angular, nine species were triangular, six species were perprolate, three species were rhomboidal, three species were semi-angular, two species were rectangular and two species were prolate. While five types of pollen were observed in polar view, in which ten species were spheroidal, nine species were angular, eight were interlobate, six species were circular, and two species were elliptic. Eighteen species have rugulate and 17 species has faveolate ornamentation. Eighteen species have verrucate and 17 have gemmate type sculpturing. The data was analysed through cluster analysis. The study showed that these palyno-morphological features have significance value in classification and identification of gymnosperms. Based on these different palyno-morphological features, a taxonomic key was proposed for the accurate and fast identifications of gymnosperms from Pakistan.

Keywords: gymnosperms, palynology, Pakistan, taxonomy

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20914 Taxonomic Classification for Living Organisms Using Convolutional Neural Networks

Authors: Saed Khawaldeh, Mohamed Elsharnouby, Alaa Eddin Alchalabi, Usama Pervaiz, Tajwar Aleef, Vu Hoang Minh

Abstract:

Taxonomic classification has a wide-range of applications such as finding out more about the evolutionary history of organisms that can be done by making a comparison between species living now and species that lived in the past. This comparison can be made using different kinds of extracted species’ data which include DNA sequences. Compared to the estimated number of the organisms that nature harbours, humanity does not have a thorough comprehension of which specific species they all belong to, in spite of the significant development of science and scientific knowledge over many years. One of the methods that can be applied to extract information out of the study of organisms in this regard is to use the DNA sequence of a living organism as a marker, thus making it available to classify it into a taxonomy. The classification of living organisms can be done in many machine learning techniques including Neural Networks (NNs). In this study, DNA sequences classification is performed using Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) which is a special type of NNs.

Keywords: deep networks, convolutional neural networks, taxonomic classification, DNA sequences classification

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20913 Urban Greenery in the Greatest Polish Cities: Analysis of Spatial Concentration

Authors: Elżbieta Antczak

Abstract:

Cities offer important opportunities for economic development and for expanding access to basic services, including health care and education, for large numbers of people. Moreover, green areas (as an integral part of sustainable urban development) present a major opportunity for improving urban environments, quality of lives and livelihoods. This paper examines, using spatial concentration and spatial taxonomic measures, regional diversification of greenery in the cities of Poland. The analysis includes location quotients, Lorenz curve, Locational Gini Index, and the synthetic index of greenery and spatial statistics tools: (1) To verify the occurrence of strong concentration or dispersion of the phenomenon in time and space depending on the variable category, and, (2) To study if the level of greenery depends on the spatial autocorrelation. The data includes the greatest Polish cities, categories of the urban greenery (parks, lawns, street greenery, and green areas on housing estates, cemeteries, and forests) and the time span 2004-2015. According to the obtained estimations, most of cites in Poland are already taking measures to become greener. However, in the country there are still many barriers to well-balanced urban greenery development (e.g. uncontrolled urban sprawl, poor management as well as lack of spatial urban planning systems).

Keywords: greenery, urban areas, regional spatial diversification and concentration, spatial taxonomic measure

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20912 Analysis of Taxonomic Compositions, Metabolic Pathways and Antibiotic Resistance Genes in Fish Gut Microbiome by Shotgun Metagenomics

Authors: Anuj Tyagi, Balwinder Singh, Naveen Kumar B. T., Niraj K. Singh

Abstract:

Characterization of diverse microbial communities in specific environment plays a crucial role in the better understanding of their functional relationship with the ecosystem. It is now well established that gut microbiome of fish is not the simple replication of microbiota of surrounding local habitat, and extensive species, dietary, physiological and metabolic variations in fishes may have a significant impact on its composition. Moreover, overuse of antibiotics in human, veterinary and aquaculture medicine has led to rapid emergence and propagation of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in the aquatic environment. Microbial communities harboring specific ARGs not only get a preferential edge during selective antibiotic exposure but also possess the significant risk of ARGs transfer to other non-resistance bacteria within the confined environments. This phenomenon may lead to the emergence of habitat-specific microbial resistomes and subsequent emergence of virulent antibiotic-resistant pathogens with severe fish and consumer health consequences. In this study, gut microbiota of freshwater carp (Labeo rohita) was investigated by shotgun metagenomics to understand its taxonomic composition and functional capabilities. Metagenomic DNA, extracted from the fish gut, was subjected to sequencing on Illumina NextSeq to generate paired-end (PE) 2 x 150 bp sequencing reads. After the QC of raw sequencing data by Trimmomatic, taxonomic analysis by Kraken2 taxonomic sequence classification system revealed the presence of 36 phyla, 326 families and 985 genera in the fish gut microbiome. At phylum level, Proteobacteria accounted for more than three-fourths of total bacterial populations followed by Actinobacteria (14%) and Cyanobacteria (3%). Commonly used probiotic bacteria (Bacillus, Lactobacillus, Streptococcus, and Lactococcus) were found to be very less prevalent in fish gut. After sequencing data assembly by MEGAHIT v1.1.2 assembler and PROKKA automated analysis pipeline, pathway analysis revealed the presence of 1,608 Metacyc pathways in the fish gut microbiome. Biosynthesis pathways were found to be the most dominant (51%) followed by degradation (39%), energy-metabolism (4%) and fermentation (2%). Almost one-third (33%) of biosynthesis pathways were involved in the synthesis of secondary metabolites. Metabolic pathways for the biosynthesis of 35 antibiotic types were also present, and these accounted for 5% of overall metabolic pathways in the fish gut microbiome. Fifty-one different types of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) belonging to 15 antimicrobial resistance (AMR) gene families and conferring resistance against 24 antibiotic types were detected in fish gut. More than 90% ARGs in fish gut microbiome were against beta-lactams (penicillins, cephalosporins, penems, and monobactams). Resistance against tetracycline, macrolides, fluoroquinolones, and phenicols ranged from 0.7% to 1.3%. Some of the ARGs for multi-drug resistance were also found to be located on sequences of plasmid origin. The presence of pathogenic bacteria and ARGs on plasmid sequences suggested the potential risk due to horizontal gene transfer in the confined gut environment.

Keywords: antibiotic resistance, fish gut, metabolic pathways, microbial diversity

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20911 A New Genus Longicheles (Acari: Mesostigmata: Macrochelidae) for Pakistan Fauna from Punjab, Pakistan

Authors: Muhammad Asif Qayyoum, Bilal Saeed Khan

Abstract:

Macrochelid mites are poorly studied from the planes of Punjab, Pakistan. The study was conducted as a part of PhD thesis research partially funded by the Royal Society of Entomology, UK. The genus Longicheles was first time reported from the Pakistan. Samples were collected on the monthly basis from different districts of Punjab province, Pakistan. The genus Longicheles was frequently found from five districts (Faisalabad, Dera Ghazi Khan, Jhung, Layyah, and Rajanpur) of Punjab province. Taxonomic studies were performed in Acarology Lab., Department of Entomology, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad with slide deposition. Taxonomic work was performed by using Phase contrast microscope and adobe illustrator (drawings) for finishing of picture. The detail descriptions of two (Longicheles mandibularis and Longicheles hortorum) females are given along with diagrams and key.

Keywords: macrochelidae, longicheles, new records, Punjab

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20910 Cataloguing Beetle Fauna (Insecta: Coleoptera) of India: Estimating Diversity, Distribution, and Taxonomic Challenges

Authors: Devanshu Gupta, Kailash Chandra, Priyanka Das, Joyjit Ghosh

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Beetles, in the insect order Coleoptera are the most species-rich group on this planet today. They represent about 40% of the total insect diversity of the world. With a considerable range of landform types including significant mountain ranges, deserts, fertile irrigational plains, and hilly forested areas, India is one of the mega-diverse countries and includes more than 0.1 million faunal species. Despite having rich biodiversity, the efforts to catalogue the beetle diversity of the extant species/taxa reported from India have been less. Therefore, in this paper, the information on the beetle fauna of India is provided based on the data available with the museum collections of Zoological Survey of India and taxa extracted from zoological records and published literature. The species were listed with their valid names, synonyms, type localities, type depositories, and their distribution in states and biogeographic zones of India. The catalogue also incorporates the bibliography on Indian Coleoptera. The exhaustive species inventory, prepared by us include distributional records from Himalaya, Trans Himalaya, Desert, Semi-Arid, Western Ghats, Deccan Peninsula, Gangetic Plains, Northeast, Islands, and Coastal areas of the country. Our study concludes that many of the species are still known from their type localities only, so there is need to revisit and resurvey those collection localities for the taxonomic evaluation of those species. There are species which exhibit single locality records, and taxa-specific biodiversity assessments are required to be undertaken to understand the distributional range of such species. The primary challenge is taxonomic identifications of the species which were described before independence, and the type materials are present in overseas museums. For such species, taxonomic revisions of the different group of beetles are required to solve the problems of identification and classification.

Keywords: checklist, taxonomy, museum collections, biogeographic zones

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20909 Clarification of Taxonomic Confusions among Adulterated Drugs Coffee Seena and Seena Weed through Systematic and Pharmaceutical Markers

Authors: Shabnum Shaheen, Nida Haroon, Farah Khan, Sumera Javad, Mehreen Jalal, Samina Sarwar

Abstract:

Coffee Senna is pharmaceutically very important and used for multiple health disorders such as gastric pains, indigestion, snakebites, asthma and fever, tuberculosis and menstrual problems. However, its immense medicinal value and great demand lead to adulteration issue which could be injurious for users. Some times its adulterant Seena weed (Senna occidentalis L.) is used as its substitute which definitely not as effective as Coffee Senna. Hence, the present study was undertaken to provide some tools for systematic and pharmaceutical authentication of a shrubby plant Coffee Senna (Cassia occidentalis Linn.). These parameters included macro and micro morphological characters, anatomical and palynomorph characterization, solubility, fluorescence and phytochemical analysis. By the application of these parameters acquired results revealed that, these two plants are distinct from each other. The Coffee Seena was found to be an annual shrub with trilobed pollen, diacytic, paracytic and anisocytic stomata whereas the Seena weed stands out as an annual or perennial herb with spheroidal and circular pollen and paracytic type of stomata. The powdered drug of Coffee seena is dark grayish green whereas the powdered drug of Seena weed is light green in color. These findings are constructive in authentic identification of these plants.

Keywords: coffee senna, Senna weed, taxonomic evaluation, pharmaceutical markers

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20908 Analogy to Continental Divisions: An Attention-Grabbing Approach to Teach Taxonomic Hierarchy to Students

Authors: Sagheer Ahmad

Abstract:

Teaching is a sacred profession whereby students are developed in their mental abilities to cope with the challenges of the remote world. Thinkers have developed plenty of interesting ways to make the learning process quick and absorbing for the students. However, third world countries are still lacking these remote facilities in the institutions, and therefore, teaching is totally dependent upon the skills of the teachers. Skillful teachers use self-devised and stimulating ideas to grab the attention of their students. Most of the time their ideas are based on local grounds with which the students are already familiar. This self-explanatory characteristic is the base of several local ideologies to disseminate scientific knowledge to new generations. Biology is such a subject which largely bases upon hypotheses, and teaching it in an interesting way is needful to create a friendly relationship between teacher and student, and to make a fantastic learning environment. Taxonomic classification if presented as it is, may not be attractive for the secondary school students who just start learning about biology at elementary levels. Presenting this hierarchy by exemplifying Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, family, genus and Species as comparatives of our division into continents, countries, cities, towns, villages, homes and finally individuals could be an attention-grabbing approach to make this concept get into bones of students. Similarly, many other interesting approaches have also been adopted to teach students in a fascinating way so that learning science subjects may not be boring for them. Discussing these appealing ways of teaching students can be a valuable stimulus to refine teaching methodologies about science, thereby promoting the concept of friendly learning.

Keywords: biology, innovative approaches, taxonomic classification, teaching

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20907 Taxonomic Study of Squirrel Order Rodentia, Family Sciuridea of District Jamshoro Pakistan

Authors: Aisha Liaquat Ali, Ghulam Sarwar Gachal, Muhammad Yusuf Sheikh

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The squirrel commonly known as ‘Gulhari’ belongs to the order Rodentia, family sciuridea, its sub-species inhabit tropical to sub tropical regions of Asia. The core aim of the present study is to investigate the taxonomy of squirrel in District Jamshoro. Sampling was obtained for the taxonomic identification from various adjoining areas of District Jamshoro by non random method. During present study a total number of 107 specimens were collected from July 2018 to December 2018, specimens were collected from District Jamshoro it was observed that the prevalence of the sub-species Funambulus tristriatus numarius (23.3%), Funambulus pennant tulescens (23.3%) was high while Funambulus tristriatus tristriatus ((20.5%), Funambulus palmarun brodie (18.6%) and the minimum prevalence Funambulus palmaruns palmaruns (14.1%). In the present research, it is established that the climate factors, altitude has principal importance in the poor density of squirrel.

Keywords: Jamshoro District Pakistan, squirrel, taxonomy, prevalence

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20906 DNA Fingerprinting of Some Major Genera of Subterranean Termites (Isoptera) (Anacanthotermes, Psammotermes and Microtermes) from Western Saudi Arabia

Authors: AbdelRahman A. Faragalla, Mohamed H. Alqhtani, Mohamed M. M.Ahmed

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Saudi Arabia has currently been beset by a barrage of bizarre assemblages of subterranean termite fauna, inflicting heavy catastrophic havocs on human valued properties in various homes, storage facilities, warehouses, agricultural and horticultural crops including okra, sweet pepper, tomatoes, sorghum, date palm trees, citruses and many forest domains and green lush desert oases. The most pressing urgent priority is to use modern technologies to alleviate the painstaking obstacle of taxonomic identification of these injurious noxious pests that might lead to effective pest control in both infested agricultural commodities and field crops. Our study has indicated the use of DNA fingerprinting technologies, in order to generate basic information of the genetic similarity between 3 predominant families containing the most destructive termite species. The methodologies included extraction and DNA isolation from members of the major families and the use of randomly selected primers and PCR amplifications with the nucleotide sequences. GC content and annealing temperatures for all primers, PCR amplifications and agarose gel electrophoresis were also conducted in addition to the scoring and analysis of Random Amplification Polymorphic DNA-PCR (RAPDs). A phylogenetic analysis for different species using statistical computer program on the basis of RAPD-DNA results, represented as a dendrogram based on the average of band sharing ratio between different species. Our study aims to shed more light on this intriguing subject, which may lead to an expedited display of the kinship and relatedness of species in an ambitious undertaking to arrive at correct taxonomic classification of termite species, discover sibling species, so that a logistic rational pest management strategy could be delineated.

Keywords: DNA fingerprinting, Western Saudi Arabia, DNA primers, RAPD

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20905 Inconsistent Effects of Landscape Heterogeneity on Animal Diversity in an Agricultural Mosaic: A Multi-Scale and Multi-Taxon Investigation

Authors: Chevonne Reynolds, Robert J. Fletcher, Jr, Celine M. Carneiro, Nicole Jennings, Alison Ke, Michael C. LaScaleia, Mbhekeni B. Lukhele, Mnqobi L. Mamba, Muzi D. Sibiya, James D. Austin, Cebisile N. Magagula, Themba’alilahlwa Mahlaba, Ara Monadjem, Samantha M. Wisely, Robert A. McCleery

Abstract:

A key challenge for the developing world is reconciling biodiversity conservation with the growing demand for food. In these regions, agriculture is typically interspersed among other land-uses creating heterogeneous landscapes. A primary hypothesis for promoting biodiversity in agricultural landscapes is the habitat heterogeneity hypothesis. While there is evidence that landscape heterogeneity positively influences biodiversity, the application of this hypothesis is hindered by a need to determine which components of landscape heterogeneity drive these effects and at what spatial scale(s). Additionally, whether diverse taxonomic groups are similarly affected is central for determining the applicability of this hypothesis as a general conservation strategy in agricultural mosaics. Two major components of landscape heterogeneity are compositional and configurational heterogeneity. Disentangling the roles of each component is important for biodiversity conservation because each represents different mechanisms underpinning variation in biodiversity. We identified a priori independent gradients of compositional and configurational landscape heterogeneity within an extensive agricultural mosaic in north-eastern Swaziland. We then tested how bird, dung beetle, ant and meso-carnivore diversity responded to compositional and configurational heterogeneity across six different spatial scales. To determine if a general trend could be observed across multiple taxa, we also tested which component and spatial scale was most influential across all taxonomic groups combined, Compositional, not configurational, heterogeneity explained diversity in each taxonomic group, with the exception of meso-carnivores. Bird and ant diversity was positively correlated with compositional heterogeneity at fine spatial scales < 1000 m, whilst dung beetle diversity was negatively correlated to compositional heterogeneity at broader spatial scales > 1500 m. Importantly, because of these contrasting effects across taxa, there was no effect of either component of heterogeneity on the combined taxonomic diversity at any spatial scale. The contrasting responses across taxonomic groups exemplify the difficulty in implementing effective conservation strategies that meet the requirements of diverse taxa. To promote diverse communities across a range of taxa, conservation strategies must be multi-scaled and may involve different strategies at varying scales to offset the contrasting influences of compositional heterogeneity. A diversity of strategies are likely key to conserving biodiversity in agricultural mosaics, and we have demonstrated that a landscape management strategy that only manages for heterogeneity at one particular scale will likely fall short of management objectives.

Keywords: agriculture, biodiversity, composition, configuration, heterogeneity

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20904 Diversity of Rhopalocera in Different Vegetation Types of PC Hills, Philippines

Authors: Sean E. Gregory P. Igano, Ranz Brendan D. Gabor, Baron Arthur M. Cabalona, Numeriano Amer E. Gutierrez

Abstract:

Distribution patterns and abundance of butterflies respond in the long term to variations in habitat quality. Studying butterfly populations would give evidence on how vegetation types influence their diversity. In this research, the Rhopalocera diversity of PC Hills was assessed to provide information on diversity trends in varying vegetation types. PC Hills, located in Palo, Leyte, Philippines, is a relatively undisturbed area having forests and rivers. Despite being situated nearby inhabited villages; the area is observed to have a possible rich butterfly population. To assess the Rhopalocera species richness and diversity, transect sampling technique was applied to monitor and document butterflies. Transects were placed in locations that can be mapped, described and relocated easily. Three transects measuring three hundred meters each with a 5-meter diameter were established based on the different vegetation types present. The three main vegetation types identified were the agroecosystem (transect 1), dipterocarp forest (transect 2), and riparian (transect 3). Sample collections were done only from 9:00 A.M to 3:00 P.M. under warm and bright weather, with no more than moderate winds and when it was not raining. When weather conditions did not permit collection, it was moved to another day. A GPS receiver was used to record the location of the selected sample sites and the coordinates of where each sample was collected. Morphological analysis was done for the first phase of the study to identify the voucher specimen to the lowest taxonomic level possible using books about butterfly identification guides and species lists as references. For the second phase, DNA barcoding will be used to further identify the voucher specimen into the species taxonomic level. After eight (8) sampling sessions, seven hundred forty-two (742) individuals were seen, and twenty-two (22) Rhopalocera genera were identified through morphological identification. Nymphalidae family of genus Ypthima and the Pieridae family of genera Eurema and Leptosia were the most dominant species observed. Twenty (20) of the thirty-one (31) voucher specimen were already identified to their species taxonomic level using DNA Barcoding. Shannon-Weiner index showed that the highest diversity level was observed in the third transect (H’ = 2.947), followed by the second transect (H’ = 2.6317) and the lowest being in the first transect (H’ = 1.767). This indicates that butterflies are likely to inhabit dipterocarp and riparian vegetation types than agroecosystem, which influences their species composition and diversity. Moreover, the appearance of a river in the riparian vegetation supported its diversity value since butterflies have the tendency to fly into areas near rivers. Species identification of other voucher specimen will be done in order to compute the overall species richness in PC Hills. Further butterfly sampling sessions of PC Hills is recommended for a more reliable diversity trend and to discover more butterfly species. Expanding the research by assessing the Rhopalocera diversity in other locations should be considered along with studying factors that affect butterfly species composition other than vegetation types.

Keywords: distribution patterns, DNA barcoding, morphological analysis, Rhopalocera

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20903 Rapid Inventory of Terrestrial Ferns and Lycopods in Center for Ecological Development and Recreation (Cedar), Impalutao, Impasug-Ong Bukidnon, Philippines

Authors: Diobein Flores, Venus Buagas, Virgie Darunday

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The study inventoried the species composition of terrestrial ferns and lycopods in Center for Ecological Development and Recreation (CEDAR) Impalutao, Impasug-ong, Bukidnon. Specifically, it aimed to determine and describe the species composition, and diagnostic characters of the ferns and lycopods in the study site. Transect walk method was employed in the inventory of the species. Each species were classified, identified and described according to its diagnostic characters. Results of the study revealed a total of 20 species of ferns and lycopods. Of these, 18 species were ferns and 2 species were lycopods. Eleven (11) families and fifteen (15) genera for ferns and one (1) family and one (1) genera for lycopods. Psomiocarpa apifolia is Philippine endemic and said to be vulnerable or threatened. Taxonomic characters based on habit, rhizome, leaf arrangement and orientation, stem structure and circinate vernation were used to identify the terrestrial pteridophtyes into families, genera and species. The species collected and assessment in CEDAR should be further investigated and monitor their conservation status.

Keywords: alpha taxonomy, conservation, habit, taxonomic characters

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20902 Taxonomy of Araceous Plants on Limestone Mountains in Lop Buri and Saraburi Provinces, Thailand

Authors: Duangchai Sookchaloem, Sutida Maneeanakekul

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Araceous plant or Araceae is a monocotyledon family having numerous potential useful plants. Two hundred and ten species of Araceae were reported in Thailand, of which 43 species were reported as threatened plants. Fifty percent of endemic status and rare status plants were recorded in limestone areas. Currently, these areas are seriously threatened by land-use changes. The study on taxonomy of Araceous plants was carried out in Lop Buri and Saraburi limestone mountains from February 2011 to May 2015. The purposes of this study were to study species diversity, taxonomic character and ecological habitat. 55 specimens collected from various limestone areas including Pra Phut Tabat National forest (Pra Phut Tabat Mountain, Khao Pra Phut Tabat Noi Mountains, Wat Thum Krabog Mountain), Tab Khwang and Muak Lek Natinal forest (Pha Lad mountain, and Muak Lek waterfall) in Saraburi province ,and Wang Plaeng Ta Muang and Lumnarai National forest (Wat Thum chang phuk mountain), Panead National forest (Wat Khao Samo Khon Mountain), Lan Ta Ridge National forest (Khao Wong Prachan mountain, Wat Pa Chumchon) in Lop Buri province. Twenty species of Araceous plants were identified using characteristics of underground stem, phyllotaxis and leaf blade, spathe and spadix. Species list are Aglaonema cochinchinense, A. simplex, Alocasia acuminata, Amorphophallus paeoniifolius, A. albispathus, A. saraburiensis, A. pseudoharmandii, Pycnospatha arietina, Hapaline kerri, Lasia spinosa, Pothos scandens, Typhonium laoticum, T. orbifolium, T. saraburiense, T. trilobatum, T. sp.1, T. sp. 2, Cryptocoryne crispatula var. balansae, Scindapsus sp., and Rhaphidophora peepla. Five species are new locality records. One species (Typhonium sp.1) is considered as a new species. Seven species were reported as threatened plants in Thailand Red Data Book. Taxonomic features were used for key to species constructions. Araceous specimens were found in mixed deciduous forests, dry evergreen forests with 50-470 m. elevation. New ecological habitat of Typhonium laoticum, T. orbifolium, and T. saraburiense were reported in this study.

Keywords: ecology, limestone mountains, Lopburi and Saraburi provinces, species diversity, taxonomic character

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20901 Distribution and Comparative Diversity of Nematocera within Four Livestock Types in the Plain of Mitidja Algeria

Authors: Nebri Rachid, Berrouane Fatima, Doumandji Salah Eddine

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During six months, from November 2013 to May 2014, census of Nematocera insects was conducted on four livestock: cattle, sheep, equine and cameline. The census, that took place in a station located in Mitidja plain, Algeria, revealed thirteen Nematocera species that had been observed and identified: Scatopse notata, Chironomus Sp., Sciara bicolor, Psychoda phalaenoïdes, Culex pipiens, Orthocladius Sp., Psycoda alternata, Trichocera regelationis, Culicoïdes Sp., Contarinia Sp., Ectaetia Sp., Tipula Sp., and Culicoïdes coprosus. A factorial correspondence analysis has been performed to study the distribution of the different species captured in colored traps that were placed in the four farms. The results showed the presence of three collections of Nematocera relating to the breeding type where the highest availability is in favor of the equine and the cattle. The analysis of the comparative diversity of Nematocera specimens revealed an indifferent taxonomic structure compared with the hosts. However, in terms of individuals, the supremacy is to the equine’s advantage. On the ecological arrival scale, Psycoda alternata, is undeniably the most predominant on the equines as well as on the cattle.

Keywords: Algeria, availability, biodiversity, census, livestock, nematocera

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20900 Web-Based Decision Support Systems and Intelligent Decision-Making: A Systematic Analysis

Authors: Serhat Tüzün, Tufan Demirel

Abstract:

Decision Support Systems (DSS) have been investigated by researchers and technologists for more than 35 years. This paper analyses the developments in the architecture and software of these systems, provides a systematic analysis for different Web-based DSS approaches and Intelligent Decision-making Technologies (IDT), with the suggestion for future studies. Decision Support Systems literature begins with building model-oriented DSS in the late 1960s, theory developments in the 1970s, and the implementation of financial planning systems and Group DSS in the early and mid-80s. Then it documents the origins of Executive Information Systems, online analytic processing (OLAP) and Business Intelligence. The implementation of Web-based DSS occurred in the mid-1990s. With the beginning of the new millennia, intelligence is the main focus on DSS studies. Web-based technologies are having a major impact on design, development and implementation processes for all types of DSS. Web technologies are being utilized for the development of DSS tools by leading developers of decision support technologies. Major companies are encouraging its customers to port their DSS applications, such as data mining, customer relationship management (CRM) and OLAP systems, to a web-based environment. Similarly, real-time data fed from manufacturing plants are now helping floor managers make decisions regarding production adjustment to ensure that high-quality products are produced and delivered. Web-based DSS are being employed by organizations as decision aids for employees as well as customers. A common usage of Web-based DSS has been to assist customers configure product and service according to their needs. These systems allow individual customers to design their own products by choosing from a menu of attributes, components, prices and delivery options. The Intelligent Decision-making Technologies (IDT) domain is a fast growing area of research that integrates various aspects of computer science and information systems. This includes intelligent systems, intelligent technology, intelligent agents, artificial intelligence, fuzzy logic, neural networks, machine learning, knowledge discovery, computational intelligence, data science, big data analytics, inference engines, recommender systems or engines, and a variety of related disciplines. Innovative applications that emerge using IDT often have a significant impact on decision-making processes in government, industry, business, and academia in general. This is particularly pronounced in finance, accounting, healthcare, computer networks, real-time safety monitoring and crisis response systems. Similarly, IDT is commonly used in military decision-making systems, security, marketing, stock market prediction, and robotics. Even though lots of research studies have been conducted on Decision Support Systems, a systematic analysis on the subject is still missing. Because of this necessity, this paper has been prepared to search recent articles about the DSS. The literature has been deeply reviewed and by classifying previous studies according to their preferences, taxonomy for DSS has been prepared. With the aid of the taxonomic review and the recent developments over the subject, this study aims to analyze the future trends in decision support systems.

Keywords: decision support systems, intelligent decision-making, systematic analysis, taxonomic review

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20899 Geometric-Morphometric Analysis of Head, Pronotum and Elytra of Brontispa Longissima Gestro in Selected Provinces of the Philippines

Authors: Ana Marie T. Acevedo

Abstract:

This study was conducted to describe variations in the shapes of the elytra, head and pronotum of populations of adult Brontispa longissima (Gestro) infesting coconut farms from selected areas in the Philippines using Cluster Analysis, Relative Warp Analysis coupled with box plot and histograms and Procustean analysis. The data used in this study included shape residuals captured using the method of landmark based geometric morphometrics. Results: The results of the cluster analyses based on the average shapes of the elytra, head and pronotum shows no consistent pattern of similarity between and among five populations of B. longissima. When localized variations using Relative Warp Analysis coupled with box plot and histograms was done, the findings revealed that RWA was only successful in summarizing variations using two relative warps in the shape of the elytra where the first two warps contained 86.29% of the variations of the female and 85.48% for the males. For the head and pronotum, the first two relative warps captured less than 50% of the overall variation. Looking at the shapes of the frequency histograms, all were found to follow a unimodal distribution. The box plots reveal no consistent results. Among the three characters studied only the elytra were more robust and reliable compared to head and pronotum and then Tandag differ from the rest of the other over-lapping populations. On the other hand, Procustean Analyses revealed that elytra were more spread in the posterior region both in male and female. The coordinates in head and pronotum were evenly distributed. In the overlapping consensus configurations show that variability was exaggerated in the right side of the elytra and the posterior parts of the head and pronotum. Results also showed expansion among females while compression among males in elytra. For males, expansion are localized in the posterior part of the elytra, For the head, results showed asymmetry in the distribution of expansion areas where expansion are observed in the right postero-lateral aspect of the female head. Conclusion: The overall results may imply that they might belong to one operational taxonomic unit or ecotype or biotype. Geography might not be the factor responsible for the differentiation of the populations of B. longissima.

Keywords: cluster analysis, relative warp analysis, procrustean analysis, environmental parameters

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20898 DNA Barcoding for Identification of Dengue Vectors from Assam and Arunachal Pradesh: North-Eastern States in India

Authors: Monika Soni, Shovonlal Bhowmick, Chandra Bhattacharya, Jitendra Sharma, Prafulla Dutta, Jagadish Mahanta

Abstract:

Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus are considered as two major vectors to transmit dengue virus. In North-east India, two states viz. Assam and Arunachal Pradesh are known to be high endemic zone for dengue and Chikungunya viral infection. The taxonomical classification of medically important vectors are important for mapping of actual evolutionary trends and epidemiological studies. However, misidentification of mosquito species in field-collected mosquito specimens could have a negative impact which may affect vector-borne disease control policy. DNA barcoding is a prominent method to record available species, differentiate from new addition and change of population structure. In this study, a combined approach of a morphological and molecular technique of DNA barcoding was adopted to explore sequence variation in mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene within dengue vectors. The study has revealed the map distribution of the dengue vector from two states i.e. Assam and Arunachal Pradesh, India. Approximate five hundred mosquito specimens were collected from different parts of two states, and their morphological features were compared with the taxonomic keys. The analysis of detailed taxonomic study revealed identification of two species Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus. The species aegypti comprised of 66.6% of the specimen and represented as dominant dengue vector species. The sequences obtained through standard DNA barcoding protocol were compared with public databases, viz. GenBank and BOLD. The sequences of all Aedes albopictus have shown 100% similarity whereas sequence of Aedes aegypti has shown 99.77 - 100% similarity of COI gene with that of different geographically located same species based on BOLD database search. From dengue prevalent different geographical regions fifty-nine sequences were retrieved from NCBI and BOLD databases of the same and related taxa to determine the evolutionary distance model based on the phylogenetic analysis. Neighbor-Joining (NJ) and Maximum Likelihood (ML) phylogenetic tree was constructed in MEGA6.06 software with 1000 bootstrap replicates using Kimura-2-Parameter model. Data were analyzed for sequence divergence and found that intraspecific divergence ranged from 0.0 to 2.0% and interspecific divergence ranged from 11.0 to 12.0%. The transitional and transversional substitutions were tested individually. The sequences were deposited in NCBI: GenBank database. This observation claimed the first DNA barcoding analysis of Aedes mosquitoes from North-eastern states in India and also confirmed the range expansion of two important mosquito species. Overall, this study insight into the molecular ecology of the dengue vectors from North-eastern India which will enhance the understanding to improve the existing entomological surveillance and vector incrimination program.

Keywords: COI, dengue vectors, DNA barcoding, molecular identification, North-east India, phylogenetics

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20897 Metabolic and Phylogenetic Profiling of Rhizobium leguminosarum Strains Isolated from NZ Soils of Varying pH

Authors: Anish Shah, Steve A. Wakelin, Derrick Moot, Aurélie Laugraud, Hayley J. Ridgway

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A mixed pasture system of ryegrass-clover is used in New Zealand, where clovers are generally inoculated with commercially available strains of rhizobia. The community of rhizobia living in the soil and the way in which they interact with the plant are affected by different biotic and abiotic factors. In general, bacterial richness and diversity in soil varies by soil pH. pH also affects cell physiology and acts as a master variable that controls the wider soil physiochemical conditions such as P availability, Al release and micronutrient availability. As such, pH can have both primary and secondary effects on soil biology and processes. The aim of this work was to investigate the effect of soil pH on the genetic diversity and metabolic profile of Rhizobium leguminosarum strains nodulating clover. Soils were collected from 12 farms across New Zealand which had a pH(water) range of between 4.9 and 7.5, with four acidic (pH 4.9 – 5.5), four ‘neutral’ (5.8 – 6.1) and four alkaline (6.5 – 7.5) soils. Bacteria were recovered from nodules of Trifolium repens (white clover) and T. subterraneum (subterranean clover) grown in the soils. The strains were cultured and screened against a range of pH-amended media to demonstrate whether they were adapted to pH levels similar to their native soils. The strains which showed high relative growth at a given pH (~20% of those isolated) were selected for metabolic and taxonomic profiling. The Omnilog (Biolog Inc., Hayward, CA) phenotype array was used to perform assays on carbon (C) utilisation for selected strains. DNA was extracted from the strains which had differing C utilisation profiles and PCR products for both forward and reverse primers were sequenced for the following genes: 16S rRNA, recA, nodC, nodD and nifH (symbiotic).

Keywords: bacterial diversity, clover, metabolic and taxonomic profiling, pH adaptation, rhizobia

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20896 Taxonomic Study and Environmental Ecology of Parrot (Rose Ringed) in City Mirpurkhas, Sindh, Pakistan

Authors: Aisha Liaquat Ali, Ghulam Sarwar Gachal, Muhammad Yusuf Sheikh

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The Parrot rose ringed (Psittaculla krameri) commonly known as Tota, belongs to the order ‘Psittaciformes’ and family ‘Psittacidea’. Its sub-species inhabiting Pakistan are Psittaculla borealis. The parrot rose-ringed has been categorized the least concern species, the core aim of the present study is to investigate the ecology and taxonomy of parrot (rose-ringed). Sampling was obtained for the taxonomic identification from various adjoining areas in City Mirpurkhas by non-random method, which was conducted from Feb to June 2017. The different parameters measured with the help of a vernier caliper, foot scale, digital weighing machine. Body parameters were measured via; length of body, length of the wings, length of tail, mass in grams. During present study, a total number of 36 specimens were collected from different localities of City Mirpurkhas (38.2%) were male and (62.7%) were female. Maximum population density of Psittaculla Krameri borealis (52.9%) was collected from Sindh Horticulture Research Station (fruit farm) Mirpurkhas. Minimum no: of Psittaculla krameri borealis (5.5%) collected in urban parks. It was observed that Psittaculla krameri borealis were in dense population during the months of ‘May’ and ‘June’ when the temperature ranged between 20°C and 45°C. A Psittaculla krameri borealis female was found the heaviest in body weight. The species of parrot (rose ringed) captured during study having green plumage, coverts were gray, upper beak, red and lower beak black, shorter tail in female long tail in the male which was similar to the Psittaculla krameri borealis.

Keywords: Mirpurkhas Sindh Pakistan, environmental ecology, parrot, rose-ringed, taxonomy

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20895 Molecular Identification and Evolutionary Status of Lucilia bufonivora: An Obligate Parasite of Amphibians in Europe

Authors: Gerardo Arias, Richard Wall, Jamie Stevens

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Lucilia bufonivora Moniez, is an obligate parasite of toads and frogs widely distributed in Europe. Its sister taxon Lucilia silvarum Meigen behaves mainly as a carrion breeder in Europe, however it has been reported as a facultative parasite of amphibians. These two closely related species are morphologically almost identical, which has led to misidentification, and in fact, it has been suggested that the amphibian myiasis cases by L. silvarum reported in Europe should be attributed to L. bufonivora. Both species remain poorly studied and their taxonomic relationships are still unclear. The identification of the larval specimens involved in amphibian myiasis with molecular tools and phylogenetic analysis of these two closely related species may resolve this problem. In this work seventeen unidentified larval specimens extracted from toad myiasis cases of the UK, the Netherlands and Switzerland were obtained, their COX1 (mtDNA) and EF1-α (Nuclear DNA) gene regions were amplified and then sequenced. The 17 larval samples were identified with both molecular markers as L. bufonivora. Phylogenetic analysis was carried out with 10 other blowfly species, including L. silvarum samples from the UK and USA. Bayesian Inference trees of COX1 and a combined-gene dataset suggested that L. silvarum and L. bufonivora are separate sister species. However, the nuclear gene EF1-α does not appear to resolve their relationships, suggesting that the rates of evolution of the mtDNA are much faster than those of the nuclear DNA. This work provides the molecular evidence for successful identification of L. bufonivora and a molecular analysis of the populations of this obligate parasite from different locations across Europe. The relationships with L. silvarum are discussed.

Keywords: calliphoridae, molecular evolution, myiasis, obligate parasitism

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20894 Insights into Archaeological Human Sample Microbiome Using 16S rRNA Gene Sequencing

Authors: Alisa Kazarina, Guntis Gerhards, Elina Petersone-Gordina, Ilva Pole, Viktorija Igumnova, Janis Kimsis, Valentina Capligina, Renate Ranka

Abstract:

Human body is inhabited by a vast number of microorganisms, collectively known as the human microbiome, and there is a tremendous interest in evolutionary changes in human microbial ecology, diversity and function. The field of paleomicrobiology, study of ancient human microbiome, is powered by modern techniques of Next Generation Sequencing (NGS), which allows extracting microbial genomic data directly from archaeological sample of interest. One of the major techniques is 16S rRNA gene sequencing, by which certain 16S rRNA gene hypervariable regions are being amplified and sequenced. However, some limitations of this method exist including the taxonomic precision and efficacy of different regions used. The aim of this study was to evaluate the phylogenetic sensitivity of different 16S rRNA gene hypervariable regions for microbiome studies in the archaeological samples. Towards this aim, archaeological bone samples and corresponding soil samples from each burial environment were collected in Medieval cemeteries in Latvia. The Ion 16S™ Metagenomics Kit targeting different 16S rRNA gene hypervariable regions was used for library construction (Ion Torrent technologies). Sequenced data were analysed by using appropriate bioinformatic techniques; alignment and taxonomic representation was done using Mothur program. Sequences of most abundant genus were further aligned to E. coli 16S rRNA gene reference sequence using MEGA7 in order to identify the hypervariable region of the segment of interest. Our results showed that different hypervariable regions had different discriminatory power depending on the groups of microbes, as well as the nature of samples. On the basis of our results, we suggest that wider range of primers used can provide more accurate recapitulation of microbial communities in archaeological samples. Acknowledgements. This work was supported by the ERAF grant Nr. 1.1.1.1/16/A/101.

Keywords: 16S rRNA gene, ancient human microbiome, archaeology, bioinformatics, genomics, microbiome, molecular biology, next-generation sequencing

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20893 Blood Microbiome in Different Metabolic Types of Obesity

Authors: Irina M. Kolesnikova, Andrey M. Gaponov, Sergey A. Roumiantsev, Tatiana V. Grigoryeva, Dilyara R. Khusnutdinova, Dilyara R. Kamaldinova, Alexander V. Shestopalov

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Background. Obese patients have unequal risks of metabolic disorders. It is accepted to distinguish between metabolically healthy obesity (MHO) and metabolically unhealthy obesity (MUHO). MUHO patients have a high risk of metabolic disorders, insulin resistance, and diabetes mellitus. Among the other things, the gut microbiota also contributes to the development of metabolic disorders in obesity. Obesity is accompanied by significant changes in the gut microbial community. In turn, bacterial translocation from the intestine is the basis for the blood microbiome formation. The aim was to study the features of the blood microbiome in patients with various metabolic types of obesity. Patients, materials, methods. The study included 116 healthy donors and 101 obese patients. Depending on the metabolic type of obesity, the obese patients were divided into subgroups with MHO (n=36) and MUHO (n=53). Quantitative and qualitative assessment of the blood microbiome was based on metagenomic analysis. Blood samples were used to isolate DNA and perform sequencing of the variable v3-v4 region of the 16S rRNA gene. Alpha diversity indices (Simpson index, Shannon index, Chao1 index, phylogenetic diversity, the number of observed operational taxonomic units) were calculated. Moreover, we compared taxa (phyla, classes, orders, and families) in terms of isolation frequency and the taxon share in the total bacterial DNA pool between different patient groups. Results. In patients with MHO, the characteristics of the alpha-diversity of the blood microbiome were like those of healthy donors. However, MUHO was associated with an increase in all diversity indices. The main phyla of the blood microbiome were Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, and Actinobacteria. Cyanobacteria, TM7, Thermi, Verrucomicrobia, Chloroflexi, Acidobacteria, Planctomycetes, Gemmatimonadetes, and Tenericutes were found to be less significant phyla of the blood microbiome. Phyla Acidobacteria, TM7, and Verrucomicrobia were more often isolated in blood samples of patients with MUHO compared with healthy donors. Obese patients had a decrease in some taxonomic ranks (Bacilli, Caulobacteraceae, Barnesiellaceae, Rikenellaceae, Williamsiaceae). These changes appear to be related to the increased diversity of the blood microbiome observed in obesity. An increase of Lachnospiraceae, Succinivibrionaceae, Prevotellaceae, and S24-7 was noted for MUHO patients, which, apparently, is explained by a magnification in intestinal permeability. Conclusion. Blood microbiome differs in obese patients and healthy donors at class, order, and family levels. Moreover, the nature of the changes is determined by the metabolic type of obesity. MUHO linked to increased diversity of the blood microbiome. This appears to be due to increased microbial translocation from the intestine and non-intestinal sources.

Keywords: blood microbiome, blood bacterial DNA, obesity, metabolically healthy obesity, metabolically unhealthy obesity

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20892 The Advantages of Using DNA-Barcoding for Determining the Fraud in Seafood

Authors: Elif Tugce Aksun Tumerkan

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Although seafood is an important part of human diet and categorized highly traded food industry internationally, it is remain overlooked generally in the global food security aspect. Food product authentication is the main interest in the aim of both avoids commercial fraud and to consider the risks that might be harmful to human health safety. In recent years, with increasing consumer demand for regarding food content and it's transparency, there are some instrumental analyses emerging for determining food fraud depend on some analytical methodologies such as proteomic and metabolomics. While, fish and seafood consumed as fresh previously, within advanced technology, processed or packaged seafood consumption have increased. After processing or packaging seafood, morphological identification is impossible when some of the external features have been removed. The main fish and seafood quality-related issues are the authentications of seafood contents such as mislabelling products which may be contaminated and replacement partly or completely, by lower quality or cheaper ones. For all mentioned reasons, truthful consistent and easily applicable analytical methods are needed for assurance the correct labelling and verifying of seafood products. DNA-barcoding methods become popular robust that used in taxonomic research for endangered or cryptic species in recent years; they are used for determining food traceability also. In this review, when comparing the other proteomic and metabolic analysis, DNA-based methods are allowing a chance to identification all type of food even as raw, spiced and processed products. This privilege caused by DNA is a comparatively stable molecule than protein and other molecules. Furthermore showing variations in sequence based on different species and founding in all organisms, make DNA-based analysis more preferable. This review was performed to clarify the main advantages of using DNA-barcoding for determining seafood fraud among other techniques.

Keywords: DNA-barcoding, genetic analysis, food fraud, mislabelling, packaged seafood

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20891 Geometric Morphometric Analysis of Allometric Variation in the Hand Morphology of Adults

Authors: Aleksandr S. Ermolenko

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Allometry is an important factor of morphological integration, contributing to the organization of the phenotype and its variability. The allometric change in the shape of the hand is particularly important in primate evolution, as the hand has important taxonomic features. Some of these features are known to parts with the shape, especially the ratio of the lengths of the index and ring fingers (2d: 4d ratio). The hand is a fairly well-studied system in the context of the evolutionary development of complex morphological structures since it consists of various departments (basipodium, metapodium, acropodium) that form a single structure –autopodium. In the present study, we examined the allometric variability of acropodium. We tested the null hypothesis that there would be no difference in allometric variation between the two components. Geometric morphometry based on a procrustation of 16 two-dimensional (2D) landmarks was analyzed using multivariate shape-by-size regressions in samples from 100 people (50 men and 50 women). The results obtained show that men have significantly greater allometric variability for the ring finger (variability in the transverse axis prevails), while women have significantly greater allometric variability for the index finger (variability in the longitudinal axis prevails). The influence of the middle finger on the shape of the hand is typical for both men and women. The influence of the little finger on the shape of the hand, regardless of gender, was not revealed. The results of this study support the hypothesis that allometry contributes to the organization of variation in the human hand.

Keywords: human hand, size and shape, 2d:4d ratio, geometric morphometry

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20890 Application of Subversion Analysis in the Search for the Causes of Cracking in a Marine Engine Injector Nozzle

Authors: Leszek Chybowski, Artur Bejger, Katarzyna Gawdzińska

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Subversion analysis is a tool used in the TRIZ (Theory of Inventive Problem Solving) methodology. This article introduces the history and describes the process of subversion analysis, as well as function analysis and analysis of the resources, used at the design stage when generating possible undesirable situations. The article charts the course of subversion analysis when applied to a fuel injection nozzle of a marine engine. The work describes the fuel injector nozzle as a technological system and presents principles of analysis for the causes of a cracked tip of the nozzle body. The system is modelled with functional analysis. A search for potential causes of the damage is undertaken and a cause-and-effect analysis for various hypotheses concerning the damage is drawn up. The importance of particular hypotheses is evaluated and the most likely causes of damage identified.

Keywords: complex technical system, fuel injector, function analysis, importance analysis, resource analysis, sabotage analysis, subversion analysis, TRIZ (Theory of Inventive Problem Solving)

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20889 Enumerating Insect Biodiversity in the Himalayan Mountains of India in Context to Species Richness, Biogeographic Distribution, and Possible Gap Areas in Taxonomic Research

Authors: Kailash Chandra, Devanshu Gupta

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The Himalayan Mountains of India fall under two biogeographic zones Trans Himalaya (TH) and Himalaya and seven biotic provinces (TH-Ladakh Mountains, TH-Tibetan Plateau, TH-Sikkim, North-West Himalaya, West Himalaya, Central Himalaya, and East Himalaya). Because of the extreme environment and altitudinal variations, unique physiography, varied ecological conditions, and different vegetations, the Himalaya exhibit a rich assemblage of life, both flora, and fauna, further subjected to the impacts of climate change. To the authors’ best knowledge, there is no comprehensive account except for sporadic faunal investigations, to assess or interpret the insect diversity and their biogeographic distribution in Indian Himalaya (IH), one of the biodiversity hotspots. Therefore, in this paper, a compelling review of the extensive knowledge of insect diversity of IH is presented for the first time to the best of our knowledge. The inventory of the known insect species of IH was compiled from the exploration cum faunal-study data ready with the zoological survey of India, Kolkata as well as from the information published in the scientific literature till date. The species were listed with their valid names with their distribution in seven biotic provinces of IH. The insect fauna of IH represents about 38% of the identified insect diversity of India. The interpretation of data provided significant information in detecting possible gap areas in the taxonomic representation of different insect orders. Archaeognatha, Zygentoma, Ephemeroptera, Phasmida, Embioptera, Psocoptera, Phthiraptera, Strepsiptera, Megaloptera, Raphidioptera, Siphonaptera, and Mecoptera need revisions, and it is required to collect more samples from remote areas of the region. Scope for finding new taxa even in the most diverse orders, Coleoptera, Lepidoptera, Hymenoptera, Diptera, and Hemiptera cannot be overlooked. Exploration of cold deserts of Trans Himalaya and East Himalaya (Arunachal Pradesh) may result in a good number of new species from these regions. The most notable data was that many of the species recorded from Himalaya are still known from their type localities only, so there is an urgency to revisit and resurvey those collection localities for the evaluation of the status of those species. It is also required to assess and monitor the impact of climate change on the diversity of insects inhabiting in the fragile Himalayan ecosystem. DNA barcoding especially pests and biological control agents to solve the problems of identification in species complexes is also the need of the hour. In a nutshell, it can be concluded that the inventory of insects of this region is extensive but is far from final as every year hundreds of new species are described.

Keywords: catalog, climate change, diversity, DNA barcoding

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20888 Studies of Zooplankton in Gdańsk Basin (2010-2011)

Authors: Lidia Dzierzbicka-Glowacka, Anna Lemieszek, Mariusz Figiela

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In 2010-2011, the research on zooplankton was conducted in the southern part of the Baltic Sea to determine seasonal variability in changes occurring throughout the zooplankton in 2010 and 2011, both in the region of Gdańsk Deep, and in the western part of Gdańsk Bay. The research in the sea showed that the taxonomic composition of holoplankton in the southern part of the Baltic Sea was similar to that recorded in this region for many years. The maximum values of abundance and biomass of zooplankton both in the Deep and the Bay of Gdańsk were observed in the summer season. Copepoda dominated in the composition of zooplankton for almost the entire study period, while rotifers occurred in larger numbers only in the summer 2010 in the Gdańsk Deep as well as in May and July 2010 in the western part of Gdańsk Bay, and meroplankton – in April 2011.

Keywords: Baltic Sea, composition, Gdańsk Bay, zooplankton

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20887 A Study on Local Endemic Jurinea brevicaulis Boiss. (Asteraceae) from Turkey

Authors: Bekir Dogan

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The genus Jurinea is one of the larger genera within Asteraceae, comprising about 200 species. Jurinea is naturally distributed in central Asia, Turkey, Iran and the Mediterranean region. Jurinea has 23 species within the Mediterranean and Irano-Turanian phytogeographic regions of Turkey. Jurinea brevicaulis is locally endemic in Turkey. It grows Erzincan province in Turkey. Between 2005 and 2007, as a part of a revisional study of Jurinea in Turkey, the author carried out extensive field studies and herbaria and collected an enough number of specimens. In the field, the specimens' GPS coordinates, habitat and relevant field observations were recorded. International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) threat category was given. The present study reviews the chorology of the Jurinea brevicaulis in Turkey based on recent taxonomic revision and available specimen data.

Keywords: Asteraceae, endemic, Jurinea, Turkey

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