Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 55

Search results for: Sharmin Sultana

55 The Influence of Zinc Applications from Soil and Foliar at Different Levels on Some Quality Characteristics of Sultana Raisins

Authors: Harun Çoban, Aydın Akın

Abstract:

In this study, the effects of different dose zinc application from soil and foliar on drying yield and some quality characters of raisins ‘Sultana’ were investigated. The experiment was conducted in randomized blocks with four replications, zinc treatment was used at one time (before pre- bloom) and from foliar in three times (pre-bloom, fruit set, and veraison). At harvest, both soil and foliar zinc sulphate applications increased the amount of fresh grapes per vine. Fresh grapes were dried on the drying place. However, the most efficient applications for drying yield and quality of raisins were observed from foliar. Therefore, it was preferred that foliar application dosage level at 0.10 %.

Keywords: zinc, raisins, soil application, foliar application, sultana, expertise value

Procedia PDF Downloads 212
54 Modernity and Domestic Space in the Feminist Utopias of Herland and Sultana’s Dream

Authors: Nudrat Kamal

Abstract:

Scholarship exploring the development of the literary tradition of feminist utopias, especially in the sociopolitical context of Europe and North America, has been important and meaningful, but it is, in large part, still restricted to Euro-American texts. This paper will explore Charlotte Perkins Gilman’s feminist utopia Herland (1915) with another feminist utopia written just a decade before, but in a widely different sociopolitical context: Bengali feminist writer Rokeya Sakhawat Hossain’s English short story Sultana’s Dream (1905). The paper will argue that both texts, despite being written in such different cultural and historical contexts, utilize and subvert the public versus private/domestic sphere dichotomy and the restricted gender roles associated with each sphere in order to conceive of specific formulations of feminist modernities that reflect the sociopolitical contexts and feminist movements both writers were writing within. By bringing Gilman’s Herland into conversation with Hossain’s Sultana’s Dream, the paper hopes to illuminate the new meanings that might emerge if the scholarship on Western feminist utopias was to open itself up to the feminist utopias written elsewhere.

Keywords: comparative literature, feminist utopias, modernity, South Asian literature, utopias

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53 Lipid Extraction from Microbial Cell by Electroporation Technique and Its Influence on Direct Transesterification for Biodiesel Synthesis

Authors: Abu Yousuf, Maksudur Rahman Khan, Ahasanul Karim, Amirul Islam, Minhaj Uddin Monir, Sharmin Sultana, Domenico Pirozzi

Abstract:

Traditional biodiesel feedstock like edible oils or plant oils, animal fats and cooking waste oil have been replaced by microbial oil in recent research of biodiesel synthesis. The well-known community of microbial oil producers includes microalgae, oleaginous yeast and seaweeds. Conventional transesterification of microbial oil to produce biodiesel is lethargic, energy consuming, cost-ineffective and environmentally unhealthy. This process follows several steps such as microbial biomass drying, cell disruption, oil extraction, solvent recovery, oil separation and transesterification. Therefore, direct transesterification of biodiesel synthesis has been studying for last few years. It combines all the steps in a single reactor and it eliminates the steps of biomass drying, oil extraction and separation from solvent. Apparently, it seems to be cost-effective and faster process but number of difficulties need to be solved to make it large scale applicable. The main challenges are microbial cell disruption in bulk volume and make faster the esterification reaction, because water contents of the medium sluggish the reaction rate. Several methods have been proposed but none of them is up to the level to implement in large scale. It is still a great challenge to extract maximum lipid from microbial cells (yeast, fungi, algae) investing minimum energy. Electroporation technique results a significant increase in cell conductivity and permeability caused due to the application of an external electric field. Electroporation is required to alter the size and structure of the cells to increase their porosity as well as to disrupt the microbial cell walls within few seconds to leak out the intracellular lipid to the solution. Therefore, incorporation of electroporation techniques contributed in direct transesterification of microbial lipids by increasing the efficiency of biodiesel production rate.

Keywords: biodiesel, electroporation, microbial lipids, transesterification

Procedia PDF Downloads 198
52 Electrostatic Solitary Waves in Degenerate Relativistic Quantum Plasmas

Authors: Sharmin Sultana, Reinhard Schlickeiser

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A degenerate relativistic quantum plasma (DRQP) system (containing relativistically degenerate electrons, degenerate/non-degenerate light nuclei, and non-degenerate heavy nuclei) is considered to investigate the propagation characteristics of electrostatic solitary waves (in the ionic scale length) theoretically and numerically. The ion-acoustic solitons are found to be associated with the modified ion-acoustic waves (MIAWs) in which inertia (restoring force) is provided by mass density of the light or heavy nuclei (degenerate pressure of the cold electrons). A mechanical-motion analog (Sagdeev-type) pseudo-potential approach is adopted to study the properties of large amplitude solitary waves. The basic properties of the large amplitude MIAWs and their existence domain in terms of soliton speed (Mach number) are examined. On the other hand, a multi-scale perturbation approach, leading to an evolution equation for the envelope dynamics, is adopted to derive the cubic nonlinear Schrödinger equation (NLSE). The criteria for the occurrence of modulational instability (MI) of the MIAWs are analyzed via the nonlinear dispersion relation of the NLSE. The possibility for the formation of highly energetic localized modes (e.g. peregrine solitons, rogue waves, etc.) is predicted in such DRQP medium. Peregrine solitons or rogue waves with amplitudes of several times of the background are observed to form in DRQP. The basic features of these modulated waves (e.g. envelope solitons, peregrine solitons, and rogue waves), which are found to form in DRQP, and their MI criteria (on the basis of different intrinsic plasma parameters), are investigated. It is emphasized that our results should be useful in understanding the propagation characteristics of localized disturbances and the modulation dynamics of envelope solitons, and their instability criteria in astrophysical DRQP system (e.g. white dwarfs, neutron stars, etc., where matters under extreme conditions are assumed to exist) and also in ultra-high density experimental plasmas.

Keywords: degenerate plasma, envelope solitons, modified ion-acoustic waves, modulational instability, rogue waves

Procedia PDF Downloads 136
51 Fish Scales as a Nonlethal Screening Tools for Assessing the Effects of Surface Water Contaminants in Cyprinus Carpio

Authors: Shahid Mahboob, Hafiz Muhammad Ashraf, Salma Sultana, Tayyaba Sultana, Khalid Al-Ghanim, Fahid Al-Misned, Zubair Ahmedd

Abstract:

There is an increasing need for an effective tool to estimate the risks derived from the large number of pollutants released to the environment by human activities. Typical screening procedures are highly invasive or lethal to the fish. Recent studies show that fish scales biochemically respond to a range of contaminants, including toxic metals, organic compounds, and endocrine disruptors. The present study evaluated the effects of the surface water contaminants on Cyprinus carpio in the Ravi River by comparing DNA extracted non-lethally from their scales to DNA extracted from the scales of fish collected from a controlled fish farm. A single, random sampling was conducted. Fish were broadly categorised into three weight categories (W1, W2 and W3). The experimental samples in the W1, W2 and W3 categories had an average DNA concentration (µg/µl) that was lower than the control samples. All control samples had a single DNA band; whereas the experimental samples in W1 fish had 1 to 2 bands, the experimental samples in W2 fish had two bands and the experimental samples in W3 fish had fragmentation in the form of three bands. These bands exhibit the effects of pollution on fish in the Ravi River. On the basis findings of this study, we propose that fish scales can be successfully employed as a new non-lethal tool for the evaluation of the effect of surface water contaminants.

Keywords: fish scales, Cyprinus carpio, heavy metals, non-invasive, DNA fragmentation

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50 Effect of Time on Stream on the Performances of Plasma Assisted Fe-Doped Cryptomelanes in Trichloroethylene (TCE) Oxidation

Authors: Sharmin Sultana, Nicolas Nuns, Pardis Simon, Jean-Marc Giraudon, Jean-Francois Lamonior, Nathalie D. Geyter, Rino Morent

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Environmental issues, especially air pollution, have become a huge concern of environmental legislation as a consequence of growing awareness in our global world. In this regard, control of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emission has become an important issue due to their potential toxicity, carcinogenicity, and mutagenicity. The research of innovative technologies for VOC abatement is stimulated to accommodate the new stringent standards in terms of VOC emission. One emerging strategy is the coupling of 2 existing complementary technologies, namely here non-thermal plasma (NTP) and heterogeneous catalysis, to get a more efficient process for VOC removal in air. The objective of this current work is to investigate the abatement of trichloroethylene (TCE-highly toxic chlorinated VOC) from moist air (RH=15%) as a function of time by combined use of multi-pin-to-plate negative DC corona/glow discharge with Fe-doped cryptomelanes catalyst downstream i.e. post plasma-catalysis (PPC) process. For catalyst alone case, experiments reveal that, initially, Fe doped cryptomelane (regardless the mode of Fe incorporation by co-precipitation (Fe-K-OMS-2)/ impregnation (Fe/K-OMS-2)) exhibits excellent activity to decompose TCE compared to cryptomelane (K-OMS-2) itself. A maximum obtained value of TCE abatement after 6 min is as follows: Fe-KOMS-2 (73.3%) > Fe/KOMS-2 (48.5) > KOMS-2 (22.6%). However, with prolonged operation time, whatever the catalyst under concern, the abatement of TCE decreases. After 111 min time of exposure, the catalysts can be ranked as follows: Fe/KOMS-2 (11%) < K-OMS-2 (12.3%) < Fe-KOMS-2 (14.5%). Clearly, this phenomenon indicates catalyst deactivation either by chlorination or by blocking the active sites. Remarkably, in PPC configuration (energy density = 60 J/L, catalyst temperature = 150°C), experiments reveal an enhanced performance towards TCE removal regardless the type of catalyst. After 6 min time on stream, the TCE removal efficiency amount as follows: K-OMS-2 (60%) < Fe/K-OMS-2 (79%) < Fe-K-OMS-2 (99.3%). The enhanced performances over Fe-K-OMS-2 catalyst are attributed to its high surface oxygen mobility and structural defects leading to high O₃ decomposition efficiency to give active species able to oxidize the plasma processed hazardous\by-products and the possibly remaining VOC into CO₂. Moreover, both undoped and doped catalysts remain strongly capable to abate TCE with time on stream. The TCE removal efficiencies of the PPC processes with Fe/KOMS-2 and KOMS-2 catalysts are not affected by time on stream indicating an excellent catalyst stability. When using the Fe-K-OMS-2 as catalyst, TCE abatement slightly reduces with time on stream. However, it is noteworthy to stress that still a constant abatement of 83% is observed during at least 30 minutes. These results prove that the combination of NTP with catalysts not only increases the catalytic activity but also allows to avoid, to some extent, the poisoning of catalytic sites resulting in an enhanced catalyst stability. In order to better understand the different surface processes occurring in the course of the total TCE oxidation in PPC experiments, a detailed X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) and Time of Flight-Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) study on the fresh and used catalysts is in progress.

Keywords: Fe doped cryptomelane, non-thermal plasma, plasma-catalysis, stability, trichloroethylene

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49 A Case Study of Zhang Yimou, Using Color Evidence From “Hero and the Shadow” and How the Color Is Symbolized in Contemporary Society?

Authors: Rakiba Sultana

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This paper investigates how different colors are used and bring symbolic meaning comparatively in Zhang Yimou's movies Hero and Shadow. The study also explores how those colors are symbolized in contemporary society. The researcher analyzes the movies Hero and the Shadow to investigate them using colors and how they are used in contemporary society. Hero exposes the colorful colors to expose the Chinese traditions, whereas Shadow explores the gray, black, and white with the ink paints. Also, in contemporary society, sometimes, the author gets a similar symbolic meaning of the colors. Sometimes, the contemporary's meaning is different from the one used in these two movies.

Keywords: Chinese movie, visuals, colors, traditional painting, contemporary society, and Western countries

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48 Effect of Internal Heat Generation on Free Convective Power Law Variable Temperature Past Vertical Plate Considering Exponential Variable Viscosity and Thermal Diffusivity

Authors: Tania Sharmin Khaleque, Mohammad Ferdows

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The flow and heat transfer characteristics of a convection with temperature-dependent viscosity and thermal diffusivity along a vertical plate with internal heat generation effect have been studied. The plate temperature is assumed to follow a power law of the distance from the leading edge. The resulting governing two-dimensional equations are transformed using suitable transformations and then solved numerically by using fifth order Runge-Kutta-Fehlberg scheme with a modified version of the Newton-Raphson shooting method. The effects of the various parameters such as variable viscosity parameter β_1, the thermal diffusivity parameter β_2, heat generation parameter c and the Prandtl number Pr on the velocity and temperature profiles, as well as the local skin- friction coefficient and the local Nusselt number are presented in tabular form. Our results suggested that the presence of internal heat generation leads to increase flow than that of without exponentially decaying heat generation term.

Keywords: free convection, heat generation, thermal diffusivity, variable viscosity

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47 Private University Students’ Travel Mode Choice Behaviour to University: Analysis in the Context of Dhaka City

Authors: Sharmin Nasrin

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Dhaka is the capital of Bangladesh. In Dhaka among other trips, significant percentages of trips comprise education trips. This paper explores significant factors for private university students’ education trip to the University. A paper pencil based survey has been conducted on Asia Pacific University student in Dhaka from May 2016 to July 2016. Participants were chosen randomly for the survey. Exploratory analysis showed that about 50% chose bus, 33% chose Rickshaw, 2% chose car and 15% chose to walk for travel to their University. Results from Multinomial Logit model revealed that travel cost, travel time and comfort are the significant factors for private university students to choose different modes. However, magnitude of coefficient of attribute comfort is significantly higher compared to travel cost and travel time. Result from this paper can be used by policymakers and Government agencies to provide more cost effective, comfortable journey to their University.

Keywords: private university student's education trip, mode choice mode, Dhaka, developing country

Procedia PDF Downloads 323
46 Attitude towards the Consumption of Social Media: Analyzing Young Consumers’ Travel Behavior

Authors: Farzana Sharmin, Mohammad Tipu Sultan, Benqian Li

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Advancement of new media technology and consumption of social media have altered the way of communication in the tourism industry, mostly for consumers’ travel planning, online purchase, and experience sharing activity. There is an accelerating trend among young consumers’ to utilize this new media technology. This paper aims to analyze the attitude of young consumers’ about social media use for travel purposes. The convenience random sample method used to collect data from an urban area of Shanghai (China), consists of 225 young consumers’. This survey identified behavioral determinants of social media consumption by the extended theory of planned behavior (TPB). The instrument developed support on previous research to test hypotheses. The results of structural analyses indicate that attitude towards the use of social media is affected by external factors such as availability and accessibility of technology. In addition, subjective norm and perceived behavioral control have partially influenced the attitude of respondents’. The results of this study could help to improve social media travel marketing and promotional strategies for respective groups.

Keywords: social media, theory of planned behavior, travel behavior, young consumer

Procedia PDF Downloads 111
45 Synthesis and Spectrophotometric Study of Omeprazole Charge Transfer Complexes with Bromothymol Blue, Methyl Orange, and Picric Acid

Authors: Saeeda Nadir Ali, Najma Sultana, Muhammad Saeed Arayne

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Charge transfer complexes of omeprazole with bromothymol blue, methyl orange, and picric acid in the Beer’s law ranges 7-56, 6-48, and 10-80 µg mL-1, exhibiting stoichiometric ratio 1:1, and maximum wavelength 400, 420 and 373 nm respectively have been studied in aqueous medium. ICH guidelines were followed for validation study. Spectroscopic parameters including oscillator’s strength, dipole moment, ionization potential, energy of complexes, resonance energy, association constant and Gibb’s free energy changes have also been investigated and Benesi-Hildebrand plot in each case has been obtained. In addition, the methods were fruitfully employed for omeprazole determination in pharmaceutical formulations with no excipients obstruction during analysis. Solid omeprazole complexes with all the acceptors were synthesized and then structure was elucidated by IR and 1H NMR spectroscopy.

Keywords: omeprazole, bromothymol blue, methyl orange and picric acid, charge transfer complexes

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44 Protected Status: Violation of the Provisions of Protected Status under International Humanitarian Law during the Liberation War of Bangladesh

Authors: Sabera Sultana

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In today's war-torn world, it is crucial to identify, understand, and apply the laws aimed at minimizing civilian casualty during wartime. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the provisions of protected status under international humanitarian law and evaluate the historical facts and shreds of evidences of violation of protected status during the Liberation War of Bangladesh. This legal research paper evaluates the international humanitarian laws and case laws regarding protected status of people during wartime and evaluates them against the historical facts and well-documented evidences of violation of protected status during the Liberation War of Bangladesh. This paper will help to create a brief guideline on Protected Status under international humanitarian law, which will help to protect our civilians during wartime if ever required.

Keywords: civilian protection, international humanitarian laws, liberation war of Bangladesh, protected status

Procedia PDF Downloads 82
43 Liquid Chromatographic Determination of Alprazolam with ACE Inhibitors in Bulk, Respective Pharmaceutical Products and Human Serum

Authors: Saeeda Nadir Ali, Najma Sultana, Muhammad Saeed Arayne, Amtul Qayoom

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Present study describes a simple and a fast liquid chromatographic method using ultraviolet detector for simultaneous determination of anxiety relief medicine alprazolam with ACE inhibitors i.e; lisinopril, captopril and enalapril employing purospher star C18 (25 cm, 0.46 cm, 5 µm). Separation was achieved within 5 min at ambient temperature via methanol: water (8:2 v/v) with pH adjusted to 2.9, monitoring the detector response at 220 nm. Optimum parameters were set up as per ICH (2006) guidelines. Calibration range was found out to be 0.312-10 µg mL-1 for alprazolam and 0.625-20 µg mL-1 for all the ACE inhibitors with correlation coefficients > 0.998 and detection limits 85, 37, 68 and 32 ng mL-1 for lisinopril, captopril, enalapril and alprazolam respectively. Intra-day, inter-day precision and accuracy of the assay were in acceptable range of 0.05-1.62% RSD and 98.85-100.76% recovery. Method was determined to be robust and effectively useful for the estimation of studied drugs in dosage formulations and human serum without obstruction of excipients or serum components.

Keywords: alprazolam, ACE inhibitors, RP HPLC, serum

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42 Hackers’ Artwork in Search for a Name: An Analysis of Hackers’ Artwork

Authors: Sultana Ismet Jerin, Md. Waseq Ur Rahman

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Artworks of hacker artists are one of the new trends in the field of new media arts. When someone hears a name of hacker or anything related to hacking, what comes to one’s mind is usually not connected to art due to its divisive meaning. While it is fascinating that every year a number of hacker summits and hacker art fest are being organized among the respective community, it is at the same time true that people are yet to understand what hacker art really is. However, this new phenomenon of artwork under the title ‘hacker art’ has little been studied. Understanding this new form of art is important as the artists of hacker art belong to the era of digital revolution which is a very significant part of our history. Therefore, it is important to find out the challenges in defining them and find out solutions to preserve them. In this paper, the key question that has been addressed is why artworks of hacker artists are facing the complicacies to be defined or categorized. Content analysis of the hacker manifesto (a short historical essay written by a hacker) and two hacker art projects has been conducted to find out the issues surrounding the key research questions. The paper ends with discussing the findings and possible solutions to the challenges hacker artists facing.

Keywords: media art, hacker art, hacker artist, new media

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41 Synthesis and Characterization of Iron Modified Geopolymer and Its Resistance against Chloride and Sulphate

Authors: Noor-ul-Amin, Lubna Nawab, Sabiha Sultana

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Geopolymer with different silica to alumina ratio with iron have been synthesized using sodium silicate, aluminum, and iron salts as a source of silica, alumina and iron source, and sodium/potassium hydroxide as an alkaline medium. The iron source will be taken from iron (III) salts and laterite clay samples. Laterite has been used as a natural source of iron in modified geopolymer. The synthesized iron modified geopolymer was submitted to the different aggressive environment, including chloride and sulphate solutions in different concentration. Different experimental techniques, including XRF, XRD, and FTIR, were used to study the bonding nature and effect of aggressive environment on geopolymer. The major phases formed during geopolymerization are sodalite (Na₄Al₃Si₃O₁₂Cl), albite (NaAlSi₃O₈), hematite (Fe₂O₃), and chabazite as confirmed from the XRD results. The resulting geopolymer showed greater resistance to sulphate and chloride as compared to the normal geopolymer.

Keywords: modified geopolymer, laterite, chloride, sulphate

Procedia PDF Downloads 65
40 Effect of Early Therapeutic Intervention for the Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Quasi Experimental Design

Authors: Sultana Razia

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The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of early therapeutic intervention on children with an autism spectrum disorder. Participants were 140 children with autism spectrum disorder from Autism Corner in a selected rehabilitation center of Bangladesh. This study included children who are at aged of 18-month to 36-month and who were taking occupational therapy and speech and language therapy from the autism center. They were primarily screened using M-CHAT; however, children with other physical disabilities or medical conditions were excluded. 3-months interventions of 6 sessions per week are a minimum of 45-minutes long per session, one to one interaction followed by parent-led structured home-based therapy were provided. The results indicated that early intensive therapeutic intervention improves understanding, social skills and sensory skills. It can be concluded that therapeutic early intervention has a positive effect on diminishing symptoms of Autism Spectrum Disorder.

Keywords: autism, m-chat, reciprocal social behavior, CRP

Procedia PDF Downloads 32
39 Effect of Entomopathogenic Fungi on the Food Consumption of Acrididae Species

Authors: S. Kumar, R. Sultana

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This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of Aspergillus species on acridid populations which are major agricultural pests of rice, sugarcane, wheat, maize and fodder crops in Pakistan. Three and replicates i.e. Aspergillus flavus, A. fumigatus and A. niger, excluding the control, were held under laboratory conditions. It was observed that consumption faecal production of acridids was significantly reduced after the pathogenic application of Aspergillus. In the control replicate, the mortality ratio for stage (N4-N6) was maximum on day 2nd i.e. [F10.7 = 18.33, P < 0.05] followed by [F4.20 = 07.85, P < 0.05] and [F3.77 = 06.11, P < 0.05] on 4th and 3rd day, respectively. Similarly, it was a minimum i.e. [F0.48 = 84.65, P < 0.05] on the 1st day. It was also noted that faecal production of Acridid nymphs was not significantly affected when treated with conidial concentration in H2O formulation; however, it was significantly reduced after the contamination with conidial concentration in oil. The high morality of acridids after contamination of Aspergillus supports their use as bio-control agent for reducing pest population. The present study recommends that exploration and screening must be conducted to provide additional pathogens for evaluation as potential biological control against grasshoppers and locusts.

Keywords: acridid, agriculture, formulation, grasshoppers

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38 Establishments of an Efficient Platform for Genome Editing in Grapevine

Authors: S. Najafi, E. Bertini, M. Pezzotti, G.B. Tornielli, S. Zenoni

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Grapevine is an important agricultural fruit crop plant consumed worldwide and with a key role in the global economy. Grapevine is strongly affected by both biotic and abiotic stresses, which impact grape growth at different stages, such as during plant and berry development and pre- and post-harvest, consequently causing significant economic losses. Recently global warming has propelled the anticipation of the onset of berry ripening, determining the reduction of a grape color and increased volatilization of aroma compounds. Climate change could negatively alter the physiological characteristics of the grape and affect the berry and wine quality. Modern plant breeding can provide tools such as genome editing for improving grape resilience traits while maintaining intact the viticultural and oenological quality characteristics of the genotype. This study aims at developing a platform for genome editing application in grapevine plants with the final goal to improve berry quality, biotic, and abiotic resilience traits. We chose to directly deliver ribonucleoproteins (RNP, preassembled Cas protein and guide RNA) into plant protoplasts, and, from these cell structures, regenerate grapevine plants edited in specific selected genes controlling traits of interest. Edited plants regenerated by somatic embryogenesis from protoplasts will then be sequenced and molecularly characterized. Embryogenic calli of Sultana and Shiraz cultivars were initiated from unopened leaves of in-vitro shoot tip cultures and from stamens, respectively. Leaves were placed on NB2 medium while stamens on callus initiation medium (PIV) medium and incubated in the dark at 28 °C for three months. Viable protoplasts, tested by FDA staining, isolated from embryogenic calli were cultured by disc method at 1*105 protoplasts/ml. Mature well-shaped somatic embryos developed directly in the protoplast culture medium two months later and were transferred in the light into to shooting medium for further growth. Regenerated plants were then transferred to the greenhouse; no phenotypic alterations were observed when compared to non in-vitro cultured plants. The performed experiments allowed to established an efficient protocol of embryogenic calli production, protoplast isolation, and regeneration of the whole plant through somatic embryogenesis in both Sultana and Shiraz. Regenerated plants, through direct somatic embryogenesis deriving from a single cell, avoid the risk of chimerism during the regeneration process, therefore improving the genome editing process. As pre-requisite of genome editing, an efficient method for transfection of protoplast by yellow fluorescent protein (YFP) marker genes was also established and experiments of direct delivery of CRISPR–Cas9 ribonucleoproteins (RNPs) in protoplasts to achieve efficient DNA-free targeted mutations are in progress.

Keywords: CRISPR-cas9, plant regeneration, protoplast isolation, Vitis vinifera

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37 A Comparative Study of Dividend Policy and Share Price across the South Asian Countries

Authors: Anwar Hussain, Ahmed Imran, Farida Faisal, Fatima Sultana

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The present research evaluates a comparative assessment of dividend policy and share price across the South Asian countries including Pakistan, India and Sri-Lanka over the period of 2010 to 2014. Academic writers found that dividend policy and share price relationship is not same in south Asian market due to different reasons. Moreover, Panel Models used = for the evaluation of current study. In addition, Redundant fixed effect Likelihood and Hausman test used for determine of Common, Fixed and Random effect model. Therefore Indian market dividend policies play a fundamental role and significant impact on Market Share Prices. Although, present research found that different as compared to previous study that dividend policy have no impact on share price in Sri-Lanka and Pakistan.

Keywords: dividend policy, share price, South Asian countries, panel data analysis, theories and parameters of dividend

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36 Biodiversity and Distribution of Tettigonioidea, Ensifera of Pakistan

Authors: Riffat Sultana Pathan, Waheed Ali Panhwar, Muhammad Saeed Wagan

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Tettigonioidea are phytophagous insects damaging agricultural crops, forest, fruit orchards, berry shrubs, and grasses. The material was collected from different agricultural fields of rice, sugarcane, wheat, maize surrounding by different grasses. Beside this, forest, hilly areas, semi-desert and desert regions were also inspected time to time. All material was captured, killed and stored by using the standard entomological method. As a result of extensive survey fair numbers were captured from the different climatic zone of country. Seven sub-families of Tettigonioidea viz: Pseudophyllinae, Phaneropterinae, Conocephalinae, Tettigoniinae, Hexacentrinae, Mecopodinae and Decticinae came in collection. This fauna contributes 29 new records to Pakistan and 5 new species to science. Beside this, a brief description of each supra-generic category of Tettigonioidea along with photographs and synonymy is also documented. In addition to this, detailed list of host plants from Pakistan was also composed. This study provides important data for Integrated Pest Management (IPM) of Tettigonioidea biodiversity conservation and grassland restoration in Pakistan.

Keywords: agriculture, conocephalinae, pest, phaneropterinae, tettigoniidae

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35 Bridging the Gap through New Media Technology Acceptance: Exploring Chinese Family Business Culture

Authors: Farzana Sharmin, Mohammad Tipu Sultan

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Emerging new media technology such as social media and social networking sites have changed the family business dynamics in Eastern Asia. The family business trends in China has been developed at an exponential rate towards technology. In the last two decades, many of this family business has succeeded in becoming major players in the Chinese and world economy. But there are a very few availabilities of literature on Chinese context regarding social media acceptance in terms of the family business. Therefore, this study has tried to cover the gap between culture and new media technology to understand the attitude of Chinese young entrepreneurs’ towards the family business. This paper focused on two cultural dimensions (collectivism, long-term orientation), which are adopted from Greet Hofstede’s. Additionally perceived usefulness and ease of use adopted from the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) to explore the actual behavior of technology acceptance for the family business. A quantitative survey method (n=275) used to collect data Chinese family business owners' in Shanghai. The inferential statistical analysis was applied to extract trait factors, and verification of the model, respectively. The research results found that using social media for family business promotion has highly influenced by cultural values (collectivism and long-term orientation). The theoretical contribution of this research may also assist policymakers and practitioners of other developing countries to advertise and promote the family business through social media.

Keywords: China, cultural dimensions, family business, technology acceptance model, TAM

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34 Effect of Ethyl Cellulose and Hydroxy Propyl Methyl Cellulose Polymer on the Release Profile of Diltiazem Hydrochloride Sustained Release Pellets

Authors: Shahana Sharmin

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In the present study, the effect of cellulose polymers Ethyl Cellulose and Hydroxy Propyl Methyl Cellulose was evaluated on the release profile of drug from sustained release pellet. Diltiazem Hydrochloride, an antihypertensive, cardio-protective agent and slow channel blocker were used as a model drug to evaluate its release characteristics from different pellets formulations. Diltiazem Hydrochloride sustained release pellets were prepared by drug loading (drug binder suspension) on neutral pellets followed by different percentages of spraying, i.e. 2%,4%, 6%, 8% and 10% coating suspension using ethyl cellulose and hydroxy-propyl methyl cellulose polymer in a fixed 85:15 ratios respectively. The in vitro dissolution studies of Diltiazem Hydrochloride from these sustained release pellets were carried out in pH 7.2 phosphate buffer for 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, and 8 hrs using USP-I method. Statistically, significant differences were found among the drug release profile from different formulations. Polymer content with the highest concentration of Ethyl cellulose on the pellets shows the highest release retarding rate of the drug. The retarding capacity decreases with the decreased concentration of ethyl cellulose. The release mechanism was explored and explained with zero order, first order, Higuchi and Korsmeyer’s equations. Finally, the study showed that the profile and kinetics of drug release were functions of polymer type, polymer concentration & the physico-chemical properties of the drug.

Keywords: diltiazem hydrochloride, ethyl cellulose, hydroxy propyl methyl cellulose, release kinetics, sustained release pellets

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33 Sharing Tourism Experience through Social Media: Consumer's Behavioral Intention for Destination Choice

Authors: Mohammad Tipu Sultan, Farzana Sharmin, Ke Xue

Abstract:

Social media create a better opportunity for travelers to search for travel information, select destination and share their personal experiences of the travel. This study proposes a framework which describes the relationships between social media, and positive or negative tourism experience sharing impact on destination choice. To find out new trends of travelers behavioral intention, we propose an extended theoretical model, the Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA). We conducted a survey to analyze three external factors, subjective norms, and positive and negative experience influence on travel destination choice. Structural questionnaire analysis was employed to confirm the proposed research hypothesis within the relationship between consumer influences on the shared experience of social media. The results of the study confirm that sharing positive experiences influence the positive effect of destination choice, while negative experiences decrease the destination selection option. The results indicate that attitudes, subjective norms are passively influenced by shared experience. Moreover, we find that sharing live pictures of travel experiences through social media helps to reduce negative perceptions of the destination brand. This research contribution is useable to the research field as a new determination factor and the findings could be used by destination organization management (DMO) to enhancing their tourism promotion through social media.

Keywords: destination choice, tourism experience sharing, Theory of Reasoned Action, TRA, social media

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32 Multi-Criteria Decision-Making Evaluations for Oily Waste Management of Marine Oil Spill

Authors: Naznin Sultana Daisy, Mohammad Hesam Hafezi, Lei Liu

Abstract:

Nowadays, oily solid waste management has become an important issue for many countries due to frequent oil spill accidents and the increase of industrial oily wastewater. The historical oil spill data show that marine oil spills that affect the shoreline can, in extreme cases, produce up to 30 or 40 times more waste than the volume of oil initially released. Hence, responsive authorities aim to develop the most effective oily waste management solution in a timely manner to manage and minimize the waste generated. In this study initially, we tried to develop the roadmap of oily waste management for three-tiered spill scenarios for Atlantic Canada. For that purpose, three oily waste disposal scenarios are evaluated via six criteria which are determined according to the opinions of the experts from the field. Consequently, through sustainable response strategies, the most appropriate and feasible scenario is determined. The results of this study will assist to develop an integrated oily waste management system for identifying the optimal waste-generation-allocation-disposal schemes and generating the optimal management alternatives based on the holistic consideration of environmental, technological, economic, social, and regulatory factors.

Keywords: oily waste management, marine oil spill, multi-criteria decision making, oil spill response

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31 A Perceptive Study on Oviposition Behavior and Selection of Host Plant for Egg Laying in Schistocerca gregaria

Authors: Riffat Sultana, Ahmed Ali Samejo

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Desert Locust is a critical pest of crop and non-crop plants throughout the old world including Pakistan. Geographically, this pest invades 31 million km2 in about 60 countries during the gregarious phase which may bring calamity. The present study is carried out in order to conduct field observations on oviposition behavior from Thar Desert, Pakistan. Females preferred loose soil for oviposition rather than packed or hard soil. The depth of egg pods inside the soil was measured up to 8.996±1.40 cm, and duration of egg laying was measured up to 105.9±26.4 min. Besides this, an insightful recognition has been made that the solitary females oviposited predominantly in the vicinity of pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum) and guar or cluster bean (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba) crops in cultivated fields while in uncultivated land preferred the surroundings of bekar grass (Indigofera caerulea) and snow bush (Aerva javanica). It was also observed that nymphs preferred to feed on these host plants. Furthermore, experimental outcomes indicated that gravid females oviposited on the bottom of perforated plastic cages while, they did not find suitable soil for oviposition.

Keywords: calamity, cultivated fields, desert locust, host plants, oviposition behavior

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30 Prevalence of Iron Deficiency Anaemia and Its Impact on Nutritional Status of Rural Pregnant Women

Authors: Nuzhat Sultana

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Iron deficiency (IDA) is the commonest nutritional anemia present in Indian pregnant women. The overall development of a fetus is determined to a great extent by the type of nourishment mother receives right from its conception. To study the risk factors of iron deficiency anemia, two hundred rural pregnant women in the age of 15-35 years in the second trimester of pregnancy from the countryside of Beed district was selected. These samples were divided into groups 'A' (experimental samples) and 'C' (control samples). Experimental samples were received oral supplementation of iron and folic acid for ninety days, but control samples did not receive any supplementation. All the samples were observed anthropometrically, biochemically and clinically before and after supplementation. The study result shows that maximum numbers of i.e. 75% pregnant women had low levels of weight and hemoglobin as compared to standard weight and HB level. However, after supplementation only in experimental group weight and HB level was increased. It was observed that prevalence of risk factors associated with anemia was higher in rural pregnant women. Poverty, illiteracy, faulty food habits, and poor intake of iron during pregnancy are the main causative factors for iron deficiency anemia in rural pregnant women.

Keywords: iron deficiency, anemia, risk factors, pregnancy

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29 Effect of Media on Psycho-Social Interaction among the Children with Their Parents of Urban People in Dhaka

Authors: Nazma Sultana

Abstract:

Social media has become an important part of our daily life. It has a significance influences on the people who use them in their daily life frequently. The number of people using social network sites has been increasing continuously. For this frequent utilization has started to affect our social life. This study examine whether the use of social network sites affects the psychosocial interaction between children and their parents. At first parents introduce their children to the internet and different type of device in their early childhood. Many parents use device for feeding their children by watching rhyme or cartoon. As a result children are habituate with it. In Bangladesh 70% people are heavy internet users. About 23 percent of them spend more than five hours on the social networking sites a day. Media are increasing pervasive in the lives of children-roughly the average child today spends nearly about 45 hours per week with media, compared with 17 hours with parents and 30 hours in school. According to a social learning theory, children & adolescents learn by observing & imitating what they see on screen particularly when these behaviors are realistic or are rewarded. The influence of the media on the psychosocial development of children is profound. Thus it is important for parents to provide guidance on age-appropriate use of all media, including television, radio, music, video games and the internet.

Keywords: social media, psychosocial, Technology, Parent, Social Relationship, Adolescents, Teenage, Youth

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28 The Per Capita Income, Energy production and Environmental Degradation: A Comprehensive Assessment of the existence of the Environmental Kuznets Curve Hypothesis in Bangladesh

Authors: Ashique Mahmud, MD. Ataul Gani Osmani, Shoria Sharmin

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In the first quarter of the twenty-first century, the most substantial global concern is environmental contamination, and it has gained the prioritization of both the national and international community. Keeping in mind this crucial fact, this study conducted different statistical and econometrical methods to identify whether the gross national income of the country has a significant impact on electricity production from nonrenewable sources and different air pollutants like carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, and methane emissions. Besides, the primary objective of this research was to analyze whether the environmental Kuznets curve hypothesis holds for the examined variables. After analyzing different statistical properties of the variables, this study came to the conclusion that the environmental Kuznets curve hypothesis holds for gross national income and carbon dioxide emission in Bangladesh in the short run as well as the long run. This study comes to this conclusion based on the findings of ordinary least square estimations, ARDL bound tests, short-run causality analysis, the Error Correction Model, and other pre-diagnostic and post-diagnostic tests that have been employed in the structural model. Moreover, this study wants to demonstrate that the outline of gross national income and carbon dioxide emissions is in its initial stage of development and will increase up to the optimal peak. The compositional effect will then force the emission to decrease, and the environmental quality will be restored in the long run.

Keywords: environmental Kuznets curve hypothesis, carbon dioxide emission in Bangladesh, gross national income in Bangladesh, autoregressive distributed lag model, granger causality, error correction model

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27 Comfort Needs and Energy Practices in Low-Income, Tropical Housing from a Socio-Technical Perspective

Authors: Tania Sharmin

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Energy use, overheating and thermal discomfort in low-income tropical housing remains an under-researched area. This research attempts to explore these aspects in the Loving Community, a housing colony created for former leprosy patients and their families in Ahmedabad in India. The living conditions in these households and working practices of the inhabitants in terms of how the building and its internal and external spaces are used, will be explored through interviews and monitoring which will be based on a household survey and a focus group discussion (FGD). The findings from the study will provide a unique and in-depth account of how the relocation of the affected households to the new, flood-resistant and architecturally-designed buildings may have affected the dwellers’ household routines (health and well-being, comfort, satisfaction and working practices) and overall living conditions compared to those living in poorly-designed, existing low-income housings. The new houses were built under an innovative building project supported by De Montfort University Leicester (DMU)’s Square Mile India project. A comparison of newly-built and existing building typologies will reveal how building design can affect people’s use of space and energy use. The findings will be helpful to design healthier, energy efficient and socially acceptable low-income housing in future, thus addressing United Nation’s sustainable development goals on three aspects: 3 (health and well-being), 7 (energy) and 11 (safe, resilient and sustainable human settlements). This will further facilitate knowledge exchange between policy makers, developers, designers and occupants focused on strategies to increase stakeholders’ participation in the design process.

Keywords: thermal comfort, energy use, low-income housing, tropical climate

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26 Quality of Ram Semen in Relation to Scrotal Biometry

Authors: M. M. Islam, S. Sharmin, M. Shah Newaz, N. S. Juyena, M. M. Rahman, P. K. Jha, F. Y. Bari

Abstract:

The aim of the present study was to select the high quality ram by measuring the scrotal biometry which has an effect on semen parameters. Ten rams were selected in the present study. Eight ejaculates were collected from each ram using artificial vagina method. Scrotal circumference was measured before and after semen collection on weekly basis using the Scrotal tape. Bio-metries of scrotum (scrotal length and scrotal volume) were calculated. Semen was evaluated for macroscopic and microscopic characteristics. The average estimated scrotal circumference (cm) and scrotal volume (cm3) in 8 different age groups were 17.16±0.05 cm and 61.30±0.70 cm3, 17.17±0.62 cm and 63.67±4.49 cm3, 17.22±0.52 cm and 64.90±4.21 cm3, 17.72±0.37 cm and 67.10±4.20 cm3, 18.41±0.35cm and 69.52±4.12cm3, 18.45±0.36cm and 77.17±3.81 cm3, 18.55±0.41 cm and 78.72±4.90 cm3, 19.10±0.30 cm and 87.35±5.45 cm3 respectively. The body weight, scrotal circumference and scrotal volume increased with the progress of age (P < 0.05). Body weight of age group 381-410 days (13.62+1.48 kg) was significantly higher than group 169-200 days (10.17±0.05 kg) and 201-230 days (10.42±1.18 kg) (p < 0.05). Scrotal circumference (SC) of age group 381-410 days (19.10±0.30 cm) was significantly higher (p < 0.05) than other groups. In age group 381-410 days, scrotal volume (SCV) (87.35±5.45 cm3) was significantly higher than other first five groups (p < 0.05). Both scrotal circumference and scrotal volume development was positively correlated with the increasing of body weight (R2= 0.51). Semen volume increased accordingly with the increasing of ages, varied from 0.35±0.00 ml to 1.15+0.26 ml. Semen volume of age group 381-410 days (1.15±0.26 ml) was significantly higher than other age groups (p < 0.05) except age group 351-380 days (p > 0.05). Mass activity of different age groups varied from 2.75 (±0.35) to 4.25 (±0.29) ml in the scale of 1-5. Sperm concentration, progressive motility (%),progressively improved according to the increasing of ages, but significant changes in these parameters were seen when the animals reaches the age 291 days or more (p < 0.05). However, normal spermatozoa (%) improved significantly from the age of 261 days or more. Mass activity (mass) was positively correlated with sperm concentration (R2=0.568) and progressive motility (%) (R2=0.616). The relationships of semen volume with body weight and scrotal measurements and sperm concentration indicate that they are useful in evaluating rams for breeding soundness and genetic improvement for fertility in indigenous ram.

Keywords: breeding soundness, ram, semen quality, scrotal biometry

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