Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 120

Search results for: biofilm

120 Minimum Biofilm Inhibitory Concentration of Lysostaphin on Clinical Isolates of Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)

Authors: N. Nagalakshmi, Indira Bairy, M. Atulya, Jesil Mathew

Abstract:

S. aureus has the ability to colonize and form biofilms on implanted biomaterials, which is difficult to disrupt, and current antimicrobial therapies for biofilms have largely proven unsuccessful in complete eradication of biofilm. The present study is aimed to determine the lysostaphin activity against biofilm producing MRSA clinical strains. The minimum biofilm inhibition activity of lysostaphin was studied against twelve strong biofilm producing isolates. The biofilm was produced in 96-wells micro-titer plate and biofilm was treated with lysostaphin (0.5 to 16 µg/ml), vancomycin (0.5 to 64 µg/ml) and linezolid (0.5 to 64 µg/ml). The biofilm inhibitory concentration of lysostaphin was found between 4 to 8 µg/ml whereas vancomycin and linezolid inhibited at concentration between 32 to 64 µg/ml. Results indicate that lysostaphin as potential antimicrobial activity against biofilm at lower concentration is comparable with routine antibiotics like vancomycin and linezolid.

Keywords: biofilm, lysostaphin, MRSA, minimum biofilm inhibitory concentration

Procedia PDF Downloads 251
119 Determination of Biofilm Formation in Different Clinical Candida Species and Investigation of Effects of Some Plant Substances on These Biofilms

Authors: Gulcan Sahal, Isil Seyis Bilkay

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Candida species which often exist as commensal microorganisms in healthy individuals are major causes of important infections, especially in AIDS and immunocompromised patients, by means of their biofilm formation abilities. Therefore, in this study, determination of biofilm formation in different clinical strains of Candida species, investigation of strong biofilm forming Candida strains, examination of clinical information of each strong and weak biofilm forming Candida strains and investigation of some plant substances’ effects on biofilm formation of strong biofilm forming strains were aimed. In this respect, biofilm formation of Candida strains was analyzed via crystal violet binding assay. According to our results, biofilm levels of strains belong to different Candida species were different from each other. Additionally, it is also found that some plant substances effect biofilm formation. All these results indicate that, as well as C. albicans strains, other non-albicans Candida species also emerge as causative agents of infections and have biofilm formation abilities. In addition, usage of some plant substances in different concentrations may provide a new treatment against biofilm related Candida infections.

Keywords: anti-biofilm, biofilm formation, Candida species, biosystems engineering

Procedia PDF Downloads 354
118 Investigation of Biofilm Formation in Clinical Strains of Klebsiella pneumoniae and Klebsiella rhinoscleromatis

Authors: Gulcan Sahal, Nermin Hande Avcioglu, Isil Seyis Bilkay

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Klebsiella species which are natural colonizers of human upper respiratory and human gastrointestinal tracts are also responsible for every reoccurring nosocomial infections by means of having ability to form slimy layers known as biofilm on many surfaces. Therefore, in this study, investigation of biofilm formation in K. pneumoniae and K. rhinoscleromatis and examination of each Klebsiella strains’ clinical information in the light of their biofilm formation results were aimed. In this respect, biofilm formation of Klebsiella strains was analyzed via crystal violet binding assay. According to our results, biofilm formation levels of K. pneumoniae and K. rhinoscleromatis strains were different from each other. Additionally, in comparison to K. rhinoscleromatis strains, K. pneumoniae was observed to include higher amounts of strong biofilm forming strains. Besides, it was also seen that clinical information of patients from which strong biofilm forming Klebsiella strains were isolated were similar to each other. Our results indicate that there should be more precautions against K. pneumoniae which includes higher amount of strong biofilm forming strains.

Keywords: biofilm formation, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Klebsiella rhinoscleromatis, biosystems engineering

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117 Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats Interference (CRISPRi): An Approach to Inhibit Microbial Biofilm

Authors: Azna Zuberi

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Biofilm is a sessile bacterial accretion in which bacteria adapts different physiological and morphological behavior from planktonic form. It is the root cause of about 80% microbial infections in human. Among them, E. coli biofilms are most prevalent in medical devices associated nosocomial infections. The objective of this study was to inhibit biofilm formation by targeting LuxS gene, involved in quorum sensing using CRISPRi. luxS is a synthase, involved in the synthesis of Autoinducer-2(AI-2), which in turn guides the initial stage of biofilm formation. To implement CRISPRi system, we have synthesized complementary sgRNA to target gene sequence and co-expressed with dCas9. Suppression of luxS was confirmed through qRT-PCR. The effect of luxS gene on biofilm inhibition was studied through crystal violet assay, XTT reduction assay and scanning electron microscopy. We conclude that CRISPRi system could be a potential strategy to inhibit bacterial biofilm through mechanism base approach.

Keywords: biofilm, CRISPRi, luxS, microbial

Procedia PDF Downloads 52
116 Effect of Lemongrass Oil Containing Polycaprolactone Nanofibers on Biofilm Formation of Proteus mirabilis

Authors: Gulcan Sahal, Behzad Nasseri, Ali Akbar Ebrahimi, Isil Seyis Bilkay

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Proteus mirabilis strains which are natural colonizers of healthy individuals’ gastrointestinal tract are also known as common causes of catheter-associated urinary tract infections. Nowadays, as a result of an increased resistance to various antimicrobial drugs, there has been a growing interest in natural products. Therefore, the aim of this study is to investigate biofilm formation of P. mirabilis strains on lemongrass oil containing polycaprolactone nanofibers. Polycaprolactone nanofibers with different lemongrass oil concentrations were successfully prepared by electrospinning and biofilm formation of P. mirabilis on these nanofibers were determined by ‘Crystal Violet Staining Assay’. According to our results, polycaprolactone nanofibers with some lemongrass oil concentrations, decreased biofilm formation of P. mirabilis and this effect increased in parallel with the increase in lemongrass oil concentration. Our results indicate that, polycaprolactone nanofibers with some concentrations of lemongrass oil may provide a treatment against catheter-associated urinary tract infections by means of causing an inhibition on biofilm formation of P. mirabilis.

Keywords: anti-biofilm, biofilm formation, essential oils, nanofibers, proteus mirabilis

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115 Fabrication of a Continuous Flow System for Biofilm Studies

Authors: Mohammed Jibrin Ndejiko

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Modern and current models such as flow cell technology which enhances a non-destructive growth and inspection of the sessile microbial communities revealed a great understanding of biofilms. A continuous flow system was designed to evaluate possibility of biofilm formation by Escherichia coli DH5α on the stainless steel (type 304) under continuous nutrient supply. The result of the colony forming unit (CFU) count shows that bacterial attachment and subsequent biofilm formation on stainless steel coupons with average surface roughness of 1.5 ± 1.8 µm and 2.0 ± 0.09 µm were both significantly higher (p ≤ 0.05) than those of the stainless steel coupon with lower surface roughness of 0.38 ± 1.5 µm. These observations support the hypothesis that surface profile is one of the factors that influence biofilm formation on stainless steel surfaces. The SEM and FESEM micrographs of the stainless steel coupons also revealed the attached Escherichia coli DH5α biofilm and dehydrated extracellular polymeric substance on the stainless steel surfaces. Thus, the fabricated flow system represented a very useful tool to study biofilm formation under continuous nutrient supply.

Keywords: biofilm, flowcell, stainless steel, coupon

Procedia PDF Downloads 197
114 Influence of Bacterial Motility on Biofilm Formation

Authors: Li Cheng, Zhang Yilei, Cohen Yehuda

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Two motility mechanisms were introduced into iDynoMiCs software, which adopts an individual-based modeling method. Based on the new capabilities, along with the pressure motility developed before, influence of bacterial motility on biofilm formation was studied. Simulation results were evaluated both qualitatively through 3D structure inspections and quantitatively by parameter characterizations. It was showed that twitching motility increased the biofilm surface irregularity probably due to movement of cells towards higher nutrient concentration location whereas free motility, on the other hand, could make biofilms flatter and smoother relatively. Pressure motility showed no significant influence in this study.

Keywords: iDynoMics, biofilm structure, bacterial motility, motility mechanisms

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113 Binding of Avian Excreta-Derived Enteroccoci to a Streptococcocus mutans: Implications for Avian to Human Transmission

Authors: Richard K. Jolley, Jonathan A. Coffman

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Since Enterococci has been implicated in oral disease, we hypothesized the transmission of avian Enterococci to humans via fecal-oral transmission facilitated by adherence to dental plaque. To demonstrate the capability of Enterococci to bind to a dental plaque we filtered avian excreta and incubated the filtrate on a sucrose-induced, Streptococcus mutans biofilm. The biofilm was washed several times with a detergent to remove bacteria binding non-specifically to the biofilm, DNA was isolated from the biofilm, 16S rDNA was amplified, sequenced by Ion Torrent DNA sequencing and analyzed with bioinformatics. Enterococci and other known bacterial pathogens were shown to adhere to the biofilm. Culturing the washed biofilm with Bile Esculin Azide (BEA) agar also confirmed the presence of Enterococci as verified with Sanger sequencing. The results suggest that Enteroccoci in avian excreta has the ability to adhere to human dental plaque and may be a mechanism of entry when humans encounter contaminated aerosols, water or food.

Keywords: Enterococci, avian excreta, dental plaque, NGS

Procedia PDF Downloads 41
112 Kinetics of Hydrogen Sulfide Removal from Biogas Using Biofilm on Packed Bed of Salak Fruit Seeds

Authors: Retno A. S. Lestari, Wahyudi B. Sediawan, Siti Syamsiah, Sarto

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Sulfur-oxidizing bacteria were isolated and then grown on salak fruit seeds forming a biofilm on the surface. Their performances in sulfide removal were experimentally observed. In doing so, the salak fruit seeds containing biofilm were then used as packing material in a cylinder. Biogas obtained from biological treatment, which contains 27.95 ppm of hydrogen sulfide was flown through the packed bed. The hydrogen sulfide from the biogas was absorbed in the biofilm and then degraded by the microbes in the biofilm. The hydrogen sulfide concentrations at a various axial position and various times were analyzed. A set of simple kinetics model for the rate of the sulfide removal and the bacterial growth was proposed. Since the biofilm is very thin, the sulfide concentration in the Biofilm at a certain axial position is assumed to be uniform. The simultaneous ordinary differential equations obtained were then solved numerically using Runge-Kutta method. The values of the parameters were also obtained by curve-fitting. The accuracy of the model proposed was tested by comparing the calculation results using the model with the experimental data obtained. It turned out that the model proposed can describe the removal of sulfide liquid using bio-filter in the packed bed. The biofilter could remove 89,83 % of the hydrogen sulfide in the feed at 2.5 hr of operation and biogas flow rate of 30 L/hr.

Keywords: sulfur-oxidizing bacteria, salak fruit seeds, biofilm, packing material, biogas

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111 Hydrogen Sulfide Removal from Biogas Using Biofilm on Packed Bed of Salak Fruit Seeds

Authors: Retno A. S. Lestari, Wahyudi B. Sediawan, Siti Syamsiah, Sarto

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Sulfur-oxidizing bacteria were isolated and then grown on snakefruits seeds forming biofilm. Their performance in sulfide removal were experimentally observed. Snakefruit seeds were then used as packing material in a cylindrical tube. Biological treatment of hydrogen sulfide from biogas was investigated using biofilm on packed bed of snakefruits seeds. Biogas containing 27,9512 ppm of hydrogen sulfide was flown through the bed. Then the hydrogen sulfide concentrations in the outlet at various times were analyzed. A set of simple kinetics model for the rate of the sulfide removal and the bacterial growth was proposed. The axial sulfide concentration gradient in the flowing liquid are assumed to be steady-state. Mean while the biofilm grows on the surface of the seeds and the oxidation takes place in the biofilm. Since the biofilm is very thin, the sulfide concentration in the biofilm is assumed to be uniform. The simultaneous ordinary differential equations obtained were then solved numerically using Runge-Kutta method. The acuracy of the model proposed was tested by comparing the calcultion results using the model with the experimental data obtained. It turned out that the model proposed can be applied to describe the removal of sulfide liquid using bio-filter in packed bed. The values of the parameters were also obtained by curve-fitting. The biofilter could remove 89,83 % of the inlet of hydrogen sulfide from biogas for 2.5 h, and optimum loading of 8.33 ml/h.

Keywords: Sulfur-oxidizing bacteria, snakefruits seeds, biofilm, packing material, biogas

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110 Broad Spectrum Biofilm Inhibition by Chitosanase Purified from Bacillus licheniformis Isolated from Spoilt Vegetables

Authors: Sahira Nsayef Muslim, Israa M. S. Al-Kadmy, Nadheema Hammood Hussein, Alaa Naseer Mohammed Ali, Buthainah Mohammed Taha, Rayim Sabah Abbood, Sarah Naji Aziz

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A novel strain of Bacillus licheniformis isolated from spoilt cucumber and pepper samples have the ability to produce the chitosanase enzyme when grown on chitosan substrate. Chitosanase was purified to homogeneity with a recovery yield of 35.71% and 5.5 fold of purification by using ammonium sulfate at 45% saturation followed by ion exchange chromatography on DEAE-cellulose column and gel filtration chromatography on Sephadex G-100 column. The purified chitosanase inhibited the biofilm formation ability for all Gram-negative and Gram-positive biofilm-forming bacteria (biofilm producers) after using Congo Red agar and Microtiter plates methods. Highly antibiofilm of chitosanase recorded against Pseudomonas aeruginosa followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae with reduction of biofilm formation ratio to 22 and 29%, respectively compared with (100)% of control. Thus, chitosanase has promising benefit as antibiofilm agent against biofilm forming pathogenic bacteria and has promising application as alternative antibiofilm agents to combat the growing number of multidrug-resistant pathogen-associated infections, especially in situation where biofilms are involved.

Keywords: chitosanase, Bacillus licheniformis, vegetables, biofilm

Procedia PDF Downloads 204
109 Biological Treatment of Bacterial Biofilms from Drinking Water Distribution System in Lebanon

Authors: A. Hamieh, Z. Olama, H. Holail

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Drinking Water Distribution Systems provide opportunities for microorganisms that enter the drinking water to develop into biofilms. Antimicrobial agents, mainly chlorine, are used to disinfect drinking water, however, there are not yet standardized disinfection strategies with reliable efficacy and development of novel anti-biofilm strategies is still of major concern. In the present study the ability of Lactobacillus acidophilus and Streptomyces sp. cell free supernatants to inhibit the bacterial biofilm formation in Drinking Water Distribution System in Lebanon was investigated. Treatment with cell free supernatants of Lactobacillus acidophilus and Streptomyces sp. at 20% concentration resulted in average biofilm inhibition (52.89 and 39.66% respectively). A preliminary investigation about the mode of action of biofilm inhibition revealed that cell free supernatants showed no bacteriostatic or bactericidal activity against all the tested isolates. Pre-coating wells with supernatants revealed that Lactobacillus acidophilus cell free supernatant inhibited average biofilm formation (62.53%) by altering the adhesion of bacterial isolates to the surface, preventing the initial attachment step, which is important for biofilm production.

Keywords: biofilm, cell free supernatant, distribution system, drinking water, lactobacillus acidophilus, streptomyces sp, adhesion

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108 Antibacterial and Anti-Biofilm Activity of Papain Hydrolysed Camel Milk Whey and Its Fractions

Authors: M. Abdel-Hamid, P. Saporito, R. V. Mateiu, A. Osman, E. Romeih, H. Jenssen

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Camel milk whey (CMW) was hydrolyzed with papain from Carica papaya and fractionated by size exclusion chromatography (SEC). The antibacterial and anti-biofilm activity of the CMW, Camel milk whey hydrolysate (CMWH) and the obtained SEC-fractions was assessed against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). SEC-F2 (fraction 2) exhibited antibacterial effectiveness against MRSA and P. aeruginosa with the minimum inhibitory concentration of 0.31 and 0.156 mg/ml, respectively. Furthermore, SEC-F2 significantly decreased biofilm biomass by 71% and 83 % for MRSA and P. aeruginosa in a crystal violet microplate assay. Scanning electron microscopy showed that the SEC-F2 caused changes in the treated bacterial cells. Additionally, LC/MS analysis was used to characterize the peptides of SEC-F2. Two major peptides were detected in SEC-F2 having masses of 414.05 Da and 456.06 Da. In conclusion, this study has demonstrated that hydrolysis of CMW with papain generates small and extremely potent antibacterial and anti-biofilm peptides against both MRSA and P. aeruginosa.

Keywords: camel milk, whey proteins, antibacterial peptide, anti-biofilm

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107 Reduction of Biofilm Formation in Closed Circuit Cooling Towers

Authors: Irfan Turetgen

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Closed-circuit cooling towers are cooling units that operate according to the indirect cooling principle. Unlike the open-loop cooling tower, the filler material includes a closed-loop water-operated heat exchanger. The main purpose of this heat exchanger is to prevent the cooled process water from contacting with the external environment. In order to ensure that the hot water is cooled, the water is cooled by the air flow and the circulation water of the tower as it passes through the pipe. They are now more commonly used than open loop cooling towers that provide cooling with plastic filling material. As with all surfaces in contact with water, there is a biofilm formation on the outer surface of the pipe. Although biofilm has been studied very well on plastic surfaces in open loop cooling towers, studies on biofilm layer formed on the heat exchangers of the closed circuit tower have not been found. In the recent study, natural biofilm formation was observed on the heat exchangers of the closed loop tower for 6 months. At the same time, nano-silica coating, which is known to reduce the formation of the biofilm layer, a comparison was made between the two different surfaces in terms of biofilm formation potential. Test surfaces were placed into biofilm reactor along with the untreated control coupons up to 6-months period for biofilm maturation. Natural bacterial communities were monitored to analyze the impact to mimic the real-life conditions. Surfaces were monthly analyzed in situ for their microbial load using epifluorescence microscopy. Wettability is known to play a key role in biofilm formation on surfaces, because characteristics of surface properties affect the bacterial adhesion. Results showed that surface-conditioning with nano-silica significantly reduce (up to 90%) biofilm formation. Easy coating process is a facile and low-cost method to prepare hydrophobic surface without any kinds of expensive compounds or methods.

Keywords: biofilms, cooling towers, fill material, nano silica

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106 A Rapid Prototyping Tool for Suspended Biofilm Growth Media

Authors: Erifyli Tsagkari, Stephanie Connelly, Zhaowei Liu, Andrew McBride, William Sloan

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Biofilms play an essential role in treating water in biofiltration systems. The biofilm morphology and function are inextricably linked to the hydrodynamics of flow through a filter, and yet engineers rarely explicitly engineer this interaction. We develop a system that links computer simulation and 3-D printing to optimize and rapidly prototype filter media to optimize biofilm function with the hypothesis that biofilm function is intimately linked to the flow passing through the filter. A computational model that numerically solves the incompressible time-dependent Navier Stokes equations coupled to a model for biofilm growth and function is developed. The model is imbedded in an optimization algorithm that allows the model domain to adapt until criteria on biofilm functioning are met. This is applied to optimize the shape of filter media in a simple flow channel to promote biofilm formation. The computer code links directly to a 3-D printer, and this allows us to prototype the design rapidly. Its validity is tested in flow visualization experiments and by microscopy. As proof of concept, the code was constrained to explore a small range of potential filter media, where the medium acts as an obstacle in the flow that sheds a von Karman vortex street that was found to enhance the deposition of bacteria on surfaces downstream. The flow visualization and microscopy in the 3-D printed realization of the flow channel validated the predictions of the model and hence its potential as a design tool. Overall, it is shown that the combination of our computational model and the 3-D printing can be effectively used as a design tool to prototype filter media to optimize biofilm formation.

Keywords: biofilm, biofilter, computational model, von karman vortices, 3-D printing.

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105 Coagulase Negative Staphylococci: Phenotypic Characterization and Antimicrobial Susceptibility Pattern

Authors: Lok Bahadur Shrestha, Narayan Raj Bhattarai, Basudha Khanal

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Introduction: Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) are the normal commensal of human skin and mucous membranes. The study was carried out to study the prevalence of CoNS among clinical isolates, to characterize them up to species level and to compare the three conventional methods for detection of biofilm formation. Objectives: to characterize the clinically significant coagulase-negative staphylococci up to species level, to compare the three phenotypic methods for the detection of biofilm formation and to study the antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of the isolates. Methods: CoNS isolates were obtained from various clinical samples during the period of 1 year. Characterization up to species level was done using biochemical test and study of biofilm formation was done by tube adherence, congo red agar, and tissue culture plate method. Results: Among 71 CoNS isolates, seven species were identified. S. epidermidis was the most common species followed by S. saprophyticus, S. haemolyticus. Antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of CoNS documented resistance of 90% to ampicillin. Resistance to cefoxitin and ceftriaxone was observed in 55% of the isolates. We detected biofilm formation in 71.8% of isolates. The sensitivity of tube adherence method was 82% while that of congo red agar method was 78%. Conclusion: Among 71 CoNS isolated, S. epidermidis was the most common isolates followed by S. saprophyticus and S. haemolyticus. Biofilm formation was detected in 71.8% of the isolates. All of the methods were effective at detecting biofilm-producing CoNS strains. Biofilm former strains are more resistant to antibiotics as compared to biofilm non-formers.

Keywords: CoNS, congo red agar, bloodstream infections, foreign body-related infections, tissue culture plate

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104 Bacteriological Characterization of Drinking Water Distribution Network Biofilms by Gene Sequencing Using Different Pipe Materials

Authors: M. Zafar, S. Rasheed, Imran Hashmi

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Very little is concerned about the bacterial contamination in drinking water biofilm which provide a potential source for bacteria to grow and increase rapidly. So as to understand the microbial density in DWDs, a three-month study was carried out. The aim of this study was to examine biofilm in three different pipe materials including PVC, PPR and GI. A set of all these pipe materials was installed in DWDs at nine different locations and assessed on monthly basis. Drinking water quality was evaluated by different parameters and characterization of biofilm. Among various parameters are Temperature, pH, turbidity, TDS, electrical conductivity, BOD, COD, total phosphates, total nitrates, total organic carbon (TOC) free chlorine and total chlorine, coliforms and spread plate counts (SPC) according to standard methods. Predominant species were Bacillus thuringiensis, Pseudomonas fluorescens , Staphylococcus haemolyticus, Bacillus safensis and significant increase in bacterial population was observed in PVC pipes while least in cement pipes. The quantity of DWDs bacteria was directly depended on biofilm bacteria and its increase was correlated with growth and detachment of bacteria from biofilms. Pipe material also affected the microbial community in drinking water distribution network biofilm while Similarity in bacterial species was observed between systems due to same disinfectant dose, time period and plumbing pipes.

Keywords: biofilm, DWDs, pipe material, bacterial population

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103 Algae Growth and Biofilm Control by Ultrasonic Technology

Authors: Vojtech Stejskal, Hana Skalova, Petr Kvapil, George Hutchinson

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Algae growth has been an important issue in water management of water plants, ponds and lakes, swimming pools, aquaculture & fish farms, gardens or golf courses for last decades. There are solutions based on chemical or biological principles. Apart of these traditional principles for inhibition of algae growth and biofilm production there are also physical methods which are very competitive compared to the traditional ones. Ultrasonic technology is one of these alternatives. Ultrasonic emitter is able to eliminate the biofilm which behaves as a host and attachment point for algae and is original reason for the algae growth. The ultrasound waves prevent majority of the bacteria in planktonic form becoming strongly attached sessile bacteria that creates welcoming layer for the biofilm production. Biofilm creation is very fast – in the serene water it takes between 30 minutes to 4 hours, depending on temperature and other parameters. Ultrasound device is not killing bacteria. Ultrasound waves are passing through bacteria, which retract as if they were in very turbulent water even though the water is visually completely serene. In these conditions, bacteria does not excrete the polysaccharide glue they use to attach to the surface of the pool or pond, where ultrasonic technology is used. Ultrasonic waves decrease the production of biofilm on the surfaces in the selected area. In case there are already at the start of the application of ultrasonic technology in a pond or basin clean inner surfaces, the biofilm production is almost absolutely inhibited. This paper talks about two different pilot applications – one in Czech Republic and second in United States of America, where the used ultrasonic technology (AlgaeControl) is coming from. On both sites, there was used Mezzo Ultrasonic Algae Control System with very positive results not only on biofilm production, but also algae growth in the surrounding area. Technology has been successfully tested in two different environments. The poster describes the differences and their influence on the efficiency of ultrasonic technology application. Conclusions and lessons learned can be possibly applied also on other sites within Europe or even further.

Keywords: algae growth, biofilm production, ultrasonic solution, ultrasound

Procedia PDF Downloads 104
102 Inhibition of Streptococcus Mutans Biofilm Development of Dental Caries In Vitro and In Vivo by Trachyspermum ammi Seeds: An Approach of Alternative Medicine

Authors: Mohd Adil, Rosina Khan, Danishuddin, Asad U. Khan

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The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of the crude and active solvent fraction of Trachyspermum ammi on S. mutans cariogenicity, effect on expression of genes involved in biofilm formation and caries development in rats. GC–MS was carried out to identify the major components present in the crude and the active fraction of T. ammi. The crude extract and the solvent fraction exhibiting least MIC were selected for further experiments. Scanning electron microscopy was carried out to observe the effect of the extracts on S. mutans biofilm. Comparative gene expression analysis was carried out for nine selected genes. 2-Isopropyl-5-methyl-phenol was found as major compound in crude and the active fraction. Binding site of this compound within the proteins involved in biofilm formation was mapped with the help of docking studies. Real-time RT-PCR analyses revealed significant suppression of the genes involved in biofilm formation. All the test groups showed reduction in caries (smooth surface as well as sulcal surface caries) in rats. Moreover, it also provides new insight to understand the mechanism influencing biofilm formation in S. mutans. Furthermore, the data suggest the putative cariostatic properties of T. Ammi and hence can be used as an alternative medicine to prevent caries infection.

Keywords: bio-film, Streptococcus mutans, dental caries, bio-informatic

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101 Contribution of Soluble Microbial Products on Dissolved Organic Nitrogen in Wastewater Effluent from Moving Bed Biofilm Reactor

Authors: Boonsiri Dandumrongsin, Halis Simsek, Chaiwat Rongsayamanont

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Dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) is known as one of the persistence nitrogenous pollutant being originated from secondary treated effluent of municipal sewage treatment plant. However, effect of key system operating condition on the fate and behavior of residual DON in the treated effluent is still not known. This study aims to investigate effect of organic loading rate (OLR) on the residual level of DON in the biofilm reactor effluent. Synthetic municipal wastewater was fed into moving bed biofilm reactors at OLR of 1.6x10-3 and 3.2x10-3 kg SCOD/m3-d. The results showed higher organic removal efficiency was found in the reactor operating at higher OLR. However, DON was observed at higher value in the effluent of the higher OLR reactor than that of the lower OLR reactor evidencing a clear influence of OLR on the residual DON level in the treated effluent of the biofilm reactors. It is possible that the lower DON being observed in the reactor at lower OLR is likely to be a result of providing the microbe with the additional period for utilizing the refractory DON molecules during operation at lower organic loading. All the experiments were repeated using raw wastewaters and similar trend was obtained.

Keywords: dissolved organic nitrogen, hydraulic retention time, moving bed biofilm reactor, soluble microbial products

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100 Control of Biofilm Formation and Inorganic Particle Accumulation on Reverse Osmosis Membrane by Hypochlorite Washing

Authors: Masaki Ohno, Cervinia Manalo, Tetsuji Okuda, Satoshi Nakai, Wataru Nishijima

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Reverse osmosis (RO) membranes have been widely used for desalination to purify water for drinking and other purposes. Although at present most RO membranes have no resistance to chlorine, chlorine-resistant membranes are being developed. Therefore, direct chlorine treatment or chlorine washing will be an option in preventing biofouling on chlorine-resistant membranes. Furthermore, if particle accumulation control is possible by using chlorine washing, expensive pretreatment for particle removal can be removed or simplified. The objective of this study was to determine the effective hypochlorite washing condition required for controlling biofilm formation and inorganic particle accumulation on RO membrane in a continuous flow channel with RO membrane and spacer. In this study, direct chlorine washing was done by soaking fouled RO membranes in hypochlorite solution and fluorescence intensity was used to quantify biofilm on the membrane surface. After 48 h of soaking the membranes in high fouling potential waters, the fluorescence intensity decreased to 0 from 470 using the following washing conditions: 10 mg/L chlorine concentration, 2 times/d washing interval, and 30 min washing time. The chlorine concentration required to control biofilm formation decreased as the chlorine concentration (0.5–10 mg/L), the washing interval (1–4 times/d), or the washing time (1–30 min) increased. For the sample solutions used in the study, 10 mg/L chlorine concentration with 2 times/d interval, and 5 min washing time was required for biofilm control. The optimum chlorine washing conditions obtained from soaking experiments proved to be applicable also in controlling biofilm formation in continuous flow experiments. Moreover, chlorine washing employed in controlling biofilm with suspended particles resulted in lower amounts of organic (0.03 mg/cm2) and inorganic (0.14 mg/cm2) deposits on the membrane than that for sample water without chlorine washing (0.14 mg/cm2 and 0.33 mg/cm2, respectively). The amount of biofilm formed was 79% controlled by continuous washing with 10 mg/L of free chlorine concentration, and the inorganic accumulation amount decreased by 58% to levels similar to that of pure water with kaolin (0.17 mg/cm2) as feed water. These results confirmed the acceleration of particle accumulation due to biofilm formation, and that the inhibition of biofilm growth can almost completely reduce further particle accumulation. In addition, effective hypochlorite washing condition which can control both biofilm formation and particle accumulation could be achieved.

Keywords: reverse osmosis, washing condition optimization, hypochlorous acid, biofouling control

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99 Comparison of Methods for the Detection of Biofilm Formation in Yeast and Lactic Acid Bacteria Species Isolated from Dairy Products

Authors: Goksen Arik, Mihriban Korukluoglu

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Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and some yeast species are common microorganisms found in dairy products and most of them are responsible for the fermentation of foods. Such cultures are isolated and used as a starter culture in the food industry because of providing standardisation of the final product during the food processing. Choice of starter culture is the most important step for the production of fermented food. Isolated LAB and yeast cultures which have the ability to create a biofilm layer can be preferred as a starter in the food industry. The biofilm formation could be beneficial to extend the period of usage time of microorganisms as a starter. On the other hand, it is an undesirable property in pathogens, since biofilm structure allows a microorganism become more resistant to stress conditions such as antibiotic presence. It is thought that the resistance mechanism could be turned into an advantage by promoting the effective microorganisms which are used in the food industry as starter culture and also which have potential to stimulate the gastrointestinal system. Development of the biofilm layer is observed in some LAB and yeast strains. The resistance could make LAB and yeast strains dominant microflora in the human gastrointestinal system; thus, competition against pathogen microorganisms can be provided more easily. Based on this circumstance, in the study, 10 LAB and 10 yeast strains were isolated from various dairy products, such as cheese, yoghurt, kefir, and cream. Samples were obtained from farmer markets and bazaars in Bursa, Turkey. As a part of this research, all isolated strains were identified and their ability of biofilm formation was detected with two different methods and compared with each other. The first goal of this research was to determine whether isolates have the potential for biofilm production, and the second was to compare the validity of two different methods, which are known as “Tube method” and “96-well plate-based method”. This study may offer an insight into developing a point of view about biofilm formation and its beneficial properties in LAB and yeast cultures used as a starter in the food industry.

Keywords: biofilm, dairy products, lactic acid bacteria, yeast

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98 Effect of Environmental Conditions on E. Coli o157:h7 Atcc 43888 and L. Monocytogenes Atcc 7644 Cell Surface Hydrophobicity, Motility and Cell Attachment on Food-Contact Surfaces

Authors: Stanley Dula, Oluwatosini A. Ijabadeniyi

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Biofilm formation is a major source of materials and foodstuffs contamination, contributing to occurrence of pathogenic and spoilage microbes in food processing resulting in food spoilage, transmission of diseases and significant food hygiene and safety issues. This study elucidates biofilm formation of E. coli O157:H7 and L. monocytogenes ATCC 7644 grown under food related environmental stress conditions of varying pH (5.0;7.0; and 8.5) and temperature (15, 25 and 37 ℃). Both strains showed confluent biofilm formation at 25 ℃ and 37 ℃, at pH 8.5 after 5 days. E. coli showed curli fimbriae production at various temperatures, while L. monocytogenes did not show pronounced expression. Swarm, swimming and twitching plate assays were used to determine strain motilities. Characterization of cell hydrophobicity was done using the microbial adhesion to hydrocarbons (MATH) assay using n-hexadecane. Both strains showed hydrophilic characteristics as they fell within a < 20 % interval. FT-IR revealed COOH at 1622 cm-1, and a strong absorption band at 3650 cm-1 – 3200 cm-1 indicating the presence of both -OH and -NH groups. Both strains were hydrophilic and could form biofilm at different combinations of temperature and pH. EPS produced in both species proved to be an acidic hetero-polysaccharide.

Keywords: biofilm, pathogens, hydrophobicity, motility

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97 Molecular Basis of Anti-Biofilm and Anti-Adherence Activity of Syzygium aromaticum on Streptococcus mutans: In Vitro and in Vivo Study

Authors: Mohd Adil, Rosina Khan, Asad U. Khan, Vasantha Rupasinghe HP

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The study examined the effects of Syzygium aromaticum extracts on the virulence properties of Streptococcus mutans. The activity of glucosyltransferases in the presence of crude and diethylether fraction was reduced to 80% at concentration 78.12μg/ml and 39.06μg/ml respectively. The glycolytic pH drop by S. mutans cells was also disrupted by these extracts without affecting the bacterial viability. Microscopic analysis revealed morphological changes of the S. mutans biofilms, indicating that these plant extracts at sub-MICs could significantly affect the ability of S. mutans to form biofilm with distorted extracellular matrix. Furthermore, with the help of quantitative RT-PCR, the expression of different genes involved in adherence, quorum sensing, in the presence of these extracts were down regulated. The crude and active fractions were found effective in preventing caries development in rats. The data showed that S. aromaticum holds promise as a naturally occurring source of compounds that may prevent biofilm-related oral diseases.

Keywords: biofilm, quorum sensing, Streptococcus mutans, Syzygium aromaticum extract

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96 Thresholding Approach for Automatic Detection of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Biofilms from Fluorescence in situ Hybridization Images

Authors: Zonglin Yang, Tatsuya Akiyama, Kerry S. Williamson, Michael J. Franklin, Thiruvarangan Ramaraj

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Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic pathogen that forms surface-associated microbial communities (biofilms) on artificial implant devices and on human tissue. Biofilm infections are difficult to treat with antibiotics, in part, because the bacteria in biofilms are physiologically heterogeneous. One measure of biological heterogeneity in a population of cells is to quantify the cellular concentrations of ribosomes, which can be probed with fluorescently labeled nucleic acids. The fluorescent signal intensity following fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis correlates to the cellular level of ribosomes. The goals here are to provide computationally and statistically robust approaches to automatically quantify cellular heterogeneity in biofilms from a large library of epifluorescent microscopy FISH images. In this work, the initial steps were developed toward these goals by developing an automated biofilm detection approach for use with FISH images. The approach allows rapid identification of biofilm regions from FISH images that are counterstained with fluorescent dyes. This methodology provides advances over other computational methods, allowing subtraction of spurious signals and non-biological fluorescent substrata. This method will be a robust and user-friendly approach which will enable users to semi-automatically detect biofilm boundaries and extract intensity values from fluorescent images for quantitative analysis of biofilm heterogeneity.

Keywords: image informatics, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, biofilm, FISH, computer vision, data visualization

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95 Investigations into the in situ Enterococcus faecalis Biofilm Removal Efficacies of Passive and Active Sodium Hypochlorite Irrigant Delivered into Lateral Canal of a Simulated Root Canal Model

Authors: Saifalarab A. Mohmmed, Morgana E. Vianna, Jonathan C. Knowles

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The issue of apical periodontitis has received considerable critical attention. Bacteria is integrated into communities, attached to surfaces and consequently form biofilm. The biofilm structure provides bacteria with a series protection skills against, antimicrobial agents and enhances pathogenicity (e.g. apical periodontitis). Sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) has become the irrigant of choice for elimination of bacteria from the root canal system based on its antimicrobial findings. The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of different agitation techniques on the efficacy of 2.5% NaOCl to eliminate the biofilm from the surface of the lateral canal using the residual biofilm, and removal rate of biofilm as outcome measures. The effect of canal complexity (lateral canal) on the efficacy of the irrigation procedure was also assessed. Forty root canal models (n = 10 per group) were manufactured using 3D printing and resin materials. Each model consisted of two halves of an 18 mm length root canal with apical size 30 and taper 0.06, and a lateral canal of 3 mm length, 0.3 mm diameter located at 3 mm from the apical terminus. E. faecalis biofilms were grown on the apical 3 mm and lateral canal of the models for 10 days in Brain Heart Infusion broth. Biofilms were stained using crystal violet for visualisation. The model halves were reassembled, attached to an apparatus and tested under a fluorescence microscope. Syringe and needle irrigation protocol was performed using 9 mL of 2.5% NaOCl irrigant for 60 seconds. The irrigant was either left stagnant in the canal or activated for 30 seconds using manual (gutta-percha), sonic and ultrasonic methods. Images were then captured every second using an external camera. The percentages of residual biofilm were measured using image analysis software. The data were analysed using generalised linear mixed models. The greatest removal was associated with the ultrasonic group (66.76%) followed by sonic (45.49%), manual (43.97%), and passive irrigation group (control) (38.67%) respectively. No marked reduction in the efficiency of NaOCl to remove biofilm was found between the simple and complex anatomy models (p = 0.098). The removal efficacy of NaOCl on the biofilm was limited to the 1 mm level of the lateral canal. The agitation of NaOCl results in better penetration of the irrigant into the lateral canals. Ultrasonic agitation of NaOCl improved the removal of bacterial biofilm.

Keywords: 3D printing, biofilm, root canal irrigation, sodium hypochlorite

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94 Antimicrobial and Anti-Biofilm Activity of Non-Thermal Plasma

Authors: Jan Masak, Eva Kvasnickova, Vladimir Scholtz, Olga Matatkova, Marketa Valkova, Alena Cejkova

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Microbial colonization of medical instruments, catheters, implants, etc. is a serious problem in the spread of nosocomial infections. Biofilms exhibit enormous resistance to environment. The resistance of biofilm populations to antibiotic or biocides often increases by two to three orders of magnitude in comparison with suspension populations. Subjects of interests are substances or physical processes that primarily cause the destruction of biofilm, while the released cells can be killed by existing antibiotics. In addition, agents that do not have a strong lethal effect do not cause such a significant selection pressure to further enhance resistance. Non-thermal plasma (NTP) is defined as neutral, ionized gas composed of particles (photons, electrons, positive and negative ions, free radicals and excited or non-excited molecules) which are in permanent interaction. In this work, the effect of NTP generated by the cometary corona with a metallic grid on the formation and stability of biofilm and metabolic activity of cells in biofilm was studied. NTP was applied on biofilm populations of Staphylococcus epidermidis DBM 3179, Pseudomonas aeruginosa DBM 3081, DBM 3777, ATCC 15442 and ATCC 10145, Escherichia coli DBM 3125 and Candida albicans DBM 2164 grown on solid media on Petri dishes and on the titanium alloy (Ti6Al4V) surface used for the production joint replacements. Erythromycin (for S. epidermidis), polymyxin B (for E. coli and P. aeruginosa), amphotericin B (for C. albicans) and ceftazidime (for P. aeruginosa) were used to study the combined effect of NTP and antibiotics. Biofilms were quantified by crystal violet assay. Metabolic activity of the cells in biofilm was measured using MTT (3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5 diphenyl tetrazolium bromide) colorimetric test based on the reduction of MTT into formazan by the dehydrogenase system of living cells. Fluorescence microscopy was applied to visualize the biofilm on the surface of the titanium alloy; SYTO 13 was used as a fluorescence probe to stain cells in the biofilm. It has been shown that biofilm populations of all studied microorganisms are very sensitive to the type of used NTP. The inhibition zone of biofilm recorded after 60 minutes exposure to NTP exceeded 20 cm², except P. aeruginosa DBM 3777 and ATCC 10145, where it was about 9 cm². Also metabolic activity of cells in biofilm differed for individual microbial strains. High sensitivity to NTP was observed in S. epidermidis, in which the metabolic activity of biofilm decreased after 30 minutes of NTP exposure to 15% and after 60 minutes to 1%. Conversely, the metabolic activity of cells of C. albicans decreased to 53% after 30 minutes of NTP exposure. Nevertheless, this result can be considered very good. Suitable combinations of exposure time of NTP and the concentration of antibiotic achieved in most cases a remarkable synergic effect on the reduction of the metabolic activity of the cells of the biofilm. For example, in the case of P. aeruginosa DBM 3777, a combination of 30 minutes of NTP with 1 mg/l of ceftazidime resulted in a decrease metabolic activity below 4%.

Keywords: anti-biofilm activity, antibiotic, non-thermal plasma, opportunistic pathogens

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93 Biofilm Text Classifiers Developed Using Natural Language Processing and Unsupervised Learning Approach

Authors: Kanika Gupta, Ashok Kumar

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Biofilms are dense, highly hydrated cell clusters that are irreversibly attached to a substratum, to an interface or to each other, and are embedded in a self-produced gelatinous matrix composed of extracellular polymeric substances. Research in biofilm field has become very significant, as biofilm has shown high mechanical resilience and resistance to antibiotic treatment and constituted as a significant problem in both healthcare and other industry related to microorganisms. The massive information both stated and hidden in the biofilm literature are growing exponentially therefore it is not possible for researchers and practitioners to automatically extract and relate information from different written resources. So, the current work proposes and discusses the use of text mining techniques for the extraction of information from biofilm literature corpora containing 34306 documents. It is very difficult and expensive to obtain annotated material for biomedical literature as the literature is unstructured i.e. free-text. Therefore, we considered unsupervised approach, where no annotated training is necessary and using this approach we developed a system that will classify the text on the basis of growth and development, drug effects, radiation effects, classification and physiology of biofilms. For this, a two-step structure was used where the first step is to extract keywords from the biofilm literature using a metathesaurus and standard natural language processing tools like Rapid Miner_v5.3 and the second step is to discover relations between the genes extracted from the whole set of biofilm literature using pubmed.mineR_v1.0.11. We used unsupervised approach, which is the machine learning task of inferring a function to describe hidden structure from 'unlabeled' data, in the above-extracted datasets to develop classifiers using WinPython-64 bit_v3.5.4.0Qt5 and R studio_v0.99.467 packages which will automatically classify the text by using the mentioned sets. The developed classifiers were tested on a large data set of biofilm literature which showed that the unsupervised approach proposed is promising as well as suited for a semi-automatic labeling of the extracted relations. The entire information was stored in the relational database which was hosted locally on the server. The generated biofilm vocabulary and genes relations will be significant for researchers dealing with biofilm research, making their search easy and efficient as the keywords and genes could be directly mapped with the documents used for database development.

Keywords: biofilms literature, classifiers development, text mining, unsupervised learning approach, unstructured data, relational database

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92 Activity of Commonly Used Intravenous Nutrient and Bisolvon in Neonatal Intensive Care Units against Biofilm Cells and Their Synergetic Effect with Antibiotics

Authors: Marwa Fady Abozed, Hemat Abd El Latif, Fathy Serry, Lotfi El Sayed

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The purpose of this study was to investigate the efficacy of intravenous nutrient(soluvit, vitalipid, aminoven infant, lipovenos) and bisolvon commonly used in neonatal intensive care units against biofilm cells of staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Pseudomonas aerguinosa and klebseilla pneumonia as they are the most commonly isolated organisms and are biofilm producers. Also, the synergetic acticity of soluvit, heparin, bisolvon with antibiotics and its effect on minimum biofilm eradication concentration(MBEC) was tested. Intravenous nutrient and bromohexine are widely used in newborns. Numbers of viable cell count released from biofilm after treatment with intravenous nutrient and bromohexine were counted to compare the efficacy. The percentage of reduction in biofilm regrowth in case of using soluvit was 43-51% and 36-42 % for Gram positive and Gram negative respectively, on adding the vitalipid the percentage was 45-50 %and 37-41% for Gram positive and Gram negative respectively. While, in case of using bisolvon the percentage was 46-52% and 47-48% for Gram positive and Gram negative respectively. Adding lipovenos had a reduction percentage of 48-52% and 48-49% for Gram positive and Gram negative respectively. While, adding aminoven infant the percentage was 10-15% and 9-11% for Gram positive and Gram negative respectively. Adding soluvit, heparin and bisolvon to antibiotics had synergic effect. soluvit with ciprofloxacin has 8-16 times decrease than minimum biofilm eradication concentration (MBEC) for ciprofloxacin alone. While, by adding soluvit to vancomycin the MBEC reduced by 16 times than MBEC of vancomycin alone. In case of combination soluvit with cefotaxime, amikacin and gentamycin the reduction in MBEC was 16, 8 and 6-32 times respectively. The synergetic effect of adding heparin to ciprofloxacin, vancomycin, cefotaxime, amikacin and gentamicin was 2 times reduction with all except in case of gram negative the range of reduction was 0-2 with both gentamycin and ciprofloxacin. Bisolvon exihited synergetic effect with ciprofloxacin, vancomycin, cefotaxime, amikacin and gentamicin by 16, 32, 32, 8, 32-64 and 32 times decrease in MBEC respectively.

Keywords: biofilm, neonatal intensive care units, antibiofilm agents, intravenous nutrient

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91 Up-Flow Sponge Submerged Biofilm Reactor for Municipal Sewage Treatment

Authors: Saber A. El-Shafai, Waleed M. Zahid

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An up-flow submerged biofilm reactor packed with sponge was investigated for sewage treatment. The reactor was operated two cycles as single aerobic (1-1 at 3.5 L/L.d HLR and 1-2 at 3.8 L/L.day HLR) and four cycles as single anaerobic/aerobic reactor; 2-1 and 2-2 at low HLR (3.7 and 3.5 L/L.day) and 2-3 and 2-4 at high HLR (5.1 and 5.4 L/L.day). During the aerobic cycles, 50% effluent recycling significantly reduces the system performance except for phosphorous. In case of the anaerobic/aerobic reactor, the effluent recycling, significantly improves system performance at low HLR while at high HLR only phosphorous removal was improved. Excess sludge production was limited to 0.133 g TSS/g COD with better sludge volume index (SVI) in case of anaerobic/aerobic cycles; (54.7 versus 58.5 ml/g).

Keywords: aerobic, anaerobic/aerobic, up-flow, submerged biofilm, sponge

Procedia PDF Downloads 180