Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 20

Search results for: biomonitoring

20 Biomonitoring of Marine Environment by Using a Bioindicator Donax trunculus (Mollusca, Bivalvia) from the Gulf of Annaba (Algeria): Biomarkers Responses

Authors: Karima Sifi, Noureddine Soltani


Annaba gulf is the most important touristic and economic area located on the east coast of Algeria. However, these fishery resources are threatened by the pollution due to the progress of economic activity. As part of a biomonitoring program on the quality of waters of the Gulf of Annaba, the specific activity of two biomarkers, acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and glutathion S-transferase (GST) has been measured in edible bivalve Donax trunculus. The samples have been collected during the year 2013 in two sites: El Battah, distant from polluted sources, and Sidi Salem, located near the harbor and different industrial waste. The results showed a significant inhibition of AChE activity and a significant increase in the activity of the GST in samples collected from Sidi Salem as compared to El Battah. The inhibition of the AChE and the increase of the GST in Sidi Salem are in relation with the level of exposition of this site to the pollution.

Keywords: Donax trunculus, annaba gulf, acetylcholinesterase, glutathion s-transferase, biomonitoring, pollution

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19 Application of Human Biomonitoring and Physiologically-Based Pharmacokinetic Modelling to Quantify Exposure to Selected Toxic Elements in Soil

Authors: Eric Dede, Marcus Tindall, John W. Cherrie, Steve Hankin, Christopher Collins


Current exposure models used in contaminated land risk assessment are highly conservative. Use of these models may lead to over-estimation of actual exposures, possibly resulting in negative financial implications due to un-necessary remediation. Thus, we are carrying out a study seeking to improve our understanding of human exposure to selected toxic elements in soil: arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), nickel (Ni), and lead (Pb) resulting from allotment land-use. The study employs biomonitoring and physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modelling to quantify human exposure to these elements. We recruited 37 allotment users (adults > 18 years old) in Scotland, UK, to participate in the study. Concentrations of the elements (and their bioaccessibility) were measured in allotment samples (soil and allotment produce). Amount of produce consumed by the participants and participants’ biological samples (urine and blood) were collected for up to 12 consecutive months. Ethical approval was granted by the University of Reading Research Ethics Committee. PBPK models (coded in MATLAB) were used to estimate the distribution and accumulation of the elements in key body compartments, thus indicating the internal body burden. Simulating low element intake (based on estimated ‘doses’ from produce consumption records), predictive models suggested that detection of these elements in urine and blood was possible within a given period of time following exposure. This information was used in planning biomonitoring, and is currently being used in the interpretation of test results from biological samples. Evaluation of the models is being carried out using biomonitoring data, by comparing model predicted concentrations and measured biomarker concentrations. The PBPK models will be used to generate bioavailability values, which could be incorporated in contaminated land exposure models. Thus, the findings from this study will promote a more sustainable approach to contaminated land management.

Keywords: biomonitoring, exposure, PBPK modelling, toxic elements

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18 Biogeochemical Study of Polycuclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Its Physiological Response in Mudskippre (B. dussumieri) along the North western Coasts of the Persian Gulf

Authors: Ali Mashinchian Moradi, Mahmood Sinaei


Study on the biomarkers to assess health status of marine ecosystems has an important value in biomonitoring of marine environment. Accordingly, accumulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in sediment, water and tissues (liver and gill) of mudskipper (Boleophthalmus dussmieri) and some physiological responses like lysosomal membrane change in haemocytes and the Glutathione-S Transferase (GST) activity in the liver were measured in mudskippers. Samples were collected from five sites along the noth western cost of the Persian Gulf. PAHs concentration was measured by HPLC method. The activity of GST enzyme was analysed by spectrophotometric method. Total PAH concentration in coastal seawater, sediments, liver and gill tissues ranged between 0.80-18.34 ug/L, 113.550-3384.34 ng/g dw, 3.99-46.64 ng/g dw and 3.11-17.This study showed that PAH concentrations in this region are not higher than available standards. The findings revile that lysosomal membrane destabilization and liver GST activities are highly sensitive to PAHs in mudskipper, B. dussumieri. Sediment PAH concentrations were strongly correlated with biomarkers, indicating PAHs were biologically available to fish. Thus, mudskipper perceived to be good sentinel organism for PAH pollution biomonitoring.

Keywords: PAHs, biomarker, mudskipper, Persian Gulf

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17 Bacterial Diversity Reports Contamination around the Ichkeul Lake in Tunisia

Authors: Zeina Bourhane, Anders Lanzen, Christine Cagnon, Olfa Ben Said, Cristiana Cravo-Laureau, Robert Duran


The anthropogenic pressure in coastal areas increases dramatically with the exploitation of environmental resources. Biomonitoring coastal areas are crucial to determine the impact of pollutants on bacterial communities in soils and sediments since they provide important ecosystem services. However, relevant biomonitoring tools allowing fast determination of the ecological status are yet to be defined. Microbial ecology approaches provide useful information for developing such microbial monitoring tools reporting on the effect of environmental stressors. Chemical and microbial molecular approaches were combined in order to determine microbial bioindicators for assessing the ecological status of soil and river ecosystems around the Ichkeul Lake (Tunisia), an area highly impacted by human activities. Samples were collected along soil/river/lake continuums in three stations around the Ichkeul Lake influenced by different human activities at two seasons (summer and winter). Contaminant pressure indexes (PI), including PAHs (Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons), alkanes, and OCPs (Organochlorine pesticides) contents, showed significant differences in the contamination level between the stations with seasonal variation. Bacterial communities were characterized by 16S ribosomal RNAs (rRNA) gene metabarcoding. Although microgAMBI indexes, determined from the sequencing data, were in accordance with contaminant contents, they were not sufficient to fully explain the PI. Therefore, further microbial indicators are still to be defined. The comparison of bacterial communities revealed the specific microbial assemblage for soil, river, and lake sediments, which were significantly correlated with contaminant contents and PI. Such observation offers the possibility to define a relevant set of bioindicators for reporting the effects of human activities on the microbial community structure. Such bioindicators might constitute useful monitoring tools for the management of microbial communities in coastal areas.

Keywords: bacterial communities, biomonitoring, contamination, human impacts, microbial bioindicators

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16 Water Quality Determination of River Systems in Antalya Basin by Biomonitoring

Authors: Hasan Kalyoncu, Füsun Kılçık, Hatice Gülboy Akyıldırım, Aynur Özen, Mehmet Acar, Nur Yoluk


For evaluation of water quality of the river systems in Antalya Basin, macrozoobenthos samples were taken from 22 determined stations by a hand net and identified at family level. Water quality of Antalya Basin was determined according to Biological Monitoring Working Party (BMWP) system, by using macrozoobenthic invertebrates and physicochemical parameters. As a result of the evaluation, while Aksu Stream was determined as the most polluted stream in Antalya Basin, Isparta Stream was determined as the most polluted tributary of Aksu Stream. Pollution level of the Isparta Stream was determined as quality class V and it is the extremely polluted part of stream. Pollution loads at the sources of the streams were determined in low levels in general. Due to some parts of the streams have passed through deep canyons and take their sources from nonresidential and non-arable regions, majority of the streams that take place in Antalya Basin are at high quality level. Waste water, which comes from agricultural and residential regions, affects the lower basins of the streams. Because of the waste water, lower parts of the stream basins exposed to the pollution under anthropogenic effects. However, in Aksu Stream, which differs by being exposed to domestic and industrial wastes of Isparta City, extreme pollution was determined, particularly in the Isparta Stream part.

Keywords: Antalya basin, biomonitoring, BMWP, water quality

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15 Assessment of Estrogenic Contamination and Potential Risk in Taihu Lake, China

Authors: Guanghua Lu, Zhenhua Yan


To investigate the estrogenic contamination and potential risk of Taihu Lake, eight active biomonitoring points in the northern section of Taihu Lake were set up and located in Wangyuhe River outlet (P1), Gonghu Bay (P2 and P3), Meiliang Bay (P4 and P5), Zhushan Bay (P6 and P7) and Lake Centre (P8). A suite of biomarkers in caged fish after in situ exposure for 28 days, coupled with six selected exogenous estrogens in water, were determined in May and December 2011. Six target estrogens, namely estrone (E1), 17b-estradiol (E2), ethinylestradiol (EE2), estriol (E3), diethylstilbestrol (DES) and bisphenol A (BPA), were quantified using UPLC/MS/MS. The concentrations of E1, E2, E3, EE2, DES and BPA ranged from ND to 3.61 ng/L, ND to 17.3 ng/L, ND to 1.65 ng/L, ND to 10.2 ng/L, ND to 34.6 ng/L, and 3.95 to 207 ng/L, respectively. BPA was detected at all sampling points at all test periods, E2 was detected at 95% of samples, E1 and EE2 was detected at 75% of samples, and E3 was detected only in December 2011 with quite low concentrations. Each individual estrogen concentration measured at each sampling point was multiplied by its relative potency to gain the estradiol equivalent (EEQ). The total EEQ values in all the monitoring points ranged from 5.69 to 17.8 ng/L in May 2011, and from 4.46 to 21.1 ng/L in December 2011. E2 and EE2 were thought to be the major causal agents responsible for the estrogenic activities. Serum vitellogenin and E2 levels, gonadal DNA damage, and gonadosomatic index were measured in the in situ exposed fish. An enhanced integrated biomarker response (EIBR) was calculated and used to evaluate potential feminization risk of fish in the polluted area of Taihu Lake. EIBR index showed good agreement with the observed total EEQ levels in water. Our results indicated that Gong bay and the lake center had a low estrogenic risk, whereas Wangyuhe River, Meiliang Bay, and Zhushan Bay might present a higher risk to fish.

Keywords: active biomonitoring, estrogen, feminization risk, Taihu Lake

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14 Bioelectronic System for Continuous Monitoring of Cardiac Activity of Benthic Invertebrates for the Assessment of a Surface Water Quality

Authors: Sergey Kholodkevich, Tatiana Kuznetsova


The objective assessment of ecological state of water ecosystems is impossible without the use of biological methods of the environmental monitoring capable in the integrated look to reveal negative for biota changes of quality of water as habitats. Considerable interest for the development of such methods of environmental quality control represents biomarker approach. Measuring systems, by means of which register cardiac activity characteristics, received the name of bioelectronic. Bioelectronic systems are information and measuring systems in which animals (namely, benthic invertebrates) are directly included in structure of primary converters, being an integral part of electronic system of registration of these or those physiological or behavioural biomarkers. As physiological biomarkers various characteristics of cardiac activity of selected invertebrates have been used in bioelectronic system.lChanges in cardiac activity are considered as integrative measures of the physiological condition of organisms, which reflect the state of the environment of their dwelling. Greatest successes in the development of tools of biological methods and technologies of an assessment of surface water quality in real time. Essential advantage of bioindication of water quality by such tool is a possibility of an integrated assessment of biological effects of pollution on biota and also the expressness of such method and used approaches. In the report the practical experience of authors in biomonitoring and bioindication of an ecological condition of sea, brackish- and freshwater areas is discussed. Authors note that the method of non-invasive cardiac activity monitoring of selected invertebrates can be used not only for the advancement of biomonitoring, but also is useful in decision of general problems of comparative physiology of the invertebrates.

Keywords: benthic invertebrates, physiological state, heart rate monitoring, water quality assessment

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13 Remote BioMonitoring of Mothers and Newborns for Temperature Surveillance Using a Smart Wearable Sensor: Techno-Feasibility Study and Clinical Trial in Southern India

Authors: Prem K. Mony, Bharadwaj Amrutur, Prashanth Thankachan, Swarnarekha Bhat, Suman Rao, Maryann Washington, Annamma Thomas, N. Sheela, Hiteshwar Rao, Sumi Antony


The disease burden among mothers and newborns is caused mostly by a handful of avoidable conditions occurring around the time of childbirth and within the first month following delivery. Real-time monitoring of vital parameters of mothers and neonates offers a potential opportunity to impact access as well as the quality of care in vulnerable populations. We describe the design, development and testing of an innovative wearable device for remote biomonitoring (RBM) of body temperatures in mothers and neonates in a hospital in southern India. The architecture consists of: [1] a low-cost, wearable sensor tag; [2] a gateway device for ‘real-time’ communication link; [3] piggy-backing on a commercial GSM communication network; and [4] an algorithm-based data analytics system. Requirements for the device were: long battery-life upto 28 days (with sampling frequency 5/hr); robustness; IP 68 hermetic sealing; and human-centric design. We undertook pre-clinical laboratory testing followed by clinical trial phases I & IIa for evaluation of safety and efficacy in the following sequence: seven healthy adult volunteers; 18 healthy mothers; and three sets of babies – 3 healthy babies; 10 stable babies in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) and 1 baby with hypoxic ischaemic encephalopathy (HIE). The 3-coin thickness, pebble-design sensor weighing about 8 gms was secured onto the abdomen for the baby and over the upper arm for adults. In the laboratory setting, the response-time of the sensor device to attain thermal equilibrium with the surroundings was 4 minutes vis-a-vis 3 minutes observed with a precision-grade digital thermometer used as a reference standard. The accuracy was ±0.1°C of the reference standard within the temperature range of 25-40°C. The adult volunteers, aged 20 to 45 years, contributed a total of 345 hours of readings over a 7-day period and the postnatal mothers provided a total of 403 paired readings. The mean skin temperatures measured in the adults by the sensor were about 2°C lower than the axillary temperature readings (sensor =34.1 vs digital = 36.1); this difference was statistically significant (t-test=13.8; p<0.001). The healthy neonates provided a total of 39 paired readings; the mean difference in temperature was 0.13°C (sensor =36.9 vs digital = 36.7; p=0.2). The neonates in the NICU provided a total of 130 paired readings. Their mean skin temperature measured by the sensor was 0.6°C lower than that measured by the radiant warmer probe (sensor =35.9 vs warmer probe = 36.5; p < 0.001). The neonate with HIE provided a total of 25 paired readings with the mean sensor reading being not different from the radian warmer probe reading (sensor =33.5 vs warmer probe = 33.5; p=0.8). No major adverse events were noted in both the adults and neonates; four adult volunteers reported mild sweating under the device/arm band and one volunteer developed mild skin allergy. This proof-of-concept study shows that real-time monitoring of temperatures is technically feasible and that this innovation appears to be promising in terms of both safety and accuracy (with appropriate calibration) for improved maternal and neonatal health.

Keywords: public health, remote biomonitoring, temperature surveillance, wearable sensors, mothers and newborns

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12 Molecular Biomonitoring of Bacterial Pathogens in Wastewater

Authors: Desouky Abd El Haleem, Sahar Zaki


This work was conducted to develop a one-step multiplex PCR system for rapid, sensitive, and specific detection of three different bacterial pathogens, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Salmonella spp, directly in wastewater without prior isolation on selective media. As a molecular confirmatory test after isolation of the pathogens by classical microbiological methods, PCR-RFLP of their amplified 16S rDNA genes was performed. It was observed that the developed protocols have significance impact in the ability to detect sensitively, rapidly and specifically the three pathogens directly in water within short-time, represents a considerable advancement over more time-consuming and less-sensitive methods for identification and characterization of these kinds of pathogens.

Keywords: multiplex PCR, bacterial pathogens, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella spp.

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11 Sewage Induced Behavioural Responses in an Air-Breathing Fish, Pangasius pangasius

Authors: Sasikala Govindaraj, P. Palanisamy, G. M. Natarajan


Domestic sewage poses major threats to the aquatic environment in third world countries due to lack of technical and economic sources which can have significant impacts on fish. The tolerance limits to toxicants found in domestic effluents vary among species and their integrative effects may lead to reproductive failure and reduction of survival and growth of the more sensitive fish species. The mechanism of action of toxic substances upon various concentrations of sewage was taken aiming to evaluate locomotory, physiological, neurological and morbidity response of fish. The rapid biomonitoring assessment technique for qualitative evaluation of various industrial pollutants, behavioral responses of an air-breathing fish Pangasius pangasius were used as biomarkers for water quality assessment. The present investigation concluded that sewage is highly toxic to the fish and severely affects their physiology and behavior.

Keywords: air-breathing organs, behavioral, locomotory, morbidity, neurological, physiological, sewage

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10 Phthalate Exposure among Roma Population in Slovakia

Authors: Miroslava Šidlovská, Ida Petrovičová, Tomáš Pilka, Branislav Kolena


Phthalates are ubiquitous environmental pollutants well-known because of their endocrine disrupting activity in human organism. The aim of our study was, by biological monitoring, investigate exposure to phthalates of Roma ethnicity group i.e. children and adults from 5 families (n=29, average age 11.8 ± 7.6 years) living in western Slovakia. Additionally, we analysed some associations between anthropometric measures, questionnaire data i.e. socio-economic status, eating and drinking habits, practise of personal care products and household conditions in comparison with concentrations of phthalate metabolites. We used for analysis of urine samples high performance liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) to determine concentrations of phthalate metabolites monoethyl phthalate (MEP), mono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP), mono-iso-butyl phthalate (MiBP), mono(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate (5OH-MEHP), mono(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate (5oxo-MEHP) and mono(2-etylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP). Our results indicate that ethnicity, lower socioeconomic status and different housing conditions in Roma population can affect urinary concentration of phthalate metabolites.

Keywords: biomonitoring, ethnicity, human exposure, phthalate metabolites

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9 Enzymatic Biomonitoring of Aquatic Pollution at Jeddah Southern Red Sea Shore

Authors: Saleh Mohamed, Mohamed El-Shal, Taha Kumosani, Ahmad Mal, Youssri Ahmed, Yasser Almulaiky


The marine environment of the Jeddah southern red sea shore is subjected to increasing anthropogenic activities as sewage sludge draining and desalting processes. The objective of this study is to compare the quantitative responses of enzymatic biomarkers in fish from polluted area with the responses of organism from reference area. Enzymatic biomarkers as neurotoxic, antioxidant and detoxifying enzymes were evaluated in the brain and liver from Variola louti as a sentinel species sampled from both polluted and reference sites in the Jeddah southern red sea shore during four months January, April, July and October in 2014 and 2015. In brain of V. louti, the activity of acetylcholinestease (AChE) collected from reference area significantly increased 8.8 and 10.5 folds than that from polluted area in 2014 and 2015, respectively. The activities of catalase (CAT), glutathione reductase (GR) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) from liver of V. louti in polluted area significantly increased 1.4, 1.27 and 3, 4.5 and 4.37, 2 and 5, 4.5 folds than that from reference area in 2014 and 2015, respectively. The levels of examined enzymes are approximately similar in the four seasons detected in 2014 and 2015 indicating that the similar components of sewage were draining in red sea. In conclusion, these findings suggest the important of enzymatic biomarkers in monitoring the pollution in Jeddah red sea shore.

Keywords: Variola louti, enzymatic biomarkers, pollution, Red sea

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8 Comet Assay: A Promising Tool for the Risk Assessment and Clinical Management of Head and Neck Tumors

Authors: Sarim Ahmad


The Single Cell Gel Electrophoresis Assay (SCGE, known as comet assay) is a potential, uncomplicated, sensitive and state-of-the-art technique for quantitating DNA damage at individual cell level and repair from in vivo and in vitro samples of eukaryotic cells and some prokaryotic cells, being popular in its widespread use in various areas including human biomonitoring, genotoxicology, ecological monitoring and as a tool for research into DNA damage or repair in different cell types in response to a range of DNA damaging agents, cancer risk and therapy. The method involves the encapsulation of cells in a low-melting-point agarose suspension, lysis of the cells in neutral or alkaline (pH > 13) conditions, and electrophoresis of the suspended lysed cells, resulting in structures resembling comets as observed by fluorescence microscopy; the intensity of the comet tail relative to the head reflects the number of DNA breaks. The likely basis for this is that loops containing a break lose their supercoiling and become free to extend towards the anode. This is followed by visual analysis with staining of DNA and calculating fluorescence to determine the extent of DNA damage. This can be performed by manual scoring or automatically by imaging software. The assay can, therefore, predict an individual’s tumor sensitivity to radiation and various chemotherapeutic drugs and further assess the oxidative stress within tumors and to detect the extent of DNA damage in various cancerous and precancerous lesions of oral cavity.

Keywords: comet assay, single cell gel electrophoresis, DNA damage, early detection test

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7 Urban Vegetative Planning for Ambient Ozone Pollution: An Eco-Management Approach

Authors: M. Anji Reddy, R. Uma Devi


Environmental planning for urban development is very much needed to reduce air pollution through the enhancement of vegetative cover in the cities like Hyderabad. This can be mainly based on the selection of appropriate native plant species as bioindicators to assess the impact of ambient Ozone. In the present study, tolerant species are suggested aimed to reduce the magnitude of ambient ozone concentrations which not only increase eco-friendly vegetation but also moderate air pollution. Hyderabad city is divided into 5 zones based on Land Use/Land Cover category further each zone divided into residential, traffic, industrial, and peri-urban areas. Highest ambient ozone levels are recorded in Industrial areas followed by traffic areas in the entire study area ( > 180 µg/m3). Biomonitoring of selected sixteen local urban plant species with the help of Air Pollution Tolerance Index (APTI) showed its susceptibility to air pollution. Statistical regression models in between the tolerant plant species and ambient ozone levels suggested five plant species namely Azardirachta indica A. Juss which have a high tolerant response to ambient ozone followed by Delonix regia Hook. along with Millingtonia hortensis L.f., Alestonia Scholaries L., and Samania saman Jacq. in the industrial and traffic areas of the study area to mitigate ambient Ozone pollution and also to improve urban greenery.

Keywords: air pollution tolerance index, bio-indicators, eco-friendly vegetation, urban greenery

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6 Cadmium Concentrations in Breast Milk and Factors of Exposition: Systematic Review

Authors: Abha Cherkani Hassani, Imane Ghanname, Nezha Mouane


Background: This is the first systematic review summarizing 43 years of research from 36 countries in the assessment of cadmium in breast milk; a suitable matrix in human biomonitoring. Objectives: To report from the published literature the levels of cadmium in breast milk and the affecting factors causing the increase of cadmium concentrations; also to gather several quantitative data which might be useful to evaluate the international degrees of maternal and infant exposure. Methods: We reviewed the literature for studies reporting quantitative data about cadmium levels in human breast milk in the world that have been published between 1971 and 2014 and that are available on Pubmed, Science direct and Google scholar. The aim of the study, country, period of samples collection, size of samples, sampling method, time of lactation, mother’s age, area of residence, cadmium concentration and other information were extracted. Results: 67 studies were selected and included in this systematic review. Some concentrations greatly exceed the limit of the WHO, However about 50% of the studies had less than 1 µg/l cadmium concentration (the recommendation of the WHO); as well many factors have shown their implication in breast milk contamination by Cadmium as lactation stage, smoking, diet, supplement intake, interaction with other mineral elements, age of mothers, parity and other parameters. Conclusion: Breast milk is a pathway of maternal excretion of cadmium. It is also a biological indicator of the degree of environmental pollution and cadmium exposure of the lactating women and the nourished infant. Therefore preventive measures and continuous monitoring are necessary.

Keywords: breast milk, cadmium level, factors, systematic review

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5 Composition, Abundance and Diversity of Zooplankton in Sarangani Bay, Sarangani Province, Philippines

Authors: Jeter Canete, Noreen Joyce Estrella, Yedda Sachi Patrice Madelo


Zooplankton plays a crucial role in aquatic ecosystems and a number of water parameters involved in it. Despite their relevance, there is inadequate information about zooplankton communities in Sarangani Bay, Sarangani Province: one of the most essential waterbodies in Mindanao. The aim of the present study was to determine the composition, abundance, and diversity of zooplankton as well as to provide more recent data about the physico-chemical characteristics of Sarangani Bay. Zooplankton samples were collected by vertical hauls using a zooplankton net (mouth diameter: 0.5m; mesh size opening: round, 350μm) in three stations in the coastal waters of Alabel, Malapatan, and Maasim during November 2018. A total of 74 species of zooplankton belonging mainly to Kingdom Protozoa, Phylum Arthropoda, Chaetognatha, and Chordata were identified. Results showed a total zooplankton abundance of 1,984,166 ind/m³ with the highest count recorded at Malapatan (717,169 ind/m³) and the lowest at Maasim (624,411 ind/m³). Among 22 zooplankton groups identified, subclass Copepoda was found to be the most dominant (73.10%), followed by Appendicularia (12.18%) and Vertebrata (3.54%). Diversity analysis revealed an even distribution of species and a diverse ecosystem in all stations sampled. Correlation analysis indicated a strong relationship between zooplankton abundance and physico-chemical parameters. Overall, the physico-chemical profile of Sarangani Bay did not differ from the standards set by DENR, and analysis of the zooplankton communities revealed that Sarangani Bay favorably supports marine organisms to flourish. The findings of this study provide useful knowledge on zooplankton communities and can be used to create management strategies to protect the aquatic biodiversity in Sarangani Bay.

Keywords: aquatic biomonitoring, biodiversity, physicochemical analysis, population survey, Sarangani Bay, Sarangani Province, zooplankton

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4 Association between Organophosphate Pesticides Exposure and Cognitive Behavior in Taipei Children

Authors: Meng-Ying Chiu, Yu-Fang Huang, Pei-Wei Wang, Yi-Ru Wang, Yi-Shuan Shao, Mei-Lien Chen


Background: Organophosphate pesticides (OPs) are the most heavily used pesticides in agriculture in Taiwan. Therefore, they are commonly detected in general public including pregnant women and children. These compounds are proven endocrine disrupters that may affect the neural development in humans. The aim of this study is to assess the OPs exposure of children in 2 years of age and to examine the association between the exposure concentrations and neurodevelopmental effects in children. Methods: In a prospective cohort of 280 mother-child pairs, urine samples of prenatal and postnatal were collected from each participant and analyzed for metabolites of OPs by using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Six analytes were measured including dimethylphosphate (DMP), dimethylthiophosphate (DMTP), dimethyldithiophosphate (DMDTP), diethylphosphate (DEP), diethylthiophosphate (DETP), and diethyldithiophosphate (DEDTP). This study created a combined concentration measure for dimethyl compounds (DMs) consisting of the three dimethyl metabolites (DMP, DMTP, and DMDTP), for diethyl compounds (DEs) consisting of the three diethyl metabolites (DEP, DETP, and DEDTP) and six dialkyl phosphate (DAPs). The Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development (Bayley-III) was used to assess children's cognitive behavior at 2 years old. The association between OPs exposure and Bayley-III scale score was determined by using the Mann-Whitney U test. Results: The measurements of urine samples are still on-going. This preliminary data are the report of 56 children aged 2 from the cohort. The detection rates for DMP, DMTP, DMDTP, DEP, DETP, and DEDTP are 80.4%, 69.6%, 64.3%, 64.3%, 62.5%, and 75%, respectively. After adjusting the creatinine concentrations of urine, the median (nmol/g creatinine) of urinary DMP, DMTP, DMDTP, DEP, DETP, DEDTP, DMs, DEs, and DAPs are 153.14, 53.32, 52.13, 19.24, 141.65, 192.17, 308.8, 311.6, and 702.11, respectively. The concentrations of urine are considerably higher than that in other countries. Children’s cognitive behavior was used three scales for Bayley-III, including cognitive, language and motor. In Mann-Whitney U test, the higher levels of DEs had significantly lower motor score (p=0.037), but no significant association was found between the OPs exposure levels and the score of either cognitive or language. Conclusion: The limited sample size suggests that Taipei children are commonly exposed to OPs and OPs exposure might affect the cognitive behavior of young children. This report will present more data to verify the results. The predictors of OPs concentrations, such as dietary pattern will also be included.

Keywords: biomonitoring, children, neurodevelopment, organophosphate pesticides exposure

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3 Maternal Exposure to Bisphenol A and Its Association with Birth Outcomes

Authors: Yi-Ting Chen, Yu-Fang Huang, Pei-Wei Wang, Hai-Wei Liang, Chun-Hao Lai, Mei-Lien Chen


Background: Bisphenol A (BPA) is commonly used in consumer products, such as inner coatings of cans and polycarbonated bottles. BPA is considered to be an endocrine disrupting substance (EDs) that affects normal human hormones and may cause adverse effects on human health. Pregnant women and fetuses are susceptible groups of endocrine disrupting substances. Prenatal exposure to BPA has been shown to affect the fetus through the placenta. Therefore, it is important to evaluate the potential health risk of fetal exposure to BPA during pregnancy. The aims of this study were (1) to determine the urinary concentration of BPA in pregnant women, and (2) to investigate the association between BPA exposure during pregnancy and birth outcomes. Methods: This study recruited 117 pregnant women and their fetuses from 2012 to 2014 from the Taiwan Maternal- Infant Cohort Study (TMICS). Maternal urine samples were collected in the third trimester and questionnaires were used to collect socio-demographic characteristics, eating habits and medical conditions of the participants. Information about birth outcomes of the fetus was obtained from medical records. As for chemicals analysis, BPA concentrations in urine were determined by off-line solid-phase extraction-ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with a Q-Tof mass spectrometer. The urinary concentrations were adjusted with creatinine. The association between maternal concentrations of BPA and birth outcomes was estimated using the logistic regression model. Results: The detection rate of BPA is 99%; the concentration ranges (μg/g) from 0.16 to 46.90. The mean (SD) BPA levels are 5.37(6.42) μg/g creatinine. The mean ±SD of the body weight, body length, head circumference, chest circumference and gestational age at birth are 3105.18 ± 339.53 g, 49.33 ± 1.90 cm, 34.16 ± 1.06 cm, 32.34 ± 1.37 cm and 38.58 ± 1.37 weeks, respectively. After stratifying the exposure levels into two groups by median, pregnant women in higher exposure group would have an increased risk of lower body weight (OR=0.57, 95%CI=0.271-1.193), smaller chest circumference (OR=0.70, 95%CI=0.335-1.47) and shorter gestational age at birth newborn (OR=0.46, 95%CI=0.191-1.114). However, there are no associations between BPA concentration and birth outcomes reach a significant level (p < 0.05) in statistics. Conclusions: This study presents prenatal BPA profiles and infants in northern Taiwan. Women who have higher BPA concentrations tend to give birth to lower body weight, smaller chest circumference or shorter gestational age at birth newborn. More data will be included to verify the results. This report will also present the predictors of BPA concentrations for pregnant women.

Keywords: bisphenol A, birth outcomes, biomonitoring, prenatal exposure

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2 Distribution and Diversity of Pyrenocarpous Lichens in India with Special Reference to Forest Health

Authors: Gaurav Kumar Mishra, Sanjeeva Nayaka, Dalip Kumar Upreti


Our nature exhibited presence of a number of unique plants which can be used as indicator of environmental condition of particular place. Lichens are unique plant which has an ability to absorb not only organic, inorganic and metaloties but also absorb radioactive nuclide substances present in the environment. In the present study pyrenocarpous lichens will used as indicator of good forest health in a particular place. The Pyrenocarpous lichens are simple crust forming with black dot like perithecia have few characters for their taxonomical segregation as compared to their foliose and fruticose brethrean. The thallus colour and nature, presence and absence of hypothallus are only few characters of thallus are used to segregate the pyrenocarpous taxa. The fruiting bodies of pyrenolichens i.e. ascocarps are perithecia. The perithecia and the contents found within them posses many important criteria for the segregation of pyrenocarpous lichen taxa. The ascocarp morphology, ascocarp arrangement, the perithecial wall, ascocarp shape and colour, ostiole shape and position, ostiole colour, ascocarp anatomy including type of paraphyses, asci shape and size, ascospores septation, ascospores wall and periphyses are the valuable charcters used for segregation of different pyrenocarpous lichen taxa. India is represented by the occurrence of the 350 species of 44 genera and eleven families. Among the different genera Pyrenula is dominant with 82 species followed by the Porina with 70 species. Recently, systematic of the pyrenocarpous lichens have been revised by American and European lichenologists using phylogenetic methods. Still the taxonomy of pyrenocarpous lichens is in flux and information generated after the completion of this study will play vital role in settlement of the taxonomy of this peculiar group of lichens worldwide. The Indian Himalayan region exhibit rich diversity of pyrenocarpous lichens in India. The western Himalayan region has luxuriance of pyrenocarpous lichens due to its unique topography and climate condition. However, the eastern Himalayan region has rich diversity of pyrenocarpous lichens due to its warmer and moist climate condition. The rich moist and warmer climate in eastern Himalayan region supports forest with dominance of evergreen tree vegetation. The pyrenocarpous lichens communities are good indicator of young and regenerated forest type. The rich diversity of lichens clearly indicates that moist of the forest within the eastern Himalayan region has good health of forest. Due to fast pace of urbanization and other developmental activities will defiantly have adverse effects on the diversity and distribution of pyrenocarpous lichens in different forest type and the present distribution pattern will act as baseline data for carried out future biomonitoring studies in the area.

Keywords: lichen diversity, indicator species, environmental factors, pyrenocarpous

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1 The Role of Two Macrophyte Species in Mineral Nutrient Cycling in Human-Impacted Water Reservoirs

Authors: Ludmila Polechonska, Agnieszka Klink


The biogeochemical studies of macrophytes shed light on elements bioavailability, transfer through the food webs and their possible effects on the biota, and provide a basis for their practical application in aquatic monitoring and remediation. Measuring the accumulation of elements in plants can provide time-integrated information about the presence of chemicals in aquatic ecosystems. The aim of the study was to determine and compare the contents of micro- and macroelements in two cosmopolitan macrophytes, submerged Ceratophyllum demersum (hornworth) and free-floating Hydrocharis morsus-ranae (European frog-bit), in order to assess their bioaccumulation potential, elements stock accumulated in each plant and their role in nutrients cycling in small water reservoirs. Sampling sites were designated in 25 oxbow lakes in urban areas in Lower Silesia (SW Poland). In each sampling site, fresh whole plants of C. demersum and H. morsus-ranae were collected from squares of 1x1 meters each where the species coexisted. European frog-bit was separated into leaves, stems and roots. For biomass measurement all plants growing on 1 square meter were collected, dried and weighed. At the same time, water samples were collected from each reservoir and their pH and EC were determined. Water samples were filtered and acidified and plant samples were digested in concentrated nitric acid. Next, the content of Ca, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Ni and Zn was determined using atomic absorption method (AAS). Statistical analysis showed that C. demersum and organs of H. morsus-ranae differed significantly in respect of metals content (Kruskal-Wallis Anova, p<0.05). Contents of Cu, Mn, Ni and Zn were higher in hornwort, while European frog-bit contained more Ca, Fe, K, Mg. Bioaccumulation Factors (BCF=content in plant/concentration in water) showed similar pattern of metal bioaccumulation – microelements were more intensively accumulated by hornwort and macroelements by frog-bit. Based on BCF values both species may be positively evaluated as good accumulators of Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni and Zn. However, the distribution of metals in H. morsus-ranae was uneven – the majority of studied elements were retained in roots, which may indicate to existence of physiological barriers developed for dealing with toxicity. Some percent of Ca and K was actively transported to stems, but to leaves Mg only. Although the biomass of C. demersum was two times greater than biomass of H. morsus-ranae, the element off-take was greater only for Cu, Mn, Ni and Zn. Nevertheless, it can be stated that despite a relatively small biomass, compared to other macrophytes, both species may have an influence on the removal of trace elements from aquatic ecosystems and, as they serve as food for some animals, also on the incorporation of toxic elements into food chains. There was a significant positive correlation between content of Mn and Fe in water and roots of H. morus-ranae (R=0.51 and R=0.60, respectively) as well as between Cu concentration in water and in C. demersum (R=0.41) (Spearman rank correlation, p<0.05). High bioaccumulation rates and correlation between plants and water elements concentrations point to their possible use as passive biomonitors of aquatic pollution.

Keywords: aquatic plants, bioaccumulation, biomonitoring, macroelements, phytoremediation, trace metals

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