Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 5560

Search results for: microbial activities

5560 Synthesis, Characterization, Validation of Resistant Microbial Strains and Anti Microbrial Activity of Substitted Pyrazoles

Authors: Rama Devi Kyatham, D. Ashok, K. S. K. Rao Patnaik, Raju Bathula

Abstract:

We have shown the importance of pyrazoles as anti-microbial chemical entities. These compounds have generally been considered significant due to their wide range of pharmacological acivities and their discovery motivates new avenues of research.The proposed pyrazoles were synthesized and evaluated for their anti-microbial activities. The Synthesized compounds were analyzed by different spectroscopic methods.

Keywords: pyrazoles, validation, resistant microbial strains, anti-microbial activities

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5559 Contributions of Microbial Activities to Tomato Growth and Yield under an Organic Production System

Authors: O. A. Babalola, A. F Adekunle, F. Oladeji, A. T. Osungbade, O. A. Akinlaja

Abstract:

Optimizing microbiological activities in an organic crop production system is crucial to the realization of optimum growth and development of the crops. Field and pot experiments were conducted to assess soil microbial activities, growth and yield of tomato varieties in response to 4 rates of composted plant and animal residues. The compost rates were 0, 5, 10 and 20 t ha-1, and improved Ibadan and Ibadan local constituted the varieties. Fungi population, microbial biomass nitrogen, cellulase and proteinase activities were significantly higher (P≤ 0.05) at the rhizosphere of the local variety than that of improved variety. This led to a significantly higher number of branches, plant height, leaf area, number of fruits and less days to maturity in the local variety. Furthermore, compost-amended soil had significantly higher microbial populations, microbial biomass N, P and C, enzyme activities, soil N, P and organic carbon than control, but amendment of 20 t ha-1 gave significantly higher values than other compost rates. Consequently, growth parameters and tissue N significantly increased in all compost treatments while dry matter yield and weight of fruits were significantly higher in soil amended with 20 t ha-1. Correlation analysis showed that microbial activities at 6 weeks after transplanting (6 WAT) were more consistently and highly correlated with growth and yield parameters. It was concluded that microbial activities could be optimized to improve the yield of the two tomato varieties in an organic production system, through the application of compost, particularly at 20 t ha-1.

Keywords: compost, microbial activities, microbial contribution, tomato growth and yield

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5558 Antimicrobial, Antioxidant and Free Radical Scavenging Activities of Essential Oils Extracted from Six Eucalyptus Species

Authors: Sanaa K. Bardaweel, Mohammad M. Hudaib, Khaled A. Tawaha, Rasha M. Bashatwah

Abstract:

Eucalyptus species are well reputed for their traditional use in Asia as well as in other parts of the world; therefore, the present study was designed to investigate the antimicrobial and antioxidant activities associated with essential oils from different Eucalyptus species. Essential oils from the leaves of six Eucalyptus species, including: Eucalyptus woodwardi, Eucalyptus stricklandii, Eucalyptus salubris, Eucalyptus sargentii, Eucalyptus torquata and Eucalyptus wandoo were separated by hydrodistillation and dried over anhydrous sodium sulphate. DPPH, ferric reducing antioxidant power, and hydroxyl radical scavenging activity assays were carried out to evaluate the antioxidant potential of the oils. The results indicate that examined oils exhibit substantial antioxidant activities relative to ascorbic acid. Previously, these oils were evaluated for their antimicrobial activities, against wide range of bacterial and fungal strains, and they were shown to possess significant antimicrobial activities. In this study, further investigation into the growth kinetics of oil-treated microbial cultures was conducted. The results clearly demonstrate that the microbial growth was markedly inhibited when treated with sub-MIC concentrations of the oils. Taken together, the results obtained indicate a high potential of the examined essential oils as bioactive oils, for nutraceutical and medical applications, possessing significant antioxidant and anti microbial activities.

Keywords: antimicrobial, antioxidants, essential (volatile) oil, Eucalyptus

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5557 Circular Bio-economy of Copper and Gold from Electronic Wastes

Authors: Sadia Ilyas, Hyunjung Kim, Rajiv R. Srivastava

Abstract:

Current work has attempted to establish the linkages between circular bio-economy and recycling of copper and gold from urban mine by applying microbial activities instead of the smelter and chemical technologies. Thereafter, based on the potential of microbial approaches and research hypothesis, the structural model has been tested for a significance level of 99%, which is supported by the corresponding standardization co-efficient values. A prediction model applied to determine the recycling impact on circular bio-economy indicates to re-circulate 51,833 tons of copper and 58 tons of gold by 2030 for the production of virgin metals/raw-materials, while recycling rate of the accumulated e-waste remains to be 20%. This restoration volume of copper and gold through the microbial activities corresponds to mitigate 174 million kg CO₂ emissions and 24 million m³ water consumption if compared with the primary production activities. The study potentially opens a new window for environmentally-friendly biotechnological recycling of e-waste urban mine under the umbrella concept of circular bio-economy.

Keywords: urban mining, biobleaching, circular bio-economy, environmental impact

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5556 Impact of Climatic Parameters on Soil's Nutritional and Enzymatic Properties

Authors: Kanchan Vishwakarma, Shivesh Sharma, Nitin Kumar

Abstract:

Soil is incoherent matter on Earth’s surface having organic and mineral content. The spatial variation of 4 soil enzyme activities and microbial biomass were assessed for two seasons’ viz. monsoon and winter along the latitudinal gradient in North-central India as the area of this study is fettered with respect to national status. The study was facilitated to encompass the effect of climate change, enzyme activity and biomass on nutrient cycling. Top soils were sampled from 4 sites in North-India. There were significant correlations found between organic C, N & P wrt to latitude gradient in two seasons. This distribution of enzyme activities and microbial biomass was consequence of alterations in temperature and moisture of soil because of which soil properties change along the latitude transect.

Keywords: latitude gradient, microbial biomass, moisture, soil, organic carbon, temperature

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5555 Bacterial Diversity Reports Contamination around the Ichkeul Lake in Tunisia

Authors: Zeina Bourhane, Anders Lanzen, Christine Cagnon, Olfa Ben Said, Cristiana Cravo-Laureau, Robert Duran

Abstract:

The anthropogenic pressure in coastal areas increases dramatically with the exploitation of environmental resources. Biomonitoring coastal areas are crucial to determine the impact of pollutants on bacterial communities in soils and sediments since they provide important ecosystem services. However, relevant biomonitoring tools allowing fast determination of the ecological status are yet to be defined. Microbial ecology approaches provide useful information for developing such microbial monitoring tools reporting on the effect of environmental stressors. Chemical and microbial molecular approaches were combined in order to determine microbial bioindicators for assessing the ecological status of soil and river ecosystems around the Ichkeul Lake (Tunisia), an area highly impacted by human activities. Samples were collected along soil/river/lake continuums in three stations around the Ichkeul Lake influenced by different human activities at two seasons (summer and winter). Contaminant pressure indexes (PI), including PAHs (Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons), alkanes, and OCPs (Organochlorine pesticides) contents, showed significant differences in the contamination level between the stations with seasonal variation. Bacterial communities were characterized by 16S ribosomal RNAs (rRNA) gene metabarcoding. Although microgAMBI indexes, determined from the sequencing data, were in accordance with contaminant contents, they were not sufficient to fully explain the PI. Therefore, further microbial indicators are still to be defined. The comparison of bacterial communities revealed the specific microbial assemblage for soil, river, and lake sediments, which were significantly correlated with contaminant contents and PI. Such observation offers the possibility to define a relevant set of bioindicators for reporting the effects of human activities on the microbial community structure. Such bioindicators might constitute useful monitoring tools for the management of microbial communities in coastal areas.

Keywords: bacterial communities, biomonitoring, contamination, human impacts, microbial bioindicators

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5554 Short-Term Impact of a Return to Conventional Tillage on Soil Microbial Attributes

Authors: Promil Mehra, Nanthi Bolan, Jack Desbiolles, Risha Gupta

Abstract:

Agricultural practices affect the soil physical and chemical properties, which in turn influence the soil microorganisms as a function of the soil biological environment. On the return to conventional tillage (CT) from continuing no-till (NT) cropping system, a very little information is available from the impact caused by the intermittent tillage on the soil biochemical properties from a short-term (2-year) study period. Therefore, the contribution made by different microorganisms (fungal, bacteria) was also investigated in order to find out the effective changes in the soil microbial activity under a South Australian dryland faring system. This study was conducted to understand the impact of microbial dynamics on the soil organic carbon (SOC) under NT and CT systems when treated with different levels of mulching (0, 2.5 and 5 t/ha). Our results demonstrated that from the incubation experiment the cumulative CO2 emitted from CT system was 34.5% higher than NT system. Relatively, the respiration from surface layer (0-10 cm) was significantly (P<0.05) higher by 8.5% and 15.8 from CT; 8% and 18.9% from NT system w.r.t 10-20 and 20-30 cm respectively. Further, the dehydrogenase enzyme activity (DHA) and microbial biomass carbon (MBC) were both significantly lower (P<0.05) under CT, i.e., 7.4%, 7.2%, 6.0% (DHA) and 19.7%, 15.7%, 4% (MBC) across the different mulching levels (0, 2.5, 5 t/ha) respectively. In general, it was found that from both the tillage system the enzyme activity and MBC decreased with the increase in depth (0-10, 10-20 and 20-30 cm) and with the increase in mulching rate (0, 2.5 and 5 t/ha). From the perspective of microbial stress, there was 28.6% higher stress under CT system compared to NT system. Whereas, the microbial activity of different microorganisms like fungal and bacterial activities were determined by substrate-induced inhibition respiration using antibiotics like cycloheximide (16 mg/gm of soil) and streptomycin sulphate (14 mg/gm of soil), by trapping the CO2 using an alkali (0.5 M NaOH) solution. The microbial activities were confirmed through platting technique, where it was that found bacterial activities were 46.2% and 38.9% higher than fungal activity under CT and NT system. In conclusion, it was expected that changes in the relative abundance and activity of different microorganisms (bacteria and fungi) under different tillage systems could significantly affect the C cycling and storage due to its unique structures and differential interactions with the soil physical properties.

Keywords: tillage, soil respiration, MBC, fungal-bacterial activity

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5553 Phenolic Analysis, Antioxidant Capacity and Antimicrobial Activity of Origanum glandulosum Desf Extract from Algeria

Authors: Abdelkader Basli, Jean-Claude Delaunay, Eric Pedrot, Jean-Michel Mérillon, Jean-Pierre Monti, Khodir Madani, Mohamed Chibane, Tristan Richard

Abstract:

The antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of Origanum glandulosum collected in Algeria have been studied. Extract was prepared from aerial part of endemic Algerian oregano. The produced extract has been characterized in terms of total phenols (using Folin method), total flavonoid, antioxidant activities (using the DPPH radical scavenging method and ORAC assay) and microbial activity against four bacteria: Streptococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae one yeast: Candida albicans and one fungi: Aspergillus niger. The results pointed the antioxidant activities of the extract of O. glandulosum and antimicrobial activities against all bacteria and C. Candida, but no effect on A. niger. High performance liquid chromatography combined with mass spectrometry (LC-MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (LC-NMR) were used to separate and identify the major compounds present in the oregano extract. Rosmarinic acid, globoidnan A and B, lithospermic acid B and three flavonoids were identified.

Keywords: origanum glandulosum, antioxidant, microbial activity, polyphenol, LC-MS, LC-NMR

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5552 LIFirr with an Indicator of Microbial Activity in Paraffinic Oil

Authors: M. P. Casiraghi, C. M. Quintella, P. Almeida

Abstract:

Paraffinic oils were submitted to microbial action. The microorganisms consisted of bacteria of the genera Pseudomonas sp and Bacillus lincheniforms. The alterations in interfacial tension were determined using a tensometer and applying the hanging drop technique at room temperature (299 K ±275 K). The alteration in the constitution of the paraffins was evaluated by means of gas chromatography. The microbial activity was observed to reduce interfacial tension by 54 to 78%, as well as consuming the paraffins C19 to C29 and producing paraffins C36 to C44. The LIFirr technique made it possible to determine the microbial action quickly.

Keywords: paraffins, biosurfactants, LIFirr, microbial activity

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5551 Analysis of a Lignocellulose Degrading Microbial Consortium to Enhance the Anaerobic Digestion of Rice Straws

Authors: Supanun Kangrang, Kraipat Cheenkachorn, Kittiphong Rattanaporn, Malinee Sriariyanun

Abstract:

Rice straw is lignocellulosic biomass which can be utilized as substrate for the biogas production. However, due to the property and composition of rice straw, it is difficult to be degraded by hydrolysis enzymes. One of the pretreatment method that modifies such properties of lignocellulosic biomass is the application of lignocellulose-degrading microbial consortia. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of microbial consortia to enhance biogas production. To select the high efficient consortium, cellulase enzymes were extracted and their activities were analyzed. The results suggested that microbial consortium culture obtained from cattle manure is the best candidate compared to decomposed wood and horse manure. A microbial consortium isolated from cattle manure was then mixed with anaerobic sludge and used as inoculum for biogas production. The optimal conditions for biogas production were investigated using response surface methodology (RSM). The tested parameters were the ratio of amount of microbial consortium isolated and amount of anaerobic sludge (MI:AS), substrate to inoculum ratio (S:I) and temperature. Here, the value of the regression coefficient R2 = 0.7661 could be explained by the model which is high to advocate the significance of the model. The highest cumulative biogas yield was 104.6 ml/g-rice straw at optimum ratio of MI:AS, ratio of S:I, and temperature of 2.5:1, 15:1 and 44°C respectively.

Keywords: lignocellulolytic biomass, microbial consortium, cellulase, biogas, Response Surface Methodology (RSM)

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5550 Microbial Activity and Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emissions in Recovery Process in a Grassland of China

Authors: Qiushi Ning

Abstract:

The nitrogen (N) is an important limiting factor of various ecosystems, and the N deposition rate is increasing unprecedentedly due to anthropogenic activities. The N deposition altered the microbial growth and activity, and microbial mediated N cycling through changing soil pH, the availability of N and carbon (C). The CO2, CH4 and N2O are important greenhouse gas which threaten the sustainability and function of the ecosystem. With the prolonged and increasing N enrichment, the soil acidification and C limitation will be aggravated, and the microbial biomass will be further declined. The soil acidification and lack of C induced by N addition are argued as two important factors regulating the microbial activity and growth, and the studies combined soil acidification with lack of C on microbial community are scarce. In order to restore the ecosystem affected by chronic N loading, we determined the responses of microbial activity and GHG emssions to lime and glucose (control, 1‰ lime, 2‰ lime, glucose, 1‰ lime×glucose and 2‰ lime×glucose) addition which was used to alleviate the soil acidification and supply C resource into soils with N addition rates 0-50 g N m–2yr–1. The results showed no significant responses of soil respiration and microbial biomass (MBC and MBN) to lime addition, however, the glucose substantially improved the soil respiration and microbial biomass (MBC and MBN); the cumulative CO2 emission and microbial biomass of lime×glucose treatments were not significantly higher than those of only glucose treatment. The glucose and lime×glucose treatments reduced the net mineralization and nitrification rate, due to inspired microbial growth via C supply incorporating more inorganic N to the biomass, and mineralization of organic N was relatively reduced. The glucose addition also increased the CH4 and N2O emissions, CH4 emissions was regulated mainly by C resource as a substrate for methanogen. However, the N2O emissions were regulated by both C resources and soil pH, the C was important energy and the increased soil pH could benefit the nitrifiers and denitrifiers which were primary producers of N2O. The soil respiration and N2O emissions increased with increasing N addition rates in all glucose treatments, as the external C resource improved microbial N utilization. Compared with alleviated soil acidification, the improved availability of C substantially increased microbial activity, therefore, the C should be the main limiting factor in long-term N loading soils. The most important, when we use the organic C fertilization to improve the production of the ecosystems, the GHG emissions and consequent warming potentials should be carefully considered.

Keywords: acidification and C limitation, greenhouse gas emission, microbial activity, N deposition

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5549 Effect of Select Surfactants on Activities of Soil Enzymes Involved in Nutrient Cycling

Authors: Frieda Eivazi, Nikita L. Mullings

Abstract:

Soils are recipient for surfactants in herbicide formulations. Surfactants entering the soil environment can possibly disrupt different chemical, physical and biological interactions. Therefore, it is critical that we understand the fate, behavior and transport of surfactants upon entering the soil. A comprehensive study was conducted to examine effect of surfactants on nutrient uptake, microbial community, and enzyme activity. The research was conducted in the greenhouse growing corn (Zea mays) as a test plant in a factorial experiment (three surfactants at two different rates with control, and three herbicides) organized as randomized blocked design. Surfactants evaluated were Activator 90, Agri-Dex, and Thrust; herbicides were glyphosate, atrazine, and bentazon. Treatments examined were surfactant only, herbicide only, and surfactant + herbicide combinations. Corn was planted in fertilized soils (silt loam and silty clay) with moisture content maintained at the field capacity for optimum growth. This paper will report results of above mentioned treatments on acid phosphatase, beta-glucosidase, arylsulfatase, beta-glucosaminidase, and dehydrogenase activities. In general, there were variations in the enzyme activities with some inhibition and some being enhanced by the treatments. Activator 90 appeared to have the highest inhibitory effect on enzymatic activities. Atrazine application significantly decreased the activities of acid phosphatase, beta-glucosidase, and dehydrogenase in both soils; however, combination of Atrazine + Agridex increased the acid phosphatase activity while significantly inhibiting the other enzyme activities in soils. It was concluded that long-term field studies are needed to validate changes in nutrient uptake, microbial community and enzyme activities due to surfactant-herbicide combination effects.

Keywords: herbicides, nutrient cycling, soil enzymes, surfactant

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5548 The Potential Effect of Biochar Application on Microbial Activities and Availability of Mineral Nitrogen in Arable Soil Stressed by Drought

Authors: Helena Dvořáčková, Jakub Elbl, Irina Mikajlo, Antonín Kintl, Jaroslav Hynšt, Olga Urbánková, Jaroslav Záhora

Abstract:

Application of biochar to arable soils represents a new approach to restore soil health and quality. Many studies reported the positive effect of biochar application on soil fertility and development of soil microbial community. Moreover biochar may affect the soil water retention, but this effect has not been sufficiently described yet. Therefore this study deals with the influence of biochar application on: microbial activities in soil, availability of mineral nitrogen in soil for microorganisms, mineral nitrogen retention and plant production. To demonstrate the effect of biochar addition on the above parameters, the pot experiment was realized. As a model crop, Lactuca sativa L. was used and cultivated from December 10th 2014 till March 22th 2015 in climate chamber in thoroughly homogenized arable soil with and without addition of biochar. Five variants of experiment (V1–V5) with different regime of irrigation were prepared. Variants V1–V2 were fertilized by mineral nitrogen, V3–V4 by biochar and V5 was a control. The significant differences were found only in plant production and mineral nitrogen retention. The highest content of mineral nitrogen in soil was detected in V1 and V2, about 250 % in comparison with the other variants. The positive effect of biochar application on soil fertility, mineral nitrogen availability was not found. On the other hand results of plant production indicate the possible positive effect of biochar application on soil water retention.

Keywords: arable soil, biochar, drought, mineral nitrogen

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5547 Production of Antimicrobial Agents against Multidrug-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus through the Biocatalysis of Vegetable Oils

Authors: Hak-Ryul Kim, Hyung-Geun Lee, Qi Long, Ching Hou

Abstract:

Structural modification of natural lipids via chemical reaction or microbial bioconversion can change their properties or even create novel functionalities. Enzymatic oxidation of lipids leading to formation of oxylipin is one of those modifications. Hydroxy fatty acids, one of those oxylipins have gained important attentions because of their structural and functional properties compared with other non-hydroxy fatty acids. Recently 7,10-dihydroxy-8(E)-octadecenoic acid (DOD) was produced with high yield from lipid-containing oleic acid by microbial conversion, and the further study confirmed that DOD contained strong antimicrobial activities against a broad range of microorganisms. In this study, we tried to modify DOD molecules by the enzymatic or physical reaction to create new functionality or to enhance the antimicrobial activity of DOD. After modification of DOD molecules by different ways, we confirmed that the antimicrobial activity of DOD was highly enhanced and presented strong antimicrobial activities against multidrug-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, suggesting that DOD and its derivatives can be used as efficient antimicrobial agents for medical and industrial applications.

Keywords: biocatalysis, antimicrobial agent, multidrug-resistant bacteria, vegetable oil

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5546 Remediation of Oil and Gas Exploration and Production (O&G E&P) Wastes Using Soil-Poultry Dropping Amendment

Authors: Ofonime U. M. John, Justina I. R. Udotong, Victor O. Nwaugo, Ime R. Udotong

Abstract:

Oily wastes from oil and gas exploration and production (O&G E&P) activities were remediated for twelve weeks using Soil-Poultry dropping amendment. Culture-dependent microbiological, chemical and enzymatic techniques were employed to assess the efficacy of remediation process. Microbiological activities of the remediated wastes showed increased hydrocarbonoclastic microbial populations with increased remediation time; 2.7±0.1 x 105cfu/g to 8.3 ± 0.04 x106cfu/g for hydrocarbon utilizing bacteria, 1.7 ± 0.2 x103cfu/g to 6.0 ± 0.01 x 104cfu/g for hydrocarbon utilizing fungi and 2.2 ± 0.1 x 102cfu/g to 6.7 ± 0.1 x 103cfu/g for hydrocarbon utilizing actinomycetes. Bacteria associated with the remediated wastes after the remediation period included the genera Bacillus, Psuedomonas, Beijerinckia, Acinetobacter, Alcaligenes and Serratia. Fungal isolates included species of Penicillium, Aspergillus and Cladosporium, while the Actinomycetes included species of Rhodococcus, Nocardia and Streptomyces. Slight fluctuations in pH values between 6.5± 0.2 and 7.1 ± 0.08 were recorded throughout the process, while total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) content decreased from 89, 900 ± 0.03mg/kg to 425 ± 0.1 mg/kg after twelve weeks of remediation. The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) levels decreased with increased remediation time; naphthalene, flourene, pheneanthrene, anthracene, pyrene, chrysene and benzo(b)flouranthene showed decreased values < 0.01 after twelve weeks of remediation. Enzyme activities revealed increased dehydrogenase and urease activities with increased remediation time and decreased phenol oxidase activity with increased remediation period. There was a positive linear correlation between densities of hydrocarbonoclastic microbes and dehydrogenase activity. On the contrary, phenol oxidase and urease activities showed negative correlation with microbial population. Results of this study confirmed that remediation of oily wastes using soil-poultry dropping amendment can result in eco-friendly O&G E&P wastes. It also indicates that urease and phenol oxidase activities can be reliable indices/tools to monitor PAH levels and rates of petroleum hydrocarbon degradation.

Keywords: dehydrogenase activity, oily wastes, remediation, soil-poultry dropping amendment

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5545 Influence of Digestate Fertilization on Soil Microbial Activity, Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Yield

Authors: M. Doyeni, S. Suproniene, V. Tilvikiene

Abstract:

Agricultural wastes contribute significantly to global climate change through greenhouse gas emissions if not adequately recycled and sustainably managed. A recurring agricultural waste is livestock wastes that have consistently served as feedstock for biogas systems. The objective of this study was to access the influence of digestate fertilization on soil microbial activity and greenhouse gas emissions in agricultural fields. Wheat (Triticum spp. L.) was fertilized with different types of animal wastes digestates (organic fertilizers) and mineral nitrogen (inorganic fertilizer) for three years. The 170 kg N ha⁻¹ presented in digestates were split fertilized at an application rate of 90 and 80 kg N ha⁻¹. The soil microorganism activity could be predicted significantly using the dehydrogenase activity and soil microbial biomass carbon. By combining the two different monitoring approaches, the different methods applied in this study were sensitive to enzymatic activities and organic carbon in the living component of the soil organic matter. The emissions of greenhouse gasses (carbon dioxide (CO₂), methane (CH₄), and nitrous oxide (N₂O) were monitored directly by a static chamber system. The soil and environmental variables were measured to determine their influence on greenhouse gas emissions. Emission peaks was observed in N₂O and CO₂ after the first application of fertilizers with the emissions flattening out over the cultivating season while CH₄ emission was negligible with no apparent patterns observed. Microbial biomass carbon and dehydrogenase activity were affected by the fertilized organic digestates. A significant difference was recorded between the control and the digestate treated soils for the microbial biomass carbon and dehydrogenase. Results also showed individual and cumulative emissions of CO₂, CH₄ and N₂O from the digestates were relatively low suggesting the digestate fertilization can be an efficient method for improving soil quality and reducing greenhouse gases from agricultural sources in temperate climate conditions.

Keywords: greenhouse gas emission, manure digestate, soil microbial activity, yield

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5544 Mechanisms Involved in Biological Control of Fusarium Wilt

Authors: Bensaid Fatiha

Abstract:

The objective of our present work is the description of the antagonistic capacities of one strain of Pseudomonas fluorescens and the nonpathogenic fungic isolate Fusarium oxysporum against phytopathogenic agent Fusarium oxysporum F. Sp. lycopersici. This work has been achieved in two main parts: the first is interested on the in vitro antagonistic activities; the second was interested to study the soil receptiveness of fusarium wilt tomato. The use of strain of fluorescent Pseudomonas and a non-pathogenic strain of F. oxysporum in the different antagonism tests, has allowed assuring a certain bio-protection from the plants of tomatoes opposite to F. oxysporum F. Sp. lycopersici, agent of a wilt of tomato. These antagonistic have shown a substantial in vitro antagonistic activity on the three mediums (KB, PDA, KB+PDA) against F. oxysporum F. Sp. lycopersici, by inhibiting its growth mycelium with rate of inhibition going until 80 % with non-pathogen of Fusarium oxysporum and 60 % with strain of fluorescens Pseudomonas. Soil microbial balance, between the antagonistic population and that of pathogenic, can be modulated through microbiological variations or abiotic additives influencing directly or indirectly the metabolic behavior microbial. In this experiment, addition of glucose or EDTA, could increase or decrease the resistance of soil by activation of pathogenic or antagonists, as a result of modification and modulation in their metabolic activities.

Keywords: fluorescents, nonpathogenic, fusarium oxysporum, fusarium wilt, antagonism, biological control, soil receptivity

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5543 Microbial Contamination of Haemolymph of Honeybee (Apis mellifera intermissa) Parasitized by Varroa Destructor

Authors: Messaouda Belaid, Salima Kebbouche-Gana

Abstract:

The negative effect of the Varroa bee colony is very important. They cause morphological and physiological changes, causing a decrease in performance of individuals and long-term death of the colony. Indirectly, they weaken the bees become much more sensitive to the different pathogenic organisms naturally present in the colony. This work aims to research secondary infections of microbial origin occurred in the worker bee nurse due to parasitism by Varroa destructor. The feeding behaviour of Varroa may causes damaging host integument. The results show that the microbial contamination enable to be transmitted into honeybee heamocoel are Bacillus sp, Pseudomonas sp, Enterobacter, Aspergillus.

Keywords: honeybee, Apis mellifera intermissa, microbial contamination, Varroa destructor

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5542 A Review on Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery and Controlling Its Produced Hydrogen Sulfide Effects on Reservoir and Transporting Pipelines

Authors: Ali Haratian, Soroosh Emami Meybodi

Abstract:

Using viable microbial cultures within hydrocarbon reservoirs so as to the enhancement of oil recovery through metabolic activities is exactly what we recognize as microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR). In similar to many other processes in industries, there are some cons and pros following with MEOR. The creation of sulfides such as hydrogen sulfide as a result of injecting the sulfate-containing seawater into hydrocarbon reservoirs in order to maintain the required reservoir pressure leads to production and growth of sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) approximately near the injection wells, turning the reservoir into sour; however, SRB is not considered as the only microbial process stimulating the formation of sulfides. Along with SRB, thermochemical sulfate reduction or thermal redox reaction (TSR) is also known to be highly effective at resulting in having extremely concentrated zones of ?2S in the reservoir fluids eligible to cause corrosion. Owing to extent of the topic, more information on the formation of ?₂S is going to be put finger on. Besides, confronting the undesirable production of sulfide species in the reservoirs can lead to serious operational, environmental, and financial problems, in particular the transporting pipelines. Consequently, conjuring up reservoir souring control strategies on the way production of oil and gas is the only way to prevent possible damages in terms of environment, finance, and manpower which requires determining the compound’s reactivity, origin, and partitioning behavior. This article is going to provide a comprehensive review of progress made in this field and the possible advent of new strategies in this technologically advanced world of the petroleum industry.

Keywords: corrosion, hydrogen sulfide, NRB, reservoir souring, SRB

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5541 High-Throughput Screening and Selection of Electrogenic Microbial Communities Using Single Chamber Microbial Fuel Cells Based on 96-Well Plate Array

Authors: Lukasz Szydlowski, Jiri Ehlich, Igor Goryanin

Abstract:

We demonstrate a single chamber, 96-well-plated based Microbial Fuel Cell (MFC) with printed, electronic components. This invention is aimed at robust selection of electrogenic microbial community under specific conditions, e.g., electrode potential, pH, nutrient concentration, salt concentration that can be altered within the 96 well plate array. This invention enables robust selection of electrogenic microbial community under the homogeneous reactor, with multiple conditions that can be altered to allow comparative analysis. It can be used as a standalone technique or in conjunction with other selective processes, e.g., flow cytometry, microfluidic-based dielectrophoretic trapping. Mobile conductive elements, like carbon paper, carbon sponge, activated charcoal granules, metal mesh, can be inserted inside to increase the anode surface area in order to collect electrogenic microorganisms and to transfer them into new reactors or for other analytical works. An array of 96-well plate allows this device to be operated by automated pipetting stations.

Keywords: bioengineering, electrochemistry, electromicrobiology, microbial fuel cell

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5540 An Assessment of the Effects of Microbial Products on the Specific Oxygen Uptake in Submerged Membrane Bioreactor

Authors: M. F. R. Zuthi, H. H. Ngo, W. S. Guo, S. S. Chen, N. C. Nguyen, L. J. Deng, T. D. C Tran

Abstract:

Sustaining a desired rate of oxygen transfer for microbial activity is a matter of major concern for Biological Wastewater Treatment (MBR). The study reported in the paper was aimed at assessing the effects of microbial products on the Specific Oxygen Uptake Rate (SOUR) in a Conventional Membrane Bioreactor (CMBR) and that in a Sponge Submerged MBR (SSMBR). The production and progressive accumulation of Soluble Microbial Products (SMP) and Bound-Extracellular Polymeric Substances (BEPS) were found affecting the SOUR of the microorganisms which varied at different stages of operation of the MBR systems depending on the variable concentrations of the SMP/bEPS. The effect of bEPS on the SOUR was stronger in the SSMBR compared to that of the SMP, while relative high concentrations of SMP had adverse effects on the SOUR of the CMBR system. Of the different mathematical correlations analyzed in the study, logarithmic mathematical correlations could be established between SOUR and bEPS in SSMBR, and similar correlations could also be found between SOUR and SMP concentrations in the CMBR.

Keywords: microbial products, microbial activity, specific oxygen uptake rate, membrane bioreactor

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5539 Study on the Treatment of Waste Water Containing Nitrogen Heterocyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons by Phenol-Induced Microbial Communities

Authors: Zhichao Li

Abstract:

This project has treated the waste-water that contains the nitrogen heterocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, by using the phenol-induced microbial communities. The treatment of nitrogen heterocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons is a difficult problem for coking waste-water treatment. Pyridine, quinoline and indole are three kinds of most common nitrogen heterocyclic compounds in the f, and treating these refractory organics biologically has always been a research focus. The phenol-degrading bacteria can be used in the enhanced biological treatment effectively, and has a good treatment effect. Therefore, using the phenol-induced microbial communities to treat the coking waste-water can remove multiple pollutants concurrently, and improve the treating efficiency of coking waste-water. Experiments have proved that the phenol-induced microbial communities can degrade the nitrogen heterocyclic ring aromatic hydrocarbon efficiently.

Keywords: phenol, nitrogen heterocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, phenol-degrading bacteria, microbial communities, biological treatment technology

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5538 Study on Microbial Pretreatment for Enhancing Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Corncob

Authors: Kessara Seneesrisakul, Erdogan Gulari, Sumaeth Chavadej

Abstract:

The complex structure of lignocellulose leads to great difficulties in converting it to fermentable sugars for the ethanol production. The major hydrolysis impediments are the crystallinity of cellulose and the lignin content. To improve the efficiency of enzymatic hydrolysis, microbial pretreatment of corncob was investigated using two bacterial strains of Bacillus subtilis A 002 and Cellulomonas sp. TISTR 784 (expected to break open the crystalline part of cellulose) and lignin-degrading fungus, Phanerochaete sordida SK7 (expected to remove lignin from lignocellulose). The microbial pretreatment was carried out with each strain under its optimum conditions. The pretreated corncob samples were further hydrolyzed to produce reducing glucose with low amounts of commercial cellulase (25 U•g-1 corncob) from Aspergillus niger. The corncob samples were determined for composition change by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and scanning electron microscope (SEM). According to the results, the microbial pretreatment with fungus, P. sordida SK7 was the most effective for enhancing enzymatic hydrolysis, approximately, 40% improvement.

Keywords: corncob, enzymatic hydrolysis, glucose, microbial pretreatment

Procedia PDF Downloads 289
5537 Microbial Quality of Beef and Mutton in Bauchi Metropolis

Authors: Abdullahi Mohammed

Abstract:

The microbial quality of beef and mutton sold in four major markets of Bauchi metropolis was assessed in order to assist in ascertaining safety. Shops were selected from 'Muda Lawal', 'Yelwa', 'Wunti', and 'Gwallameji' markets. The total bacterial count was used as index of quality. A total of thirty two (32) samples were collected in two successive visits. The samples were packed and labelled in a sterile polythene bags for transportation to the laboratory. Microbial analysis was carried out immediately upon arrival under a septic condition, where aerobic plate was used in determining the microbial load. Result showed that beef and mutton from Gwallameji had the highest bacterial count of 9.065 X 105 cfu/ml and 8.325 X 105 cfu/ml for beef and mutton respectively followed by Wunti market (6.95 X 105 beef and 4.838 X 105 motton) and Muda Lawal (4.86 X 105 cfu/ml beef and 5.998 X 105 cfu/ml mutton). Yelwa had 5.175 X 105 and 5.30 X 105 for beef and mutton respectively. Bacterial species isolated from the samples were Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp, Streptococcus species and Staphylococcus species. However, results obtained from all markets showed that there was no significant differences between beef and mutton in terms of microbial quality.

Keywords: beef, mutton, salmonella, sterile

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5536 Working Improvement of Modern Finance in Millennium World

Authors: Saeed Mohammadirad

Abstract:

Financing activities involve long-term liabilities, stockholders' equity (or owner's equity), and changes to short-term borrowings. Finance is very important for every business activities. To perform the finance we have to follow the accounting languages bases on the nature of the business. If all are one package in the software, it is easy to handle, monitor, control, plan, organize, direct and budget the finance. Let us make a challenge in the computer software for the whole finance packages of every business related activities. In this article, it mentioned about the finance functions in the various levels of the business activities and how it should be maintained properly to avoid the unethical events.

Keywords: financing activities, business activities, computer software, unethical events

Procedia PDF Downloads 267
5535 Microbial Fuel Cells in Waste Water Treatment and Electricity Generation

Authors: Rajalaxmi N., Padma Bhat, Pooja Garag, Pooja N. M., V. S. Hombalimath

Abstract:

Microbial fuel cell (MFC) is the advancement of science that aims at utilizing the oxidizing potential of bacteria for wastewater treatment and production of bio-hydrogen and bio-electricity. Salt-bridge is the economic alternative to highly priced proton-exchange membrane in the construction of a microbial fuel cell. This paper studies the electricity generating capacity of E.coli and Clostridium sporogenes in microbial fuel cells (MFCs). Unlike most of MFC research, this targets the long term goals of renewable energy production and wastewater treatment. In present study the feasibility and potential of bioelectricity production from different wastewater was observed. Different wastewater was primarily treated which were confirmed by the COD tests which showed reduction of COD. We observe that the electricity production of MFCs decreases almost linearly after 120 hrs. The sewage wastewater containing Clostridium sporogenes showed bioelectricity production up to 188mV with COD removal of 60.52%. Sewage wastewater efficiently produces bioelectricity and this also helpful to reduce wastewater pollution load.

Keywords: microbial fuel cell, bioelectricity, wastewater, salt bridge, COD

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5534 Wastewater Treatment and Bio-Electricity Generation via Microbial Fuel Cell Technology Operating with Starch Proton Exchange Membrane

Authors: Livinus A. Obasi, Augustine N. Ajah

Abstract:

Biotechnology in recent times has tried to develop a mechanism whereby sustainable electricity can be generated by the activity of microorganisms on waste and renewable biomass (often regarded as “negative value”) in a device called microbial fuel cell, MFC. In this paper, we established how the biocatalytic activities of bacteria on organic matter (substrates) produced some electrons with the associated removal of some water pollution parameters; Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD) to the tune of 77.2% and 88.3% respectively from a petrochemical sanitary wastewater. The electricity generation was possible by conditioning the bacteria to operate anaerobically in one chamber referred to as the anode while the electrons are transferred to the fully aerated counter chamber containing the cathode. Power densities ranging from 12.83 mW/m2 to 966.66 mW/m2 were achieved using a dual-chamber starch membrane MFC experimental set-up. The maximum power density obtained in this research shows an improvement in the use of low cost MFC set up to achieve power production. Also, the level of organic matter removal from the sanitary waste water by the operation of this device clearly demonstrates its potential benefit in achieving an improved benign environment. The beauty of the MFCs is their potential utility in areas lacking electrical infrastructures like in most developing countries.

Keywords: bioelectricity, COD, microbial fuel cell, sanitary wastewater, wheat starch

Procedia PDF Downloads 173
5533 Chemical Composition, Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activities of the Essential Oils of Different Pinus Species from Kosovo

Authors: Fatbardhë Kurti, Giangiacomo Beretta, Behxhet Mustafa, Fabrizio Gelmini, Avni Hajdari

Abstract:

Chemical profile, antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of total and fractionated essential oils (EOs) (F1 – hexane, F2 – hexane/diethyl ether, F3 – diethyl ether) derived from five Pinus species (Pinus heldreichii, P. peuce, P. mugo, Pinus nigra, P. sylvestris), were investigated. The hydrodistilled EOs and their chromatographic fractions (direct solid phase extraction, SPE) were analysed by GC-MS and 112 compounds separated and identified. The main constituents were α-pinene, β-pinene, D-limonene, β-caryophyllene, germacrene D, bornyl acetate and 3-carene. The antioxidant activities of total EOs were lower than those of the corresponding fractions, with F2 the strongest in all cases. EOs and fractions showed different degrees of antibacterial efficacy against different microbial pathogens (moderately strong antimicrobial activity against C. albicans and C. krusei ,while low or no activity against E. faecalis and E. coli strains). The detected inhibition zones and MICs for the EOs and fractions were in the range of 14 -35 mm and 0.125 - 1% (v/v), respectively. The components responsible for the antioxidant and antimicrobial activity were oxygenated monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes recovered in the polar EO fractions. These activities seem to be regulated by reciprocal interactions among the different subclasses of phytochemical species present in the EOs.

Keywords: antagonism, antioxidant activity, antibacterial activity, essential oil, fractions, GC-MS, pinus

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5532 Synthesis, Characterization and Anti-Microbial Study of Urethanized Poly Vinyl Alcohol Metal Complexes

Authors: Maha A. Younus, Dhefaf H. Badri, Maha A. Al Abayaji, Taha M. Salih

Abstract:

Polymer metal complexes of poly vinyl alcohol and Cu (II), Ni (II), Mn (II) and Co (III) were prepared from the reaction of PVA with three different percentages of urea. The compound was characterized by fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR) analysis and differential scanning calorimetric (DSC) Analysis. It has been established that the polymer and its metal complexes showed good activities against nine pathogenic bacteria (Escherichia coli, Klebsiellapneumonae, Staphylococcusaureus, Staphylococcus Albus, Salmonella Typhoid, Pseudomonas Aeruginosa, Shigella Dysentery, Proteus Morgani, Brucella Militensis). The polymer metal complexes show activity higher than that of the free polymer. The increasing activities were in the order (polymer < pol-Mn< pol-Co < pol-Ni ˂ pol-Cu). The ability of these compounds to show antimicrobial properties suggests that they can be further evaluated for medicinal and/or environmental applications.

Keywords: antimicrobial activity, PVA, polymer-metal complex, urea

Procedia PDF Downloads 249
5531 Microbial Quality of Raw Camel Milk Produced in South of Morocco

Authors: Maha Alaoui Ismaili, Bouchta Saidi, Mohamed Zahar, Abed Hamama

Abstract:

Thirty one samples of raw camel milk obtained from the region of Laâyoune (South of Morocco) were examined for their microbial quality and presence of some pathogenic bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella sp.). pH of the samples ranged from 6.31 to 6.64 and their titratable acidity had a mean value of 18.56 °Dornic. Data obtained showed a strong microbial contamination with an average total aerobic flora of 1.76 108 ufc ml-1 and a very high fecal counts: 1.82 107 ; 3.25 106 and 3.75 106 ufc.ml-1 in average for total coliforms, fecal coliforms and enterococci respectively. Yeasts and moulds were also found at average respective levels of 3.13 106 and 1.60 105 ufc.ml-1. Salmonella sp. and S. aureus was detected respectively in 13% and 30% of the milk samples. These results indicate clearly the lack of hygienic conditions of camel milk production and storage in this region. Lactic acid bacteria were found at the following average numbers: 4.25 107 ; 4.45 107 and 3.55 107 ufc.ml-1 for Lactococci, Leuconostocs and Lactobacilli respectively.

Keywords: camel milk, microbial quality, Salmonella, Staphylococcus aureus

Procedia PDF Downloads 340