Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 6430

Search results for: tomato growth and yield

6430 Economic Analysis, Growth and Yield of Grafting Tomato Varieties for Solanum torvum as a Rootstock

Authors: Evy Latifah, Eko Widaryanto, M. Dawam Maghfoer, Arifin

Abstract:

Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) is potential vegetables to develop, because it has high economic value and has the potential to be exported. There is a decrease in tomato productivity due to unfavorable growth conditions such as bacterial wilt, fusarium wilt, high humidity, high temperature and inappropriate production technology. Grafting technology is one alternative technology. In addition to being able to control the disease in the soil, grafting is also able to increase the growth and yield of production. Besides, it is also necessary to know the economic benefits if using grafting technology. A promising eggplant rootstock for tomato grafting is Solanum torvum. S. torvum is selected as a rootstock with high compatibility. The purpose of this research is to know the effect of grafting several varieties of tomatoes with Solanum torvum as a rootstock. The experiment was conducted in Agricultural Extension Center Pare. Experimental Garden of Pare Kediri sub-district from July to early December 2016. The materials used were tomato Cervo varieties, Karina, Timoty, and Solanum torvum. Economic analysis, growth, and yield including plant height, number of leaves, percentage of disease and tomato production were used as performance measures. The study showed that grafting tomato Timoty scion with Solanum torvum as rootstock had higher production. Financially, grafting tomato Timoty and Cervo scion had higher profit about. 28,6% and 16,3% compared to Timoty and Cervo variety treatment without grafting.

Keywords: grafting technology, economic analysis, growth, yield of tomato, Solanum torvum

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6429 Contributions of Microbial Activities to Tomato Growth and Yield under an Organic Production System

Authors: O. A. Babalola, A. F Adekunle, F. Oladeji, A. T. Osungbade, O. A. Akinlaja

Abstract:

Optimizing microbiological activities in an organic crop production system is crucial to the realization of optimum growth and development of the crops. Field and pot experiments were conducted to assess soil microbial activities, growth and yield of tomato varieties in response to 4 rates of composted plant and animal residues. The compost rates were 0, 5, 10 and 20 t ha-1, and improved Ibadan and Ibadan local constituted the varieties. Fungi population, microbial biomass nitrogen, cellulase and proteinase activities were significantly higher (P≤ 0.05) at the rhizosphere of the local variety than that of improved variety. This led to a significantly higher number of branches, plant height, leaf area, number of fruits and less days to maturity in the local variety. Furthermore, compost-amended soil had significantly higher microbial populations, microbial biomass N, P and C, enzyme activities, soil N, P and organic carbon than control, but amendment of 20 t ha-1 gave significantly higher values than other compost rates. Consequently, growth parameters and tissue N significantly increased in all compost treatments while dry matter yield and weight of fruits were significantly higher in soil amended with 20 t ha-1. Correlation analysis showed that microbial activities at 6 weeks after transplanting (6 WAT) were more consistently and highly correlated with growth and yield parameters. It was concluded that microbial activities could be optimized to improve the yield of the two tomato varieties in an organic production system, through the application of compost, particularly at 20 t ha-1.

Keywords: compost, microbial activities, microbial contribution, tomato growth and yield

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6428 Effects of Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria on the Yield and Nutritive Quality of Tomato Fruits

Authors: Narjes Dashti, Nida Ali, Magdy Montasser, Vineetha Cherian

Abstract:

The influence of two PGPR strains, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Stenotrophomonas rhizophilia, on fruit yields, pomological traits and chemical contents of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fruits were studied. The study was conducted separately on two different cultivar varieties of tomato, namely Supermarmande and UC82B. The results indicated that the presence of the PGPR almost doubled the average yield per plant. There was a significant improvement in the pomological qualities of the PGPR treated tomato fruits compared to the corresponding healthy treatments especially in traits such as the average fruit weight, height, and fruit volume. The chemical analysis of tomato fruits revealed that the presence of the PGPRs increased the total protein, lycopene, alkalinity and phenol content of the tomato fruits compared to the healthy controls. They had no influence on the reduced sugar, total soluble solids or the titerable acid content of fruits. However their presence reduced the amount of ascorbic acid in tomato fruits compared to the healthy controls.

Keywords: PGPR, tomato, fruit quality

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6427 Alleviation of Salt Stress Effects on Solanum lycopersicum (L.) Plants Grown in a Saline Soil by Foliar Spray with Salicylic Acid

Authors: Saad Howladar

Abstract:

Salinity stress is one of the major abiotic stresses, restricting plant growth and crop productivity in different world regions, especially in arid and semi-arid regions, including Saudi Arabia. The tomato plant is proven to be moderately sensitive to salt stress. Therefore, two field experiments were conducted using tomato plants (Hybrid 6130) to evaluate the effect of four concentrations of salicylic acid (SA; 0, 20, 40, and 60 µM) applied as foliar spraying in improving plant tolerance to saline soil conditions. Tomato plant growth, yield, osmoprotectants, chloeophyll fluorescence, and ionic contents were determined. The results of this study displayed that growth and yield components and physiological attributes of water-sprayed plants (the control) grown under saline soil conditions were negatively impacted. However, under the adverse conditions of salinity, SA-treated plants had enhanced growth and yield components of tomato plants compared to the control. Free proline, soluble sugars, chlorophyll fluorescence, relative water content, membrane stability index, and nutrients contents (e.g., N, P, K⁺, and Ca²⁺) were also improved significantly, while Na⁺ content was significantly reduced in SA-applied tomato plants. SA at 40 µM was the best treatment, which could be recommended to use for salt-stressed tomato plants to enable them to tolerate the adverse conditions of saline soils.

Keywords: tomatoes, salt stress, chlorophyll fluorescence, dehydration tolerance, osmoprotectants

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6426 Effects of Macro and Micro Nutrients on Growth and Yield Performances of Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum MILL.)

Authors: K. M. S. Weerasinghe, A. H. K. Balasooriya, S. L. Ransingha, G. D. Krishantha, R. S. Brhakamanagae, L. C. Wijethilke

Abstract:

Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) is a major horticultural crop with an estimated global production of over 120 million metric tons and ranks first as a processing crop. The average tomato productivity in Sri Lanka (11 metric tons/ha) is much lower than the world average (24 metric tons/ha).To meet the tomato demand for the increasing population the productivity has to be intensified through the agronomic-techniques. Nutrition is one of the main factors which govern the growth and yield of tomato and the main nutrient source soil affect the plant growth and quality of the produce. Continuous cropping, improper fertilizer usage etc., cause widespread nutrient deficiencies. Therefore synthetic fertilizers and organic manures were introduced to enhance plant growth and maximize the crop yields. In this study, effects of macro and micronutrient supplementations on improvement of growth and yield of tomato were investigated. Selected tomato variety is Maheshi and plants were grown in Regional Agricultural and Research Centre Makadura under the Department of Agriculture recommended (DOA) macro nutrients and various combination of Ontario recommended dosages of secondary and micro fertilizer supplementations. There were six treatments in this experiment and each treatment was replicated in three times and each replicate consisted of six plants. Other than the DOA recommendation, five combinations of Ontario recommended dosage of secondary and micronutrients for tomato were also used as treatments. The treatments were arranged in a Randomized Complete Block Design. All cultural practices were carried out according to the DOA recommendations. The mean data was subjected to the statistical analysis using SAS package and mean separation (Duncan’s Multiple Range test at 5% probability level) procedures. Secondary and micronutrients containing treatments significantly increased most of the growth parameters. Plant height, plant girth, number of leaves, leaf area index etc. Fruits harvested from pots amended with macro, secondary and micronutrients performed best in terms of total yield; yield quality; to pots amended with DOA recommended dosage of fertilizer for tomato. It could be due to the application of all essential macro and micro nutrients that rise in photosynthetic activity, efficient translocation and utilization of photosynthates causing rapid cell elongation and cell division in actively growing region of the plant leading to stimulation of growth and yield were caused. The experiment revealed and highlighted the requirements of essential macro, secondary and micro nutrient fertilizer supplementations for tomato farming. The study indicated that, macro and micro nutrient supplementation practices can influence growth and yield performances of tomato fruits and it is a promising approach to get potential tomato yields.

Keywords: macro and micronutrients, tomato, SAS package, photosynthates

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6425 The Challenges of Irrigated Tomato Production in Kano State, Nigeria

Authors: I. K. Adamu, J. O. Adefila

Abstract:

The paper examines the challenges of irrigated tomato growers in Kano State. Materials used for the study are sourced from newspapers, books, internet and field surveys. Questionnaires were also used to sample the opinion of the tomato farmers in the state. The purposive and snow ball sampling techniques were used to select knowledgeable individual farmers in the study areas. The sample size was based on a five percent (0.05) of the identified members of tomato farmers. Data analysis was achieved using cross-tabulation, percentage, and SWOT analysis. The study reveals that irrigated tomato farmers in Kano State faces a lot of challenges. The study offers some recommendations such as establishment of storage facilities on ground, establishment of processing industries in the state, and introduction of high yield varieties of tomato seeds instead of the outdated UC82B.

Keywords: SWOT, irrigated tomato production, tomato farmers, Nigeria

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6424 In vitro Assessment of Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) and Cauliflower (Brassica oleracea) Seedlings Growth and Proline Production under Salt Stress

Authors: Amir Wahid, Fazal Hadi, Amin Ullah Jan

Abstract:

Tomato and Cauliflower seedlings were grown in-vitro under salt concentrations (0, 2, 4, 8, and 10 dSm-1) with objectives to investigate; (1) The effect of salinity on seedling growth and free proline production, (2) the correlation between seedling growth and proline contents, (3) comparative salt tolerance of both species. Different concentrations of salt showed considerable effect on percent (%) germination of seeds, length and biomass of shoot and root and also showed effect on percent water content of both plants seedlings. Germination rate in cauliflower was two times higher than tomato even at highest salt concentration (10 dSm-1). Seedling growth of both species was less effected at low salt concentrations (2 and 4 dSm-1) but at high concentrations (6 and 8 dSm-1) the seedling growth of both species was significantly decreased. Particularly the tomato root was highly significantly reduced. The proline level linearly increased in both species with increasing salt concentrations up-to 4 dSm-1 and then declined. The cauliflower showed higher free proline level than tomato under all salt treatments. Overall, the cauliflower seedlings showed better growth response along with higher proline contents on comparison with tomato seedlings.

Keywords: NaCl (Sodium Chloride), EC (Electrical Conductivity), MS (Murashig and Skoog), ANOVA (Analysis of Variance), LSD (Least Significant Differences)

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6423 Interactions between Water-Stress and VA Mycorrhizal Inoculation on Plant Growth and Leaf-Water Potential in Tomato

Authors: Parisa Alizadeh Oskuie, Shahram Baghban Ciruse

Abstract:

The influence of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungus(Glomus mossea) on plant growth and leaf-water potential of tomato (lycopersicum esculentum L.cv.super star) were studied in potted culture water stress stress period of 3 months in greenhouse conditions with the soil matric potential maintained at Fc1, Fc2, Fc3, and Fc4 respectively (0.8,0.7,0.6,0.5 Fc). Seven-day-old seedlings of tomato were transferred to pots containing Glomus mossea or non-AMF. AM colonization significantly stimulated shoot dry matter and leaf-water potential but water stress significantly decreased leaf area, shoot dry matter colonization and leaf-water potential.

Keywords: leaf-water potential, plant growth, tomato, VA mycorrhiza, water-stress

Procedia PDF Downloads 290
6422 Drip Irrigation Timing and Its Effect on Tomato Yield for a Two-Day Schedule

Authors: T. Kizza, M. Muyinda

Abstract:

Irrigation schedules are normally given in terms of frequency (irrigation days). Specific timings within a given day are not usually included. This study examined the effect of irrigation timing for a two-day irrigation schedule of a surface drip-irrigated tomato field on yield. It was carried out for three dry seasons; July-Sept 2016, Jan-April 2017 and Jan-March 2018, at MuZARDI research station. Four irrigation treatments; T1 morning (8.00hrs), T2 noon (12:00hrs), T3 evening (17:00hr) and T4, a combination of morning and evening, were evaluated. The irrigation duration was one hour for T1-T3 and split into 30 minutes for T4. First season results indicated noon watering as having the best yield over other treatments at 51.59t/ha followed closely by morning watering at 50.6t/ha. Plants watered at noon had the highest number of fruits at 19/plant with an average weight of 94g/fruit. Plants watered in the morning had fruits with the highest average weight at 111.2g/fruit but they were the lowest number at 16 fruits/plant. The three-season data indicated the highest yield at 45.9t/ha for morning watering, followed by noon watering at 44.3t/ha and the least yield was for evening watering at 40.9t/ha. Watering tomatoes in the morning will give optimum yields for a two-day irrigation schedule.

Keywords: drip irrigation, irrigation schedule, irrigation timing, tomato yield

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6421 Effects of Hypoxic Duration at Different Growth Stages on Yield Potential of Waxy Corn (Zea mays L.)

Authors: S. Boonlertnirun, R. Suvannasara, K. Boonlertnirun

Abstract:

Hypoxia has negative effects on growth and crop yield, its severity is so varied depending on crop growth stages, duration of hypoxia and crop species. The objective was to evaluate the sensitive growth stage and the duration of hypoxia negatively affecting growth and yield of waxy corn. Pot experiment was conducted using a split plot in randomized complete block with 3 growth stages: V3 (3-4 true leaves), V7 (7-8 true leaves), and R1 (silking stage), and three hypoxic durations: 6, 9, and 12 days, in an open–ended outdoor greenhouse during January to March 2013. The results revealed that different growth stages had significantly (p < 0.5) different responses to hypoxia, seeing that the sensitive growth stage affecting plant height, yield and yield components was mostly detected in V7 growth stage whereas leaf greenness and days to silking were sensitive to hypoxia at R1 growth stage. Different hypoxic durations significantly affected the yield and yield components, hypoxic duration of twelve days showed the most negative effect greater than the others. In this present study, it can be concluded that waxy corn plants were waterlogged at V7 growth stage for twelve days had the most negative effect on yield and yield components.

Keywords: hypoxia duration, waxy corn, growth stage, Zea mays L.

Procedia PDF Downloads 275
6420 Interaction of Cucurbitacin-Containing Phytonematicides and Biocontrol Agents on Cultivated Tomato Plants and Nematode Numbers

Authors: Jacqueline T. Madaure, Phatu W. Mashela

Abstract:

Interactive effects of cucurbitacin-containing phytonematicides and biocontrol agents on growth and nematode suppression on tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) had not been documented. The objective of this study was to determine the interactive effects of Nemafric-BL phytonematicide, Trichoderma harzianum and Steinernema feltiae on growth of tomato plants and suppression of root-knot (Meloidogyne species) nematodes. A 2x2x2 trial was conducted using tomato cv. ‘HTX’ on a field infested with Meloidogyne species. The treatments were applied at commercial rates. At 56 days after treatments, interactions were significant (P ≤ 0.05) for selected plant variables, without significant interactions on nematode variables. In conclusion, results of the current study did not support the combination of the test products for nematode suppression, except that some combinations improved plant growth.

Keywords: cucumis africanus, cucurbitacin b, ethnobotanicals, entomopathogenic nematodes, natural enemies, plant extracts

Procedia PDF Downloads 102
6419 Fusarium Wilt of Tomato: Plant Growth, Physiology and Biological Disease Management

Authors: Amna Shoaib, Sidrah Hanif, Rashid Mehmood

Abstract:

Current research work was carried out to check influence of farmyard manure (FYM) in Lycopersicon esculentum L. against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici (FO) in copper polluted soil. Silt-loam soil naturally enriched with 70 ppm of Cu was inoculated with 1 x 106 spore suspensions of FO and incorporated with 0%, 1%, 1.5% or 2% FYM. The multilateral interaction of host-pathogen-metal-organic amendment was assessed in terms of morphology, growth, yield, physiology, biochemistry and metal uptake in tomato plant after 30 and 60 days of sowing. When soil was inoculated with FO, plant growth and biomass were significantly increased during vegetative stage, while declining during flowering stage with substantial increase in productivity over control. Infected plants exhibited late wilting and disease severity was found on 26-50% of plant during reproductive stage. Incorporation of up to 1% FYM suppressed disease severity, improved plant growth and biomass, while it decreased yield. Rest of manure doses was found ineffective in suppressing disease. Content of total chlorophyll, sugar and protein were significantly declined in FO inoculated plants and incorporation of FYM caused significant reduction or no influence on sugar and chlorophyll content, and no pronounced difference among different FYM doses were observed. On the other hand, proline, peroxidase, catalase and nitrate reductase activity were found to be increased in infected plants and incorporation of 1-2% FYM further enhanced the activity of these enzymes. Tomato plant uptake of 30-40% of copper naturally present in the soil and incorporation of 1-2% FYM markedly decreased plant uptake of metal by 15-30%, while increased Cu retention in soil. Present study concludes that lower dose (1%) of FYM could be used to manage disease, increase growth and biomass, while being ineffective for yield and productivity in Cu-polluted soil. Altered physiology/biochemistry of plant in response to any treatment could be served as basis for resistant against pathogen and metal homeostasis in plants.

Keywords: Lycopersicon esculentum, copper, Fusarium wilt, farm yard manure

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6418 Effects of Green Walnut Husk and Olive Pomace Extracts on Growth of Tomato Plants and Root-Knot Nematode (Meloidogyne incognita)

Authors: Yasemin Kavdir, Ugur Gozel

Abstract:

This study was conducted to determine the nematicidal activity of green walnut husk (GWH) and olive pomace (OP) extracts against root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita). Aqueous extracts of GWH and OP were mixed with sandy loam soil at the rates of 0, 6,12,18,24, 60 and 120 ml kg-1. All pots were arranged in a randomized complete block design and replicated four times under controlled atmosphere conditions. Tomato seedlings were grown in sterilized soil then they were transplanted to pots. Inoculation was done by pouring the 20 ml suspension including 1000 M. incognita juvenile pot-1 into 3 cm deep hole made around the base of the plant root. Tomato root and shoot growth and nematode populations have been determined. In general, both GWH and OP extracts resulted in better growth parameters compared to the control plants. However, GWH extract was the most effective in improving growth parameters. Applications of 24 ml kg-1 OP extract enhanced plant growth compared to other OP treatments while 60 ml kg-1 application rate had the lowest nematode number and root galling. In this study, applications of GWH and OP extracts reduced the number of Meloidogyne incognita and root galling compared to control soils. Additionally GWH and OP extracts can be used safely for tomato growth. It could be concluded that OP and GWH extracts used as organic amendments showed promising nematicidal activity in the control of M. incognita. This research was supported by TUBİTAK Grant Number 214O422.

Keywords: olive pomace, green walnut husk, Meloidogyne incognita, tomato, soil, extract

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6417 Investigation of Growth Yield and Antioxidant Activity of Monascus purpureus Extract Isolated from Stirred Tank Bioreactor

Authors: M. Pourshirazi, M. Esmaelifar, A. Aliahmadi, F. Yazdian, A. S. Hatamian Zarami, S. J. Ashrafi

Abstract:

Monascus purpureus is an antioxidant-producing fungus whose secondary metabolites can be used in drug industries. The growth yield and antioxidant activity of extract were investigated in 3-L liquid fermentation media in a 5-L stirred tank bioreactor (STD) at 30°C, pH 5.93 and darkness for 4 days with 150 rpm agitation and 40% dissolved oxygen. Results were compared to extract isolated from Erlenmeyer flask with the same condition. The growth yield was 0.21 and 0.17 in STD condition and Erlenmeyer flask, respectively. Furthermore, the IC50 of DPPH scavenging activity was 256.32 µg/ml and 150.43 µg/ml for STD extract and flask extract, respectively. Our data demonstrated that transferring the growth condition into the STD caused an increase in growth yield but not in antioxidant activity. Accordingly, there is no relationship between growth rate and secondary metabolites formation. More studies are needed to determine the mass transfer coefficient and also evaluating the hydrodynamic condition have to be done in the future studies.

Keywords: Monascus purpureus, bioreactor, antioxidant, growth yield

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6416 Olive-Mill Wastewater and Organo-Mineral Fertlizers Application for the Control of Parasitic Weed Phelipanche ramosa L. Pomel in Tomato

Authors: Grazia Disciglio, Francesco Lops, Annalisa Tarantino, Emanuele Tarantino

Abstract:

The parasitic weed specie Phelipanche ramosa (L) Pomel is one of the major constraints in tomato crop in Apulia region (southern Italy). The experimental was considered to investigate the effect of six organic compounds (Olive miller wastewater, Allil isothiocyanate®, Alfa plus K®, Radicon®, Rizosum Max®, Kendal Nem®) on the naturally infested field of tomato growing season in 2016. The randomized block design with 3 replicates was adopted. Tomato seedling were transplant on 19 May 2016. During the growing cycle of the tomato at 74, 81, 93 and 103 days after transplantation (DAT), the number of parasitic shoots (branched plants) that had emerged in each plot was determined. At harvesting on 13 September 2016 the major quanti-qualitative yield parameters were determined, including marketable yield, mean weight, dry matter, soluble solids, fruit colour, pH and titratable acidity. The treatments provided the results show that none of treatments provided complete control against P. ramosa. However, among the products tested Olive miller wastewater, Alfa plus K®, Rizosum Max® and Kendal Nem® products applied to the soil show the number of emerged shoots significantly lower than Radicon® and especially than the Allil isothiocyanate® treatment and the untreated control. Regarding the effect of different treatments on the tomato productive parameters, the marketable yield resulted significantly higher in the same mentioned treatments which gave the lower P. ramosa infestation. No significative differences for the other fruit characteristics were observed.

Keywords: processing tomato crop, Phelipanche ramosa, olive-mill wastewater, organic fertilizers

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6415 Field Application of Trichoderma Harzianum for Biological Control of Root-Knot Nematodes in Summer Tomatoes

Authors: Baharullah Khattak, Saifullah

Abstract:

To study the efficacy of the selected Trichoderma isolates, field trials were conducted in the root-knot nematode-infested areas of Dargai and Swat, Pakistan. Four isolates of T. harzianum viz, Th-1, Th-2, Th-9 and Th-15 were tested against root knot nematodes on summer tomatoes under field conditions. The T. harzianum isolates, grown on wheat grains substrate, were applied @ 8 g plant-1, either alone or in different combinations. Root weight of tomato plants was reduced Th-9 as compared to 26.37 g in untreated control. Isolate Th-1 was found to enhance shoot and root lengths to the maximum levels of 78.76 cm and 19.59 cm, respectively. Tomato shoot weight was significantly increased (65.36g) in Th-1-treated plots as compared to 49.66 g in control. Maximum (156) number of flowers plant-1 and highest (48.18%) fruit set plant-1 was observed in Th-1 treated plots, while there were 87 flowers and 35.50% fruit set in the untreated control. Maximum fruit weight (70.97 g) plant-1 and highest (17.99 t ha-1) marketable yield were recorded in the treatments where T. harzianum isolate Th-1 was used, in comparison to 51.33 g tomato fruit weight and 9.90 t ha-1 yield was noted in the control plots. It was observed that T. harzianum isolates significantly reduced the nematode populations. The fungus enhanced plant growth and yield in all the treated plots. Jabban isolate (Th-1) was found as the most effective in nematode suppression followed by Shamozai (Th-9) isolate. It was concluded from the present findings that T. harzianum has a potential bio control capability against root-knot nematodes.

Keywords: biological control, Trichoderma harzianum, root-knot nematode, meloidogyne

Procedia PDF Downloads 359
6414 Effect of Biostimulants to Control the Phelipanche ramosa L. Pomel in Processing Tomato Crop

Authors: G. Disciglio, G. Gatta, F. Lops, A. Libutti, A. Tarantino, E. Tarantino

Abstract:

The experimental trial was carried out in open field at Foggia district (Apulia Region, Southern Italy), during the spring-summer season 2014, in order to evaluate the effect of four biostimulant products (RadiconÒ, Viormon plusÒ, LysodinÒ and SiaptonÒ 10L), compared with a control (no biostimulant), on the infestation of processing tomato crop (cv Dres) by the chlorophyll-lacking root parasite Phelipanche ramosa. Biostimulants consist in different categories of products (microbial inoculants, humic and fulvic acids, hydrolyzed proteins and aminoacids, seaweed extracts) which play various roles in plant growing, including the improvement of crop resistance and quali-quantitative characteristics of yield. The experimental trial was arranged according to a complete randomized block design with five treatments, each of one replicated three times. The processing tomato seedlings were transplanted on 5 May 2014. Throughout the crop cycle, P. ramosa infestation was assessed according to the number of emerged shoots (branched plants) counted in each plot, at 66, 78 and 92 day after transplanting. The tomato fruits were harvested at full-stage of maturity on 8 August 2014. From each plot, the marketable yield was measured and the quali-quantitative yield parameters (mean weight, dry matter content, colour coordinate, colour index and soluble solids content of the fruits) were determined. The whole dataset was tested according to the basic assumptions for the analysis of variance (ANOVA) and the differences between the means were determined using Tukey’s tests at the 5% probability level. The results of the study showed that none of the applied biostimulants provided a whole control of Phelipanche, although some positive effects were obtained from their application. To this respect, the RadiconÒ appeared to be the most effective in reducing the infestation of this root-parasite in tomato crop. This treatment also gave the higher tomato yield.

Keywords: biostimulant, control methods, Phelipanche ramosa, tomato crop

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6413 Agriculture Yield Prediction Using Predictive Analytic Techniques

Authors: Nagini Sabbineni, Rajini T. V. Kanth, B. V. Kiranmayee

Abstract:

India’s economy primarily depends on agriculture yield growth and their allied agro industry products. The agriculture yield prediction is the toughest task for agricultural departments across the globe. The agriculture yield depends on various factors. Particularly countries like India, majority of agriculture growth depends on rain water, which is highly unpredictable. Agriculture growth depends on different parameters, namely Water, Nitrogen, Weather, Soil characteristics, Crop rotation, Soil moisture, Surface temperature and Rain water etc. In our paper, lot of Explorative Data Analysis is done and various predictive models were designed. Further various regression models like Linear, Multiple Linear, Non-linear models are tested for the effective prediction or the forecast of the agriculture yield for various crops in Andhra Pradesh and Telangana states.

Keywords: agriculture yield growth, agriculture yield prediction, explorative data analysis, predictive models, regression models

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6412 Biological Control of Fusarium Crown and Root and Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) Growth Promotion Using Endophytic Fungi from Withania somnifera L.

Authors: Nefzi Ahlem, Aydi Ben Abdallah Rania, Jabnoun-Khiareddine Hayfa, Ammar Nawaim, Mejda Daami-Remadi

Abstract:

Fusarium Crown and Root Rot (FCRR) caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis-lycopersici (FORL) is a serious tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) disease in Tunisia. Its management is very difficult due to the long survival of its resting structures and to the luck of genetic resistance. In this work, we explored the wild Solanaceae species Withania somnifera, growing in the Tunisian Centre-East, as a potential source of biocontrol agents effective in FCRR suppression and tomato growth promotion. Seven fungal isolates were shown able to colonize tomato roots, crowns, and stems. Used as conidial suspensions or cell-free culture filtrates, all tested fungal treatments significantly enhanced tomato growth parameters by 21.5-90.3% over FORL-free control and by 27.6-93.5% over pathogen-inoculated control. All treatments significantly decreased the leaf and root damage index by 28.5-92.8 and the vascular browning extent 9.7-86.4% over FORL-inoculated and untreated control. The highest disease suppression ability (decrease by 86.4-92.8% in FCRR severity) over pathogen-inoculated control and by 81.3-88.8 over hymexazol-treated control) was expressed by I6 based treatments. This endophytic fungus was morphologically characterized and identified using rDNA sequencing gene as Fusarium sp. I6 (MG835371). This fungus was shown able to reduce FORL radial growth by 58.5–83.2% using its conidial suspension or cell-free culture filtrate. Fusarium sp. I6 showed chitinolytic, proteolytic and amylase activities. The current study clearly demonstrated that Fusarium sp. (I6) is a promising biocontrol candidate for suppressing FCRR severity and promoting tomato growth. Further investigations are required for elucidating its mechanism of action involved in disease suppression and plant growth promotion.

Keywords: antifungal activity, associated fungi, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis-lycopersici, Withania somnifera, tomato growth

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6411 Screening of Indigenous Rhizobacteria for Growth Promoting and Antagonistic Activity against Fusarium Oxysporoum in Tomato

Authors: Mohammed H. Abu-Dieyeh, Mohammad M. Zalloum

Abstract:

Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) are known to enhance plant growth and/or reduce plant damage due to soil-borne pathogens. Tomato is the highest consumable vegetable world-wide including Jordan. Fusarium oxysporum is a pathogen that causes well-known damages and losses to many vegetable crops including tomato. In this study, purification of 112 isolates of PGPR strains from rhizosphere environment of different regions in Jordan was accomplished. All bacterial isolates were In-vitro screened for antagonistic effects against F. oxysporum. The eleven most effective isolates that caused 30%-50% in-vitro growth reduction of F. oxysporum were selected. 8 out of 11 of these isolates were collected from Al-Halabat (arid-land). 7 isolates of Al-Halabat exerted 40-54% In-vitro growth reduction of F. oxysporum. Four-week-old seedlings of tomato cultivar (Anjara, the most susceptible indigenous cultivar to F. oxysporum) treated with PGPR5 (Bacillus amyloliquefaciens), and exposed to F. oxysporum, showed no disease symptoms and no significant changes in biomasses or chlorophyll contents indicating a non-direct mechanism of action of PGPR on tomato plants. However PGPR3 (Bacillus sp.), PGPR4 (Bacillus cereus), and PGPR38 (Paenibacillus sp.) treated plants or PGPR treated and exposed to F. oxysporum showed a significant increasing growth of shoot and root biomasses as well as chlorophyll contents of leaves compared to control untreated plants or plants exposed to the fungus without PGPR treatment. A significant increase in number of flowers per plant was also recorded in all PGPR treated plants. The characterization of rhizobacterial strains were accomplished using 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis in addition to microscopic characterization. Further research is necessary to explore the potentiality of other collected PGPR isolates on tomato plants in addition to investigate the efficacy of the identified isolates on other plant pathogens and then finding a proper and effective methods of formulation and application of the successful isolates on selected crops.

Keywords: antagonism, arid land, growth promoting, rhizobacteria, tomato

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6410 Effect of Plant Growth Regulator on Vegetative Growth and Yield Components of Winter Wheat under Different Levels of Irrigation

Authors: Mohammed Ahmed Alghamdi

Abstract:

Field experiment were carried out to investigate the effect of the plant growth regulator on vegetative growth and yield components of reduced height isogenic lines of the wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivar Mercia. The Field experiment compared the growth regulator response of seven isogenic lines of Mercia. Growth regulators reduced plant height significantly in all lines. Growth regulator decreased total dry matter and grain yield with greatest reduction generally for the control and Rht8 lines. Rht1 was the least affected. There were few significant effects of growth regulator on gas exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence but the trend was for greater values with growth regulator. In this field experiment, a rate of 2.0 l ha-1 applied just before the third node detectable stage under non water stressed and water stressed conditions gave slight increases in yield of up to 14% except for line Rht10 which increased significantly in non-stressed conditions. In the second glasshouse experiment, a rate of 2.5 l ha-1 applied at the start of stem elongation under 30% FC and 100% FC gave reductions in yield up to 16% for the growth regulator and 55% under water stress. In the field experiment, rates of 2.5 and 3.0 l ha-1 applied at the start of stem elongation gave reductions in yield up to 20% mainly through individual seed weight. In the final glasshouse experiment, rates of 2.5 and 3.0 l ha-1 applied at 6 leaves unfolded and 1st node detectable both reduced grain yield.

Keywords: growth regulator, irrigation, isogenic lines, yield, winter wheat

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6409 An Analysis of Energy Use and Input Level for Tomato Production in Turkey

Authors: Hasan Vural

Abstract:

The purpose of this study was to determine energy equivalents of inputs and output in tomato production in Bursa province. The data in this study were collected from tomato farms in Bursa province, Karacabey and Mustafakemalpasa district. Questionnaires were administered through face-to-face interview in 2011-2012. The results of the study show that diesel have the highest rate of energy equivalency of all the inputs used in tomato production at 60,07%. The energy equivalent rate of electricity is 4,26% and the energy equivalent rate of water is 0,87%. The energy equivalent rates for human power, machinery, chemicals and water for irrigation were determined to be low in tomato production. According to the output/input ratio calculated, the energy ratio is 1,50 in tomato production in the research area. This ratio implies that the inputs used in tomato production have not been used effectively. Ineffective use of these resources also causes environmental problems.

Keywords: Tomato production, energy ratio, energy input, Turkey

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6408 Effect of Grafting and Rain Shelter Technologies on Performance of Tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum Mill.)

Authors: Evy Latifah, Eli Korlina, Hanik Anggraeni, Kuntoro Boga, Joko Mariyono

Abstract:

During the rainy season, the tomato plants are vulnerable to various diseases. A disease that attacks the leaves of tomato plants (foliar diseases) such as late blight (Phytophtora infestans) and spotting bacteria (bacterial spot / Xanthomonas sp.) In addition, there is a disease that attacks the roots such as fusarium and bacterial wilt. If not immediately anticipated, it will decrease the quality and quantity of crop yields. In fact, it can lead to crop failure. The aim of this research is to know the production of tomato grafting by using Timoty and CLN 3024 tomatoes at rain shelter during rainy season in lowland. Data were analyzed using analysis of variance and tested further by Least Significant Difference (LSD) level of 5 %. The parameters measured were plant height (cm), stem diameter (cm), number of fruit space, canopy extended, number of branches, number of productive branches, and the number of stem segments. The results show at the beginning of growth until the end of the treatment without grafting with relative rain shelter displays the highest plant height. This was followed by extensive crop canopy. For tomato grafting and non-grafting using rain shelter able to produce the number of branches and number of productive branches at most. While at the end of the growth in the number of productive branches generated as much. Highest production of tomatoes produced by tomato dig rafting to use the shelter.

Keywords: field trail, wet and dry season, production, diseases, rain shelter

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6407 Biocontrol of Fusarium Crown and Root Rot and Enhancement of Tomato Solanum lycopersicum L. Growth Using Solanum linnaeanum L. Extracts

Authors: Ahlem Nefzi, Rania Aydi Ben Abdallah, Hayfa Jabnoun-Khiareddine, Nawaim Ammar, Sined Medimagh-Saidana, Mejda Daami-Remadi

Abstract:

In the present study, leaf, stem, and fruit aqueous extracts of native wild Solanum linnaeanum L. were screened for their ability to suppress Fusarium Crown and Root Rot disease and to enhance tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) growth under greenhouse conditions. Leaf extract used at 30% w/v was the most effective in reducing leaf and root damage index by 92.3% and the extent of vascular discoloration by 97.56% compared to Fusarium oxyxporum f. sp radicis lycopersici -inoculated and untreated control. A significant promotion of growth parameters (root length, shoot height, root and shoot biomass and stem diameter) was recorded on tomato cv. Rio Grande seedlings by 40.3-94.1% as compared to FORL inoculated control and by 9.6-88.8% over pathogen-free control. All S. linnaeanum aqueous extracts tested significantly stimulated the germination by 10.2 to 80.1% relative to the untreated control. FORL mycelial growth, assessed using the poisoned food technique, varied depending on plant organs, extracts, and concentrations used. Butanolic extracts were the most active, leading to 60.81% decrease in FORL mycelial growth. HPLC analysis of butanolic extract revealed the presence of thirteen phenolic compounds. Thus, S. linnaeanum can be explored as a potential natural source of antifungal and biofertilizing compounds.

Keywords: antifungal activity, HPLC-MS analysis, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis-lycopersici, tomato growth

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6406 Soil-Less Misting System: A Technology for Hybrid Seed Production in Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.).

Authors: K. D. Rajatha, S. Rajendra Prasad, N. Nethra

Abstract:

Aeroponics is one of the advanced techniques to cultivate plants without soil with minimal water and nutrient consumption. This is the technology which could bring the vertical growth in agriculture. It is an eco-friendly approach widely used for commercial cultivation of vegetables to obtain the supreme quality and yield. In this context, to harvest potentiality of the technology, an experiment was designed to evaluate the suitability of the aeroponics method over the conventional method for hybrid seed production of tomato. The experiment was carried out under Completely Randomized Design with Factorial (FCRD) concept with three replications during the year 2017-18 at UAS, GKVK Bengaluru. Nutrients and pH were standardized; among the six different nutrient solutions, the crop performance was better in Hoagland’s solution with pH between 5.5-7. The results of the present study revealed that between TAG1F and TAG2F parental lines, TAG1F performed better in both the methods of seed production. Among the methods, aeroponics showed better performance for the quality parameters except for plant spread, due to better availability of nutrients and aeration, huge root biomass in aeroponics. Aeroponics method showed significantly higher plant length (124.9 cm), plant growth rate (0.669), seedling survival rate (100%), early flowering (27.5 days), highest fruit weight (121.5 g), 100 seed weight (0.373 g) and total seed yield plant⁻¹ (11.68 g) compared to the conventional method. By providing the best environment for plant growth, the genetically best possible plant could be grown, thus complete potentiality of the plant could be harvested. Hence, aeroponics could be a promising tool for quality and healthy hybrid seed production throughout the year within protected cultivation.

Keywords: aeroponics, Hoagland’s solution, hybrid seed production, Lycopersicon esculentum

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6405 Efficacy of Nemafric-BL Phytonematicide on Suppression of Root-Knot Nematodes and Growth of Tomato Plants

Authors: Pontsho E. Tseke, Phatu W. Mashela

Abstract:

Cucurbitacin-containing phytonematicides had been consistent in suppressing root-knot (Meloidogyne species) when used in dried crude form, with limited evidence whether the efficacy could be affected when fresh fruits were used during fermentation. The objective of this study was to determine the influence of Nemafric-BL phytonematicide prepared using fermented crude extracts of fresh fruit from wild watermelon (Cucumis africanus) on the growth of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) plants and suppression of Meloidogyne species. Seedlings of tomato cultivar ‘Floradade’ were inoculated with 3 000 eggs and second-stage juveniles (J2) of M. incognita race 2 in pot trials, with treatments comprising 0, 2, 4, 8, 16, 32 and 64 % Nemafric-BL phytonematicide. At 56 days after inoculation, the phytonematicide reduced eggs and J2 in roots by 84-97%, J2 in soil by 49-96% and total nematodes by 70-97%. Plant variables and concentrations of Nemafric-BL phytonematicide exhibited positive quadratic relations, with 74-98% associations. In conclusion, fresh fruit of C. africanus could be used for the preparation of Nemafric-BL phytonematicide, particularly in cases where the dry infrastructure is not available.

Keywords: Cucurbitacin B, density-dependent growth, effective microorganisms, quadratic relations

Procedia PDF Downloads 100
6404 Tomato Fruit Color Changes during Ripening of Vine

Authors: A.Radzevičius, P. Viškelis, J. Viškelis, R. Karklelienė, D. Juškevičienė

Abstract:

Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) hybrid 'Brooklyn' was investigated at the LRCAF Institute of Horticulture. For investigation, five green tomatoes, which were grown on vine, were selected. Color measurements were made in the greenhouse with the same selected tomato fruits (fruits were not harvested and were growing and ripening on tomato vine through all experiment) in every two days while tomatoes fruits became fully ripen. Study showed that color index L has tendency to decline and established determination coefficient (R2) was 0.9504. Also, hue angle has tendency to decline during tomato fruit ripening on vine and it’s coefficient of determination (R2) reached–0.9739. Opposite tendency was determined with color index a, which has tendency to increase during tomato ripening and that was expressed by polynomial trendline where coefficient of determination (R2) reached–0.9592.

Keywords: color, color index, ripening, tomato

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6403 Effects of Ascophyllum nodosum in Tomato in the Tropical Caribbean Climate: Effects and Molecular Insights into Mechanisms

Authors: Omar Ali, Adesh Ramsubhag, Jayaraj Jayaraman

Abstract:

Seaweed extracts have been reported as plant biostimulants which could be a safer, organic alternative to harsh pesticides. The incentive to use seaweed-based biostimulants is becoming paramount in sustainable agriculture. The current study, therefore, screened a commercial extract of A. nodosum in tomatoes, cultivated in Trinidad to showcase the multiple beneficial effects. Foliar treatment with an A. nodosum commercial extract led to significant increases in fruit yield and a significant reduction of incidence of bacterial spots and early blight diseases under both greenhouse and field conditions. Investigations were carried out to reveal the possible mechanisms of action of this biostimulant through defense enzyme assays and transcriptome profiling via RNA sequencing of tomato. Studies into disease control mechanisms by A. nodosum showed that the extract stimulated the activity of enzymes such as peroxidase, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase, chitinase, polyphenol oxidase, and β-1,3-glucanase. Additionally, the transcriptome survey revealed the upregulation and enrichment of genes responsible for the biosynthesis of growth hormones, defense enzymes, PR proteins and defense-related secondary metabolites, as well as genes involved in the nutrient mobilization, photosynthesis and primary and secondary metabolic pathways. The results of the transcriptome study also demonstrated the cross-talks between growth and defense responses, confirming the bioelicitor and biostimulant value of seaweed extracts in plants. These effects could potentially implicate the benefits of seaweed extract and validate its usage in sustainable crop production.

Keywords: A. nodosum, biostimulants, elicitor, enzymes, growth responses, seaweeds, tomato, transcriptome analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 55
6402 Effect of Pre-treatment with Salicylic Acid on Vegetative Growth and Yield Components of Wheat under Salinity

Authors: Saad M. Howladar, Mike Dennett

Abstract:

At first harvest, results showed that salinity (tap water, 100 and 200 mM NaCl) induced a significant decrease in all growth parameters in both Yecora Rojo and Paragon cultivars. The greatest effect of salinity was a decrease in leaf area. The same tendency was observed with specific leaf area, and total fresh and dry weights and their components. Green leaf and tiller numbers were reduced by the same extent in both cultivars. The corresponding final harvest, all growth parameters also reduced with increased salinity. Yield and yield components were also reduced by salinity with similar effects in both cultivars. Chlorophyll fluorescence, expressed as Fv/Fm, and gas exchange parameters were decreased significantly with increase in salinity in both cultivars. In contrast, seed protein content was increased significantly with increase in salinity. Salicylic acid (SA) application induced no significant improvements in growth parameters and yield components.

Keywords: salinity, salicylic acid, growth, chlorophyll fluorescence, gas exchange, yield

Procedia PDF Downloads 362
6401 Effect of Pre-Treatment with Salicylic Acid on Vegetative Growth and Yield Components of Saudi’s Wheat under Salinity

Authors: Saad Howladar, Mike Dennett

Abstract:

At first harvest, results showed that salinity (tap water, 100 and 200 mM NaCl) induced a significant decrease in all growth parameters in both Yecora Rojo and Paragon cultivars. The greatest effect of salinity was a decrease in leaf area. The same tendency was observed with specific leaf area, and total fresh and dry weights and their components. Green leaf and tiller numbers were reduced by the same extent in both cultivars. The corresponding final harvest, all growth parameters also reduced with increased salinity. Yield and yield components were also reduced by salinity with similar effects in both cultivars. Chlorophyll fluorescence, expressed as Fv/Fm, and gas exchange parameters were decreased significantly with increase in salinity in both cultivars. In contrast, seed protein content was increased significantly with increase in salinity. Salicylic acid (SA) application induced no significant improvements in growth parameters and yield components.

Keywords: salinity, salicylic acid, growth, chlorophyll fluorescence, gas exchange, yield

Procedia PDF Downloads 331