Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1394

Search results for: bacterial count

1394 Effects of Essential Oils on the Intestinal Microflora of Termite (Heterotermes indicola)

Authors: Ayesha Aihetasham, Najma Arshad, Sobia Khan


Damage causes by subterranean termites are of major concern today. Termites majorly treated with pesticides resulted in several problems related to health and environment. For this reason, plant-derived natural products specifically essential oils have been evaluated in order to control termites. The aim of the present study was to investigate the antitermitic potential of six essential oils on Heterotermes indicola subterranean termite. No-choice bioassay was used to assess the termiticidal action of essential oils. Further, gut from each set of treated termite group was extracted and analyzed for reduction in number of protozoa and bacteria by protozoal count method using haemocytometer and viable bacterial plate count (dilution method) respectively. In no-choice bioassay it was found that Foeniculum vulgare oil causes high degree of mortality 90 % average mortality at 10 mg oil concentration (10mg/0.42g weight of filter paper). Least mortality appeared to be due to Citrus sinensis oil (43.33 % average mortality at 10 mg/0.42g). The highest activity verified to be of Foeniculum vulgare followed by Eruca sativa, Trigonella foenum-graecum, Peganum harmala, Syzygium cumini and Citrus sinensis. The essential oil which caused maximum reduction in number of protozoa was P. harmala followed by T. foenum-graecum and E. sativa. In case of bacterial count E. sativa oil indicated maximum decrease in bacterial number (6.4×10⁹ CFU/ml). It is concluded that F. vulgare, E. sativa and P. harmala essential oils are highly effective against H. indicola termite and its gut microflora.

Keywords: bacterial count, essential oils, Heterotermes indicola, protozoal count

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1393 The Determination of Total Microbial Count and Prevalence of Salmonella in the Shrimp Supply in Khuzestan Province

Authors: Sana Mohammad Jafar


Salmonella is one of the major causes of foodborne diseases throughout the world. Shrimp are an important commodity in world fishery trade. The microbiological quality of shrimp must be evaluated for assurance of shrimp. The aim of this study was to evaluate the microbiological quality and to determine the prevalence of Salmonella in shrimp sold in Khuzestan province. In this study, a total of 245 samples of shrimp sold in Khuzestan province were tested for Salmonella prevalence and total microbial population. The mean aerobic bacterial count in 50.2% of samples was 2200, in 29.8% of samples was 13,600, in 20% of samples was 36,700, and the mean aerobic bacterial count in the total samples was 20,000. (20,000 cfu/cc). Of the total samples, 33 samples were positive for Salmonella and the prevalence of Salmonella was determined 13.4%. These results indicate the possibility that shrimp contribute to foodborne infections. The improvement of shrimp quality is an important issue, and shrimp before consuming should be washed with water containing chlorine, with the aim of increasing safety. In addition, it should be avoided to eat shrimp as raw or not cooked properly.

Keywords: determination, total microbial, Salmonella, shrimp

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1392 Microbial Quality of Beef and Mutton in Bauchi Metropolis

Authors: Abdullahi Mohammed


The microbial quality of beef and mutton sold in four major markets of Bauchi metropolis was assessed in order to assist in ascertaining safety. Shops were selected from 'Muda Lawal', 'Yelwa', 'Wunti', and 'Gwallameji' markets. The total bacterial count was used as index of quality. A total of thirty two (32) samples were collected in two successive visits. The samples were packed and labelled in a sterile polythene bags for transportation to the laboratory. Microbial analysis was carried out immediately upon arrival under a septic condition, where aerobic plate was used in determining the microbial load. Result showed that beef and mutton from Gwallameji had the highest bacterial count of 9.065 X 105 cfu/ml and 8.325 X 105 cfu/ml for beef and mutton respectively followed by Wunti market (6.95 X 105 beef and 4.838 X 105 motton) and Muda Lawal (4.86 X 105 cfu/ml beef and 5.998 X 105 cfu/ml mutton). Yelwa had 5.175 X 105 and 5.30 X 105 for beef and mutton respectively. Bacterial species isolated from the samples were Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp, Streptococcus species and Staphylococcus species. However, results obtained from all markets showed that there was no significant differences between beef and mutton in terms of microbial quality.

Keywords: beef, mutton, salmonella, sterile

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1391 Assessment of Mammary Gland Immunity and Therapeutic Potential of Topical Herbal Gel against Bovine Subclinical Mastitis

Authors: Mukesh N. Kher, Anju P. Kunjadia, Dev S. Nauriyal, Chaitanya G. Joshi, Navin R. Sheth, Vaibhav D. Bhatt


In-vivo immunotherapeutic potential on cytokines production and antibacterial activity of a topical herbal gel was evaluated in two breeds of cattle in bovine subclinical mastitis. The response to treatment was evaluated by enumerating somatic cell count (SCC), determining total bacterial count and studying the expression of different cytokines like (interleukin 6, 8, 12, GMCSF, interferon–γ and TNF‑α). The pre‑ and post‑treatment SCC in mastitic quarters did not differ statistically-significantly. However, total bacterial count declined significantly from day 0 onwards in both the breeds. Significant differences (P < 0.01) were observed in all types of cytokines production on day 0, 5, and 21 post last treatments in both the breeds. The comparison of cytokine expression profiles between crossbred and Gir cattle affirmed a significant difference in expression of IL-6 and TNF-α. The topical herbal gel showed immunomodulatory and antimicrobial activities in subclinical mastitis, and therefore the work supports its use as substitute herbal therapy against subclinical mastitis in bovines.

Keywords: antibacterial activity, immunomodulation, herbal gel, subclinical mastitis

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1390 Effects of Marinating with Cashew Apple Extract on the Bacterial Growth of Beef and Chicken Meat

Authors: S. Susanti, V. P. Bintoro, A. Setiadi, S. I. Santoso, D. R. Febriandi


Meat is a foodstuff of animal origin. It is perishable because a suitable medium for bacterial growth. That is why meat can be a potential hazard to humans. Several ways have been done to inhibit bacterial population in an effort to prolong the meat shelf-life. However, aberration sometimes happens in the practices of meat preservation, for example by using chemical material that possessed strong antibacterial activity like formaldehyde. For health reason, utilization of formaldehyde as a food preservative was forbidden because of DNA damage resulting cancer and birth defects. Therefore, it is important to seek a natural food preservative that is not harmful to the body. This study aims to reveal the potency of cashew apple as natural food preservative by measuring its antibacterial activity and marinating effect on the bacterial growth of beef and chicken meat. Antibacterial activity was measured by The Kirby-Bauer method while bacterial growth was determined by total plate count method. The results showed that inhibition zone of 10-30% cashew apple extract significantly wider compared to 0% extract on the medium of E. coli, S. aureus, S. typii, and Bacillus sp. Furthermore, beef marinated with 20-30% cashew apple extract and chicken meat marinated with 5-15% extract significantly less in the total number of bacteria compared to 0% extract. It can be concluded that marinating with 5-30% cashew apple extract can effectively inhibit the bacterial growth of beef and chicken meat. Moreover, the concentration of extracts to inhibit bacterial populations in chicken meat was reached at the lower level compared to beef. Thus, cashew apple is potential as a natural food preservative.

Keywords: bacterial growth, cashew apple, marinating, meat

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1389 Effect on Haemolymph Cellular Parameters of Periplaneta Americana Following Challenge with Agrobacterium Tumefaciens: A Possible Microbial Control Agent

Authors: Fouzia Qamar, Shahida Hasnain


The present study is primarily concerned with the alteration in haemocyte profile of adult male Periplaneta americana with emphasis on the effect of bacterial inoculations on the haemogram i.e., total haemocyte count (THC) and differential haemocyte count (DHC) of different haemocyte types of the target insect. Haemolymph cellular profile showed considerable alterations under the effect of nine strains of Agrobacterium tumefaciens after 8, 16 and 24 hrs of treatment thereby signifying the potential role of Agrobacterium tumefaciens as a possible biocontrol agent against the house hold pests.

Keywords: Agrobacterium tumefaciens, Periplaneta americana, Haemolymph, cellular parametes

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1388 Analysis of Chemical Composition of Raw Milk in Some Farms Animals in El Khoms, Libya

Authors: Dukali Abujnah


This study was undertaken to knowledge the chemical composition of some farm animals (cows ) by using ultrasonic milk analyzer. This method was used first time in our country in the field of milk hygiene to determine and comparison the composition percent of raw milk for farm animals as attempt to protect the health of consumers 240 raw milk samples for each species of animals included in this study for two different season of year first (Novembe 2014 - January 2015) , second from (May – Novembe2015) .The chemical analysis. In this way, a range of building suitable to put in the Libyan market product structures, and milk, for use as a new product or exposure to treatment such as pasteurized milk and long-life may be wider study project..Controls have been implemented in operating in Libya, companies which are part of the business created by the Libyan state. It was created only after the companies that made many of the studies and research carried out on areas of Libya which it was possible to intervene. Although troops spent in recent years, companies have not yet found their balance and milk production has not yet come to those set forth in the action plans, due to problems of various types that will be discussed in this study. We believe that these data have been taken in four years if analyzed properly, can provide more accurate information to farmers in their companies want to take dairy cattle breeding. The total bacterial count was 76 and 38 cfu/ml for locally produced and imported UHT milk respectively. Coliforms were negative for all examined locally produce and imported samples. E. coli were not isolated from any of the examined UHT samples. Aerobic spore-formers count mean count was 49 and 27 cfu/ml for both examined samples respectively. Obtained results show that most of the locally produced UHT milk does not satisfy the suggested Libyan Standards for UHT milk for fat% as well as total bacterial count/ml. Economical and public health importance of the obtained results were discussed, and control measures for improving the quality of UHT locally made milk were also discussed.

Keywords: locally, UHT milks, farms animals, raw milk analysis milk

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1387 Effect of Bacillus subtilis Pb6 on Growth and Gut Microflora in Clostridium perfringens Challenged Broilers

Authors: A. Khalique, T. Naseem, N. Haque, Z. Rasool


The objective of current study was to investigate the effect of Bacillus subtilis PB6 (CloSTAT) as a probiotic in broilers. The corn-soybean based diet was divided into four treatment groups; T1 (basal diet with no probiotic and no Clostridium perfringens); T2 (basal diet challenged with C. perfringens without probiotic); T3 (basal diet challenged with C. perfringens having 0.05% probiotic); T4 (basal diet challenged with C. perfringens having 0.1% probiotic). Every treatment group had four replicates with 24 birds each. Body weight and feed intake were measured on weekly basis, while ileal bacterial count was recorded on day-28 following Clostridium perfringens challenge. The 0.1% probiotic treatment showed 7.2% increase in average feed intake (P=0.05) and 8% increase in body weight compared to T2. In 0.1% treatment body weight was 5% higher than T3 (P=0.02). It was also observed that 0.1% treatment had improved feed conversion ratio (1.77) on 6th week. No effect of treatment was observed on mortality and ileal bacterial count. The current study indicated that 0.1% use of probiotic had positive response in C. perfringens challenged broilers.

Keywords: Bacillus subtilis PB6, antibiotic growth promoters, Clostridium perfringens, broilers

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1386 Microbial Evaluation of Geophagic and Cosmetic Clays from Southern and Western Nigeria: Potential Natural Nanomaterials

Authors: Bisi-Johnson, Mary A., Hamzart A. Oyelade, Kehinde A. Adediran, Saheed A. Akinola


Geophagic and cosmetic clays are among potential nano-material which occur naturally and are of various forms. The use of these nano-clays is a common practice in both rural and urban areas mostly due to tradition and medicinal reasons. These naturally occurring materials can be valuable sources of nano-material by serving as nano-composites. The need to ascertain the safety of these materials is the motivation for this research. Physical Characterization based on the hue value and microbiological qualities of the nano-clays were carried out. The Microbial analysis of the clay samples showed considerable contamination with both bacteria and fungi with fungal contaminants taking the lead. This observation may not be unlikely due to the ability of fungi species to survive harsher growth conditions than bacteria. 'Atike pupa' showed no bacterial growth. The clay with the largest bacterial count was Calabash chalk (Igbanke), while that with the highest fungal count was 'Eko grey'. The most commonly isolated bacteria in this study were Clostridium spp. and Corynebacterium spp. while fungi included Aspergillus spp. These results are an indication of the need to subject these clay materials to treatments such as heating before consumption or topical usage thereby ascertaining their safety.

Keywords: nano-material, clay, microorganism, quality

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1385 Thrombocytopenia and Prolonged Prothrombin Time in Neonatal Septicemia

Authors: Shittu Bashirat, Shittu Mujeeb, Oluremi Adeolu, Orisadare Olayiwola, Jikeme Osameke, Bello Lateef


Septicemia in neonates refers to generalized bacterial infection documented by positive blood culture in the first 28 days of life and is one of the leading causes of neonatal mortality in sub-Sahara Africa. Thrombocytopenia in newborns is a result of increased platelet consumption; sepsis was found to be the most common risk factor. The objective of the study was to determine if there are organism-specific platelet responses among the 2 groups of bacterial agents: Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, and also to examine the association of platelet count and prothrombin time with neonatal septicemia. 232 blood samples were collected for this study. The blood culture was performed using Bactec 9050, an instrumented blood culture system. The platelet count and prothrombin time were performed using Abacus Junior 5 hematology analyzer and i-STAT 1 analyzer respectively. Of the 231 neonates hospitalized with clinical sepsis, blood culture reports were positive in 51 cases (21.4%). Klebsiella spp. (35.3%) and Staphylococcus aureus (27.5%) were the most common Gram-negative and Gram-positive isolates respectively. Thrombocytopenia was observed in 30 (58.8%) of the neonates with septicemia. Of the 9 (17.6%) patients with severe thrombocytopenia, seven (77.8%) had Klebsiella spp. septicemia. Out of the 21(63.6%) of thrombocytopenia produced by Gram-negative isolate, 17 (80.9) had increased prothrombin time. In conclusion, Gram-negative organisms showed the highest cases of severe thrombocytopenia and prolonged PT. This study has helped to establish a disturbance in hemostatic systems in neonates with septicemia. Further studies, however, may be required to assess other hemostasis parameters in order to understand their interaction with the infectious organisms in neonates.

Keywords: neonates, septicemia, thrombocytopenia, prolonged prothrombin time, platelet count

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1384 Spatial Econometric Approaches for Count Data: An Overview and New Directions

Authors: Paula Simões, Isabel Natário


This paper reviews a number of theoretical aspects for implementing an explicit spatial perspective in econometrics for modelling non-continuous data, in general, and count data, in particular. It provides an overview of the several spatial econometric approaches that are available to model data that are collected with reference to location in space, from the classical spatial econometrics approaches to the recent developments on spatial econometrics to model count data, in a Bayesian hierarchical setting. Considerable attention is paid to the inferential framework, necessary for structural consistent spatial econometric count models, incorporating spatial lag autocorrelation, to the corresponding estimation and testing procedures for different assumptions, to the constrains and implications embedded in the various specifications in the literature. This review combines insights from the classical spatial econometrics literature as well as from hierarchical modeling and analysis of spatial data, in order to look for new possible directions on the processing of count data, in a spatial hierarchical Bayesian econometric context.

Keywords: spatial data analysis, spatial econometrics, Bayesian hierarchical models, count data

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1383 Evaluation of Bacterial Composition of the Aerosol of Selected Abattoirs in Akure, South Western Nigeria

Authors: Funmilola O. Omoya, Joseph O. Obameso, Titus A. Olukibiti


This study was carried out to reveal the bacterial composition of aerosol in the studied abattoirs. Bacteria isolated were characterized according to microbiological standards. Factors such as temperature and distance were considered as variable in this study. The isolation was carried out at different temperatures such as 27oC, 31oC and 29oC and at various distances of 100meters and 200meters away from the slaughter sites. Result obtained showed that strains of Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, Lactobacillus alimentarius and Micrococcus sp. were identified. The total viable counts showed that more microorganisms were present in the morning while the least viable count of 388 cfu was recorded in the evening period of this study. This study also showed that more microbial loads were recorded the further the distance is to the slaughter site. Conclusively, the array of bacteria isolated suggests that abattoir sites may be a potential source of pathogenic organisms to commuters if located within residential environment.

Keywords: abattoir, aerosol, bacterial composition, environment

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1382 Efficiency of Background Chlorine Residuals against Accidental Microbial Episode in Proto-Type Distribution Network (Rig) Using Central Composite Design (CCD)

Authors: Sajida Rasheed, Imran Hashmi, Luiza Campos, Qizhi Zhou, Kim Keu


A quadratic model (p ˂ 0.0001) was developed by using central composite design of 50 experimental runs (42 non-center + 8 center points) to assess efficiency of background chlorine residuals in combating accidental microbial episode in a prototype distribution network (DN) (rig). A known amount of background chlorine residuals were maintained in DN and a required number of bacteria, Escherichia coli K-12 strain were introduced by an injection port in the pipe loop system. Samples were taken at various time intervals at different pipe lengths. Spread plate count was performed to count bacterial number. The model developed was significant. With microbial concentration and time (p ˂ 0.0001), pipe length (p ˂ 0.022), background chlorine residuals (p ˂ 0.07) and time^2 (p ˂ 0.09) as significant factors. The ramp function of variables shows that at the microbial count of 10^6, at 0.76 L/min, and pipe length of 133 meters, a background residual chlorine 0.16 mg/L was enough for complete inactivation of microbial episode in approximately 18 minutes.

Keywords: central composite design (CCD), distribution network, Escherichia coli, residual chlorine

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1381 Cows Milk Quality on Different Sized Dairy Farms

Authors: Ramutė Miseikienė, Saulius Tusas


Somatic cell count and bacteria count are the main indicators of cow milk quality. The aim of this study was to analyze and compare parameters of milk quality in different-sized cows herds. Milk quality of ten dairy cows farms during one year period was analyzed. Dairy farms were divided into five groups according to number of cows in the farm (under 50 cows, 51–100 cows, 101–200 cows, 201–400 cows and more than 400 cows). The averages of somatic cells bacteria count in milk and milk freezing temperature were analyzed. Also, these parameters of milk quality were compared during outdoor (from May to September) and indoor (from October to April) periods. The largest number of SCC was established in the smallest farms, i.e., in farms under 50 cows and 51-100 cows (respectively 264±9,19 and 300±10,24 thousand/ml). Reliable link between the smallest and largest dairy farms and farms with 101-200 and 201-400 cows and count of somatic cells in milk has not been established (P > 0.05). Bacteria count had a low tendency to decrease when the number of cows in farms increased. The highest bacteria number was determined in the farms with 51-100 cows and the the lowest bacteria count was in milk when 201-400 and more than 401 cows were kept. With increasing the number of cows milk maximal freezing temperature decreases (significant negative trend), i. e, indicator is improving. It should be noted that in all farms milk freezing point never exceeded requirements (-0.515 °C). The highest difference between SCC in milk during the indoor and outdoor periods was established in farms with 201-400 cows (respectively 218.49 thousand/ml and 268.84 thousand/ml). However, the count of SC was significantly higher (P < 0.05) during outdoor period in large farms (201-400 and more cows). There was no significant difference between bacteria count in milk during both – outdoor and indoor – periods (P > 0.05).

Keywords: bacteria, cow, farm size, somatic cell count

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1380 Evaluation of Negative Air Ions in Bioaerosol Removal: Indoor Concentration of Airborne Bacterial and Fungal in Residential Building in Qom City, Iran

Authors: Z. Asadgol, A. Nadali, H. Arfaeinia, M. Khalifeh Gholi, R. Fateh, M. Fahiminia


The present investigation was conducted to detect the type and concentrations of bacterial and fungal bioaerosols in one room (bedroom) of each selected residential building located in different regions of Qom during February 2015 (n=9) to July 2016 (n=11). Moreover, we evaluated the efficiency of negative air ions (NAIs) in bioaerosol reduction in indoor air in residential buildings. In the first step, the mean concentrations of bacterial and fungal in nine sampling sites evaluated in winter were 744 and 579 colony forming units (CFU)/m3, while these values were 1628.6 and 231 CFU/m3 in the 11 sampling sites evaluated in summer, respectively. The most predominant genera between bacterial and fungal in all sampling sites were detected as Micrococcus spp. and Staphylococcus spp. and also, Aspergillus spp. and Penicillium spp., respectively. The 95% and 45% of sampling sites have bacterial and fungal concentrations over the recommended levels, respectively. In the removal step, we achieved a reduction with a range of 38% to 93% for bacterial genera and 25% to 100% for fungal genera by using NAIs. The results suggested that NAI is a highly effective, simple and efficient technique in reducing the bacterial and fungal concentration in the indoor air of residential buildings.

Keywords: bacterial, fungal, negative air ions (NAIs), indoor air, Iran

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1379 Treatment of Simulated Textile Wastewater Containing Reactive Azo Dyes Using Laboratory Scale Trickling Filter

Authors: Ayesha Irum, Sadia Mumtaz, Abdul Rehman, Iffat Naz, Safia Ahmed


The present study was conducted to evaluate the potential applicability of biological trickling filter system for the treatment of simulated textile wastewater containing reactive azo dyes with bacterial consortium under non-sterile conditions. The percentage decolorization for the treatment of wastewater containing structurally different dyes was found to be higher than 95% in all trials. The stable bacterial count of the biofilm on stone media of the trickling filter during the treatment confirmed the presence, proliferation, dominance and involvement of the added microbial consortium in the treatment of textile wastewater. Results of physicochemical parameters revealed the reduction in chemical oxygen demand (58.5-75.1%), sulphates (18.9-36.5%), and phosphates (63.6-73.0%). UV-Visible and FTIR spectroscopy confirmed decolorization of dye containing wastewater was the ultimate consequence of biodegradation. Toxicological studies revealed the nontoxic nature of degradative metabolites.

Keywords: biodegradation, textile dyes, waste water, trickling filters

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1378 Statistical Analysis for Overdispersed Medical Count Data

Authors: Y. N. Phang, E. F. Loh


Many researchers have suggested the use of zero inflated Poisson (ZIP) and zero inflated negative binomial (ZINB) models in modeling over-dispersed medical count data with extra variations caused by extra zeros and unobserved heterogeneity. The studies indicate that ZIP and ZINB always provide better fit than using the normal Poisson and negative binomial models in modeling over-dispersed medical count data. In this study, we proposed the use of Zero Inflated Inverse Trinomial (ZIIT), Zero Inflated Poisson Inverse Gaussian (ZIPIG) and zero inflated strict arcsine models in modeling over-dispersed medical count data. These proposed models are not widely used by many researchers especially in the medical field. The results show that these three suggested models can serve as alternative models in modeling over-dispersed medical count data. This is supported by the application of these suggested models to a real life medical data set. Inverse trinomial, Poisson inverse Gaussian, and strict arcsine are discrete distributions with cubic variance function of mean. Therefore, ZIIT, ZIPIG and ZISA are able to accommodate data with excess zeros and very heavy tailed. They are recommended to be used in modeling over-dispersed medical count data when ZIP and ZINB are inadequate.

Keywords: zero inflated, inverse trinomial distribution, Poisson inverse Gaussian distribution, strict arcsine distribution, Pearson’s goodness of fit

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1377 Preparation of Bacterial Cellulose Membranes from Nata de Coco for CO2/CH4 Separation

Authors: Yanin Hosakun, Sujitra Wongkasemjit, Thanyalak Chaisuwan


Carbon dioxide removal from natural gas is an important process because the existence of carbon dioxide in natural gas contributes to pipeline corrosion, reduces the heating value, and takes up volume in the pipeline. In this study, bacterial cellulose was chosen for the CO2/CH4 gas separation membrane due to its unique structure and prominent properties. Additionally, it can simply be obtained by culturing the bacteria so called “Acetobacter xylinum” through fermentation of coconut juice. Bacterial cellulose membranes with and without silver ions were prepared and studied for the separation performance of CO2 and CH4.

Keywords: bacterial cellulose, CO2, CH4 separation, membrane, nata de coco

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1376 Applying Massively Parallel Sequencing to Forensic Soil Bacterial Profiling

Authors: Hui Li, Xueying Zhao, Ke Ma, Yu Cao, Fan Yang, Qingwen Xu, Wenbin Liu


Soil can often link a person or item to a crime scene, which makes it a valuable evidence in forensic casework. Several techniques have been utilized in forensic soil discrimination in previous studies. Because soil contains a vast number of microbiomes, the analyse of soil microbiomes is expected to be a potential way to characterise soil evidence. In this study, we applied massively parallel sequencing (MPS) to soil bacterial profiling on the Ion Torrent Personal Genome Machine (PGM). Soils from different regions were collected repeatedly. V-region 3 and 4 of Bacterial 16S rRNA gene were detected by MPS. Operational taxonomic units (OTU, 97%) were used to analyse soil bacteria. Several bioinformatics methods (PCoA, NMDS, Metastats, LEfse, and Heatmap) were applied in bacterial profiles. Our results demonstrate that MPS can provide a more detailed picture of the soil microbiomes and the composition of soil bacterial components from different region was individualistic. In conclusion, the utility of soil bacterial profiling via MPS of the 16S rRNA gene has potential value in characterising soil evidences and associating them with their place of origin, which can play an important role in forensic science in the future.

Keywords: bacterial profiling, forensic, massively parallel sequencing, soil evidence

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1375 Anti-Oxidant and Anti-Bacterial Properties of Camellia sinensis, Tea Plant

Authors: Rini Jarial, Puranjan Mishra, Lakhveer Singh, Sveta Thakur, A. W. Zularisam, Mimi Sakinah


The aim of the present study was to assess the biological properties of Camellia sinensis and to identify its functional compounds. The methanolic leaves-extract (MLE) of commercial green tea (Camellia sinensis) was assessed for anti-bacterial activities by measuring inhibition zones against a panel of pathogenic bacterial strains using agar diffusion method. The flavonoid (5.0 to 8.0 mg/ml) and protein content (10 to 15 mg/ml) of the MLE were recorded. MLE at a concentration of 25 μg/ml showed marked anti-bacterial activity against all bacterial strains (11-30 mm zone of inhibition) and was maximum against Staphylococcus aureus (30 mm). The MLE of Camellia sinensis had the best MIC values of 2.25 and 0.56 mg/ml against S. aureus and Enterobacter sp., respectively. The MLE also possessed good anti-lipolytic activity (65%) against a Porcine pancreatic lipase (PPL) and cholesterol oxidase inhibition (79%). The present study provided strong experimental evidences that the MLE of Camellia sinensis is not only a potent source of natural anti-oxidants and anti-bacterial activity but also possesses efficient cholesterol degradation and anti-lipolytic activities that might be beneficial in the body weight management.

Keywords: anti-oxidant, anti-bacterial activity, anti-lipolytic activity, Camellia sinensis, phyto-chemicals

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1374 The Abnormality of Blood Cells Parasitized by Plasmodium vivax

Authors: Manas Kotepui, Kwuntida Uthaisar, Phiman Thirarattanasunthon, Bhukdee PhunPhuech, Nuoil Phiwklam


Introduction: Malaria due to Plasmodium vivax has placed huge burdens on the health, longevity, and general prosperity of large sections of the human population. This study aimed at prospectively collecting information on the clinical profile of Plasmodium vivax from subjects acutely infected with P. vivax residing in some of the highest malaria transmission regions in Thailand. Methods: A retrospective study of malaria cases, hospitalized between 2013 and 2015 was performed. Clinical characteristics, diagnosis, and parasitological results on admission, age, and gender were mined from medical records at Phop Phra Hospital located in endemic areas of Tak Province, Thailand. Venous blood samples were collected at the time of admission to the hospital to determine the present of parasite and also parasite count by thick and thin film examination, and also Complete blood count (CBC) parameters. Results: Results showed that patients infected with Plasmodium vivax (276 cases) had a high monocyte count (mean=390 cells/µL) during initial stage of infection and continuously lower during later stage (any stage with gametocyte, mean=230 cells/µL) of infection (P value=0.021) whereas, patients infected with Plasmodium vivax had a low basophil count (mean=20 cells/µL) during initial stage of infection and continuously higher during later stage of infection (mean at stage with gametocyte=70 cells/µL) (P value=0.033). In addition, patients with more than one stage infection tend to have lower lymphocyte count (mean=1180 cells/µL) than patients with only one stage infection (mean=1350 cells/µL)(P value=0.011) whereas, patients with more than one stage infection tend to have lower basophil count (mean=60 cells/µL) than patients with only one stage infection (mean=80 cells/µL) (P value=0.01). Conclusion: This study indicated that patients infected with Plasmodium vivax had high monocyte count and low basophil count during initial stage of infection which was continuously lower during later stage of infection. Patients with more than one stage infection tend to have lower lymphocyte count than patients with only one stage infection whereas, patients with more than one stage infection tend to have lower basophil count than patients with only one stage infection. This information contributes to better understanding of pathological characteristic of Plasmodium vivax infection.

Keywords: plasmodium vivax, Thailand, asexual erythrocytic stages, hematological parameters

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1373 On a Negative Relation between Bacterial Taxis and Turing Pattern Formation

Authors: A. Elragig, S. Townley, H. Dreiwi


In this paper we introduce a bacteria-leukocyte model with bacteria chemotaxsis. We assume that bacteria develop a tactic defense mechanism as a response to Leukocyte phagocytosis. We explore the effect of this tactic motion on Turing space in two parameter spaces. A fine tuning of bacterial chemotaxis shows a significant effect on developing a non-uniform steady state.

Keywords: chemotaxis-diffusion driven instability, bacterial chemotaxis, mathematical biology, ecology

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1372 Haemobiogram after Intramuscular Administration of Amoxicillin to Sheep

Authors: Amer Elgerwi, Abdelrazzag El-Magdoub, Abubakr El-Mahmoudy


There are many bacterial infections affecting sheep that necessitates antibiotic intervention. Amoxicillin is among commonly used antibiotics in such case for its broad spectrum of activity. However, the side alterations in blood and organ function that may be associated during or after treatment are questionable. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to assess the possible alterations in blood parameters and organ function bio markers of sheep that may occur following intramuscular injection of amoxicillin. Amoxicillin has been administered intramuscularly to 10 sheep at a dosage regimen of 7 mg/kg of body weight for 5 successive days. Two types of blood samples (with and without anticoagulant) were collected from the jugular vein pre- and post-administration of the drug. Amoxicillin significantly (P < 0.001) increased total leukocyte count and (P < 0.05) absolute eosinophilic count when compared with those of the control samples. Aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase and cholesterol were significantly (P < 0.05) higher than the corresponding control values. In addition, amoxicillin significantly (P < 0.05) increased blood urea nitrogen and creatinine but decreased phosphorus level when compared with those of prior-administration samples. These data may indicate that although the side changes caused by amoxicillin are minor in sheep, yet the liver and kidney functions should be monitored during its usage in therapy and it should be used with care for treatment of sheep with renal and/or hepatic impairments.

Keywords: amoxicillin, biogram, haemogram, sheep

Procedia PDF Downloads 391
1371 The Occurrence of Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. sepedonicus on Potato in South Sulawesi, Indonesia

Authors: Baharuddin Patandjengi, A. Pabborong, T. Kuswinanti


Bacterial ring rot caused by a gram-positive Coryneform bacterium Corynebacterium michiganensis subsp. sepedonicus is an important disease on potato crops in the world. The disease still belongs to an A1 quarantine pathogen in Indonesia, although it was found in West Java since 2013. The objective of this study was to know the presence of bacterial ring rot in four potato district areas in South Sulawesi. Infected samples were collected from potato fields and storage warehouses in Enrekang, Gowa, Jeneponto and Bantaeng districts. Potato tuber samples were cut and observed their vasiculer vessels and the bacterial ooze was used for isolation on Nutrient Agar and Nutrient Broth–Yeast extract medium. Bacterial isolates were then morphologically and physiologically characterized. A patogenicity test on eggplant and molecular characterization using PCR with specific primer for Cms (50F and Cms 50 R) was revealed for further identification. The results showed that Cms has become widespread in four districts of South Sulawesi. The bacterial ringrot disease incidence in these districts was reached above 30 %. All of 14 bacterial isolates that identified before using standard methods of EPPO, showed DNA band in size of 224 bp in PCR test, which indicated positively belong to C. michiganensis subsp. sepedonicus.

Keywords: bacterial ring rot, clavibacter michiganensis pv. sepedonicus, PCR, potato

Procedia PDF Downloads 250
1370 Comparison between Conventional Bacterial and Algal-Bacterial Aerobic Granular Sludge Systems in the Treatment of Saline Wastewater

Authors: Philip Semaha, Zhongfang Lei, Ziwen Zhao, Sen Liu, Zhenya Zhang, Kazuya Shimizu


The increasing generation of saline wastewater through various industrial activities is becoming a global concern for activated sludge (AS) based biological treatment which is widely applied in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). As for the AS process, an increase in wastewater salinity has negative impact on its overall performance. The advent of conventional aerobic granular sludge (AGS) or bacterial AGS biotechnology has gained much attention because of its superior performance. The development of algal-bacterial AGS could enhance better nutrients removal, potentially reduce aeration cost through symbiotic algae-bacterial activity, and thus, can also reduce overall treatment cost. Nonetheless, the potential of salt stress to decrease biomass growth, microbial activity and nutrient removal exist. Up to the present, little information is available on saline wastewater treatment by algal-bacterial AGS. To the authors’ best knowledge, a comparison of the two AGS systems has not been done to evaluate nutrients removal capacity in the context of salinity increase. This study sought to figure out the impact of salinity on the algal-bacterial AGS system in comparison to bacterial AGS one, contributing to the application of AGS technology in the real world of saline wastewater treatment. In this study, the salt concentrations tested were 0 g/L, 1 g/L, 5 g/L, 10 g/L and 15 g/L of NaCl with 24-hr artificial illuminance of approximately 97.2 µmol m¯²s¯¹, and mature bacterial and algal-bacterial AGS were used for the operation of two identical sequencing batch reactors (SBRs) with a working volume of 0.9 L each, respectively. The results showed that salinity increase caused no apparent change in the color of bacterial AGS; while for algal-bacterial AGS, its color was progressively changed from green to dark green. A consequent increase in granule diameter and fluffiness was observed in the bacterial AGS reactor with the increase of salinity in comparison to a decrease in algal-bacterial AGS diameter. However, nitrite accumulation peaked from 1.0 mg/L and 0.4 mg/L at 1 g/L NaCl in the bacterial and algal-bacterial AGS systems, respectively to 9.8 mg/L in both systems when NaCl concentration varied from 5 g/L to 15 g/L. Almost no ammonia nitrogen was detected in the effluent except at 10 g/L NaCl concentration, where it averaged 4.2 mg/L and 2.4 mg/L, respectively, in the bacterial and algal-bacterial AGS systems. Nutrients removal in the algal-bacterial system was relatively higher than the bacterial AGS in terms of nitrogen and phosphorus removals. Nonetheless, the nutrient removal rate was almost 50% or lower. Results show that algal-bacterial AGS is more adaptable to salinity increase and could be more suitable for saline wastewater treatment. Optimization of operation conditions for algal-bacterial AGS system would be important to ensure its stably high efficiency in practice.

Keywords: algal-bacterial aerobic granular sludge, bacterial aerobic granular sludge, Nutrients removal, saline wastewater, sequencing batch reactor

Procedia PDF Downloads 63
1369 Characterizing Nanoparticles Generated from the Different Working Type and the Stack Flue during 3D Printing Process

Authors: Kai-Jui Kou, Tzu-Ling Shen, Ying-Fang Wang


The objectives of the present study are to characterize nanoparticles generated from the different working type in 3D printing room and the stack flue during 3D printing process. The studied laboratory (10.5 m× 7.2 m × 3.2 m) with a ventilation rate of 500 m³/H is installed a 3D metal printing machine. Direct-reading instrument of a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS, Model 3082, TSI Inc., St. Paul, MN, USA) was used to conduct static sampling for nanoparticle number concentration and particle size distribution measurements. The SMPS obtained particle number concentration at every 3 minutes, the diameter of the SMPS ranged from 11~372 nm when the aerosol and sheath flow rates were set at 0.6 and 6 L/min, respectively. The concentrations of background, printing process, clearing operation, and screening operation were performed in the laboratory. On the other hand, we also conducted nanoparticle measurement on the 3D printing machine's stack flue to understand its emission characteristics. Results show that the nanoparticles emitted from the different operation process were the same distribution in the form of the uni-modal with number median diameter (NMD) as approximately 28.3 nm to 29.6 nm. The number concentrations of nanoparticles were 2.55×10³ count/cm³ in laboratory background, 2.19×10³ count/cm³ during printing process, 2.29×10³ count/cm³ during clearing process, 3.05×10³ count/cm³ during screening process, 2.69×10³ count/cm³ in laboratory background after printing process, and 6.75×10³ outside laboratory, respectively. We found that there are no emission nanoparticles during the printing process. However, the number concentration of stack flue nanoparticles in the ongoing print is 1.13×10⁶ count/cm³, and that of the non-printing is 1.63×10⁴ count/cm³, with a NMD of 458 nm and 29.4 nm, respectively. It can be confirmed that the measured particle size belongs to easily penetrate the filter in theory during the printing process, even though the 3D printer has a high-efficiency filtration device. Therefore, it is recommended that the stack flue of the 3D printer would be equipped with an appropriate dust collection device to prevent the operators from exposing these hazardous particles.

Keywords: nanoparticle, particle emission, 3D printing, number concentration

Procedia PDF Downloads 101
1368 Relationship between Blow Count Number (N) and Shear Wave Velocity (Vs30) from the Specified Embankment Material: A Case Study on Three Selected Earthen Dams

Authors: Tanapon Suklim, Prachaya Intaphrom, Noppadol Poomvises, Anchalee Kongsuk


The relationship between shear wave velocity (Vs30) and blow count Number from Standard Penetration Tests (NSPT) was investigated on specified embankment dam to find the solution which can be used to estimate the value of N. Shear wave velocity, Vs30 and blow count number, NSPT were performed at three specified dam sites. At each site, Vs30 measurement was recorded by using seismic survey of MASW technique and NSPT were measured by field Standard Penetration Test. Regression analysis was used to derive statistical relation. The relation is giving a final solution to applicable calculated N-value with other earthen dam. Dam engineer can use the statistical relation to convert field Vs30 to estimated N-value instead of absolute N-value from field Standard Penetration Test. It can be noted that the formulae can be applied only in the earthen dam of specified material.

Keywords: blow count number, earthen dam, embankment, shear wave velocity

Procedia PDF Downloads 167
1367 Neutral Sugars in Two-Step Hydrolysis of Laurel-Leaved and Cryptomeria japonica Forests

Authors: Ayuko Itsuki, Sachiyo Aburatani


Soil neutral sugar contents in Kasuga-yama Hill Primeval Forest, which is a World Heritage Site in Nara, Japan consisting of lowland laurel-leaved forest where natural conditions have been preserved for more than 1,000 years, were examined using the two-step hydrolysis to clarify the source of the neutral sugar and relations with the neutral sugar constituted the soil organic matter and the microbial biomass. Samples were selected from the soil (L, F, H and A horizons) surrounding laurel-leaved (BB-1) and Carpinus japonica (BB-2 and PW) trees for analysis. The neutral sugars were one factor of increasing the fungal and bacterial biomass in the laurel-leaved forest soil (BB-1). The more neutral sugar contents in the Cryptomeria japonica forest soil (PW) contributed to the growth of the bacteria and fungi than those of in the Cryptomeria japonica forest soil (BB-2). The neutral sugars had higher correlation with the numbers of bacteria and fungi counted by the dilution plate count method than by the direct microscopic count method. The numbers of fungi had higher correlation with those of bacteria by the dilution plate method.

Keywords: forest soil, neutral sugars, soil organic matter, two-step hydrolysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 190
1366 The microbial evaluation of cow raw milk used in private dairy factories in of Zawia city, Libya

Authors: Obied A. Alwan, Elgerbi, M. Ali


This study was conducted on the cow milk which is used in the local milk factories of Zawia. This was completely random sampling the unscheduled samples. The microbiologic result have approved that the count of bacteria and the count of E.Coli are very high and all the manufacturing places which were included in the study have lacked the health conditions.

Keywords: raw milk, dairy factories, Libya, microbiologic

Procedia PDF Downloads 342
1365 Seasonal Variability of the Price and Quality of Fresh Red Porgy Fish Sold in the Local Market of Igoumenitsa, NW Greece

Authors: C. Nathanailides, P. Logothetis, G. Kanlis S. Anastasiou, L. Kokokiris, P. Mpeza


Farmed Red porgy (Pagrus pagrus) is one of the “new candidate fish species” for the diversification of Mediterranean aquaculture which is predomintly based on the cultivation of the European sea bass, (Dicenfrarchus labrax), and the gilthead sea bream, (Sparus aurata). The quality of farmed red porgy (Pagrus pagrus) was investigated with samples obtained from the local fish market in the region of Igoumenitsa, NW Greece. Sample of the fish (ungutted and with scales) were purchased from three local fish mongers and transported to the laboratory within few minutes in foamed polystyrene boxes in ice. The average weight of whole fish ranged between 271-289g. A sample of the fish flesh taken from the upper epaxial region was transferred aseptically to a stomacher bag containing sterile Buffered Peptone Water solution (0.1%) and homogenized. After serial dilutions in 0.1% peptone water, the homogenates were spread on the surface of agar plates. Total viable counts (TVC) were determined using plate count agar after incubation at 30 oC for 3 days. The quality attributes monitored during the present work included bacterial load (total mesophilic) and the pH of the flesh. There was a marginal increase in the price of fresh red porgy sold during the summer time, with prices ranging, over a period of four seasons, from 5.85 to 7.5 per kilo. The results of the microbiological analysis indicate that with the exception of summer samples (which exhibited 5.23 (±0.13) log cfu/g), the bacterial load remained well below the legal limits and was around 3.1 log cfu/g. The pH values varied between 6.54 and 6.69. The results indicate a possible influence of season on the bacterial load of fish sold in the market. Nevertheless, the parameters investigated in the present work indicate that the bacteria load was well below the legal limit and that fish were sold within few days after harvesting. The peak of bacterial load in the summer samples may be a result of a post-harvesting contamination of the farmed fish and temperature fluctuations during handling and transportation.

Keywords: fish quality, marketing, aquaculture, Pagrus pagrus

Procedia PDF Downloads 590