Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2087

Search results for: resistant microbial strains

2087 Synthesis, Characterization, Validation of Resistant Microbial Strains and Anti Microbrial Activity of Substitted Pyrazoles

Authors: Rama Devi Kyatham, D. Ashok, K. S. K. Rao Patnaik, Raju Bathula

Abstract:

We have shown the importance of pyrazoles as anti-microbial chemical entities. These compounds have generally been considered significant due to their wide range of pharmacological acivities and their discovery motivates new avenues of research.The proposed pyrazoles were synthesized and evaluated for their anti-microbial activities. The Synthesized compounds were analyzed by different spectroscopic methods.

Keywords: pyrazoles, validation, resistant microbial strains, anti-microbial activities

Procedia PDF Downloads 67
2086 Bacteriocinogenic Strains of Bacillus thuringiensis Isolated from Soil at Northern of Algeria

Authors: R. Gounina-Allouane, I. Moussaoui, N. Boukahel

Abstract:

Bacillus antimicrobial metabolites, especially those of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), are of great interest for research because of health risks generated by the excessive use of chemical additives as well as the propagation of resistant microbial strains, caused by the massive treatment with antibiotics. The objective of this study was the selection of Bt strains producing antimicrobial peptides (bacteriocins), and the partial purification of the most powerful bacteriocins, then the determination of their spectra of antimicrobial action. A collection of twenty one Bt strains isolated from soil at Boumerdès (northern Algeria) was used for screening strains having an antagonistic activity against phylogenetically closed bacteria. Spectra of antagonistic activity of two selected strains was determined against other Bt strains, Gram positive and Gram negative bacterial strains of clinical origin and others from ATCC collection as well as yeasts isolated in human dermatology. Bacteriocins of these two strains were partially purified and their effect on the kinetics of growth of the most sensitive microbial strains was studied. The bacteriocinogenic strains were biochemically characterized and their sensitivity to antibiotics was studied.

Keywords: antimicrobial peptides, Bacillus thuringiensis, bacteriocin, partial purification

Procedia PDF Downloads 356
2085 Powerful Bacteriocins Produced by Bacillus thuringiensis Strains Isolated from Soil at Northern of Algeria

Authors: R. Gounina-Allouane, I. Moussaoui, N. Boukahel

Abstract:

Bacillus antimicrobial metabolites, especially those of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), are of great interest for research because of health risks generated by the excessive use of chemical additives as well as the propagation of resistant microbial strains, caused by the massive treatment with antibiotics. The objective of this study was the selection of Bt strains producing antimicrobial peptides (bacteriocins), and the partial purification of the most powerful bacteriocins, then the determination of their spectra of antimicrobial action. A collection of twenty one Bt strains isolated from soil at Boumerdès (northern of Algeria) was used for screening strains having an antagonistic activity against phylogenetically closed bacteria. Spectra of antagonistic activity of two selected strains was determined against other Bt strains, Gram positive and Gram negative bacterial strains of clinical origin and others from ATCC collection as well as yeasts isolated in human dermatology. Bacteriocins of these two strains were partially purified and their effect on the kinetics of growth of the most sensitive microbial strains was studied. The bacteriocinogenic strains were biochemically characterized and their sensitivity to antibiotics was studied.

Keywords: antimicrobial peptides, Bacillus thuringiensis, bacteriocin, partial purification

Procedia PDF Downloads 293
2084 Resistance of Mycobacterium tuberculosis to Daptomycin

Authors: Ji-Chan Jang

Abstract:

Tuberculosis is still major health problem because there is an increase of multidrug-resistant and extensively drug-resistant forms of the disease. Therefore, the most urgent clinical need is to discover potent agents and develop novel drug combination capable of reducing the duration of MDR and XDR tuberculosis therapy. Three reference strains H37Rv, CDC1551, W-Beijing GC1237 and six clinical isolates of MDRTB were tested to daptomycin in the range of 0.013 to 256 mg/L. Daptomycin is resistant to all tested M. tuberculosis strains not only laboratory strains but also clinical MDR strains that were isolated at different source. Daptomycin will not be an antibiotic of choice for treating infection of Gram positive atypical slowly growing M. tuberculosis.

Keywords: tuberculosis, daptomycin, resistance, Mycobacterium tuberculosis

Procedia PDF Downloads 247
2083 Evaluation of Antibiotic Resistance Profiles of Staphlyococci Isolated from Various Clinical Specimens

Authors: Recep Kesli, Merih Simsek, Cengiz Demir, Onur Turkyilmaz

Abstract:

Objective: Goal of this study was to determine the antibiotic resistance of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and Methicillin resistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains isolated at Medical Microbiology Laboratory of ANS Application and Research Hospital, Afyon Kocatepe University, Turkey. Methods: S. aureus strains isolated between October 2012 and September 2016, from various clinical specimens were evaluated retrospectively. S. aureus strains were identified by both the conventional methods and automated identification system -VITEK 2 (bio-Mérieux, Marcy l’etoile, France), and Meticillin resistance was verified using oxacillin disk with disk-diffusion method. Antibiotic resistance testing was performed by Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method according to CLSI criteria, and intermediate susceptible strains were considered as resistant. Results: Seven hundred S.aureus strains which were isolated from various clinical specimens were included in this study. These strains were mostly isolated from blood culture, tissue, wounds and bronchial aspiration. All of 306 (43,7%) were oxacillin resistant. While all the S.aureus strains were found to be susceptible to vancomycin, teicoplanin, daptomycin and linezolid, 38 (9.6 %), 77 (19.5 %), 116 (29.4 %), 152 (38.6 %) and 28 (7.1 %) were found to be resistant aganist to clindamycin, erythromycin, gentamicin, tetracycline and sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim, retrospectively. Conclusions: Comparing to the Methicillin sensitive staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) strains, increased resistance rates of, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, clindamycin, erythromycin, gentamicin, and tetracycline were observed among the MRSA strains. In this study, the most effective antibiotic on the total of strains was found to be trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, the least effective antibiotic on the total of strains was found to be tetracycline.

Keywords: antibiotic resistance, MRSA, Staphylococcus aureus, VITEK 2

Procedia PDF Downloads 167
2082 Selection of Lead Mobilizing Bacteria from Contaminated Soils and Their Potential in Promoting Plant Growth through Plant Growth Promoting Activity

Authors: Maria Manzoor, Iram Gul, Muhammad Arshad

Abstract:

Bacterial strains were isolated from contaminated soil collected from Rawalpindi and Islamabad. The strains were investigated for lead resistance and their effect on Pb solubility and PGPR activity. Incubation experiments were carried for inoculated and unoculated soil containing different levels of Pb. Results revealed that few stains (BTM-4, BTM-11, BTM-14) were able to tolerate Pb up to 600 mg L-1, whereas five strains (BTM-3, BTM-6, BTM-10, BTM-21 and BTM-24) showed significant increase in solubility of Pb when compared to all other strains and control. The CaCl2 extractable Pb was increased by 13.6, 6.8, 4.4 and 2.4 folds compared to un-inoculated control soil at increased soil Pb concentration (500, 1000, 1500 and 200 mg kg-1, respectively). The selected bacterial strains (11) were further investigated for plant growth promotion activity through PGPR assays including. Germination and root elongation assays were also conducted under elevated metal concentration in controlled conditions to elucidate the effects of microbial strains upon plant growth and development. The results showed that all the strains tested in this study, produced significantly varying concentrations of IAA, siderophores and gibberellic acid along with ability to phosphorus solubilization index (PSI). The results of germination and root elongation assay further confirmed the beneficial role of the microbial strains in elevating metal stress through PGPR activity. Among all tested strains, BTM-10 significantly improved plant growth. 1.3 and 2.7 folds increase in root and shoot length was observed when compared to control. Which may be attributed to presence of important plant growth promoting enzymes (IAA 74.6 μg/ml; GA 19.23 μg/ml; Sidrophore units 49% and PSI 1.3 cm). The outcome of this study indicates that these Pb tolerant and solubilizing strains may have the potential for plant growth promotion under metal stress and can be used as mediator when coupled with heavy metal hyperaccumulator plants for phytoremediation of Pb contaminated soil.

Keywords: Pb resistant bacteria, Pb mobilizing bacteria, Phytoextraction of Pb, PGPR activity of bacteria

Procedia PDF Downloads 146
2081 Detection of Tetracycline Resistance Genes in Lactococcus garvieae Strains Isolated from Rainbow Trout

Authors: M. Raissy, M. Shahrani

Abstract:

The present study was done to evaluate the presence of tetracycline resistance genes in Lactococcus garvieae isolated from cultured rainbow trout, West Iran. The isolates were examined for antimicrobial resistance using disc diffusion method. Of the 49 strains tested, 19 were resistant to tetracycline (38.7%), 32 to enrofloxacin (65.3%), 21 to erythromycin (42.8%), 20 to chloramphenicol and trimetoprim-sulfamethoxazole (40.8%). The strains were then characterized for their genotypic resistance profiles. The results revealed that all 49 isolates contained at least one of the tetracycline resistance genes. Tet (A) was found in 89.4% of tetracycline resistant isolates and the frequency of other gene were as follow: tet (E) 42.1%, tet (B) 47.3%, tet (D) 15.7%, tet (L) 26.3%, tet (K) 52.6%, tet (G) 36.8%, tet (34) 21%, tet (S) 63.1%, tet (C) 57.8%, tet (M) 73.6%, tet (O) 42.1%. The results revealed high levels of antibiotic resistance in L. garvieae strains which is a potential danger for trout culture as well as for public health.

Keywords: Lactococcus garvieae, tetracycline resistance genes, rainbow trout, antimicrobial resistance

Procedia PDF Downloads 432
2080 Using Polymerase Chain Reaction Technique to Observe the Resistant Strains of Pectinophora gossypiella against Cry1Ac Expressing Cotton

Authors: Zunnu Raen Akhtar, U. Irshad, M. Majid

Abstract:

Due to the widespread cultivation of transgenic cotton, intense selection pressure resulted in resistant allele in pink bollworm, Pectinophora gossypiella (Gelechiidae: Lepidoptera). A resistant strain of pink bollworm against transgenic cotton has become a challenge to Integrated Resistance Management (IRM) in the World. Laboratory and field studies were conducted to determine the resistant strains of pink bollworm by performing bioassay, extracting the DNA, conducting PCR of both laboratory as well as field collected pink bollworms to observe the developed resistance. In all of the studies, two Bt varieties FH-142 and FH-118 expressing Cry1Ac compared to non-Bt (Control) were tested against pink bollworm. In the laboratory, bioassay results showed that there was no significant mortality difference between Bt and non-Bt varieties. Similar mortality percentage was observed in transgenic and non-transgenic (control) variety. Insects which were survived after bioassay, as well as those collected from the Bt cotton fields, were selected for further molecular studies. DNA extraction followed by PCR was conducted to check the resistant strains in pink bollworm. In field studies, we also observed the population dynamics of pink boll worms on Bt as compared to non-Bt varieties. Laboratory and field studies confirmed that resistant strains occurs in Pakistani Bt cotton fields. Different strategies should be adopted to combat that serious prevailing resistance issues.

Keywords: transgenic cotton, resistance, pectinophora gossypiella, , integrated resistance management (IRM), polymerase chain reaction (PCR)

Procedia PDF Downloads 142
2079 Identification of Associated-Virulence Genes in Quinolone-Resistant Escherichia coli Strains Recovered from an Urban Wastewater Treatment Plant

Authors: Alouache Souhila, Messai Yamina, Torres Carmen, Bakour Rabah

Abstract:

Objective: It has often been reported an association between antibiotic resistance and virulence. However, resistance to quinolones seems to be an exception, it tends instead to be associated with an attenuation of virulence, particularly in clinical strains. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the potential virulence of 28 quinolone-resistant E. coli strains recovered from water at the inflow (n=16) and outflow (n=12) of an urban wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). Methods: E. coli isolates were selected on Tergitol-7 agar supplemented with 2µg/ml of ciprofloxacin, they were screened by PCR for 11 virulence genes related to Extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC): papC, papG, afa/draBC, sfa/foc, kpsMTII, iutA, iroN, hlyF, ompT, iss and traT. The phylogenetic groups were determined by PCR and clonal relationship was evaluated by ERIC-PCR. Results: Genotyping by ERIC-PCR showed 7 and 12 DNA profiles among strains of wastewater (inflow) and treated water (outflow), respectively. Strains were assigned to the following phylogenetic groups: B2 (n = 1, 3.5%), D (n = 3, 10.7%), B1 (n = 10, 35.7%.) and A (n = 14, 50%). A total of 8 virulence-associated genes were detected, traT (n=19, 67.8%), iroN (n= 16, 57 .1%), hlyF (n=15, 53 .5%), ompT (n=15, 53 .5%), iss (n=14, 50%), iutA (n=9, 32.1%) , sfa/foc (n=7, 25%) and kpsMTII (n=2, 7.1%). Combination of virulence factors allowed to define 16 virulence profiles. The pathotype APEC was observed in 17.8% (D=1, B1=4) and human ExPEC in 7% (B2=1, D=1) of strains. Conclusion: The study showed that quinolone-resistant E. coli strains isolated from wastewater and treated water in WWTP harbored virulence genes with the presence of APEC and human ExPEC strains.

Keywords: E. coli, quinolone-resistance, virulence, WWTP

Procedia PDF Downloads 386
2078 Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Molecular Epidemiology: An Overview

Authors: Asho Ali

Abstract:

Tuberculosis is a disease of grave concern which infects one-third of the global population. The high incidence of tuberculosis is further compounded by the increasing emergence of drug resistant strains including multi drug resistant (MDR). Global incidence MDR-TB is ~4%. Molecular epidemiological studies, based on the assumption that patients infected with clustered strains are epidemiologically linked, have helped understand the transmission dynamics of disease. It has also helped to investigate the basis of variation in Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) strains, differences in transmission, and severity of disease or drug resistance mechanisms from across the globe. This has helped in developing strategies for the treatment and prevention of the disease including MDR.

Keywords: Mycobcaterium tuberculosis, molecular epidemiology, drug resistance, disease

Procedia PDF Downloads 294
2077 RNA Expression Analysis of Mycobacterial Methyltransferases Genes in Different Resistant Strains of Mycobacterium Tuberculosis

Authors: Seyed Davar Siadat, Samira Tarashi, Abolfazl Fateh, Arfa Moshiri

Abstract:

Background: The global health issue of tuberculosis (TB) still affects patients in every country. TB control may not be as effective as it should be, especially when resistant strains are involved. In this regard, mycobacterial MTases play a major role in tuberculosis, but the mechanisms underlying their function have yet to be fully deciphered. Methods: Five resistant isolates of M.tb were accumulated. As a reference strain, M.tb H37Rv (ATCC 27249) was used. For this analysis, seven putative mycobacterial MTase genes (Rv0645c, Rv1694, Rv2966c, Rv3919c, Rv2756c, Rv1988, and Rv3263), as well as Rv1392 as SAM synthase, were selected. Comparing mutations and expression levels of MTases in different strains was accomplished by PCR-sequencing and qRT-PCR. The relative expression levels of these genes were calculated using the 2 -ΔΔCt method. Results: The Rv3919c gene (T to G in codon 341) and Rv1392 gene (G to A in codon 97) were the only mutations found in the INHR strain. In all sensitive and resistant isolates, Rv0645c, Rv3263, Rv2756c, and Rv2966c were overexpressed. However, the expression of Rv1988 and Rv3919c decreased in the sensitive strains, whereas the expression of Rv1694 increased. There was also a decreased expression of Rv1392 in the INHR isolate. Conclusion: The presence of mycobacterial MTases as well as resistance to antibiotics were found to be correlated in M.tb strains. Undoubtedly, there are some MTases that are associated with the virulence process. It is necessary to conduct additional studies to fully explore the impact of mycobacterial MTases within specific strains of M.tb to develop novel diagnostic and treatment strategies.

Keywords: mycobacterium tuberculosis, drug resistance, methyltransferases, s-adenosylmethionine

Procedia PDF Downloads 10
2076 Some Probiotic Traits of Lactobacillus Strains Isolated from Pollen

Authors: Hani Belhadj, Daoud Harzallah, Seddik Khennouf, Saliha Dahamna, Mouloud Ghadbane

Abstract:

In this study, Lactobacillus strains isolated from pollen were identified by means of phenotypic and genotypic methods, At pH 2, most strains proved to be acid resistants, with losses in cell viability ranging from 0.77 to 4.04 Log orders. In addition, at pH 3 all strains could grew and resist the acidic conditions, with losses in cell viability ranging from 0.40 to 3.61 Log orders. It seems that, 0.3% and 0.5% of bile salts does not affect greatly the survival of most strains, excluding Lactobacillus sp. BH1398. Survival ranged from 81.0±3.5 to 93.5±3.9%. In contrast, in the presence of 1.0% bile salts, survival of five strains was decreased by more than 50%. Lactobacillus fermentum BH1509 was considered the most tolerant strain (77.5% for 1% bile) followed by Lactobacillus plantarum BH1541 (59.9% for 1% bile). Furthermore, all strains were resistant to colistine, clindamycine, chloramphenicol, and ciprofloxacine, but most of the strains were susceptible to Peniciline, Oxacillin, Oxytetracyclin, and Amoxicillin. Functionally interesting Lactobacillus isolates may be used in the future as probiotic cultures for manufacturing fermented foods and as bioactive delivery systems.

Keywords: probiotics, lactobacillus, pollen, bile, acid tolerance

Procedia PDF Downloads 339
2075 Medium Design and Optimization for High Β-Galactosidase Producing Microbial Strains from Dairy Waste through Fermentation

Authors: Ashish Shukla, K. P. Mishra, Pushplata Tripathi

Abstract:

This paper investigates the production and optimization of β-galactosidase enzyme using synthetic medium by isolated wild strains (S1, S2) mutated strains (M1, M2) through SSF and SmF. Among the different cell disintegration methods used, the highest specific activity was obtained when the cells were permeabilized using isoamyl alcohol. Wet lab experiments were performed to investigate the effects of carbon and nitrogen substrates present in Vogel’s medium on β-galactosidase enzyme activity using S1, S2, and M1, M2 strains through SSF. SmF experiments were performed for effects of carbon and nitrogen sources in YLK2Mg medium on β-galactosidase enzyme activity using S1, S2 and M1, M2 strains. Effect of pH on β-galactosidase enzyme production was also done using S1, S2, and M1, M2 strains. Results were found to be very appreciable in all the cases.

Keywords: β-galactosidase, cell disintegration, permeabilized, SSF, SmF

Procedia PDF Downloads 192
2074 Antibacterial Activity of Melaleuca Cajuputi Oil against Resistant Strain Bacteria

Authors: R. M. Noah, N. M. Nasir, M. R. Jais, M. S. S. Wahab, M. H. Abdullah, A. S. S. Raj

Abstract:

Infectious diseases are getting more difficult to treat due to the resistant strains of bacteria. Current generations of antibiotics are most likely ineffective against multi-drug resistant strains bacteria. Thus, there is an urgent need in search of natural antibiotics in particular from medicinal plants. One of the common medicinal plants, Melaleuca cajuputi, has been reported to possess antibacterial properties. The study was conducted to evaluate and justify the presence of antibacterial activity of Melaleuca cajuputi essential oil (EO) against the multi-drug resistant bacteria. Clinical isolates obtained from the teaching hospital were re-assessed to confirm the exact identity of the bacteria to be tested, namely methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), carbapenem-resistant enterobacteriaceae (CRE), and extended-spectrum beta-lactamases producer (ESBLs). A well diffusion method was done to observe the inhibition zones of the essential oil against the bacteria. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined using the microdilution method in 96-well flat microplate. The absorbance was measured using a microplate reader. Minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) was performed using the agar medium method. The zones of inhibition produced by the EO against MRSA, CRE, and ESBL were comparable to that of generic antibiotics used, gentamicin and augmentin. The MIC and MBC results highlighted the antimicrobial efficacy of the EO. The outcome of this study indicated that the EO of Melaleuca cajuputi had antibacterial activity on the multi-drug resistant bacteria. This finding was eventually substantiated by electron microscopy work.

Keywords: melaleuca cajuputi, antibacterial, resistant bacteria, essential oil

Procedia PDF Downloads 38
2073 Molecular Detection and Isolation of Benzimidazole Resistant Haemonchus contortus from Pakistan

Authors: K. Ali, M. F. Qamar, M. A. Zaman, M. Younus, I. Khan, S. Ehtisham-ul-Haque, R. Tamkeen, M. I. Rashid, Q. Ali

Abstract:

This study centers on molecular identification of Haemonchus contortus and isolation of Benz-imidazoles (BZ) resistant strains. Different abattoirs’ of two geographic regions of Punjab (Pakistan) were frequently visited for the collection of worms. Out of 1500 (n=1500) samples that were morphologically confirmed as H. contortus, 30 worms were subjected to molecular procedures for isolation of resistant strains. Resistant worms (n=8) were further subjected to DNA gene sequencing. Bio edit sequence alignment editor software was used to detect the possible mutation, deletion, replacement of nucleotides. Genetic diversity was noticed and genetic variation existing in β-tubulin isotype 1 of the H. contortus population of small ruminants of different regions considered in this study. H. contortus showed three different type of genetic sequences. 75%, 37.5%, 25% and 12.5% of the studied samples showed 100% query cover and identity with isolates and clones of China, UK, Australia and other countries, respectively. Interestingly the neighbor countries such as India and Iran haven’t many similarities with the Pakistani isolates. Thus, it suggests that population density of same genetic makeup H. contortus is scattered worldwide rather than clustering in a single region.

Keywords: Haemonchus contortus, Benzimidazole resistant, β-tubulin-1 gene, abattoirs

Procedia PDF Downloads 93
2072 Antibiotic Resistance and Susceptibility of Bacteria Strains Isolated from Sheep Milk

Authors: Fatima Bouazza, Rachida Hassikou, Lamiae Amallah, Jihane Ennadir, Khadija Khedid

Abstract:

This study evaluated the in vitro resistance and susceptibility of Enterobacteriaceae (Escherichia coli and Klebsiella oxytoca strains) and Staphylococci strains, isolated from sheep’s milk, against antibiotics and essential oils from Thymus satureioides and Mentha pulegium. Antibiotic resistance tests were done using disc diffusion while essential oils were extracted by steam distillation, and yields were calculated relative to plant dry matter. Gas chromatography-mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) was used to analyze each oil's chemical composition. The AMC, CTX, FOX, NA, CN, CIP, and OFX were very effective against the E. coli strains tested. Half of the strains were resistant to AMC, 60% to TIC, and 80% to TE. The K. oxytoca was resistant against AMC, FOX, and TIC (100%). Antibiotic-resistant testing on Staphylococci strains indicated Staphylococcus capitis and Staphylococcus chromogenes as the most sensitive. Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus xylosus, and Staphylococcus cohnii ureal exhibited less resistance to OX, TE, PT, E, and P. The M. pulegium resulted in a higher yield of essential oil of 3.2% oil compared to T. satureioides with only 1.85% yield. Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus xylosus, and Staphylococcus cohnii ureal had lower OX, TE, PT, E, and P resistance. M. pulegium yielded 3.2% essential oil compared to 1.85% for T. satureioides. The monoterpene oxygenated derivatives, monoterpene hydrocarbons, and phenols are found in essential oil extracts. T. satureioides essential oil had high antibacterial activity even at low concentrations (0.2; 0.55 g/mL). The Minimal Bactericidal Concentration (MBC) values indicate that the essential oils from the plants analyzed had bactericidal effects on all strains tested and are similar to the Minimal Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) values. The high antibacterial properties of these medicinal plants, against bacteria isolated from sheep’s milk, provide an opportunity to use these medicinal plants in the breeding sector as additives and preservatives in the dairy industry.

Keywords: antibiotic resistance, medicinal plants, essential oils, enterobacteriaceae, staphylococci, sheep milk

Procedia PDF Downloads 75
2071 Genetically Modified Fuel-Ethanol Industrial Yeast Strains as Biocontrol Agents

Authors: Patrícia Branco, Catarina Prista, Helena Albergaria

Abstract:

Industrial fuel-ethanol fermentations are carried out under non-sterile conditions, which favors the development of microbial contaminants, leading to huge economic losses. Wild yeasts such as Brettanomyces bruxellensis and lactic acid bacteria are the main contaminants of industrial bioethanol fermentation, affecting Saccharomyces cerevisiae performance and decreasing ethanol yields and productivity. In order to control microbial contaminations, the fuel-ethanol industry uses different treatments, including acid washing and antibiotics. However, these control measures carry environmental risks such as acid toxicity and the rise of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Therefore, it is crucial to develop and apply less toxic and more environmentally friendly biocontrol methods. In the present study, an industrial fuel-ethanol starter, S. cerevisiae Ethanol-Red, was genetically modified to over-express AMPs with activity against fuel-ethanol microbial contaminants and evaluated regarding its biocontrol effect during mixed-culture alcoholic fermentations artificially contaminated with B. bruxellensis. To achieve this goal, S. cerevisiae Ethanol-Red strain was transformed with a plasmid containing the AMPs-codifying genes, i.e., partial sequences of TDH1 (925-963 bp) and TDH2/3 (925-963 bp) and a geneticin resistance marker. The biocontrol effect of those genetically modified strains was evaluated against B. bruxellensis and compared with the antagonistic effect exerted by the modified strain with an empty plasmid (without the AMPs-codifying genes) and the non-modified strain S. cerevisiae Ethanol-Red. For that purpose, mixed-culture alcoholic fermentations were performed in a synthetic must use the modified S. cerevisiae Ethanol-Red strains together with B. bruxellensis. Single-culture fermentations of B. bruxellensis strains were also performed as a negative control of the antagonistic effect exerted by S. cerevisiae strains. Results clearly showed an improved biocontrol effect of the genetically-modified strains against B. bruxellensis when compared with the modified Ethanol-Red strain with the empty plasmid (without the AMPs-codifying genes) and with the non-modified Ethanol-Red strain. In mixed-culture fermentation with the modified S. cerevisiae strain, B. bruxellensis culturability decreased from 5×104 CFU/mL on day-0 to less than 1 CFU/mL on day-10, while in single-culture B. bruxellensis increased its culturability from 6×104 to 1×106 CFU/mL in the first 6 days and kept this value until day-10. Besides, the modified Ethanol-Red strain exhibited an enhanced antagonistic effect against B. bruxellensis when compared with that induced by the non-modified Ethanol-Red strain. Indeed, culturability loss of B. bruxellensis after 10 days of fermentation with the modified Ethanol-Red strain was 98.7 and 100% higher than that occurred in fermentations performed with the non-modified Ethanol-Red and the empty-plasmid modified strain, respectively. Therefore, one can conclude that the S. cerevisiae genetically modified strain obtained in the present work may be a valuable solution for the mitigation of microbial contamination in fuel-ethanol fermentations, representing a much safer and environmentally friendly preservation strategy than the antimicrobial treatments (acid washing and antibiotics) currently applied in fuel-ethanol industry.

Keywords: antimicrobial peptides, fuel-ethanol microbial contaminations, fuel-ethanol fermentation, biocontrol agents, genetically-modified yeasts

Procedia PDF Downloads 22
2070 Prevalence and Risk Factors of Faecal Carriage Fluoroquinolone-Resistant Escherichia coli among Hospitalized Patients in Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria

Authors: C. A. Ologunde

Abstract:

Escherichia coli have been a major microorganisms associated with, and isolated from feacal samples either in adult or children all over the world. Strains of these organisms are resistant to cephalosporins and fluoroquinolone (FQ) antimicrobial agents among hospitalized patients and FQs are the most frequently prescribed antimicrobial class in hospitals, and the level of resistant of E. coli to these antimicrobial agents is a risk factor that should be assessed. Hence, this study was conducted to determine the prevalence and risk factors for colonization with fluoroquinolone (FQ)-resistant E. coli in hospitalized patients in Ado-Ekiti. Rectal swabs were obtained from patients in hospitals in the study area and FQ-resistant E. coli were isolated and identified by means of Nalidixic acid multi-disk and a 1-step screening procedure. Species identification and FQ resistance were confirmed by automated testing (Vitek, bioMerieux, USA). Individual colonies were subjected to pulse-field gel electrophoresis (PAGE) to determine macro-restriction polymorphism after digestion of chromosomal DNA. FQ-resistant E. coli was detected in the stool sample of 37(62%) hospitalized patient. With multivariable analyses, the use of FQ before hospitalization was the only independent risk factor for FQ-resistant E. coli carriage and was consistent for FQ exposures for the 3-12 months of study. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis of FQ-resistant E. coli identified conal spread of 1(one) strain among 18 patients. Loss (9 patients) or acquisition (10 residents) of FQ-resistant E. coli was documented and was associated with de novo colonization with genetically distinct strains. It was concluded that FQ-resistant E. coli carriage was associated with clonal spread. The differential effects of individual fluoroquinolone on antimicrobial drug resistance are an important area for future study, as hospitals manipulate their formularies with regard to use of individual fluoroquinolone, often for economic reasons.

Keywords: E. coli, fluoroquinolone, risk factors, feacal carriage, hospitalized patients, Ado-Ekiti

Procedia PDF Downloads 170
2069 Surpassing Antibiotic Resistance through Synergistic Effects of Polyethyleneimine-Silver Nanoparticle Complex Coated Mesoporous Silica Trio-Nanoconstructs

Authors: Ranjith Kumar Kankala, Wei-Zhi Lin, Chia-Hung Lee

Abstract:

Antibiotic resistance in bacteria has become an emergency situation clinically. To improve the efficacy of antibiotics in resistant strains, advancement of nanoparticles is inevitable than ever. Herewith, we demonstrate a design by immobilizing tetracycline (TET) in copper substituted mesoporous silica nanoparticles (Cu-MSNs) through a pH-sensitive coordination link, enabling its release in the acidic environment. Subsequently, MSNs are coated with silver nanoparticles stabilized polyethyleneimine (PEI-SNP) to act against drug-resistant (MDR) bacterial strains. Silver ions released from SNP are capable of sensitizing the resistant strains and facilitate the generation of free radicals capable of damaging the cell components. In addition, copper ions in the framework are also capable of generating free radicals through Fenton-like reaction. Furthermore, the nanoparticles are well-characterized physically, and various antibacterial efficacious tests against isolated multidrug resistant bacterial strain were highly commendable. However, this formulation has no significant toxic effect on normal mammalian fibroblast cells accounting its high biocompatibility. These MSN trio-hybrids, i.e., SNP, tetracycline, and copper ions result in synergistic effects, and their advancement could bypass resistance and allow synergism for effective treatment of antibiotic clinically.

Keywords: antibiotic resistance, copper, mesoporous silica nanoparticles, Ph-sensitive release, polyethyleneimine, silver, tetracycline

Procedia PDF Downloads 126
2068 Morphological and Biological Identification of Fusarium Species Associated with Ear Rot Disease of Maize in Indonesia and Malaysia

Authors: Darnetty Baharuddin Salleh

Abstract:

Fusarium ear rot disease is one of the most important diseases of maize and not only causes significant losses but also produced harmful mycotoxins to animals and humans. A total of 141 strains of Fusarium species were isolated from maize plants showing typical ear rot symptoms in Indonesia, and Malaysia by using the semi-selective medium (peptone pentachloronitrobenzene agar, PPA). These strains were identified morphologically. For strains in Gibberella fujikuroi species complex (Gfsc), the identification was continued by using biological identification. Three species of Fusarium were morphologically identified as Fusarium in Gibberella species complex (105 strains, 74.5%), F. verticillioides (78 strains), F. proliferatum (24 strains) and F. subglutinans (3 strains) and five species from other section (36 strains, 25.5%), F. graminearum (14 strains), F. oxysporum (8 strains), F. solani ( 1 strain), and F. semitectum (13 strains). Out of 105 Fusarium species in Gfsc, 63 strains were identified as MAT-1, 25 strains as MAT-2 and 17 strains could not be identified and in crosses with nine standard testers, three mating populations of Fusarium were identified as MP-A, G. moniliformis (68 strains, 64.76%), MP-D, G. intermedia (21 strains, 20%) and MP-E, G. subglutinans (3 strains, 2.9%), and 13 strains (12.38%) could not be identified. All trains biologically identified as MP-A, MP-D, and MP-E, were identified morphologically as F. verticillioides, F. proliferatum, and F. subglutinans, respectively. Thus, the results of this study indicated that identification based on biological identification were consistent with those of morphological identification. This is the first report on the presence of MP-A, MP-D, and MP-E on ear rot-infected maize in Indonesia; MP-A and MP-E in Malaysia.

Keywords: Fusarium, MAT-1, MAT-2, MP-A, MP-D, MP-E

Procedia PDF Downloads 236
2067 Evaluation of Essential Oils Toxicity on Resistant and Susceptible House Fly Strains

Authors: Xing Ping Hu, Yuexun Tian, Jerome Hogsette

Abstract:

Housefly, Musca domestica L., is a serious urban nuisance and public health/food safety concern. This study evaluated the topical toxicity of 17 essential oil components and 3 plant essential oils against permethrin-resistant adult females and insecticide-susceptible house fly strains. Results show that thymol had the lowest LD₅₀ values against permethrin-resistant strain (43.77 and 41.10 ug per fly) and permethrin-susceptible strain (35.19 and 29.16 ug per fly) at both 24- and 48-hours post treatments; (+)-Pulegone had the lowest LD₉₅ values against the permethrin-resistant strain (0.15 and 0.10 mg per fly) at 24- and 48-hours post treatments, whereas plant thyme oil had the lowest LD₉₅ value of 0.17 mg per fly at post-24h and post-48h against the permethrin-susceptible strain. Additionally, the LD₅₀s was slightly but not significantly negatively correlated with the boiling points of the compounds tested; but showed no correlation with the density and LogP. These results indicate that specific essential oils and compounds have topical insecticidal properties against house flies with low dose. They may have the potential for development as botanical insecticides.

Keywords: urban pest, public health, pest management, botanical chemical

Procedia PDF Downloads 74
2066 Antibacterial Activity and Kinetic Parameters of the Essential Oils of Drypetes Gossweileri S.Moore, Ocimun Gratissimum L. and Cymbopogon Citratus DC Stapf on 5 Multidrug-Resistant Strains of Shigella

Authors: Elsa Makue Nguuffo, Esther Del Florence Moni Ndedi, Jacky Njiki Bikoï, Jean Paul Assam Assam, Maximilienne Ascension Nyegue

Abstract:

Aims: The present study aims to evaluate the kinetic parameters of essential oils (EOs) and combinations fromDrypetes gossweileri Stem Bark, Ocimum gratissimum leaves, Cymbopogon citratusleaves after evaluation of their antibacterial activityonmultidrug-resistant strains ofShigella. Material and Methods:fiveclinical strains of Shigellaisolated from patients with diarrhoeaincluding Shigella flexneri, and 4 otherstrains of Shigella sppwere selected. Their antibiotic profile was established using agar test diffusion with seven antibiotics belonging to seven classes.EOs were extracted from each plant using hydrodistillation process. The activity of Ciprofloxacin®, OEs, and their combination formulatedinthe followingratios(w/w/w): C1: 1/1/1; C2: 2/1/1; C3: 1/2/1, C4:1/1/2 was evaluated microdilution assay. The various interactions of OEs in the different combinations were determined then the OE and the most active combination were retained to determine their kinetic parameters on S. flexneri. Results: Antibiotic susceptibility tests revealed that most Shigella isolates (n = 4) were resistant to six antibiotics tested. Ciprofloxacin (40%), Nalidixic acid (60%), Tetracycline (80%), Amoxicillin (100%), Cefotaxime (80%), Erythromycin (100%), and Cotrimoxazole (80%) were the profiles found in the different strains of Shigella. About the antibacterial activity of OEs, Drypetes gossweileriOE and C2 combination had shown a higher Shigellicide property with a Minimal Inhibitory Concentration(MIC) respectivelyranging from 0.078 mg/mL to 0.312 mg/mL and 0.012 to 1.562 mg/mL. Combinations of OEs showed various interactions whose synergistic effects were mostly encountered. The best deactivation was obtained by the combination C2 at 16 MIC withb= 1.962. Conclusion: the susceptibility of Shigella to OEs and their combinations justifies their use in traditional medicine in the treatment of shigellosis.

Keywords: shigella, multidrug-resistant, EOs, kinetic

Procedia PDF Downloads 5
2065 Synthesis, Antibacterial Activities, and Synergistic Effects of Novel Juglone and Naphthazarin Derivatives Against Clinical Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Strains

Authors: Zohra Benfodda, Valentin Duvauchelle, Chaimae Majdi, David Bénimélis, Catherine Dunyach-Remy, Patrick Meffre

Abstract:

New antibiotics are necessary to treat microbial pathogens, especially ESKAPE pathogens that are becoming increasingly resistant to available treatment. Despite the medical need, the number of newly approved drugs continues to decline. The majority of antibiotics under clinical development are natural products or derivatives thereof. 43 juglone/naphthazarin derivatives were synthesized using Minisci-type direct C–H alkylation and evaluated for their antibacterial properties against various clinical and reference Gram-positive MSSA, clinical Gram-positive MRSA. Different compounds of the synthesized series showed promising activity against clinical and reference MSSA (MIC: 1–8 μg/ml) and good efficacy against clinical MRSA (MIC: 2–8 μg/ml) strains. The synergistic effects of active compounds were evaluated with reference antibiotics (vancomycin and cloxacillin), and it was found that the antibiotic combination with those active compounds efficiently enhanced the antimicrobial activity and consequently the MIC values of reference antibiotics were lowered up to 1/16th of the original MIC. These synthesized compounds did not present hemolytic activity on sheep red blood cells. In addition to the in silico prediction of ADME profile parameter which is promising and encouraging for further development.

Keywords: juglone, naphthazarin, antibacterial, clinical MRSA, synergistic studies, MIC determination

Procedia PDF Downloads 27
2064 Antibiotic Susceptibility Profile and Horizontal Gene Transfer in Pseudomonas sp. Isolated from Clinical Specimens

Authors: Sadaf Ilyas, Saba Riaz

Abstract:

The extensive use of antibiotics has led to increases emergence of antibiotic-resistant organisms. Pseudomonas is a notorious opportunistic pathogen involoved in nosocomial infections and exhibit innate resistance to many antibiotics. The present study was conducted to assess the prevalence, levels of antimicrobial susceptibility and resistance mechanisms of Pseudomonas. A total of thirty clinical strains of Pseudomonas were isolated from different clinical sites of infection. All clinical specimens were collected from Chughtais Lahore Lab. Jail road, during 8-07-2010 to 11-01-2011. Biochemical characterization was done using routine biochemical tests. Antimicrobial susceptibility was determined by Kirby-Baeur method. The plasmids were isolated from all the strains and digested with restriction enzyme PstI and EcoRI. Transfer of Multi-resistance plasmid was checked via transformation and conjugation to confirm the plasmid mediated resistance to antibiotics. The prevalence of Pseudomonas in clinical specimens was found out to be 14% of all bacterial infections. IPM has shown to be the most effective drug against Pseudomonas followed by CES, PTB and meropenem, wheareas most of the Pseudomonas strains have developed significant resistance against Penicillins and some Cephalasporins. Antibiotic resistance determinants were carried by plasmids, as they conferred resistance to transformed K1 strains. The isolates readily undergo conjugation, transferring the resistant genes to other strains, illustrating the high rates of cross infection and nosocomial infection in the immunocompromised patients.

Keywords: pseudomonas, antibiotics, drug resistance, horizontal gene transfer

Procedia PDF Downloads 242
2063 The Effect of Durability and Pathogen Strains on the Wheat Induced Resistance against Zymoseptoria tritici as a Response to Paenibacillus sp. Strain B2

Authors: E. Samain, T. Aussenac, D. van Tuinen, S. Selim

Abstract:

Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria are known as potential biofertilizers and plant resistance inducers. The present work aims to study the durability of the resistance induced as a response to wheat seeds inoculation with PB2 and its influence by Z. tritici strains. The internal and external roots colonization have been determined in vitro, seven days post inoculation, by measuring the colony forming unit (CFU). In planta experimentations were done under controlled conditions included four wheat cultivars with different levels of resistance against Septoria Leaf Blotch (SLB) and four Z. tritici strains with high aggressiveness and resistance levels to fungicides. Plantlets were inoculated with PB2 at sowing and infected with Z. tritici at 3 leaves or tillering growth stages. The infection level with SLB was evaluated at 17 days post inoculation using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Results showed that PB2 has a high potential of wheat root external colonization (> 10⁶ CFU/g of root). However, the internal colonization seems to be cultivar dependent. Indeed, PB2 has not been observed as endophytic for one cultivar but has a high level of internal colonization with more than 104 CFU/g of root concerning the three others. Two wheat cultivars (susceptible and moderated resistant) were used to investigate PB2-induced resistance (PB2-IR). After the first infection with Z. tritici, results showed that PB2-IR has conferred a high protection efficiency (40-90%) against SLB in the two tested cultivars. Whereas the PB2-IR was effective against all tested strains with the moderate resistant cultivar, it was higher with the susceptible cultivar (> 64%) but against three of the four tested strains. Concerning the durability of the PB2-IR, after the second infection timing, it has been observed a significant decrease (10-59%) depending strains in the moderate resistant cultivar. Contrarily, the susceptible cultivar showed a stable and high protection level (76-84%) but against three of the four tested strains and interestingly, the strain that overcame PB2-IR was not the same as that of the first infection timing. To conclude, PB2 induces a high and durable resistance against Z. tritici. The PB2-IR is pathogen strain, plant growth stage and genotype dependent. These results may explain the loss of the induced resistance effectiveness under field conditions.

Keywords: induced resistance, Paenibacillus sp. strain B2, wheat genotypes, Zymoseptoria tritici

Procedia PDF Downloads 79
2062 Bioprospecting of Marine Actinobacteria: The Leading Way for Industrially Important Enzymes and Bioactive Natural Products

Authors: Ramesh Subramani, Mathivanan Narayanasamy, William Aalbersberg

Abstract:

It is well accepted by last 35 years of research and on-going programmes that marine environment harbours abundant and unique biodiversity, which is currently playing as an important source in bioprospecting. It has become apparent that marine microorganisms are lead in the biodiscovery. Among marine organisms, actinobacteria are a target phylum for discovering novel antibiotics against increasing the multi-drug resistant human pathogens because of these taxa representing for novel genera and species. Marine actinomycetes are a proven source of new antibiotic leads and novel enzymes with important industrial applications. A total of 183 streptomycete and 25 non-streptomycete strains were isolated from different marine samples collected from north-eastern part of the Indian Ocean. Among them, 111 isolates displayed antibacterial activity against human pathogens and 151 exhibited antifungal activity against phytopathogens. Importantly, most of them produced various extracellular enzymes and 58 of them produced exopolysaccharides. Totally eight small bioactive compounds and a thermostable alkaline protease have been purified from a selected strain, Streptomyces fungicidicus. Besides, our on-going studies on non-streptomycete strains (rare actinomycetes) are most likely promising resource for new and unique compounds against current emerging drug-resistant pathogens. We have just recognised the chemical diversity in marine microorganisms. Therefore it is worthwhile to continue the exploration of marine microorganisms for new drug leads, novel enzymes and other bioprospecting research.

Keywords: bioactive compounds, industrial enzymes, marine actinobacteria, microbial metabolites, marine natural products

Procedia PDF Downloads 200
2061 The Production of B-Group Vitamin by Lactic Acid Bacteria and Its Importance in Food Industry

Authors: Goksen Arik, Mihriban Korukluoglu

Abstract:

Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) has been used commonly in the food industry. They can be used as natural preservatives because acidifying carried out in the medium can protect the last product against microbial spoilage. Besides, other metabolites produced by LAB during fermentation period have also an antimicrobial effect on pathogen and spoilage microorganisms in the food industry. LAB are responsible for the desirable and distinctive aroma and flavour which are observed in fermented food products such as pickle, kefir, yogurt, and cheese. Various LAB strains are able to produce B-group vitamins such as folate (B11), riboflavin (B2) and cobalamin (B12). Especially wild-type strains of LAB can produce B-group vitamins in high concentrations. These cultures may be used in food industry as a starter culture and also the microbial strains can be used in encapsulation technology for new and functional food product development. This review is based on the current applications of B-group vitamin producing LAB. Furthermore, the new technologies and innovative researches about B vitamin production in LAB have been demonstrated and discussed for determining their usage availability in various area in the food industry.

Keywords: B vitamin, food industry, lactic acid bacteria, starter culture, technology

Procedia PDF Downloads 285
2060 Typification and Determination of Antibiotic Resistance Rates of Stenotrophomonas Maltophilia Strains Isolated from Intensive Care Unit Patients in a University Practice and Research Hospital

Authors: Recep Kesli, Gulsah Asik, Cengiz Demir, Onur Turkyilmaz

Abstract:

Objective: Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (S. maltophilia) has recently emerged as an important nosocomial microorganism. Treatment of invasive infections caused by this organism is problematic because this microorganism is usually resistant to a wide range of commonly used antimicrobials. We aimed to evaluate clinical isolates of S. maltophilia in respect to sampling sites and antimicrobial resistant. Method: During a two years period (October 2013 and September 2015) eighteen samples collected from the intensive care unit (ICU) patients hospitalized in Afyon Kocatepe University, ANS Practice and Research Hospital. Identification of the bacteria was determined by conventional methods and automated identification system-VITEK 2 (bio-Mérieux, Marcy l’toile, France). Antibacterial resistance tests were performed by Kirby Bauer disc (Oxoid, England) diffusion method following the recommendations of CLSI. Results: Eighteen S. maltophilia strains were identified as the causative agents of different infections. The main type of infection was lower respiratory tract infection (83,4 %); three patients (16,6 %) had bloodstream infection. While, none of the 18 S. maltophilia strains were found to be resistant against to trimethoprim sulfametaxasole (TMP-SXT) and levofloxacine, eight strains 66.6 % were found to be resistant against ceftazidim. Conclusion: The isolation of S.maltophilia starains resistant to TMP-SXT is vital. In order to prevent or minimize infections due to S. maltophilia such precuations should be utilized: Avoidance of inappropriate antibiotic use, prolonged implementation of foreign devices, reinforcement of hand hygiene practices and the application of appropriate infection control practices. Microbiology laboratories also may play important roles in controlling S. maltophilia infections by monitoring the prevalence, continuously, the provision of local antibiotic resistance paterns data and the performance of synergistic studies also may help to guide appropirate antimicrobial therapy choices.

Keywords: Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, antimicrobial resistance, Stenotrophomonas spp.

Procedia PDF Downloads 178
2059 Use of Lactic Strains Isolated from Algerian Ewe's Milk in the Manufacture of a Natural Yogurt

Authors: Chougrani Fadela, Cheriguene Abderrahim

Abstract:

Fifty three strains of thermophilic and mesophilic lactic acid bacteria were isolated from the ewe’s milk. Identification reveals the presence of nineteen strains (36%) of Lactobacillus sp., seventeen strains (32%) of Lactococcus sp., nine strains (17%) of Streptococcus thermophilus and eight strains (15%) of Leuconostoc sp. The strains were characterized for their technological properties. A high diversity of properties among the studied strains was demonstrated. On the basis of technological characteristics, two strains (Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus) were screened with respect to their acid and flavour production for the preparation of a natural yogurt and compared to a commercial starter cultures. Sensorial analyses revealed that the product manufactured on the basis of the isolated strains have a cohesiveness and adhesiveness corresponding to standard products. The pH and the acidity recorded are also within accepted levels during all the period of conservation.

Keywords: Lactobacillus bulgaricus, Streptococcus thermophilus, yoghurt, cohesiveness, adhesiveness, Algerian ewe’s milk

Procedia PDF Downloads 252
2058 Role of ABC-Type Efflux Transporters in Antifungal Resistance of Candida auris

Authors: Mohamed Mahdi Alshahni, Takashi Tamura, Koichi Makimura

Abstract:

Objective: The objective of this study is to evaluate roles of ABC-type efflux transporters in the resistance of Candida auris against common antifungal agents. Material and Methods: A wild-type C. auris strain and its antifungal resistant derivative strain that is generated through induction by antifungal agents were used in this study. The strains were cultured onto media containing beauvericin alone or in combination with azole agents. Moreover, expression levels of four ABC-type transporter’s homologs in those strains were analyzed by real time PCR with or without antifungal stress by fluconazole or voriconazole. Results: Addition of beauvericin helped to partially restore the susceptibility of the resistant strain against fluconazole, suggesting participation of ABC-type transporters in the resistance mechanism. Real time PCR results showed that mRNA levels of three out of the four analyzed transporters in the resistant strain were more than 2-fold higher than their counterparts in the wild-type strain under negative control and antifungal agent-containing conditions. Conclusion: C. auris is an emerging multidrug-resistant pathogen causing human mortality worldwide. Providing effective treatment has been hampered by the resistance to antifungal drugs, demanding understanding the resistance mechanism in order to devise new therapeutic strategies. Our data suggest a partial contribution of ABC-type transporters to the resistance of this pathogen.

Keywords: resistance, C. auris, transporters, antifungi

Procedia PDF Downloads 89