Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 19

Search results for: bioengineering

19 Concept of a Low Cost Gait Rehabilitation Robot for Children with Neurological Dysfunction

Authors: Mariana Volpini, Volker Bartenbach, Marcos Pinotti, Robert Riener


Restoration of gait ability is an important task in the rehabilitation of people with neurological disorders presenting a great impact in the quality of life of an individual. Based on the motor learning concept, robotic assisted treadmill training has been introduced and found to be a feasible and promising therapeutic option in neurological rehabilitation but unfortunately it is not available for most patients in developing countries due to the high cost. This paper presents the concept of a low cost rehabilitation robot to help consolidate the robotic-assisted gait training as a reality in clinical practice in most countries. This work indicates that it is possible to build a simpler rehabilitation device respecting the physiological trajectory of the ankle.

Keywords: bioengineering, gait therapy, low cost rehabilitation robot, rehabilitation robotics

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18 Load Characteristics of Improved Howland Current Pump for Bio-Impedance Measurement

Authors: Zhao Weijie, Lin Xinjian, Liu Xiaojuan, Li Lihua


The Howland current pump is widely used in bio-impedance measurement. Much attention has been focused on the output impedance of the Howland circuit. Here we focus on the maximum load of the Howland source and discuss the relationship between the circuit parameters at maximum load. We conclude that the signal input terminal of the feedback resistor should be as large as possible, but that the current-limiting resistor should be smaller. The op-amp saturation voltage should also be high. The bandwidth of the circuit is proportional to the bandwidth of the op-amp. The Howland current pump was simulated using multisim12. When the AD8066AR was selected as the op-amp, the maximum load was 11.5 kΩ, and the Howland current pump had a stable output ipp to 2mAp up to 200 kHz. However, with an OPA847 op-amp and a load of 6.3 kΩ, the output current was also stable, and the frequency was as high as 3 MHz.

Keywords: bio-impedance, improved Howland current pump, load characteristics, bioengineering

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17 Investigation on Properties and Applications of Graphene as Single Layer of Carbon Atoms

Authors: Ali Ashjaran


Graphene is undoubtedly emerging as one of the most promising materials because of its unique combination of superb properties, which opens a way for its exploitation in a wide spectrum of applications ranging from electronics to optics, sensors, and biodevices. In addition, Graphene-based nanomaterials have many promising applications in energy-related areas. Graphene a single layer of carbon atoms, combines several exceptional properties, which makes it uniquely suited as a coating material: transparency, excellent mechanical stability, low chemical reactivity, Optical, impermeability to most gases, flexibility, and very high thermal and electrical conductivity. Graphene is a material that can be utilized in numerous disciplines including, but not limited to: bioengineering, composite materials, energy technology and nanotechnology, biological engineering, optical electronics, ultrafiltration, photovoltaic cells. This review aims to provide an overiew of graphene structure, properties and some applications.

Keywords: graphene, carbon, anti corrosion, optical and electrical properties, sensors

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16 Virtualization of Biomass Colonization: Potential of Application in Precision Medicine

Authors: Maria Valeria De Bonis, Gianpaolo Ruocco


Nowadays, computational modeling is paving new design and verification ways in a number of industrial sectors. The technology is ripe to challenge some case in the Bioengineering and Medicine frameworks: for example, looking at the strategical and ethical importance of oncology research, efforts should be made to yield new and powerful resources to tumor knowledge and understanding. With these driving motivations, we approach this gigantic problem by using some standard engineering tools such as the mathematics behind the biomass transfer. We present here some bacterial colonization studies in complex structures. As strong analogies hold with some tumor proliferation, we extend our study to a benchmark case of solid tumor. By means of a commercial software, we model biomass and energy evolution in arbitrary media. The approach will be useful to cast virtualization cases of cancer growth in human organs, while augmented reality tools will be used to yield for a realistic aid to informed decision in treatment and surgery.

Keywords: bacteria, simulation, tumor, precision medicine

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15 Bioengineering System for Prediction and Early Prenosological Diagnostics of Stomach Diseases Based on Energy Characteristics of Bioactive Points with Fuzzy Logic

Authors: Mahdi Alshamasin, Riad Al-Kasasbeh, Nikolay Korenevskiy


We apply mathematical models for the interaction of the internal and biologically active points of meridian structures. Amongst the diseases for which reflex diagnostics are effective are those of the stomach disease. It is shown that use of fuzzy logic decision-making yields good results for the prediction and early diagnosis of gastrointestinal tract diseases, depending on the reaction energy of biologically active points (acupuncture points). It is shown that good results for the prediction and early diagnosis of diseases from the reaction energy of biologically active points (acupuncture points) are obtained by using fuzzy logic decision-making.

Keywords: acupuncture points, fuzzy logic, diagnostically important points (DIP), confidence factors, membership functions, stomach diseases

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14 High-Throughput Screening and Selection of Electrogenic Microbial Communities Using Single Chamber Microbial Fuel Cells Based on 96-Well Plate Array

Authors: Lukasz Szydlowski, Jiri Ehlich, Igor Goryanin


We demonstrate a single chamber, 96-well-plated based Microbial Fuel Cell (MFC) with printed, electronic components. This invention is aimed at robust selection of electrogenic microbial community under specific conditions, e.g., electrode potential, pH, nutrient concentration, salt concentration that can be altered within the 96 well plate array. This invention enables robust selection of electrogenic microbial community under the homogeneous reactor, with multiple conditions that can be altered to allow comparative analysis. It can be used as a standalone technique or in conjunction with other selective processes, e.g., flow cytometry, microfluidic-based dielectrophoretic trapping. Mobile conductive elements, like carbon paper, carbon sponge, activated charcoal granules, metal mesh, can be inserted inside to increase the anode surface area in order to collect electrogenic microorganisms and to transfer them into new reactors or for other analytical works. An array of 96-well plate allows this device to be operated by automated pipetting stations.

Keywords: bioengineering, electrochemistry, electromicrobiology, microbial fuel cell

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13 Effect of Citric Acid and Clove on Cured Smoked Meat: A Traditional Meat Product

Authors: Esther Eduzor, Charles A. Negbenebor, Helen O. Agu


Smoking of meat enhances the taste and look of meat, it also increases its longevity, and helps preserve the meat by slowing down the spoilage of fat and growth of bacteria. The Lean meat from the forequarter of beef carcass was obtained from the Maiduguri abattoir. The meat was cut into four portions with weight ranging from 525-545 g. The meat was cut into bits measuring about 8 cm in length, 3.5 cm in thickness and weighed 64.5 g. Meat samples were washed, cured with various concentration of sodium chloride, sodium nitrate, citric acid and clove for 30 min, drained and smoked in a smoking kiln at a temperature range of 55-600°C, for 8 hr a day for 3 days. The products were stored at ambient temperature and evaluated microbiologically and organoleptically. In terms of processing and storage there were increases in pH, free fatty acid content, a decrease in water holding capacity and microbial count of the cured smoked meat. The panelists rated control samples significantly (p < 0.05) higher in terms of colour, texture, taste and overall acceptability. The following organisms were isolated and identified during storage: Bacillus specie, Bacillus subtilis, streptococcus, Pseudomonas, Aspergillus niger, Candida and Penicillium specie. The study forms a basis for new product development for meat industry.

Keywords: citric acid, cloves, smoked meat, bioengineering

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12 Laser Based Microfabrication of a Microheater Chip for Cell Culture

Authors: Daniel Nieto, Ramiro Couceiro


Microfluidic chips have demonstrated their significant application potentials in microbiological processing and chemical reactions, with the goal of developing monolithic and compact chip-sized multifunctional systems. Heat generation and thermal control are critical in some of the biochemical processes. The paper presents a laser direct-write technique for rapid prototyping and manufacturing of microheater chips and its applicability for perfusion cell culture outside a cell incubator. The aim of the microheater is to take the role of conventional incubators for cell culture for facilitating microscopic observation or other online monitoring activities during cell culture and provides portability of cell culture operation. Microheaters (5 mm × 5 mm) have been successfully fabricated on soda-lime glass substrates covered with aluminum layer of thickness 120 nm. Experimental results show that the microheaters exhibit good performance in temperature rise and decay characteristics, with localized heating at targeted spatial domains. These microheaters were suitable for a maximum long-term operation temperature of 120ºC and validated for long-time operation at 37ºC. for 24 hours. Results demonstrated that the physiology of the cultured SW480 adenocarcinoma of the colon cell line on the developed microheater chip was consistent with that of an incubator.

Keywords: laser microfabrication, microheater, bioengineering, cell culture

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11 Numerical Solution of Magneto-Hydrodynamic Flow of a Viscous Fluid in the Presence of Nanoparticles with Fractional Derivatives through a Cylindrical Tube

Authors: Muhammad Abdullah, Asma Rashid Butt, Nauman Raza


Biomagnetic fluids like blood play key role in different applications of medical science and bioengineering. In this paper, the magnetohydrodynamic flow of a viscous fluid with magnetic particles through a cylindrical tube is investigated. The fluid is electrically charged in the presence of a uniform external magnetic field. The movement in the fluid is produced due to the cylindrical tube. Initially, the fluid and tube are at rest and at time t=0⁺, the tube starts to move along its axis. To obtain the mathematical model of flow with fractional derivatives fractional calculus approach is used. The solution of the flow model is obtained by using Laplace transformation. The Simon's numerical algorithm is employed to obtain inverse Laplace transform. The hybrid technique, we are employing has less computational effort as compared to other methods. The numerical calculations have been performed with Mathcad software. As the special cases of our problem, the solution of flow model with ordinary derivatives and flow without magnetic particles has been procured. Finally, the impact of non-integer fractional parameter alpha, Hartmann number Ha, and Reynolds number Re on flow and magnetic particles velocity is analyzed and depicted by graphs.

Keywords: viscous fluid, magnetic particles, fractional calculus, laplace transformation

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10 Mechanical Properties and Thermal Comfort of 3D Printed Hand Orthosis for Neurorehabilitation

Authors: Paulo H. R. G. Reis, Joana P. Maia, Davi Neiva Alves, Mariana R. C. Aquino, Igor B. Guimaraes, Anderson Horta, Thiago Santiago, Mariana Volpini


Additive manufacturing is a manufacturing technique used in many fields as a tool for the production of complex parts accurately. This technique has a wide possibility of applications in bioengineering, mainly in the manufacture of orthopedic devices, thanks to the versatility of shapes and surface details. The present article aims to evaluate the mechanical viability of a wrist-hand orthosis made using additive manufacturing techniques with Nylon 12 polyamide and compare this device with the wrist-hand orthosis manufactured by the traditional process with thermoplastic Ezeform. The methodology used is based on the application of computational simulations of voltage and temperature, from finite element analysis, in order to evaluate the properties of displacement, mechanical stresses and thermal comfort in the two devices. The execution of this work was carried out through a case study with a 29-year-old male patient. The modeling software involved was Meshmixer from US manufacturer Autodesk and Fusion 360 from the same manufacturer. The results demonstrated that the orthosis developed by 3D printing, from Nylon 12, presents better thermal comfort and response to the mechanical stresses exerted on the orthosis.

Keywords: additive manufacturing, finite elements, hand orthosis, thermal comfort, neurorehabilitation

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9 Effect of Natural Molecular Crowding on the Structure and Stability of DNA Duplex

Authors: Chaudhari S. G., Saxena, S.


We systematically and quantitatively investigated the effect of glucose as a model of natural molecular crowding agent on the structure and thermodynamics of Watson-Crick base paired three duplexes (named as D1, D2 and D3) of different base compositions and lengths. Structural analyses demonstrated that duplexes (D1 and D2) folded into B-form with different cations in the absence and presence of glucose while duplex (D3) folded into mixed A and B-form. Moreover, we demonstrated that the duplex was more stable in the absence of glucose, and marginally destabilized in its presence because glucose act as a weak structure breaker on the tetrahedral network of water. In the absence of glucose, the values of ΔG°25 for duplex (D1) were -13.56, -13.76, -12.46, and -12.36 kcal/mol, for duplex (D2) were -13.64, -12.93, -12.86, and -12.30 kcal/mol, for duplex (D3) were -10.05, -11.76, -9.91, -9.70 kcal/mol in the presence of Na+, K+, Na+ + Mg++ and K+ + Mg++ respectively. At high concentration of glucose (1:10000), there was increase in ΔG°25 for duplex (D1) -12.47, -12.37, -11.96, -11.55 kcal/mol, for duplex (D2) -12.37, -11.47, -11.98, -11.01 kcal/mol and for duplex (D3) -8.47, -9.17, -9.16, -8.66 kcal/mol. Our results provide the information that structure and stability of DNA duplex depends on the structure of molecular crowding agent present in its close vicinity. In this study, I have taken the hydration of simple sugar as an essential model for understanding interactions between hydrophilic groups and interfacial water molecules and its effect on hydrogen bonded DNA duplexes. On the basis of these relatively simple building blocks I hope to gain some insights for understanding more generally the properties of sugar–water–salt systems with DNA duplexes.

Keywords: natural molecular crowding, DNA Duplex, structure of DNA, bioengineering and life sciences

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8 Intelligent Control of Bioprocesses: A Software Application

Authors: Mihai Caramihai, Dan Vasilescu


The main research objective of the experimental bioprocess analyzed in this paper was to obtain large biomass quantities. The bioprocess is performed in 100 L Bioengineering bioreactor with 42 L cultivation medium made of peptone, meat extract and sodium chloride. The reactor was equipped with pH, temperature, dissolved oxygen, and agitation controllers. The operating parameters were 37 oC, 1.2 atm, 250 rpm and air flow rate of 15 L/min. The main objective of this paper is to present a case study to demonstrate that intelligent control, describing the complexity of the biological process in a qualitative and subjective manner as perceived by human operator, is an efficient control strategy for this kind of bioprocesses. In order to simulate the bioprocess evolution, an intelligent control structure, based on fuzzy logic has been designed. The specific objective is to present a fuzzy control approach, based on human expert’ rules vs. a modeling approach of the cells growth based on bioprocess experimental data. The kinetic modeling may represent only a small number of bioprocesses for overall biosystem behavior while fuzzy control system (FCS) can manipulate incomplete and uncertain information about the process assuring high control performance and provides an alternative solution to non-linear control as it is closer to the real world. Due to the high degree of non-linearity and time variance of bioprocesses, the need of control mechanism arises. BIOSIM, an original developed software package, implements such a control structure. The simulation study has showed that the fuzzy technique is quite appropriate for this non-linear, time-varying system vs. the classical control method based on a priori model.

Keywords: intelligent, control, fuzzy model, bioprocess optimization

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7 Design and Optimisation of 2-Oxoglutarate Dioxygenase Expression in Escherichia coli Strains for Production of Bioethylene from Crude Glycerol

Authors: Idan Chiyanzu, Maruping Mangena


Crude glycerol, a major by-product from the transesterification of triacylglycerides with alcohol to biodiesel, is known to have a broad range of applications. For example, its bioconversion can afford a wide range of chemicals including alcohols, organic acids, hydrogen, solvents and intermediate compounds. In bacteria, the 2-oxoglutarate dioxygenase (2-OGD) enzymes are widely found among the Pseudomonas syringae species and have been recognized with an emerging importance in ethylene formation. However, the use of optimized enzyme function in recombinant systems for crude glycerol conversion to ethylene is still not been reported. The present study investigated the production of ethylene from crude glycerol using engineered E. coli MG1655 and JM109 strains. Ethylene production with an optimized expression system for 2-OGD in E. coli using a codon optimized construct of the ethylene-forming gene was studied. The codon-optimization resulted in a 20-fold increase of protein production and thus an enhanced production of the ethylene gas. For a reliable bioreactor performance, the effect of temperature, fermentation time, pH, substrate concentration, the concentration of methanol, concentration of potassium hydroxide and media supplements on ethylene yield was investigated. The results demonstrate that the recombinant enzyme can be used for future studies to exploit the conversion of low-priced crude glycerol into advanced value products like light olefins, and tools including recombineering techniques for DNA, molecular biology, and bioengineering can be used to allowing unlimited the production of ethylene directly from the fermentation of crude glycerol. It can be concluded that recombinant E.coli production systems represent significantly secure, renewable and environmentally safe alternative to thermochemical approach to ethylene production.

Keywords: crude glycerol, bioethylene, recombinant E. coli, optimization

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6 Graduate School of Biotechnology and Bioengineering/ YuanZe University

Authors: Sankhanil Das, Arunava Dasgupta, Keya Mitra


This paper investigates the relationship between natural ecological systems and modern urban morphology. Over years, ecological conditions represented by natural resources such as natural landforms, systems of water, urban geography and land covers have been a significant driving factor of how settlements have formed, expanded and functioned. These have played a pivotal role in formation of the community character and the cultural identity of the urban spaces, and have steered cultural behavior within these settings. Such cultural behaviors have been instrumental in transforming mere spaces to places with meaning and symbolism. The natural process of city formation is principally founded upon the idea of balance and harmony, mostly in a subconscious manner. Reimaging such processes of natural evolution, this paper systematically builds a development model that generates a balance between environment and development, with specific focus on the Urban-Rural fringe areas in the Temple Town of Puri, in Eastern India. Puri represents a unique cross section of ecological landscape, cultural practices and religious symbolism with a very rich history and a vibrant heritage. While the city centre gets more and more crowded by tourists and pilgrims to accommodate related businesses, the original residents of Puri relocate to move towards the urban peripheral areas for better living conditions, gradually converting agricultural lands into non agricultural uses. This rapid spread into the rural hinterland is devoid of any connection with the rich cultural identity of Puri. These past four decades of ‘development’ has been at the cost of 810 Hectares of ecological Lake systems in the region. Invaluable ecological resources at urban rural edges are often viewed as hindrances to development and conceptualized as taking away from the image of the city. This paper attempts to understand the language of development over years on existing natural resources through topo-analysis and proposes a sustainable approach of development using different planning tools, with ecological resources as the pivotal factor of development.

Keywords: livability, sustainable development, urbanization, urban-rural edge

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5 Noncovalent Antibody-Nanomaterial Conjugates: A Simple Approach to Produce Targeted Nanomedicines

Authors: Nicholas Fletcher, Zachary Houston, Yongmei Zhao, Christopher Howard, Kristofer Thurecht


One promising approach to enhance nanomedicine therapeutic efficacy is to include a targeting agent, such as an antibody, to increase accumulation at the tumor site. However, the application of such targeted nanomedicines remains limited, in part due to difficulties involved with biomolecule conjugation to synthetic nanomaterials. One approach recently developed to overcome this has been to engineer bispecific antibodies (BsAbs) with dual specificity, whereby one portion binds to methoxy polyethyleneglycol (mPEG) epitopes present on synthetic nanomedicines, while the other binds to molecular disease markers of interest. In this way, noncovalent complexes of nanomedicine core, comprising a hyperbranched polymer (HBP) of primarily mPEG, decorated with targeting ligands are able to be produced by simple mixing. Further work in this area has now demonstrated such complexes targeting the breast cancer marker epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) to show enhanced binding to tumor cells both in vitro and in vivo. Indeed the enhanced accumulation at the tumor site resulted in improved therapeutic outcomes compared to untargeted nanomedicines and free chemotherapeutics. The current work on these BsAb-HBP conjugates focuses on further probing antibody-nanomaterial interactions and demonstrating broad applicability to a range of cancer types. Herein are reported BsAb-HBP materials targeted towards prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) and study of their behavior in vivo using ⁸⁹Zr positron emission tomography (PET) in a dual-tumor prostate cancer xenograft model. In this model mice bearing both PSMA+ and PSMA- tumors allow for PET imaging to discriminate between nonspecific and targeted uptake in tumors, and better quantify the increased accumulation following BsAb conjugation. Also examined is the potential for formation of these targeted complexes in situ following injection of individual components? The aim of this approach being to avoid undesirable clearance of proteinaceous complexes upon injection limiting available therapeutic. Ultimately these results demonstrate BsAb functionalized nanomaterials as a powerful and versatile approach for producing targeted nanomedicines for a variety of cancers.

Keywords: bioengineering, cancer, nanomedicine, polymer chemistry

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4 Comparative Appraisal of Polymeric Matrices Synthesis and Characterization Based on Maleic versus Itaconic Anhydride and 3,9-Divinyl-2,4,8,10-Tetraoxaspiro[5.5]-Undecane

Authors: Iordana Neamtu, Aurica P. Chiriac, Loredana E. Nita, Mihai Asandulesa, Elena Butnaru, Nita Tudorachi, Alina Diaconu


In the last decade, the attention of many researchers is focused on the synthesis of innovative “intelligent” copolymer structures with great potential for different uses. This considerable scientific interest is stimulated by possibility of the significant improvements in physical, mechanical, thermal and other important specific properties of these materials. Functionalization of polymer in synthesis by designing a suitable composition with the desired properties and applications is recognized as a valuable tool. In this work is presented a comparative study of the properties of the new copolymers poly(maleic anhydride maleic-co-3,9-divinyl-2,4,8,10-tetraoxaspiro[5.5]undecane) and poly(itaconic-anhydride-co-3,9-divinyl-2,4,8,10-tetraoxaspiro[5.5]undecane) obtained by radical polymerization in dioxane, using 2,2′-azobis(2-methylpropionitrile) as free-radical initiator. The comonomers are able for generating special effects as for example network formation, biodegradability and biocompatibility, gel formation capacity, binding properties, amphiphilicity, good oxidative and thermal stability, good film formers, and temperature and pH sensitivity. Maleic anhydride (MA) and also the isostructural analog itaconic anhydride (ITA) as polyfunctional monomers are widely used in the synthesis of reactive macromolecules with linear, hyperbranched and self & assembled structures to prepare high performance engineering, bioengineering and nano engineering materials. The incorporation of spiroacetal groups in polymer structures improves the solubility and the adhesive properties, induce good oxidative and thermal stability, are formers of good fiber or films with good flexibility and tensile strength. Also, the spiroacetal rings induce interactions on ether oxygen such as hydrogen bonds or coordinate bonds with other functional groups determining bulkiness and stiffness. The synthesized copolymers are analyzed by DSC, oscillatory and rotational rheological measurements and dielectric spectroscopy with the aim of underlying the heating behavior, solution viscosity as a function of shear rate and temperature and to investigate the relaxation processes and the motion of functional groups present in side chain around the main chain or bonds of the side chain. Acknowledgments This work was financially supported by the grant of the Romanian National Authority for Scientific Research, CNCS-UEFISCDI, project number PN-II-132/2014 “Magnetic biomimetic supports as alternative strategy for bone tissue engineering and repair’’ (MAGBIOTISS).

Keywords: Poly(maleic anhydride-co-3, 9-divinyl-2, 4, 8, 10-tetraoxaspiro (5.5)undecane); Poly(itaconic anhydride-co-3, 9-divinyl-2, 4, 8, 10-tetraoxaspiro (5.5)undecane); DSC; oscillatory and rotational rheological analysis; dielectric spectroscopy

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3 Functionalizing Gold Nanostars with Ninhydrin as Vehicle Molecule for Biomedical Applications

Authors: Swati Mishra


In recent years, there has been an explosion in Gold NanoParticle (GNP) research, with a rapid increase in publications in diverse fields, including imaging, bioengineering, and molecular biology. GNPs exhibit unique physicochemical properties, including surface plasmon resonance (SPR) and bind amine and thiol groups, allowing surface modification and use in biomedical applications. Nanoparticle functionalization is the subject of intense research at present, with rapid progress being made towards developing biocompatible, multi-functional particles. In the present study, the photochemical method has been done to functionalize various-shaped GNPs like nanostars by the molecules like ninhydrin. Ninhydrin is bactericidal, virucidal, fungicidal, antigen-antibody reactive, and used in fingerprint technology in forensics. The GNPs functionalized with ninhydrin efficiently will bind to the amino acids on the target protein, which is of eminent importance during the pandemic, especially where long-term treatments of COVID- 19 bring many side effects of the drugs. The photochemical method is adopted as it provides low thermal load, selective reactivity, selective activation, and controlled radiation in time, space, and energy. The GNPs exhibit their characteristic spectrum, but a distinctly blue or redshift in the peak will be observed after UV irradiation, ensuring efficient ninhydrin binding. Now, the bound ninhydrin in the GNP carrier, upon chemically reacting with any amino acid, will lead to the formation of Rhumann purple. A common method of GNP production includes citrate reduction of Au [III] derivatives such as aurochloric acid (HAuCl4) in water to Au [0] through a one-step synthesis of size-tunable GNPs. The following reagents are prepared to validate the approach. Reagent A solution 1 is0.0175 grams ninhydrin in 5 ml Millipore water Reagent B 30 µl of HAuCl₄.3H₂O in 3 ml of solution 1 Reagent C 1 µl of gold nanostars in 3 ml of solution 1 Reagent D 6 µl of cetrimonium bromide (CTAB) in 3 ml of solution1 ReagentE 1 µl of gold nanostars in 3 ml of ethanol ReagentF 30 µl of HAuCl₄.₃H₂O in 3 ml of ethanol ReagentG 30 µl of HAuCl₄.₃H₂O in 3 ml of solution 2 ReagentH solution 2 is0.0087 grams ninhydrin in 5 ml Millipore water ReagentI 30 µl of HAuCl₄.₃H₂O in 3 ml of water The reagents were irradiated at 254 nm for 15 minutes, followed by their UV Visible spectroscopy. The wavelength was selected based on the one reported for excitation of a similar molecule Pthalimide. It was observed that the solution B and G deviate around 600 nm, while C peaks distinctively at 567.25 nm and 983.9 nm. Though it is tough to say about the chemical reaction happening, butATR-FTIR of reagents will ensure that ninhydrin is not forming Rhumann purple in the absence of amino acids. Therefore, these experiments, we achieved the functionalization of gold nanostars with ninhydrin corroborated by the deviation in the spectrum obtained in a mixture of GNPs and ninhydrin irradiated with UV light. It prepares them as a carrier molecule totake up amino acids for targeted delivery or germicidal action.

Keywords: gold nanostars, ninhydrin, photochemical method, UV visible specgtroscopy

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2 Intelligent Materials and Functional Aspects of Shape Memory Alloys

Authors: Osman Adiguzel


Shape-memory alloys are a new class of functional materials with a peculiar property known as shape memory effect. These alloys return to a previously defined shape on heating after deformation in low temperature product phase region and take place in a class of functional materials due to this property. The origin of this phenomenon lies in the fact that the material changes its internal crystalline structure with changing temperature. Shape memory effect is based on martensitic transitions, which govern the remarkable changes in internal crystalline structure of materials. Martensitic transformation, which is a solid state phase transformation, occurs in thermal manner in material on cooling from high temperature parent phase region. This transformation is governed by changes in the crystalline structure of the material. Shape memory alloys cycle between original and deformed shapes in bulk level on heating and cooling, and can be used as a thermal actuator or temperature-sensitive elements due to this property. Martensitic transformations usually occur with the cooperative movement of atoms by means of lattice invariant shears. The ordered parent phase structures turn into twinned structures with this movement in crystallographic manner in thermal induced case. The twinned martensites turn into the twinned or oriented martensite by stressing the material at low temperature martensitic phase condition. The detwinned martensite turns into the parent phase structure on first heating, first cycle, and parent phase structures turn into the twinned and detwinned structures respectively in irreversible and reversible memory cases. On the other hand, shape memory materials are very important and useful in many interdisciplinary fields such as medicine, pharmacy, bioengineering, metallurgy and many engineering fields. The choice of material as well as actuator and sensor to combine it with the host structure is very essential to develop main materials and structures. Copper based alloys exhibit this property in metastable beta-phase region, which has bcc-based structures at high temperature parent phase field, and these structures martensitically turn into layered complex structures with lattice twinning following two ordered reactions on cooling. Martensitic transition occurs as self-accommodated martensite with inhomogeneous shears, lattice invariant shears which occur in two opposite directions, <110 > -type directions on the {110}-type plane of austenite matrix which is basal plane of martensite. This kind of shear can be called as {110}<110> -type mode and gives rise to the formation of layered structures, like 3R, 9R or 18R depending on the stacking sequences on the close-packed planes of the ordered lattice. In the present contribution, x-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) studies were carried out on two copper based alloys which have the chemical compositions in weight; Cu-26.1%Zn 4%Al and Cu-11%Al-6%Mn. X-ray diffraction profiles and electron diffraction patterns reveal that both alloys exhibit super lattice reflections inherited from parent phase due to the displacive character of martensitic transformation. X-ray diffractograms taken in a long time interval show that locations and intensities of diffraction peaks change with the aging time at room temperature. In particular, some of the successive peak pairs providing a special relation between Miller indices come close each other.

Keywords: Shape memory effect, martensite, twinning, detwinning, self-accommodation, layered structures

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1 Physical Aspects of Shape Memory and Reversibility in Shape Memory Alloys

Authors: Osman Adiguzel


Shape memory alloys take place in a class of smart materials by exhibiting a peculiar property called the shape memory effect. This property is characterized by the recoverability of two certain shapes of material at different temperatures. These materials are often called smart materials due to their functionality and their capacity of responding to changes in the environment. Shape memory materials are used as shape memory devices in many interdisciplinary fields such as medicine, bioengineering, metallurgy, building industry and many engineering fields. The shape memory effect is performed thermally by heating and cooling after first cooling and stressing treatments, and this behavior is called thermoelasticity. This effect is based on martensitic transformations characterized by changes in the crystal structure of the material. The shape memory effect is the result of successive thermally and stress-induced martensitic transformations. Shape memory alloys exhibit thermoelasticity and superelasticity by means of deformation in the low-temperature product phase and high-temperature parent phase region, respectively. Superelasticity is performed by stressing and releasing the material in the parent phase region. Loading and unloading paths are different in the stress-strain diagram, and the cycling loop reveals energy dissipation. The strain energy is stored after releasing, and these alloys are mainly used as deformation absorbent materials in control of civil structures subjected to seismic events, due to the absorbance of strain energy during any disaster or earthquake. Thermal-induced martensitic transformation occurs thermally on cooling, along with lattice twinning with cooperative movements of atoms by means of lattice invariant shears, and ordered parent phase structures turn into twinned martensite structures, and twinned structures turn into the detwinned structures by means of stress-induced martensitic transformation by stressing the material in the martensitic condition. Thermal induced transformation occurs with the cooperative movements of atoms in two opposite directions, <110 > -type directions on the {110} - type planes of austenite matrix which is the basal plane of martensite. Copper-based alloys exhibit this property in the metastable β-phase region, which has bcc-based structures at high-temperature parent phase field. Lattice invariant shear and twinning is not uniform in copper-based ternary alloys and gives rise to the formation of complex layered structures, depending on the stacking sequences on the close-packed planes of the ordered parent phase lattice. In the present contribution, x-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) studies were carried out on two copper-based CuAlMn and CuZnAl alloys. X-ray diffraction profiles and electron diffraction patterns reveal that both alloys exhibit superlattice reflections inherited from the parent phase due to the displacive character of martensitic transformation. X-ray diffractograms taken in a long time interval show that diffraction angles and intensities of diffraction peaks change with the aging duration at room temperature. In particular, some of the successive peak pairs providing a special relation between Miller indices come close to each other. This result refers to the rearrangement of atoms in a diffusive manner.

Keywords: shape memory effect, martensitic transformation, reversibility, superelasticity, twinning, detwinning

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