Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 38

Search results for: Zakir Husain

38 Steady State Analysis of Distribution System with Wind Generation Uncertainity

Authors: Zakir Husain, Neem Sagar, Neeraj Gupta

Abstract:

Due to the increased penetration of renewable energy resources in the distribution system, the system is no longer passive in nature. In this paper, a steady state analysis of the distribution system has been done with the inclusion of wind generation. The modeling of wind turbine generator system and wind generator has been made to obtain the average active and the reactive power injection into the system. The study has been conducted on a IEEE-33 bus system with two wind generators. The present research work is useful not only to utilities but also to customers.

Keywords: distributed generation, distribution network, radial network, wind turbine generating system

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37 Field Experience with Sweep Frequency Response Analysis for Power Transformer Diagnosis

Authors: Ambuj Kumar, Sunil Kumar Singh, Shrikant Singh, Zakir Husain, R. K. Jarial

Abstract:

Sweep frequency response analysis has been turning out a powerful tool for investigation of mechanical as well as electrical integration of transformers. In this paper various aspect of practical application of SFRA has been studied. Open circuit and short circuit measurement were done on different phases of high voltage and low voltage winding. A case study was presented for the transformer of rating 31.5 MVA for various frequency ranges. A clear picture was presented for sub- frequency ranges for HV as well as LV winding. The main motive of work is to investigate high voltage short circuit response. The theoretical concept about SFRA responses is validated with expert system software results.

Keywords: transformer winding, SFRA, OCT & SCT, frequency deviation

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36 ANFIS Based Technique to Estimate Remnant Life of Power Transformer by Predicting Furan Contents

Authors: Priyesh Kumar Pandey, Zakir Husain, R. K. Jarial

Abstract:

Condition monitoring and diagnostic is important for testing of power transformer in order to estimate the remnant life. Concentration of furan content in transformer oil can be a promising indirect measurement of the aging of transformer insulation. The oil gets contaminated mainly due to ageing. The present paper introduces adaptive neuro fuzzy technique to correlate furanic compounds obtained by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) test and remnant life of the power transformer. The results are obtained by conducting HPLC test at TIFAC-CORE lab, NIT Hamirpur on thirteen power transformer oil samples taken from Himachal State Electricity Board, India.

Keywords: adaptive neuro fuzzy technique, furan compounds, remnant life, transformer oil

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35 Estimation of Harmonics in Three-Phase and Six-Phase-Phase (Multi-Phase) Load Circuits

Authors: Zakir Husain, Deepak Kumar

Abstract:

The harmonics are very harmful within an electrical system and can have serious consequences such as reducing the life of apparatus, stress on cable and equipment etc. This paper cites extensive analytical study of harmonic characteristics of multiphase (six-phase) and three-phase system equipped with two and three level inverters for non-linear loads. Multilevel inverter has elevated voltage capability with voltage limited devices, low harmonic distortion, abridged switching losses. Multiphase technology also pays a promising role in harmonic reduction. Matlab simulation is carried out to compare the advantage of multi-phase over three phase systems equipped with two or three level inverters for non-linear load harmonic reduction. The extensive simulation results are presented based on case studies.

Keywords: fast Fourier transform (FFT), harmonics, inverter, ripples, total harmonic distortion (THD)

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34 Transformer Design Optimization Using Artificial Intelligence Techniques

Authors: Zakir Husain

Abstract:

Main objective of a power transformer design optimization problem requires minimizing the total overall cost and/or mass of the winding and core material by satisfying all possible constraints obligatory by the standards and transformer user requirement. The constraints include appropriate limits on winding fill factor, temperature rise, efficiency, no-load current and voltage regulation. The design optimizations tasks are a constrained minimum cost and/or mass solution by optimally setting the parameters, geometry and require magnetic properties of the transformer. In this paper, present the above design problems have been formulated by using genetic algorithm (GA) and simulated annealing (SA) on the MATLAB platform. The importance of the presented approach is stems for two main features. First, proposed technique provides reliable and efficient solution for the problem of design optimization with several variables. Second, it guaranteed to obtained solution is global optimum. This paper includes a demonstration of the application of the genetic programming GP technique to transformer design.

Keywords: optimization, power transformer, genetic algorithm (GA), simulated annealing technique (SA)

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33 Self-Reported Health Status and Its Consistency: Evidence from India

Authors: Dona Ghosh, Zakir Husain

Abstract:

In India, the increase in share of aged has generated many social and economic issues, of which health concerns is a major challenge that society must confront in coming years. Self-reported health (SRH) is a popular health measure in this regard but has been questioned in recent years due to its heavy dependence on the socioeconomic status. So, the validity of SRH, as a measure of health status during old age, is needed to be verified. This paper emphasizes on the self-reported health and related inconsistent responses among elderly in India. The objective of the study is bifurcated into two parts: firstly, to identify the socioeconomic determinants of subjective health status and its change over time; and secondly, to analyse the role of the socioeconomic components in providing inconsistent responses regarding the health status of elderly. Inconsistency in response can rise in two ways: positive response bias (if an individual has a health problem but reports his/her health as good) and negative response bias (if bad health is reported even if there is no health problem). However, in the present study, we focus only on the negative response bias of elderly individuals. To measure the inconsistencies in responses, self-reported health is compared with two types of physical health conditions – existence of chronicle ailment and physical immobility. Using NSS dataset of 60th and 71st rounds, the study found that subjective health has worsened over time in both rural and urban areas. Findings suggest that inconsistency in responses, related to chronic ailment, vary across social classes, living environments, geographical regions, age groups and education levels. On the contrary, variation in inconsistent responses regarding physical mobility is quite rare and difficult to explain by socioeconomic characteristics because most of the indicators are found to be insignificant in this regard. The findings indicate that in case of chronicle ailment, inconsistency between objective and subjective health status largely depends on socioeconomic conditions but the importance of such factors disappears for physical immobility.

Keywords: India, aging, self-reported health, inconsistent responses

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32 Highly Efficient in Vitro Regeneration of Swertia chirayita (Roxb. ex Fleming) Karsten: A Critically Endangered Medicinal Plant

Authors: Mahendran Ganesan, Sanjeet Kumar Verma, Zafar Iqbal, Ashish Chandran, Zakir Husain, Shama Afroz, Sana Shahid, Laiq Ur Rahman

Abstract:

Highly efficient in vitro regeneration system has been developed for Swertia chirayita (Roxb. ex Fleming) H. Karst, a high prized traditional medicinal plant to treat numerous ailments such as liver disorders, malaria and diabetes and are reported to have a wide spectrum of pharmacological properties. Its medicinal usage is well-documented in Indian pharmaceutical codex, the British and the American pharmacopeias, and in different traditional medicine such as the Ayurveda, Unani and Siddha medical systems. Nodal explants were cultured on MS medium supplemented with various phytohormones for multiple shoot induction. The nodal segments failed to respond in growth regulator free medium. All the concentrations of BAP, Kin and TDZ facilitated shoot bud break and multiple shoot induction. Among the various cytokinins tested, BAP was found to be more effective with respect to initiation and subsequent development of shoots. Of the various concentrations BAP tested, BAP at 4.0 mg/L showed the higher average number of shoot regeneration (10.80 shoots per explant). Kin at 4 mg/L and TDZ at 4 mg/L induced 5.70 and 04.5+0 shoots per explant, respectively. Further increase in concentration did not favour an increase in the number of shoots. However, these shoots failed to elongate further. Hence, addition of GA₃ (1 mg/L) was added to the above medium. This treatment resulted in the elongation of shoots (2.50 cm) and a further increase in the number of microshoots (34.20 shoots/explant). Roots were also induced in the same medium containing BAP (4 mg/L) + GA₃ (1 mg/L) + NAA (0.5 mg/L). In vitro derived plantlets with well-developed roots were transferred to the potting media containing garden soil: sand: vermicompost (2:1:1). Plantlets were covered with a polyethylene bag and irrigated with water. The pots were maintained at 25 ± 2ºC, and then the polyethylene cover was gradually loosened, thus dropping the humidity (65–70%). This procedure subsequently resulted in in vitro hardening of the plantlet.

Keywords: micropropagation, nodal explant, plant growth regulators, Swertia chirayita

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31 Graphene/ZnO/Polymer Nanocomposite Thin Film for Separation of Oil-Water Mixture

Authors: Suboohi Shervani, Jingjing Ling, Jiabin Liu, Tahir Husain

Abstract:

Offshore oil-spill has become the most emerging problem in the world. In the current paper, a graphene/ZnO/polymer nanocomposite thin film is coated on stainless steel mesh via layer by layer deposition method. The structural characterization of materials is determined by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPHs) and separation efficiency have been measured via gas chromatography – flame ionization detector (GC-FID). TPHs are reduced to 2 ppm and separation efficiency of the nanocomposite coated mesh is reached ≥ 99% for the final sample. The nanocomposite coated mesh acts as a promising candidate for the separation of oil- water mixture.

Keywords: oil spill, graphene, oil-water separation, nanocomposite

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30 Role of Dedicated Medical Social Worker in Fund Mobilisation and Economic Evaluation in Ovarian Cancer: Experience from a Tertiary Referral Centre in Eastern India

Authors: Aparajita Bhattacharya, Mousumi Dutta, Zakir Husain, Dionne Sequeira, Asima Mukhopadhyay

Abstract:

Background: Tata Medical Centre (TMC), Kolkata is a major cancer referral centre in Eastern India and neighbouring countries providing state of the art facilities; however, it is a non-profit organisation with patients requiring to pay at subsidised rates. Although a system for social assessment and applying for governmental/ non-governmental (NGO) funds is in place, access is challenging. Amongst gynaecological cancers (GC), ovarian cancer (OC) is associated with the highest treatment cost; majority of which is required at the beginning when complex surgery is performed and funding arrangements cannot be made in time. We therefore appointed a dedicated Medical Social Worker (MSW) in 2016, supported by NGO for GC patients in order to assist patients/family members to access/avail these funds more readily and assist in economic evaluation for both direct and opportunity costs. Objectives: To reflect on our experience and challenges in collecting data on economic evaluation of cancer patients and compare success rates in achieving fund mobilization after introduction of MSW. Methods: A Retrospective survey. Patients with OC and their relatives were seen by the MSW during the initial outpatients department visit and followed though till discharge from the hospital and during follow-up visits. Assistance was provided in preparing the essential documents/paperwork/contacts for the funding agencies including both governmental (Chief-Minister/Prime-Minister/President) and NGO sources. In addition, a detailed questionnaire was filled up for economic assessment of direct/opportunity costs during the entire treatment and 12 months follow up period which forms a part of the study called HEPTROC (Health economic evaluation of primary treatment for ovarian cancer) developed in collaboration with economics departments of Universities. Results: In 2015, 102 patients were operated for OC; only 16 patients (15.68 %) had availed funding of a total sum of INR 1640000 through the hospital system for social assessment. Following challenges were faced by majority of the relatives: 1. Gathering important documents/proper contact details for governmental funding bodies and difficulty in following up the current status 3. Late arrival of funds. In contrast in 2016, 104 OC patients underwent surgery; the direct cost of treatment was significantly higher (median, INR 300000- 400000) compared to other GCs (n=274). 98/104 (94.23%) OC patients could be helped to apply for funds and 90/104(86.56%) patients received funding amounting to a total of INR 10897000. There has been a tenfold increase in funds mobilized in 2016 after the introduction of dedicated MSW in GC. So far, in 2017 (till June), 46/54(85.18%) OC patients applied for funds and 37/54(68.51%) patients have received funding. In a qualitative survey, all patients appreciated the role of the MSW who subsequently became the key worker for patient follow up and the chief portal for patient reported outcome monitoring. Data collection quality for the HEPTROC study was improved when questionnaires were administered by the MSW compared to researchers. Conclusion: Introduction of cancer specific MSW can expedite the availability of funds required for cancer patients and it can positively impact on patient satisfaction and outcome reporting. The economic assessment will influence fund allocation and decision for policymaking in ovarian cancer. Acknowledgement: Jivdaya Foundation Dallas, Texas.

Keywords: economic evaluation, funding, medical social worker, ovarian cancer

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29 The Falling Point of Lubricant

Authors: Arafat Husain

Abstract:

The lubricants are one of the most used resource in today’s world. Lot of the superpowers are dependent on the lubricant resource for their country to function. To see that the lubricants are not adulterated we need to develop some efficient ways and to see which fluid has been added to the lubricant. So to observe the these malpractices in the lubricant we need to develop a method. We take a elastic ball and through it at probability circle in the submerged in the lubricant at a fixed force and see the distance of pitching and the point of fall. Then we the ratio of distance of falling to the distance of pitching and if the measured ratio is greater than one the fluid is less viscous and if the ratio is lesser than the lubricant is viscous. We will check the falling point of pure lubricant at fixed force and every pure lubricant would have a fixed falling point. After that we would adulterate the lubricant and note the falling point and if the falling point is less than the standard value then adulterate is solid and if the adulterate is liquid the falling point will be more than the standard value. Hence the comparison with the standard falling point will give the efficiency of the lubricant.

Keywords: falling point of lubricant, falling point ratios, probability circle, octane number

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28 Analysis of Brushless DC Motor with Trapezoidal Back EMF Using Matlab

Authors: Taha Ahmed Husain

Abstract:

The dynamic characteristics such as speed and torque as well as voltages and currents of pwm brushless DC motor inverter are analyzed with a MATLAB model. The contribution of external load torque and friction torque is monitored. The switching function technique is adopted for the current control of the embedded three phase inverter that drives the brushless DC motor.In switching functions the power conversions circuits can be modeled according to their functions rather than circuit topologies. Therefore, it can achieve simplification of the overall power conversion functions. The trapezoidal type (back emf) is used in the model as ithas lower switching loss compared with sinusoidal type (back emf). Results show reliable time analysis for speed, torque, phase and line voltages and currents and the effect of current commutation is clearly observed.

Keywords: BLDC motor, brushless dc motors, pwm inverter, DC motor control, trapezoidal back emf, ripple torque in brushless DC motor

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27 Optimal Closed-loop Input Shaping Control Scheme for a 3D Gantry Crane

Authors: Mohammad Javad Maghsoudi, Z. Mohamed, A. R. Husain

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Input shaping has been utilized for vibration reduction of many oscillatory systems. This paper presents an optimal closed-loop input shaping scheme for control of a three dimensional (3D) gantry crane system including. This includes a PID controller and Zero Vibration shaper which consider two control objectives concurrently. The control objectives are minimum sway of a payload and fast and accurate positioning of a trolley. A complete mathematical model of a lab-scaled 3D gantry crane is simulated in Simulink. Moreover, by utilizing PSO algorithm and a proposed scheme the controller is designed to cater both control objectives concurrently. Simulation studies on a 3D gantry crane show that the proposed optimal controller has an acceptable performance. The controller provides good position response with satisfactory payload sway in both rail and trolley responses.

Keywords: 3D gantry crane, input shaping, closed-loop control, optimal scheme, PID

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26 Evaluation of P300 and CNV Changes in Patients with Essential Tremor

Authors: Sehur Sibel Ozkaynak, Zakir Koc, Ebru Barcın

Abstract:

Essential tremor (ET) is one of the most common movement disorders and has long been considered a monosymptomatic disorder. While ET has traditionally been categorized as a pure motor disease, cross-sectional and longitudinal studies of cognition in ET have been demonstrated that these patients may have cognitive dysfunction. We investigated the neuro physiological aspects of cognition in ET, using event-related potentials (ERPs).Twenty patients with ET and 20 age-education and sex matched healthy controls underwent a neuro physiological evaluation. P300 components and Contingent Negative Variation (CNV) were recorded. The latencies and amplitudes of the P300 and CNV were evaluated. P200-N200 amplitude was significantly smaller in the ET group, while no differences emerged between patients and controls in P300 latencies. CNV amplitude was significantly smaller at Cz electrode site in the ET group. No differences were observed between in the two groups in CNV latencies. As a result, P300 and CNV parameters did not show significant differences between in the two groups, does not mean that there aren't mild cognitive changes in ET patients. In this regard, there is a need to further studies using electro physiological tests related to cognitive changes in ET patients.

Keywords: cognition, essential tremor, event related potentials

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25 Perspective and Challenge of Tidal Power in Bangladesh

Authors: Md. Alamgir Hossain, Md. Zakir Hossain, Md. Atiqur Rahman

Abstract:

Tidal power can play a vital role in integrating as new source of renewable energy to the off-grid power connection in isolated areas, namely Sandwip, in Bangladesh. It can reduce the present energy crisis and improve the social, environmental and economic perspective of Bangladesh. Tidal energy is becoming popular around the world due to its own facilities. The development of any country largely depends on energy sector improvement. Lack of energy sector is because of hampering progress of any country development, and the energy sector will be stable by only depend on sustainable energy sources. Renewable energy having environmental friendly is the only sustainable solution of secure energy system. Bangladesh has a huge potential of tidal power at different locations, but effective measures on this issue have not been considered sincerely. This paper summarizes the current energy scenario, and Bangladesh can produce power approximately 53.19 MW across the country to reduce the growing energy demand utilizing tidal energy as well as it is shown that Sandwip is highly potential place to produce tidal power, which is estimated approximately 16.49 MW by investing only US $10.37 million. Besides this, cost management for tidal power plant has been also discussed.

Keywords: sustainable energy, tidal power, cost analysis, power demand, gas crisis

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24 Role of Nano Gelatin and Hydrogel Based Scaffolds in Odontogenic Differentiation of Human Dental Pulp Stem Cells

Authors: Husain S. Yawer, Vasim Raja Panwar, Nidhi Priya

Abstract:

The objective of this study is to evaluate and compare the role of nano-gelatin and Bioengineered Scaffolds on the attachment, proliferation, and osteogenic differentiation of human dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs). Tooth decay and early fall have each been one of the most prevailing dental disorders which cause physical and emotional suffering and compromise the patient's quality of life. The design of novel scaffolding materials will be based on mimicking the architecture of natural dental extracellular matrix which may provide as in vivo environments for proper cell growth. This methodology will involve the combination of nano-fibred gelatin as well as biodegradable hydrogel based tooth scaffold. We have measured and optimized the Dental Pulp Stem Cells growth profile in cultures carried out on collagen-coated plastic surface, however, for tissue regeneration study, we aim to develop an enhanced microenvironment for stem cell growth and dental tissue regeneration. We believe biomimetic cell adhesion and scaffolds might provide a near in vivo growth environment for proper growth and differentiation of human DPSCs, which further help in dentin/pulp tissue regeneration.

Keywords: nano-gelatin, stem cells, dental pulp, scaffold

Procedia PDF Downloads 190
23 Environmental Online Campaigns Through Website Interactivity: The Case of Malaysia Environmental NGOs (MENGO)

Authors: Mohd Fadzil Mohd Idris, Aida Nasirah Abdullah, Kalthom Husain, Hanipah Hussin

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Online campaigns reflect all the advantages; namely speed, low cost, accessibility, customization, interactivity, and persuasive ability over other media channels. Normally via websites, expensive campaigns could be done not only faster and cheaper, but also successfully. Web interactivity seems to be highly beneficial to ENGOs in advocating environmental campaigns and trigger interaction. This paper looks into the environmental online campaigns through websites of the environmental NGOs in Malaysia (MENGO); particularly on how is web interactivity structured and employed by the selected the MENGO to conduct campaigns on important issues and encourage dialogue among the audience. In this study, a quantitative method for website content analysis was conducted to investigate the availability of the coded units and to determine on which level(s) the units were placed. Twelve (12) interactivity features were coded, including the placement of units of analysis for interactivity category as units of analysis until the fourth level (Level 0-Level 3). The result demonstrates how the MENGO do not effectively structure and employ the web interactivity to conduct campaigns on important issues and encourage dialogue among the audience. It is suggested that the MENGO should redevelop the interactive website in order to effectively advocate environmental campaigns on important issues and encourage dialogue among the audience.

Keywords: environmental NGOs (ENGO), Malaysia environmental NGOs (MENGO), internet, website, online campaigns, web interactivity

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22 Comparative Evaluation of Pharmacologically Guided Approaches (PGA) to Determine Maximum Recommended Starting Dose (MRSD) of Monoclonal Antibodies for First Clinical Trial

Authors: Ibraheem Husain, Abul Kalam Najmi, Karishma Chester

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First-in-human (FIH) studies are a critical step in clinical development of any molecule that has shown therapeutic promise in preclinical evaluations, since preclinical research and safety studies into clinical development is a crucial step for successful development of monoclonal antibodies for guidance in pharmaceutical industry for the treatment of human diseases. Therefore, comparison between USFDA and nine pharmacologically guided approaches (PGA) (simple allometry, maximum life span potential, brain weight, rule of exponent (ROE), two species methods and one species methods) were made to determine maximum recommended starting dose (MRSD) for first in human clinical trials using four drugs namely Denosumab, Bevacizumab, Anakinra and Omalizumab. In our study, the predicted pharmacokinetic (pk) parameters and the estimated first-in-human dose of antibodies were compared with the observed human values. The study indicated that the clearance and volume of distribution of antibodies can be predicted with reasonable accuracy in human and a good estimate of first human dose can be obtained from the predicted human clearance and volume of distribution. A pictorial method evaluation chart was also developed based on fold errors for simultaneous evaluation of various methods.

Keywords: clinical pharmacology (CPH), clinical research (CRE), clinical trials (CTR), maximum recommended starting dose (MRSD), clearance and volume of distribution

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21 Design, Synthesis and Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Some Coumarin and Flavone Derivatives Containing 1,4 Dioxane Ring System

Authors: Asif Husain, Shah Alam Khan

Abstract:

Coumarins and flavones are oxygen containing heterocyclic compounds which are present in various biologically active compounds. Both the heterocyclic rings are associated with diverse biological actions, therefore considered as an important scaffold for the design of molecules of pharmaceutical interest. Aim: To synthesize and evaluate the in vivo anti-inflammatory activity of few coumrain and flavone derivatives containing 1,4 dioxane ring system. Materials and methods: Coumarin derivatives (3a-d) were synthesized by reacting 7,8 dihydroxy coumarin (2a) and its 4-methyl derivative (2b) with epichlorohydrin/ethylene dibromide. The flavone derivatives (10a-d) were prepared by using quercetin and 3,4 dihydroxy flavones. Compounds of both the series were also evaluated for their anti-inflammatory, analgesic activity and ulcerogenicity in animal models by reported methods. Results and Discussion: The structures of all newly synthesized compounds were confirmed with the help of IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR and Mass spectral studies. Elemental analyses data for each element analyzed (C, H, N) was found to be within acceptable range of ±0.4 %. Flavone derivatives, but in particular quercetin containing 1,4 dioxane ring system (10d) showed better anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity along with reduced gastrointestinal toxicity as compared to other synthesized compounds. The results of anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of both the series are comparable with the positive control, diclofenac. Conclusion: Compound 10d, a quercetin derivative, emerged as a lead molecule which exhibited potent anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity with significant reduced gastric toxicity.

Keywords: analgesic, anti-inflammatory, 1, 4 dioxane, coumarin, flavone

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20 Pattern of Refractive Error, Knowledge, Attitude and Practice about Eye Health among the Primary School Children in Bangladesh

Authors: Husain Rajib, K. S. Kishor, D. G. Jewel

Abstract:

Background: Uncorrected refractive error is a common cause of preventable visual impairment in pediatric age group which can be lead to blindness but early detection of visual impairment can reduce the problem that will have good effective in education and more involve in social activities. Glasses are the cheapest and commonest form of correction of refractive errors. To achieve this, patient must exhibit good compliance to spectacle wear. Patient’s attitude and perception of glasses and eye health could affect compliance. Material and method: A Prospective community based cross sectional study was designed in order to evaluate the knowledge, attitude and practices about refractive errors and eye health amongst the primary school going children. Result: Among 140 respondents, 72 were males and 68 were females. We found 50 children were myopic and out of them 26 were male and 24 were female, 27 children were hyperopic and out of them 14 were male and 13 were female. About 63 children were astigmatic and out of them 32 were male and 31 were female. The level of knowledge, attitude was satisfactory. The attitude of the students, teachers and parents was cooperative which helps to do cycloplegic refraction. Practice was not satisfactory due to social stigma and information gap. Conclusion: Knowledge of refractive error and acceptance of glasses for the correction of uncorrected refractive error. Public awareness program such as vision screening program, eye camp, and teachers training program are more beneficial for wearing and prescribing spectacle.

Keywords: refractive error, stigma, knowledge, attitude, practice

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19 High Catalytic Activity and Stability of Ginger Peroxidase Immobilized on Amino Functionalized Silica Coated Titanium Dioxide Nanocomposite: A Promising Tool for Bioremediation

Authors: Misha Ali, Qayyum Husain, Nida Alam, Masood Ahmad

Abstract:

Improving the activity and stability of the enzyme is an important aspect in bioremediation processes. Immobilization of enzyme is an efficient approach to amend the properties of biocatalyst required during wastewater treatment. The present study was done to immobilize partially purified ginger peroxidase on amino functionalized silica coated titanium dioxide nanocomposite. Interestingly there was an enhancement in enzyme activity after immobilization on nanosupport which was evident from effectiveness factor (η) value of 1.76. Immobilized enzyme was characterized by transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Immobilized peroxidase exhibited higher activity in a broad range of pH and temperature as compared to free enzyme. Also, the thermostability of peroxidase was strikingly improved upon immobilization. After six repeated uses, the immobilized peroxidase retained around 62% of its dye decolorization activity. There was a 4 fold increase in Vmax of immobilized peroxidase as compared to free enzyme. Circular dichroism spectroscopy demonstrated conformational changes in the secondary structure of enzyme, a possible reason for the enhanced enzyme activity after immobilization. Immobilized peroxidase was highly efficient in the removal of acid yellow 42 dye in a stirred batch process. Our study shows that this bio-remediating system has remarkable potential for treatment of aromatic pollutants present in wastewater.

Keywords: acid yellow 42, decolorization, ginger peroxidase, immobilization

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18 Linearization of Y-Force Equation of Rigid Body Equation of Motion and Behavior of Fighter Aircraft under Imbalance Weight on Wings during Combat

Authors: Jawad Zakir, Syed Irtiza Ali Shah, Rana Shaharyar, Sidra Mahmood

Abstract:

Y-force equation comprises aerodynamic forces, drag and side force with side slip angle β and weight component along with the coupled roll (φ) and pitch angles (θ). This research deals with the linearization of Y-force equation using Small Disturbance theory assuming equilibrium flight conditions for different state variables of aircraft. By using assumptions of Small Disturbance theory in non-linear Y-force equation, finally reached at linearized lateral rigid body equation of motion; which says that in linearized Y-force equation, the lateral acceleration is dependent on the other different aerodynamic and propulsive forces like vertical tail, change in roll rate (Δp) from equilibrium, change in yaw rate (Δr) from equilibrium, change in lateral velocity due to side force, drag and side force components due to side slip, and the lateral equation from coupled rotating frame to decoupled rotating frame. This paper describes implementation of this lateral linearized equation for aircraft control systems. Another significant parameter considered on which y-force equation depends is ‘c’ which shows that any change bought in the weight of aircrafts wing will cause Δφ and cause lateral force i.e. Y_c. This simplification also leads to lateral static and dynamic stability. The linearization of equations is required because much of mathematics control system design for aircraft is based on linear equations. This technique is simple and eases the linearization of the rigid body equations of motion without using any high-speed computers.

Keywords: Y-force linearization, small disturbance theory, side slip, aerodynamic force drag, lateral rigid body equation of motion

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17 Improvement of Visual Acuity in Patient Undergoing Occlusion Therapy

Authors: Rajib Husain, Mezbah Uddin, Mohammad Shamsal Islam, Rabeya Siddiquee

Abstract:

Purpose: To determine the improvement of visual acuity in patients undergoing occlusion therapy. Methods: This was a prospective hospital-based study of newly diagnosed of amblyopia seen at the pediatric clinic of Chittagong Eye Infirmary & Training Complex. There were 32 refractive amblyopia subjects were examined & questionnaire was piloted. Included were all patients diagnosed with refractive amblyopia between 5 to 8 years, without previous amblyopia treatment, and whose parents were interested to participate in the study. Patients diagnosed with strabismic amblyopia were excluded. Patients were first corrected with the best correction for a month. When the VA in the amblyopic eye did not improve over a month, then occlusion treatment was started. Occlusion was done daily for 6-8 h together with vision therapy. The occlusion was carried out for three months. Results: Out of study 32 children, 31 of them have a good compliance of amblyopic treatment whereas one child has poor compliance. About 6% Children have amblyopia from Myopia, 7% Hyperopia, 32% from myopic astigmatism, 42% from hyperopic astigmatism and 13% have mixed astigmatism. The mean and Standard deviation of present average VA was 0.452±0.275 Log MAR and after an intervention of amblyopia therapy with vision therapy mean and Standard deviation VA was 0.155±0.157 Log MAR. Out of total respondent 21.85% have BCVA in range from (0-.2) log MAR, 37.5% have BCVA in range from (0.22-0.5) log MAR, 35.95% have in range from (0.52-0.8) log MAR, 4.7% have in range from (0.82-1) log MAR and after intervention of occlusion therapy with vision therapy 76.6% have VA in range from (0-.2) log MAR, 21.85% have VA in range from (0.22-0.5) log MAR, 1.5% have in range from (0.52-0.8) log MAR. Conclusion: Amblyopia is a most important factor in pediatric age group because it can lead to visual impairment. Thus, this study concludes that occlusion therapy with vision therapy is probably one of the best treatment methods for amblyopic patients (age 5-8 years), and compliance and age were the most critical factor predicting a successful outcome.

Keywords: amblyopia, occlusion therapy, vision therapy, eccentric fixation, visuoscopy

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16 An Evaluation of Rational Approach to Management by Objectives in Construction Contracting Organisation

Authors: Zakir H. Shaik, Punam L. Vartak

Abstract:

Management By Objectives (MBO) is a management technique in which objectives of an organisation are conveyed to the employees to establish the individual goals. These objectives and goals are then monitored and assessed jointly by management and the employee time to time. This tool can be used for planning, monitoring as well as for performance appraisal. The success of an organisation is largely dependent on its’s Vision. Thus, it is of paramount importance to achieve the realm of vision through a mission which is well crafted within the organisation to address the objectives. The success of the mission depends upon how realistic and action oriented philosophical approach, an organisation caters to; and how the individual goals are set to track and meet the objectives. Thus, focused and passionate efforts of the team, assigned for the mission, are an absolute obligation for achieving the vision of any organisation. Any construction site is generally a controlled disorder having huge investments, resources and logistics involved. The Construction progression is time-consuming with many isolated as well as interconnected activities. Traditional MBO approach can be unsuccessful if planning and control is non-realistic and inflexible. Moreover, the Construction Industry is far behind understanding these concepts. It is important to address the employee engagement in defining and creating awareness to achieve the targets. Besides, current economic environment and competitive world demands refined management tools to achieve profit, growth and survival of the business. Therefore, the necessity of rational MBO becomes vital part towards the success of an organisation. This paper details about the philosophical assumptions to develop the grounded theory in lieu of achieving objectives through RATIONAL MBO approach in Construction Contracting Organisations. The goals and objectives of the Construction Contracting Organisations can be achieved efficiently by adopting this RATIONAL MBO approach, as those are based on realistic, logical and balanced assumptions.

Keywords: growth, leadership, management by objectives, Management By Objectives (MBO), profit, rational

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15 E-Book Market In Vietnam: Great Potential, Many Barriers

Authors: Zakir Hossain

Abstract:

Nowadays reading e-books on laptops, smartphones, and tablets have become a new leisure activity for Vietnamese youth. Since 2011 the copyrighted e-book market began to develop in Vietnam with the participation of five local enterprises. Over the last five years, thousands of e-books were published including the first online early education book series for children from 0 to 6 years old. Research shows that 61% Vietnamese find reading e-books is comfortable, and 45% feel convenient buying books online. More than half of the Vietnamese consider reading online far better than buying printed books, and surprisingly people over age 30 desire reading online while those under 18 prefer reading printed books. Hence with a market of more than 40 million regular internet users including 22 million smartphone users, Vietnam has ample opportunities to develop the e-book market and contribute a great deal to the diversity of the local reading culture which is essential for Building a Lifelong Learning Society, a state ambition of Vietnam by 2020. However, the e-book market in Vietnam is still in its infancy and is growing far too slowly than e-book producers had expected. All five e-book enterprises are facing numerous challenges. While the big profit that e-book technology can bring has been clearly recognised in other countries, e-books in Vietnam only make up less than 1% share of the book market. The objective of the study is to identify the difficulties and barriers to the development of the e-book market in Vietnam through an extensive literature review available in English. The study revealed that illegal e-books due to copyright infringement and an inconvenient payment system to purchase e-books are the major obstacles. The great potential of e-books in Vietnam is a reality but requires government enforcement of copyright protection laws, a new area of focus for the e-book market. Furthermore, Vietnamese readers should change their habits from using free and illegal e-books to develop the e-publishing industry in Vietnam.

Keywords: copyright, e-book, e-book reading, e-publishing, Vietnam

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14 Media-Based Interventions to Influence English Language Learning: A Case of Bangladesh

Authors: Md. Mizanoor Rahman, Md. Zakir Hossain Talukder, M. Mahruf C. Shohel, Prithvi Shrestha

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In Bangladesh, classroom practice and English Learning (EL) competencies acquired both by the teacher and learner in primary and secondary schools are still very weak. Therefore, English is the most commonly failed examination subject at the school level; in addition, there are severe problems in communicative English by the Bangladeshi nationals– this has been characterized as a constraint to economic development. Job applicants and employees often lack English language skills necessary to work effectively. As a result; both government and its international development partners such as DFID, UNESCO, and CIDA have been very active to uplift the quality of the English language learning and implementing projects with innovative approaches. Recently; the economy has been increasing and in line with this, the technology has been deployed in English learning to improve reading, writing, speaking and listening skills. Young Bangladeshi creative, from a variety of backgrounds including film, animation, photography, and digital media are being trained to develop ideas for English Language Teaching (ELT) media. They are being motivated to develop a wide range of ideas for low cost English learning media products. English Language education policy in Bangladesh supports communicative language teaching practices and accordingly, actors have been influencing curriculum, textbook, deployment of technology and assessment changes supporting communicative ELT. The various projects are also being implemented to reform the curriculum, revise the textbook and adjust the assessment mechanism so that the country can increase in proficiency in communicative English among the population. At present; the numbers of teachers, students and adult learners classified at higher levels of proficiency because of deployment of technology and motivation for learning and using English among school population of Bangladesh. The current paper discusses the various interventions in Bangladesh with appropriate media to improve the competencies of the ELT among population.

Keywords: English learning, technology, education, psychological sciences

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13 Organic Geochemical Characteristics of Cenozoic Mudstones, NE Bengal Basin, Bangladesh

Authors: H. M. Zakir Hossain

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Cenozoic mudstone samples, obtained from drilled cored and outcrop in northeastern Bengal Basin of Bangladesh were organic geochemically analyzed to identify vertical variations of organic facies, thermal maturity, hydrocarbon potential and depositional environments. Total organic carbon (TOC) content ranges from 0.11 to 1.56 wt% with an average of 0.43 wt%, indicating a good source rock potential. Total sulphur content is variable with values ranging from ~0.001 to 1.75 wt% with an average of 0.065 wt%. Rock-Eval S1 and S2 yields range from 0.03 to 0.14 mg HC/g rock and 0.01 to 0.66 mg HC/g rock, respectively. The hydrogen index values range from 2.71 to 56.09 mg HC/g TOC. These results revealed that the samples are dominated by type III kerogene. Tmax values of 426 to 453 °C and vitrinite reflectance of 0.51 to 0.66% indicate the organic matter is immature to mature. Saturated hydrocarbon ratios such as pristane, phytane, steranes, and hopanes, indicate mostly terrigenous organic matter with small influence of marine organic matter. Organic matter in the succession was accumulated in three different environmental conditions based on the integration of biomarker proxies. First phase (late Eocene to early Miocene): Deposition occurred entirely in seawater-dominated oxic conditions, with high inputs of land plants organic matter including angiosperms. Second phase (middle to late Miocene): Deposition occurred in freshwater-dominated anoxic conditions, with phytoplanktonic organic matter and a small influence of land plants. Third phase (late Miocene to Pleistocene): Deposition occurred in oxygen-poor freshwater conditions, with abundant input of planktonic organic matter and high influx of angiosperms. The lower part (middle Eocene to early Miocene) of the succession with moderate TOC contents and primarily terrestrial organic matter could have generated some condensates and oils in and around the study area.

Keywords: Bangladesh, geochemistry, hydrocarbon potential, mudstone

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12 Improving Quality of Family Planning Services in Pakistan

Authors: Mohammad Zakir, Saamia Shams

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Background: Provision of quality family planning services remarkably contribute towards increased uptake of modern contraceptive methods and have important implications on reducing fertility rates. The quality of care in family planning has beneficial impact on reproductive health of women, yet little empirical evidence is present to show the relationship between the impact of adequate training of Community Mid Wives (CMW) and quality family planning services. Aim: This study aimed to enhance the knowledge and counseling skills of CMWs in improving the access to quality client-centered family planning services in Pakistan. Methodology: A quasi-experimental longitudinal study using Initial Quality Assurance Scores-Training-Post Training Quality Assurance Scores design with a non- equivalent control group was adopted to compare a set of experimental CMWs that received four days training package including Family Planning Methods, Counselling, Communication skills and Practical training on IUCD insertion with a set of comparison CMWs that did not receive any intervention. A sample size of 100 CMW from Suraj Social Franchise (SSF) private providers was recruited from both urban and rural Pakistan. Results: Significant improvement in the family planning knowledge and counseling skills (p< 0.001) of the CMWs was evident in the experimental group as compared to comparison group with p > 0.05. Non- significant association between pre-test level family planning knowledge and counseling skills was observed in both the groups (p>0.05). Conclusion: The findings demonstrate that adequate training is an important determinant of quality of family planning services received by clients. Provider level training increases the likelihood of contraceptives uptake and decreases the likelihood of both unintended and unwanted pregnancies. Enhancing quality of family planning services may significantly help reduce the fertility and improve the reproductive health indicators of women in Pakistan.

Keywords: community mid wives, family planning services, quality of care, training

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11 Dietary Exposure of Heavy Metals through Cereals Commonly Consumed by Dhaka City Residents

Authors: A. Md. Bayejid Hosen, B. M Zakir Hossain Howlader, C. Yearul Kabir

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Contamination of soil and agricultural products by heavy metals resulting from rapid industrial development has caused major concern. Dietary exposure to heavy metals has been associated with toxic and adverse health effects. The main threats to human health from heavy metals are associated with exposure to Pb, Cd and Hg. The aim of this study was to monitor the presence of heavy metals in cereals collected from different wholesale markets of Dhaka City. One hundred and sixty cereal samples were collected and analyzed for determination of heavy metals. Heavy metals were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). A total of six heavy metals– lead, chromium, cadmium, mercury, arsenic and antimony were estimated. The average concentrations of heavy metals in cereals fall within the safe limit established by regulatory organizations except for Pb (152.4 μg/100g) and Hg (15.13 μg/100g) which exceeded the safe limits. BARI gom-26 was the highest source of Pb (304.1 μg/100g) whereas Haski-29 rice variety contained the highest amount of Hg (60.85 μg/100g). Though all the cereal varieties contained approximately same amount of Cr the naizer sail varieties contained huge amount of Cr (171.8 μg/100g). Among all the cereal samples miniket rice varieties contained the least amount of heavy metals. The concentration of Cr (63.24 μg/100g), Cd (5.54 μg/100g) and As (3.26 μg/100g) in all cereals were below the safe limits. The daily intake of heavy metals was determined using the total weight of cereals consumed each day multiplied by the concentrations of heavy metals in cereals. The daily intake was compared with provisional maximum tolerable daily intake set by different regulatory organizations. The daily intake of Cd (23.0 μg), Hg (63.0 μg) and as (13.6 μg) through cereals were below the risk level except for Pb (634.0 μg) and Cr (263.1 μg). As the main meal of average Bangladeshi people is boiled rice served with some sorts of vegetables, our findings indicate that the residents of Dhaka City are at risk from Pb and Cr contamination. Potential health risks from exposure to heavy metals in self-planted cereals need more attention.

Keywords: contamination, dietary exposure, heavy metals, human health, ICP-MS

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10 Pattern of Anisometropia, Management and Outcome of Anisometropic Amblyopia

Authors: Husain Rajib, T. H. Sheikh, D. G. Jewel

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Background: Amblyopia is a frequent cause of monocular blindness in children. It can be unilateral or bilateral reduction of best corrected visual acuity associated with decrement in visual processing, accomodation, motility, spatial perception or spatial projection. Anisometropia is an important risk factor for amblyopia that develops when unequal refractive error causes the image to be blurred in the critical developmental period and central inhibition of the visual signal originating from the affected eye associated with significant visual problems including anisokonia, strabismus, and reduced stereopsis. Methods: It is a prospective hospital based study of newly diagnosed of amblyopia seen at the pediatric clinic of Chittagong Eye Infirmary & Training Complex. There were 50 anisometropic amblyopia subjects were examined & questionnaire was piloted. Included were all patients diagnosed with refractive amblyopia between 3 to 13 years, without previous amblyopia treatment, and whose parents were interested to participate in the study. Patients diagnosed with strabismic amblyopia were excluded. Patients were first corrected with the best correction for a month. When the VA in the amblyopic eye did not improve over month, then occlusion treatment was started. Occlusion was done daily for 6-8 hours (full time) together with vision therapy. The occlusion was carried out for 3 months. Results: In this study about 8% subjects had anisometropia from myopia, 18% from hyperopia, 74% from astigmatism. The initial mean visual acuity was 0.74 ± 0.39 Log MAR and after intervention of amblyopia therapy with active vision therapy mean visual acuity was 0.34 ± 0.26 Log MAR. About 94% of subjects were improving at least two lines. The depth of amblyopia associated with type of anisometropic refractive error and magnitude of Anisometropia (p<0.005). By doing this study 10% mild amblyopia, 64% moderate and 26% severe amblyopia were found. Binocular function also decreases with magnitude of Anisometropia. Conclusion: Anisometropic amblyopia is a most important factor in pediatric age group because it can lead to visual impairment. Occlusion therapy with at least one instructed hour of active visual activity practiced out of school hours was effective in anisometropic amblyopes who were diagnosed at the age of 8 years and older, and the patients complied well with the treatment.

Keywords: refractive error, anisometropia, amblyopia, strabismic amblyopia

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9 Appraisal of Different Levels of Soybean Meal in Diets on Growth, Digestive Enzyme Activity, Antioxidation and Gut Histology of Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)

Authors: Zakir Hossain, Arzu Pervin, Halima Jahan, Rabeya Akter, Abdel Omri

Abstract:

Replacement of fish meal with soybean meal is an effective way to relieve the pressure on fish meal as the supply of this feed ingredient is dwindling and certainly is not sustainable in long term at present levels in commercial feeds. This study was designed to determine the effect of fishmeal (FM) replacement with soybean meal (SBM) in diet on growth, digestive enzyme activity, antioxidation and gut histomorphology of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). Five diets were formulated where SBM0 contained 100% FM, FM substituted with graded levels of a mix of SBM to replace 25% (SBM25), 50% (SBM50), 75% (SBM75) and 100% (SBM100) of FM. Juvenile tilapia having weight and length of 6.60±0.13 g and 5.42±0.17 cm were randomly divided into five treatment groups having 40 individual each group and fed to visual satiation for 90 days. Diet with SBM was increased significant in body weight gain and specific growth rate in fish compared to the fish fed with SBM100. Fish having the similar weight (74.34±5.41 g) fed the diets SBM50, SBM75 and SBM100 containing higher level of SBM showed significantly longer intestine compared to SBM0. Villus height of stomach and intestine were significantly greater in the fish fed with the diets SBM0, SBM25 and SBM50 compared to SBM100. Muscular thickness was inversely changed with the increasing villus height. Protease activity was increased significantly in stomach, anterior and posterior intestine of fish fed with SBM0 and SBM25 compared to SBM100. In anterior and posterior segment of intestine, significantly higher lipase activity was observed in fish fed with the diets SBM0 and SBM25 compared to diet SBM100. In stomach, amylase activity was also significantly greater in SBM0 compared to SBM100. The antioxidant enzymes including catalase and superoxide dismutase of liver were significantly (P < 0.05) higher in the O. niloticus fed SBM100 compared to the ones fed SBM0. These results suggest that the replacement of FM upto 75% with SBM could be possible considering the growth performances, gut health and activities digestive enzymes and antioxidant enzymes in O. niloticus.

Keywords: soybean meal, fish meal, digestive enzymes, anti-oxidant enzymes

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