Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 6885

Search results for: extraction technique

6885 Mechanisms of Ginger Bioactive Compounds Extract Using Soxhlet and Accelerated Water Extraction

Authors: M. N. Azian, A. N. Ilia Anisa, Y. Iwai

Abstract:

The mechanism for extraction bioactive compounds from plant matrix is essential for optimizing the extraction process. As a benchmark technique, a soxhlet extraction has been utilized for discussing the mechanism and compared with an accelerated water extraction. The trends of both techniques show that the process involves extraction and degradation. The highest yields of 6-, 8-, 10-gingerols and 6-shogaol in soxhlet extraction were 13.948, 7.12, 10.312 and 2.306 mg/g, respectively. The optimum 6-, 8-, 10-gingerols and 6-shogaol extracted by the accelerated water extraction at 140oC were 68.97±3.95 mg/g at 3min, 18.98±3.04 mg/g at 5min, 5.167±2.35 mg/g at 3min and 14.57±6.27 mg/g at 3min, respectively. The effect of temperature at 3mins shows that the concentration of 6-shogaol increased rapidly as decreasing the recovery of 6-gingerol.

Keywords: mechanism, ginger bioactive compounds, soxhlet extraction, accelerated water extraction

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6884 Enhanced Thai Character Recognition with Histogram Projection Feature Extraction

Authors: Benjawan Rangsikamol, Chutimet Srinilta

Abstract:

This research paper deals with extraction of Thai character features using the proposed histogram projection so as to improve the recognition performance. The process starts with transformation of image files into binary files before thinning. After character thinning, the skeletons are entered into the proposed extraction using histogram projection (horizontal and vertical) to extract unique features which are inputs of the subsequent recognition step. The recognition rate with the proposed extraction technique is as high as 97 percent since the technique works very well with the idiosyncrasies of Thai characters.

Keywords: character recognition, histogram projection, multilayer perceptron, Thai character features extraction

Procedia PDF Downloads 387
6883 Scale-Up Process for Phyllanthus niruri Enriched Extract by Supercritical Fluid Extraction

Authors: Norsyamimi Hassim, Masturah Markom

Abstract:

Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) has been known as a sustainable and safe extraction technique for plant extraction due to the minimal usage of organic solvent. In this study, a scale-up process for the selected herbal plant (Phyllanthus niruri) was investigated by using supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) with food-grade (ethanol-water) cosolvent. The quantification of excess ethanol content in the final dry extracts was conducted to determine the safety of enriched extracts. The extraction yields obtained by scale-up SFE unit were not much different compared to the predicted extraction yields with an error of 2.92%. For component contents, the scale-up extracts showed comparable quality with laboratory-scale experiments. The final dry extract showed that the excess ethanol content was 1.56% g/g extract. The fish embryo toxicity test (FETT) on the zebrafish embryos showed no toxicity effects by the extract, where the LD50 value was found to be 505.71 µg/mL. Thus, it has been proven that SFE with food-grade cosolvent is a safe extraction technique for the production of bioactive compounds from P. niruri.

Keywords: scale-up, supercritical fluid extraction, enriched extract, toxicity, ethanol content

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6882 The Effect of Supercritical Fluid on the Extraction Efficiency of Heavy Metal from Soil

Authors: Haifa El-Sadi, Maria Elektorowicz, Reed Rushing, Ammar Badawieh, Asif Chaudry

Abstract:

Clay soils have particular properties that affect the assessment and remediation of contaminated sites. In clay soils, electro-kinetic transport of heavy metals has been carried out. The transport of these metals is predicated on maintaining a low pH throughout the cell, which, in turn, keeps the metals in the pore water phase where they are accessible to electro-kinetic transport. Supercritical fluid extraction and acid digestion were used for the analysis of heavy metals concentrations after the completion of electro-kinetic experimentation. Supercritical fluid (carbon dioxide) extraction is a new technique used to extract the heavy metal (lead, nickel, calcium and potassium) from clayey soil. The comparison between supercritical extraction and acid digestion of different metals was carried out. Supercritical fluid extraction, using ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) as a modifier, proved to be efficient and a safer technique than acid digestion technique in extracting metals from clayey soil. Mixing time of soil with EDTA before extracting heavy metals from clayey soil was investigated. The optimum and most practical shaking time for the extraction of lead, nickel, calcium and potassium was two hours.

Keywords: clay soil, heavy metals, supercritical fluid extraction, acid digestion

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6881 Supercritical CO2 Extraction of Cymbopogon martini Essential Oil and Comparison of Its Composition with Traditionally Extracted Oils

Authors: Aarti Singh, Anees Ahmad

Abstract:

Essential oil was extracted from lemon grass (Cymbopogon martini) with supercritical carbondioxide (SC-CO2) at pressure of 140 bar and temperature of 55 °C and CO2 flow rate of 8 gmin-1, and its composition and yield were compared with other conventional extraction methods of oil, HD (Hydrodistillation), SE (Solvent Extraction), UAE (Ultrasound Assisted Extraction). SC-CO2 extraction is a green and sustainable extraction technique. Each oil was analysed by GC-MS, the major constituents were neral (44%), Z-citral (43%), geranial (27%), caryophyllene (4.6%) and linalool (1%). The essential oil of lemon grass is valued for its neral and citral concentration. The oil obtained by supercritical carbon-dioxide extraction contained maximum concentration of neral (55.05%) whereas ultrasonication extracted oil contained minimum content (5.24%) and it was absent in solvent extracted oil. The antioxidant properties have been assessed by DPPH and superoxide scavenging methods.

Keywords: cymbopogon martini, essential oil, FT-IR, GC-MS, HPTLC, SC-CO2

Procedia PDF Downloads 388
6880 Microwave Assisted Extraction (MAE) of Castor Oil from Castor Bean

Authors: Ghazi Faisal Najmuldeen, Rosli Mohd Yunus, Nurfarahin Bt Harun, Mardhiana Binti Ismail

Abstract:

The microwave extraction has attracted great interest among the researchers. The main virtue of the microwave technique is cost-effective, time saving and simple handling procedure. Castor beans was chosen because of its high content in fatty acid, especially ricinoleic acid. The purpose of this research is to extract the castor oil by using the microwave assisted extraction (MAE) using ethanol as solvent and to investigate the influence of extraction time on castor oil yield and to characterize the main composition of the produced castor oil by using the GC-MS. It was found that there is a direct dependence between the oil yield and the time of extraction as it increases from 45% to 58% as the time increase from 10 min to 60 min. The major components of castor oil detected by GC-MS were ricinoleic acid, linoleic acid and oleic acid.

Keywords: microwave assisted extraction (MAE), castor oil, ricinoleic acid, linoleic acid

Procedia PDF Downloads 385
6879 Microwave Accelerated Simultaneous Distillation –Extraction: Preparative Recovery of Volatiles from Food Products

Authors: Ferhat Mohamed, Boukhatem Mohamed Nadjib, Chemat Farid

Abstract:

Simultaneous distillation–extraction (SDE) is routinely used by analysts for sample preparation prior to gas chromatography analysis. In this work, a new process design and operation for microwave assisted simultaneous distillation – solvent extraction (MW-SDE) of volatile compounds was developed. Using the proposed method, isolation, extraction and concentration of volatile compounds can be carried out in a single step. To demonstrate its feasibility, MW-SDE was compared with the conventional technique, Simultaneous distillation–extraction (SDE), for gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis of volatile compounds in a fresh orange juice and a dry spice “carvi seeds”. SDE method required long time (3 h) to isolate the volatile compounds, and large amount of organic solvent (200 mL of hexane) for further extraction, while MW-SDE needed little time (only 30 min) to prepare sample, and less amount of organic solvent (10 mL of hexane). These results show that MW-SDE–GC-MS is a simple, rapid and solvent-less method for determination of volatile compounds from aromatic plants.

Keywords: essential oil, extraction, distillation, carvi seeds

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6878 Optimization of Synergism Extraction of Toxic Metals (Lead, Copper) from Chlorides Solutions with Mixture of Cationic and Solvating Extractants

Authors: F. Hassaine-Sadi, S. Chelouaou

Abstract:

In recent years, environmental contamination by toxic metals such as Pb, Cu, Ni, Zn ... has become a worldwide crucial problem, particularly in some areas where the population depends on groundwater for drinking daily consumption. Thus, the sources of metal ions come from the metal manufacturing industry, fertilizers, batteries, paints, pigments and so on. Solvent extraction of metal ions has given an important role in the development of metal purification processes such as the synergistic extraction of some divalent cations metals ( M²⁺), the ions metals from various sources. This work consists of a water purification technique that involves the lead and copper systems: Pb²⁺, H₃O+, Cl⁻ and Cu²⁺, H₃O⁺, Cl⁻ for diluted solutions by a mixture of tri-n-octylphosphine oxide (TOPO) or Tri-n-butylphosphate(TBP) and di (2-ethyl hexyl) phosphoric acid (HDEHP) dissolved in kerosene. The study of the fundamental parameters influencing the extraction synergism: cation exchange/extraction solvent have been examined.

Keywords: synergistic extraction, lead, copper, environment

Procedia PDF Downloads 368
6877 An Automatic Feature Extraction Technique for 2D Punch Shapes

Authors: Awais Ahmad Khan, Emad Abouel Nasr, H. M. A. Hussein, Abdulrahman Al-Ahmari

Abstract:

Sheet-metal parts have been widely applied in electronics, communication and mechanical industries in recent decades; but the advancement in sheet-metal part design and manufacturing is still behind in comparison with the increasing importance of sheet-metal parts in modern industry. This paper presents a methodology for automatic extraction of some common 2D internal sheet metal features. The features used in this study are taken from Unipunch ™ catalogue. The extraction process starts with the data extraction from STEP file using an object oriented approach and with the application of suitable algorithms and rules, all features contained in the catalogue are automatically extracted. Since the extracted features include geometry and engineering information, they will be effective for downstream application such as feature rebuilding and process planning.

Keywords: feature extraction, internal features, punch shapes, sheet metal

Procedia PDF Downloads 534
6876 Recovery of Essential Oil from Zingiber Officinale Var. Bentong Using Ultrasound Assisted-Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Extraction

Authors: Norhidayah Suleiman, Afza Zulfaka

Abstract:

Zingiber officinale var. Bentong has been identified as the source of high added value compound specifically gingerol-related compounds. The extraction of the high-value compound using conventional method resulted in low yield and time consumption. Hence, the motivation for this work is to investigate the effect of the extraction technique on the essential oil from Zingiber officinale var. Bentong rhizome for commercialization purpose in many industries namely, functional food, pharmaceutical, and cosmeceutical. The investigation begins with a pre-treatment using ultrasound assisted in order to enhance the recovery of essential oil. It was conducted at a fixed frequency (20 kHz) of ultrasound with various time (10, 20, 40 min). The extraction using supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2) were carried out afterward at a specific condition of temperature (50 °C) and pressure (30 MPa). scCO2 extraction seems to be a promising sustainable green method for the extraction of essential oil due to the benefits that CO2 possesses. The expected results demonstrated the ultrasound-assisted-scCO2 produces a higher yield of essential oil compared to solely scCO2 extraction. This research will provide important features for its application in food supplements or phytochemical preparations.

Keywords: essential oil, scCO2, ultrasound assisted, Zingiber officinale Var. Bentong

Procedia PDF Downloads 68
6875 Solvent Free Microwave Extraction of Essential Oils: A Clean Chemical Processing in the Teaching and Research Laboratory

Authors: M. A. Ferhat, M. N. Boukhatem, F. Chemat

Abstract:

Microwave Clevenger or microwave accelerated distillation (MAD) is a combination of microwave heating and distillation, performed at atmospheric pressure without added any solvent or water. Isolation and concentration of volatile compounds are performed by a single stage. MAD extraction of orange essential oil was studied using fresh orange peel from Valencia late cultivar oranges as the raw material. MAD has been compared with a conventional technique, which used a Clevenger apparatus with hydro-distillation (HD). MAD and HD were compared in term of extraction time, yields, chemical composition and quality of the essential oil, efficiency and costs of the process. Extraction of essential oils from orange peels with MAD was better in terms of energy saving, extraction time (30 min versus 3 h), oxygenated fraction (11.7% versus 7.9%), product yield (0.42% versus 0.39%) and product quality. Orange peels treated by MAD and HD were observed by scanning electronic microscopy (SEM). Micrographs provide evidence of more rapid opening of essential oil glands treated by MAD, in contrast to conventional hydro-distillation.

Keywords: clevenger, microwave, extraction; hydro-distillation, essential oil, orange peel

Procedia PDF Downloads 273
6874 Analytical Study of Cobalt(II) and Nickel(II) Extraction with Salicylidene O-, M-, and P-Toluidine in Chloroform

Authors: Sana Almi, Djamel Barkat

Abstract:

The solvent extraction of cobalt (II) and nickel (II) from aqueous sulfate solutions were investigated with the analytical methods of slope analysis using salicylidene aniline and the three isomeric o-, m- and p-salicylidene toluidine diluted with chloroform at 25°C. By a statistical analysis of the extraction data, it was concluded that the extracted species are CoL2 with CoL2(HL) and NiL2 (HL denotes HSA, HSOT, HSMT, and HSPT). The extraction efficiency of Co(II) was higher than Ni(II). This tendency is confirmed from numerical extraction constants for each metal cations. The best extraction was according to the following order: HSMT > HSPT > HSOT > HSA for Co2+ and Ni2+.

Keywords: solvent extraction, nickel(II), cobalt(II), salicylidene aniline, o-, m-, and p-salicylidene toluidine

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6873 Lentil Protein Fortification in Cranberry Squash

Authors: Sandhya Devi A

Abstract:

The protein content of the cranberry squash (protein: 0g) may be increased by extracting protein from the lentils (9 g), which is particularly linked to a lower risk of developing heart disease. Using the technique of alkaline extraction from the lentils flour, protein may be extracted. Alkaline extraction of protein from lentil flour was optimized utilizing response surface approach in order to maximize both protein content and yield. Cranberry squash may be taken if a protein fortification syrup is prepared and processed into the squash.

Keywords: alkaline extraction, cranberry squash, protein fortification, response surface methodology

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6872 Development of a Computer Aided Diagnosis Tool for Brain Tumor Extraction and Classification

Authors: Fathi Kallel, Abdulelah Alabd Uljabbar, Abdulrahman Aldukhail, Abdulaziz Alomran

Abstract:

The brain is an important organ in our body since it is responsible about the majority actions such as vision, memory, etc. However, different diseases such as Alzheimer and tumors could affect the brain and conduct to a partial or full disorder. Regular diagnosis are necessary as a preventive measure and could help doctors to early detect a possible trouble and therefore taking the appropriate treatment, especially in the case of brain tumors. Different imaging modalities are proposed for diagnosis of brain tumor. The powerful and most used modality is the Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). MRI images are analyzed by doctor in order to locate eventual tumor in the brain and describe the appropriate and needed treatment. Diverse image processing methods are also proposed for helping doctors in identifying and analyzing the tumor. In fact, a large Computer Aided Diagnostic (CAD) tools including developed image processing algorithms are proposed and exploited by doctors as a second opinion to analyze and identify the brain tumors. In this paper, we proposed a new advanced CAD for brain tumor identification, classification and feature extraction. Our proposed CAD includes three main parts. Firstly, we load the brain MRI. Secondly, a robust technique for brain tumor extraction is proposed. This technique is based on both Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) and Principal Component Analysis (PCA). DWT is characterized by its multiresolution analytic property, that’s why it was applied on MRI images with different decomposition levels for feature extraction. Nevertheless, this technique suffers from a main drawback since it necessitates a huge storage and is computationally expensive. To decrease the dimensions of the feature vector and the computing time, PCA technique is considered. In the last stage, according to different extracted features, the brain tumor is classified into either benign or malignant tumor using Support Vector Machine (SVM) algorithm. A CAD tool for brain tumor detection and classification, including all above-mentioned stages, is designed and developed using MATLAB guide user interface.

Keywords: MRI, brain tumor, CAD, feature extraction, DWT, PCA, classification, SVM

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6871 Microwave-Assisted Extraction of Lycopene from Gac Arils (Momordica cochinchinensis (Lour.) Spreng)

Authors: Yardfon Tanongkankit, Kanjana Narkprasom, Nukrob Narkprasom, Khwanruthai Saiupparat, Phatthareeya Siriwat

Abstract:

Gac fruit (Momordica cochinchinensis (Lour.) Spreng) possesses high potential for health food as it contains high lycopene contents. The objective of this study was to optimize the extraction of lycopene from gac arils using the microwave extraction method. Response surface method was used to find the conditions that optimize the extraction of lycopene from gac arils. The parameters of extraction used in this study were extraction time (120-600 seconds), the solvent to sample ratio (10:1, 20:1, 30:1, 40:1 and 50:1 mL/g) and set microwave power (100-800 watts). The results showed that the microwave extraction condition at the extraction time of 360 seconds, the sample ratio of 30:1 mL/g and the microwave power of 450 watts were suggested since it exhibited the highest value of lycopene content of 9.86 mg/gDW. It was also observed that lycopene contents extracted from gac arils by microwave method were higher than that by the conventional method.

Keywords: conventional extraction, Gac arils, microwave-assisted extraction, Lycopene

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6870 A Combined Feature Extraction and Thresholding Technique for Silence Removal in Percussive Sounds

Authors: B. Kishore Kumar, Pogula Rakesh, T. Kishore Kumar

Abstract:

The music analysis is a part of the audio content analysis used to analyze the music by using the different features of audio signal. In music analysis, the first step is to divide the music signal to different sections based on the feature profiles of the music signal. In this paper, we present a music segmentation technique that will effectively segmentize the signal and thresholding technique to remove silence from the percussive sounds produced by percussive instruments, which uses two features of music, namely signal energy and spectral centroid. The proposed method impose thresholds on both the features which will vary depends on the music signal. Depends on the threshold, silence part is removed and the segmentation is done. The effectiveness of the proposed method is analyzed using MATLAB.

Keywords: percussive sounds, spectral centroid, spectral energy, silence removal, feature extraction

Procedia PDF Downloads 520
6869 Solvent extraction of molybdenum (VI) with two organophosphorus reagents TBP and D2EHPA under microwave irradiations

Authors: Ahmed Boucherit, Hussein Khalaf, Eduardo Paredes, José Luis Todolí

Abstract:

Solvent extraction studies of molybdenum (VI) with two organophosphorus reagents namely TBP and D2EHPA have been carried out from aqueous acidic solutions of HCl, H2SO4 and H3PO4 under microwave irradiations. The extraction efficiencies of the investigated extractants in the extraction of molybdenum (Vl) were compared. Extraction yield was found unchanged when microwave power varied in the range 20-100 Watts from H2SO4 or H3PO4 but it decreases in the range 20-60 Watts and increases in the range 60-100 Watts when TBP is used for extraction of molybdenum (VI) from 1 M HCl solutions. Extraction yield of molybdenum (VI) was found higher with TBP for HCl molarities greater than 1 M than with D2EHPA for H3PO4 molarities lower than 1 M. Extraction yield increases with HCl molarities in the range 0.50 - 1.80 M but it decreases with the increase in H2SO4 and H3PO4 molarities in the range of 0.05 - 1 M and 0.50 - 1 M, respectively.

Keywords: extraction, molybdenum, microwave, solvent

Procedia PDF Downloads 570
6868 Comparative Study of Essential Oils Extracted from Algerian Citrus fruits Using Microwaves and Hydrodistillation

Authors: Ferhat Mohamed Amine, Boukhatem Mohamed Nadjib, Chemat Farid

Abstract:

Solvent-free-microwave-extraction (SFME) is a combination of microwave heating and distillation, performed at atmospheric pressure without added any solvent or water. Isolation and concentration of volatile compounds are performed by a single stage. SFME extraction of orange essential oil was studied using fresh orange peel from Valencia late cultivar oranges as the raw material. SFME has been compared with a conventional technique, which used a Clevenger apparatus with hydro-distillation (HD). SFME and HD were compared in term of extraction time, yields, chemical composition and quality of the essential oil, efficiency and costs of the process. Extraction of essential oils from orange peels with SFME was better in terms of energy saving, extraction time (30 min versus 3 h), oxygenated fraction (11.7% versus 7.9%), product yield (0.42% versus 0.39%) and product quality. Orange peels treated by SFME and HD were observed by scanning electronic microscopy (SEM). Micrographs provide evidence of more rapid opening of essential oil glands treated by SFME, in contrast to conventional hydro-distillation.

Keywords: hydro-distillation, essential oil, microwave, orange peel, solvent free microwave, extraction SFME

Procedia PDF Downloads 418
6867 Application of Liquid Emulsion Membrane Technique for the Removal of Cadmium(II) from Aqueous Solutions Using Aliquat 336 as a Carrier

Authors: B. Medjahed, M. A. Didi, B. Guezzen

Abstract:

In the present work, emulsion liquid membrane (ELM) technique was applied for the extraction of cadmium(II) present in aqueous samples. Aliquat 336 (Chloride tri-N-octylmethylammonium) was used as carrier to extract cadmium(II). The main objective of this work is to investigate the influence of various parameters affected the ELM formation and its stability and testing the performance of the prepared ELM on removal of cadmium by using synthetic solution with different concentrations. Experiments were conducted to optimize pH of the feed solution and it was found that cadmium(II) can be extracted at pH 6.5. The influence of the carrier concentration and treat ratio on the extraction process was investigated. The obtained results showed that the optimal values are respectively 3% (Aliquat 336) and a ratio (feed: emulsion) equal to 1:1.

Keywords: cadmium, carrier, emulsion liquid membrane, surfactant

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6866 Keypoints Extraction for Markerless Tracking in Augmented Reality Applications: A Case Study in Dar As-Saraya Museum

Authors: Jafar W. Al-Badarneh, Abdalkareem R. Al-Hawary, Abdulmalik M. Morghem, Mostafa Z. Ali, Rami S. Al-Gharaibeh

Abstract:

Archeological heritage is at the heart of each country’s national glory. Moreover, it could develop into a source of national income. Heritage management requires socially-responsible marketing that achieves high visitor satisfaction while maintaining high site conservation. We have developed an Augmented Reality (AR) experience for heritage and cultural reservation at Dar-As-Saraya museum in Jordan. Our application of this notion relied on markerless-based tracking approach. This approach uses keypoints extraction technique where features of the environment are identified and defined into the system as keypoints. A set of these keypoints forms a tracker for an augmented object to be displayed and overlaid with a real scene at Dar As-Saraya museum. We tested and compared several techniques for markerless tracking and then applied the best technique to complete a mosaic artifact with AR content. The successful results from our application open the door for applications in open archeological sites where markerless tracking is mostly needed.

Keywords: augmented reality, cultural heritage, keypoints extraction, virtual recreation

Procedia PDF Downloads 266
6865 Optimization of Extraction Conditions for Phenolic Compounds from Deverra Scoparia Coss and Dur

Authors: Roukia Hammoudi, Chabrouk Farid, Dehak Karima, Mahfoud Hadj Mahammed, Mohamed Didi Ouldelhadj

Abstract:

The objective of this study was to optimise the extraction conditions for phenolic compounds from Deverra scoparia Coss and Dur. Apiaceae plant by ultrasound assisted extraction (UAE). The effects of solvent type (acetone, ethanol and methanol), solvent concentration (%), extraction time (mins) and extraction temperature (°C) on total phenolic content (TPC) were determined. The optimum extraction conditions were found to be acetone concentration of 80%, extraction time of 25 min and extraction temperature of 25°C. Under the optimized conditions, the value for TPC was 9.68 ± 1.05 mg GAE/g of extract. The study of the antioxidant power of these oils was performed by the method of DPPH. The results showed that antioxidant activity of the Deverra scoparia essential oil was more effective as compared to ascorbic acid and trolox.

Keywords: Deverra scoparia, phenolic compounds, ultrasound assisted extraction, total phenolic content, antioxidant activity

Procedia PDF Downloads 523
6864 Optimization of Extraction Conditions for Phenolic Compounds from Deverra scoparia Coss. and Dur

Authors: Roukia Hammoudi, Dehak Karima, Chabrouk Farid, Mahfoud Hadj Mahammed, Mohamed Didi Ouldelhadj

Abstract:

The objective of this study was to optimise the extraction conditions for phenolic compounds from Deverra scoparia Coss and Dur. Apiaceae plant by ultrasound assisted extraction (UAE). The effects of solvent type (Acetone, Ethanol and methanol), solvent concentration (%), extraction time (mins) and extraction temperature (°C) on total phenolic content (TPC) were determined. the optimum extraction conditions were found to be acetone concentration of 80%, extraction time of 25 min and extraction temperature of 25°C. Under the optimized conditions, the value for TPC was 9.68 ± 1.05 mg GAE/g of extract. The study of the antioxidant power of these oils was performed by the method of DPPH. The results showed that antioxidant activity of the Deverra scoparia essential oil was more effective as compared to ascorbic acid and trolox.

Keywords: Deverra scoparia, phenolic compounds, ultrasound assisted extraction, total phenolic content, antioxidant activity

Procedia PDF Downloads 508
6863 Change of Flavor Characteristics of Flavor Oil Made Using Sarcodon aspratus (Sarcodon aspratus Berk. S. Ito) According to Extraction Temperature and Extraction Time

Authors: Gyeong-Suk Jo, Soo-Hyun Ji, You-Seok Lee, Jeong-Hwa Kang

Abstract:

To develop an flavor oil using Sarcodon aspratus (Sarcodon aspratus Berk. S. Ito), infiltration extraction method was used to add dried mushroom flavor of Sarcodon aspratus to base olive oil. Edible base oil used during infiltration extraction was pressed olive oil, and infiltration extraction was done while varying extraction temperature to 20, 30, 40 and 50(℃) extraction time to 24 hours, 48 hours and 72 hours. Amount of Sarcodon aspratus added to base oil was 20% compared to 100% of base oil. Production yield of Sarcodon aspratus flavor oil decreased with increasing extraction frequency. Aroma intensity was 2195~2447 (A.U./1㎖), and it increased with increasing extraction temperature and extraction time. Chromaticity of Sarcodon aspratus flavor oil was bright pale yellow with pH of 4.5, sugar content of 71~72 (°Brix), and highest average turbidity of 16.74 (Haze %) shown by the 40℃ group. In the aromatic evaluation, increasing extraction temperature and extraction time resulted in increase of cheese aroma, savory sweet aroma and beef jerky aroma, as well as spicy taste comprised of slight bitter taste, savory taste and slight acrid taste, to make aromatic oil with unique flavor.

Keywords: Flavor Characteristics, Flavor Oil, Infiltration extraction method, mushroom, Sarcodon aspratus (Sarcodon aspratus Berk. S. Ito)

Procedia PDF Downloads 283
6862 Determinaton of Processing Parameters of Decaffeinated Black Tea by Using Pilot-Scale Supercritical CO₂ Extraction

Authors: Saziye Ilgaz, Atilla Polat

Abstract:

There is a need for development of new processing techniques to ensure safety and quality of final product while minimizing the adverse impact of extraction solvents on environment and residue levels of these solvents in final product, decaffeinated black tea. In this study pilot scale supercritical carbon dioxide (SCCO₂) extraction was used to produce decaffeinated black tea in place of solvent extraction. Pressure (250, 375, 500 bar), extraction time (60, 180, 300 min), temperature (55, 62.5, 70 °C), CO₂ flow rate (1, 2 ,3 LPM) and co-solvent quantity (0, 2.5, 5 %mol) were selected as extraction parameters. The five factors BoxBehnken experimental design with three center points was performed to generate 46 different processing conditions for caffeine removal from black tea samples. As a result of these 46 experiments caffeine content of black tea samples were reduced from 2.16 % to 0 – 1.81 %. The experiments showed that extraction time, pressure, CO₂ flow rate and co-solvent quantity had great impact on decaffeination yield. Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to optimize the parameters of the supercritical carbon dioxide extraction. Optimum extraction parameters obtained of decaffeinated black tea were as follows: extraction temperature of 62,5 °C, extraction pressure of 375 bar, CO₂ flow rate of 3 LPM, extraction time of 176.5 min and co-solvent quantity of 5 %mol.

Keywords: supercritical carbon dioxide, decaffeination, black tea, extraction

Procedia PDF Downloads 282
6861 Comparison of Different Extraction Methods for the Determination of Polyphenols

Authors: Senem Suna

Abstract:

Extraction of bioactive compounds from several food/food products comes as an important topic and new trend related with health promoting effects. As a result of the increasing interest in natural foods, different methods are used for the acquisition of these components especially polyphenols. However, special attention has to be paid to the selection of proper techniques or several processing technologies (supercritical fluid extraction, microwave-assisted extraction, ultrasound-assisted extraction, powdered extracts production) for each kind of food to get maximum benefit as well as the obtainment of phenolic compounds. In order to meet consumer’s demand for healthy food and the management of quality and safety requirements, advanced research and development are needed. In this review, advantages, and disadvantages of different extraction methods, their opportunities to be used in food industry and the effects of polyphenols are mentioned in details. Consequently, with the evaluation of the results of several studies, the selection of the most suitable food specific method was aimed.

Keywords: bioactives, extraction, powdered extracts, supercritical fluid extraction

Procedia PDF Downloads 161
6860 Solvent Extraction of Rb and Cs from Jarosite Slag Using t-BAMBP

Authors: Zhang Haiyan, Su Zujun, Zhao Fengqi

Abstract:

Lepidolite after extraction of Lithium by sulfate produced many jarosite slag which contains a lot of Rb and Cs.The separation and recovery of Rubidium(Rb) and Cesium(Cs) can make full of use of Lithium mica. XRF analysis showed that the slag mainly including K Rb Cs Al and etc. Fractional solvent extraction tests were carried out; the results show that using20% t-BAMBP plus 80% sulfonated kerosene, the separation of Rb and Cs can be achieved by adjusting the alkalinity. Extraction is the order of Cs Rb, ratio of Cs to Rb and ratio of Rb to K can reach above 1500 and 2500 respectively.

Keywords: cesium, jarosite slag, rubidium, solvent extraction, t-BAMBP

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6859 Removal Cobalt (II) and Copper (II) by Solvent Extraction from Sulfate Solutions by Capric Acid in Chloroform

Authors: A. Bara, D. Barkat

Abstract:

Liquid-liquid extraction is one of the most useful techniques for selective removal and recovery of metal ions from aqueous solutions, applied in purification processes in numerous chemical and metallurgical industries. In this work, The liquid-liquid extraction of cobalt (II) and copper (II) from aqueous solution by capric acid (HL) in chloroform at 25°C has been studied. Our interest in this paper is to study the effect of concentration of capric acid on the extraction of Co(II) and Cu(II) to see the complexes could be formed in the organic phase using various concentration of capric acid. The extraction of cobalt (II) and copper (II) is extracted as the complex CoL2 (HL )2, CuL2 (HL)2.

Keywords: capric acid, Cobalt(II), copper(II), liquid-liquid extraction

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6858 Optimization of Samarium Extraction via Nanofluid-Based Emulsion Liquid Membrane Using Cyanex 272 as Mobile Carrier

Authors: Maliheh Raji, Hossein Abolghasemi, Jaber Safdari, Ali Kargari

Abstract:

Samarium as a rare-earth element is playing a growing important role in high technology. Traditional methods for extraction of rare earth metals such as ion exchange and solvent extraction have disadvantages of high investment and high energy consumption. Emulsion liquid membrane (ELM) as an improved solvent extraction technique is an effective transport method for separation of various compounds from aqueous solutions. In this work, the extraction of samarium from aqueous solutions by ELM was investigated using response surface methodology (RSM). The organic membrane phase of the ELM was a nanofluid consisted of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT), Span80 as surfactant, Cyanex 272 as mobile carrier, and kerosene as base fluid. 1 M nitric acid solution was used as internal aqueous phase. The effects of the important process parameters on samarium extraction were investigated, and the values of these parameters were optimized using the Central Composition Design (CCD) of RSM. These parameters were the concentration of MWCNT in nanofluid, the carrier concentration, and the volume ratio of organic membrane phase to internal phase (Roi). The three-dimensional (3D) response surfaces of samarium extraction efficiency were obtained to visualize the individual and interactive effects of the process variables. A regression model for % extraction was developed, and its adequacy was evaluated. The result shows that % extraction improves by using MWCNT nanofluid in organic membrane phase and extraction efficiency of 98.92% can be achieved under the optimum conditions. In addition, demulsification was successfully performed and the recycled membrane phase was proved to be effective in the optimum condition.

Keywords: Cyanex 272, emulsion liquid membrane, MWCNT nanofluid, response surface methology, Samarium

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6857 Green Extraction Processes for the Recovery of Polyphenols from Solid Wastes of Olive Oil Industry

Authors: Theodora-Venetia Missirli, Konstantina Kyriakopoulou, Magdalini Krokida

Abstract:

Olive mill solid waste is an olive oil mill industry by-product with high phenolic, lipid and organic acid concentrations that can be used as a low cost source of natural antioxidants. In this study, extracts of Olea europaea (olive tree) solid olive mill waste (SOMW) were evaluated in terms of their antiradical activity and total phenolic compounds concentrations, such as oleuropein, hydroxytyrosol etc. SOMW samples were subjected to drying prior to extraction as a pretreatment step. Two drying processes, accelerated solar drying (ASD) and air-drying (AD) (at 35, 50, 70°C constant air velocity of 1 m/s), were applied. Subsequently, three different extraction methods were employed to recover extracts from untreated and dried SOMW samples. The methods include the green Microwave Assisted (MAE) and Ultrasound Assisted Extraction (UAE) and the conventional Soxhlet extraction (SE), using water and methanol as solvents. The efficiency and selectivity of the processes were evaluated in terms of extraction yield. The antioxidant activity (AAR) and the total phenolic content (TPC) of the extracts were evaluated using the DPPH assay and the Folin-Ciocalteu method, respectively. The results showed that bioactive content was significantly affected by the extraction technique and the solvent. Specifically, untreated SOMW samples showed higher performance in the yield for all solvents and higher antioxidant potential and phenolic content in the case of water. UAE extraction method showed greater extraction yields than the MAE method for both untreated and dried leaves regardless of the solvent used. The use of ultrasound and microwave assisted extraction in combination with industrially applied drying methods, such as air and solar drying, was feasible and effective for the recovery of bioactive compounds.

Keywords: antioxidant potential, drying treatment, olive mill pomace, microwave assisted extraction, ultrasound assisted extraction

Procedia PDF Downloads 235
6856 Urdu Text Extraction Method from Images

Authors: Samabia Tehsin, Sumaira Kausar

Abstract:

Due to the vast increase in the multimedia data in recent years, efficient and robust retrieval techniques are needed to retrieve and index images/ videos. Text embedded in the images can serve as the strong retrieval tool for images. This is the reason that text extraction is an area of research with increasing attention. English text extraction is the focus of many researchers but very less work has been done on other languages like Urdu. This paper is focusing on Urdu text extraction from video frames. This paper presents a text detection feature set, which has the ability to deal up with most of the problems connected with the text extraction process. To test the validity of the method, it is tested on Urdu news dataset, which gives promising results.

Keywords: caption text, content-based image retrieval, document analysis, text extraction

Procedia PDF Downloads 424