Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 116

Search results for: biomaterials

116 Efficient Production of Cell-Adhesive Motif From Human Fibronectin Domains to Design a Bio-Functionalized Scaffold for Tissue Engineering

Authors: Amina Ben Abla, Sylvie Changotade, Geraldine Rohman, Guilhem Boeuf, Cyrine Dridi, Ahmed Elmarjou, Florence Dufour, Didier Lutomski, Abdellatif Elm’semi

Abstract:

Understanding cell adhesion and interaction with the extracellular matrix is essential for biomedical and biotechnological applications, including the development of biomaterials. In recent years, numerous biomaterials have emerged and were used in the field of tissue engineering. Nevertheless, the lack of interaction of biomaterials with cells still limits their bio-integration. Thus, the design of bioactive biomaterials to improve cell attachment and proliferation is of growing interest. In this study, bio-functionalized material was developed combining a synthetic polymer scaffold surface with selected domains of type III human fibronectin (FNIII-DOM) to promote cell adhesion and proliferation. Bioadhesive ligand includes cell-binding domains of human fibronectin, a major ECM protein that interacts with a variety of integrins cell-surface receptors, and ECM proteins through specific binding domains were engineered. FNIII-DOM was produced in bacterial system E. coli in 5L fermentor with a high yield level reaching 20mg/L. Bioactivity of the produced fragment was validated by studying cellular adhesion of human cells. The adsorption and immobilization of FNIII-DOM onto the polymer scaffold were evaluated in order to develop an innovative biomaterial.

Keywords: biomaterials, cellular adhesion, fibronectin, tissue engineering

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115 Efficient Delivery of Biomaterials into Living Organism by Using Noble Metal Nanowire Injector

Authors: Kkochorong Park, Keun Cheon Kim, Hyoban Lee, Eun Ju Lee, Bongsoo Kim

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Introduction of biomaterials such as DNA, RNA, proteins is important for many research areas. There are many methods to introduce biomaterials into living organisms like tissue and cells. To introduce biomaterials, several indirect methods including virus‐mediated delivery, chemical reagent (i.e., lipofectamine), electrophoresis have been used. Such methods are passive delivery using an endocytosis process of cell, reducing an efficiency of delivery. Unlike the indirect delivery method, it has been reported that a direct delivery of exogenous biomolecules into nucleus have been more efficient to expression or integration of biomolecules. Nano-sized material is beneficial for detect signal from cell or deliver stimuli/materials into the cell at cellular and molecular levels, due to its similar physical scale. Especially, because 1 dimensional (1D) nanomaterials such as nanotube, nanorod and nanowire with high‐aspect ratio have nanoscale geometry and excellent mechanical, electrical, and chemical properties, they could play an important role in molecular and cellular biology. In this study, by using single crystalline 1D noble metal nanowire, we fabricated nano-sized 1D injector which can successfully interface with living cells and directly deliver biomolecules into several types of cell line (i.e., stem cell, mammalian embryo) without inducing detrimental damages on living cell. This nano-bio technology could be a promising and robust tool for introducing exogenous biomaterials into living organism.

Keywords: DNA, gene delivery, nanoinjector, nanowire

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114 Beta Titanium Alloys: The Lowest Elastic Modulus for Biomedical Applications: A Review

Authors: Mohsin Talib Mohammed, Zahid A. Khan, Arshad N. Siddiquee

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Biometallic materials are the most important materials for use in biomedical applications especially in manufacturing a variety of biological artificial replacements in a modern worlds, e.g. hip, knee or shoulder joints, due to their advanced characteristics. Titanium (Ti) and its alloys are used extensively in biomedical applications based on their high specific strength and excellent corrosion resistance. Beta-Ti alloys containing completely biocompatible elements are exceptionally prospective materials for manufacturing of bioimplants. They have superior mechanical, chemical and electrochemical properties for use as biomaterials. These biomaterials have the ability to introduce the most important property of biochemical compatibility which is low elastic modulus. This review examines current information on the recent developments in alloying elements leading to improvements of beta Ti alloys for use as biomaterials. Moreover, this paper focuses mainly on the evolution, evaluation and development of the modulus of elasticity as an effective factor on the performance of beta alloys.

Keywords: beta alloys, biomedical applications, titanium alloys, Young's modulus

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113 Biomaterials Solutions to Medical Problems: A Technical Review

Authors: Ashish Thakur

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This technical paper was written in view of focusing the biomaterials and its various applications in modern industries. Author tires to elaborate not only the medical, infect plenty of application in other industries. The scope of the research area covers the wide range of physical, biological and chemical sciences that underpin the design of biomaterials and the clinical disciplines in which they are used. A biomaterial is now defined as a substance that has been engineered to take a form which, alone or as part of a complex system, is used to direct, by control of interactions with components of living systems, the course of any therapeutic or diagnostic procedure. Biomaterials are invariably in contact with living tissues. Thus, interactions between the surface of a synthetic material and biological environment must be well understood. This paper reviews the benefits and challenges associated with surface modification of the metals in biomedical applications. The paper also elaborates how the surface characteristics of metallic biomaterials, such as surface chemistry, topography, surface charge, and wettability, influence the protein adsorption and subsequent cell behavior in terms of adhesion, proliferation, and differentiation at the biomaterial–tissue interface. The chapter also highlights various techniques required for surface modification and coating of metallic biomaterials, including physicochemical and biochemical surface treatments and calcium phosphate and oxide coatings. In this review, the attention is focused on the biomaterial-associated infections, from which the need for anti-infective biomaterials originates. Biomaterial-associated infections differ markedly for epidemiology, aetiology and severity, depending mainly on the anatomic site, on the time of biomaterial application, and on the depth of the tissues harbouring the prosthesis. Here, the diversity and complexity of the different scenarios where medical devices are currently utilised are explored, providing an overview of the emblematic applicative fields and of the requirements for anti-infective biomaterials. In addition to this, chapter introduces nanomedicine and the use of both natural and synthetic polymeric biomaterials, focuses on specific current polymeric nanomedicine applications and research, and concludes with the challenges of nanomedicine research. Infection is currently regarded as the most severe and devastating complication associated to the use of biomaterials. Osteoporosis is a worldwide disease with a very high prevalence in humans older than 50. The main clinical consequences are bone fractures, which often lead to patient disability or even death. A number of commercial biomaterials are currently used to treat osteoporotic bone fractures, but most of these have not been specifically designed for that purpose. Many drug- or cell-loaded biomaterials have been proposed in research laboratories, but very few have received approval for commercial use. Polymeric nanomaterial-based therapeutics plays a key role in the field of medicine in treatment areas such as drug delivery, tissue engineering, cancer, diabetes, and neurodegenerative diseases. Advantages in the use of polymers over other materials for nanomedicine include increased functionality, design flexibility, improved processability, and, in some cases, biocompatibility.

Keywords: nanomedicine, tissue, infections, biomaterials

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112 Bio-Functional Polymeric Protein Based Materials Utilized for Soft Tissue Engineering Application

Authors: Er-Yuan Chuang

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Bio-mimetic matters have biological functionalities. This might be valuable in the development of versatile biomaterials. At biological fields, protein-based materials might be components to form a 3D network of extracellular biomolecules, containing growth factors. Also, the protein-based biomaterial provides biochemical and structural assistance of adjacent cells. In this study, we try to prepare protein based biomaterial, which was harvested from living animal. We analyzed it’s chemical, physical and biological property in vitro. Besides, in vivo bio-interaction of the prepared biomimetic matrix was tested in an animal model. The protein-based biomaterial has degradability and biocompatibility. This development could be used for tissue regenerations and be served as platform technologies.

Keywords: protein based, in vitro study, in vivo study, biomaterials

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111 The Solid-Phase Sensor Systems for Fluorescent and SERS-Recognition of Neurotransmitters for Their Visualization and Determination in Biomaterials

Authors: Irina Veselova, Maria Makedonskaya, Olga Eremina, Alexandr Sidorov, Eugene Goodilin, Tatyana Shekhovtsova

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Such catecholamines as dopamine, norepinephrine, and epinephrine are the principal neurotransmitters in the sympathetic nervous system. Catecholamines and their metabolites are considered to be important markers of socially significant diseases such as atherosclerosis, diabetes, coronary heart disease, carcinogenesis, Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases. Currently, neurotransmitters can be studied via electrochemical and chromatographic techniques that allow their characterizing and quantification, although these techniques can only provide crude spatial information. Besides, the difficulty of catecholamine determination in biological materials is associated with their low normal concentrations (~ 1 nM) in biomaterials, which may become even one more order lower because of some disorders. In addition, in blood they are rapidly oxidized by monoaminooxidases from thrombocytes and, for this reason, the determination of neurotransmitter metabolism indicators in an organism should be very rapid (15—30 min), especially in critical states. Unfortunately, modern instrumental analysis does not offer a complex solution of this problem: despite its high sensitivity and selectivity, HPLC-MS cannot provide sufficiently rapid analysis, while enzymatic biosensors and immunoassays for the determination of the considered analytes lack sufficient sensitivity and reproducibility. Fluorescent and SERS-sensors remain a compelling technology for approaching the general problem of selective neurotransmitter detection. In recent years, a number of catecholamine sensors have been reported including RNA aptamers, fluorescent ribonucleopeptide (RNP) complexes, and boronic acid based synthetic receptors and the sensor operated in a turn-off mode. In this work we present the fluorescent and SERS turn-on sensor systems based on the bio- or chemorecognizing nanostructured films {chitosan/collagen-Tb/Eu/Cu-nanoparticles-indicator reagents} that provide the selective recognition, visualization, and sensing of the above mentioned catecholamines on the level of nanomolar concentrations in biomaterials (cell cultures, tissue etc.). We have (1) developed optically transparent porous films and gels of chitosan/collagen; (2) ensured functionalization of the surface by molecules-'recognizers' (by impregnation and immobilization of components of the indicator systems: biorecognizing and auxiliary reagents); (3) performed computer simulation for theoretical prediction and interpretation of some properties of the developed materials and obtained analytical signals in biomaterials. We are grateful for the financial support of this research from Russian Foundation for Basic Research (grants no. 15-03-05064 a, and 15-29-01330 ofi_m).

Keywords: biomaterials, fluorescent and SERS-recognition, neurotransmitters, solid-phase turn-on sensor system

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110 Biocompatibility assessment of different origin Barrier Membranes for Guided Bone Regeneration

Authors: Antonio Munar-Frau, Sascha Klismoch, Manfred Schmolz, Federico Hernandez-Alfaro, Jordi Caballe-Serrano

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Introduction: Biocompatibility of biomaterials has been proposed as one of the main criteria for treatment success. For guided bone regeneration (GBR), barrier membranes present a conflict given the number of origins and modifications of these materials. The biologic response to biomaterials is orchestrated by a series of events leading to the integration or rejection of the biomaterial, posing questions such as if a longer occlusive property may trigger an inflammatory reaction. Whole blood cultures are a solution to study the immune response to drugs or biomaterials during the first 24-48 hours. The aim of this study is to determine the early immune response of different origins and chemical modifications of barrier membranes. Materials & Methods: 5 different widely used barrier membranes were included in this study: Acellular dermal matrix (AlloDerm, LifeCell®), Porcine Peritoneum (BioGide, Geistlich Pharma®), Porcine Pericardium (Jason, Botiss Biomaterials GmbH®), Porcine Cross-linked collagen (Ossix Plus, Datum Dental®) and d-PTFE (Cytoplast TXT, Osteogenics Biomedical®). Blood samples were extracted from 3 different healthy donors and incubated with the different samples of barrier membranes for 24 hours. After the incubation time, serum samples were obtained and analyzed by means of biocompatibility assays taking into account 42 markers. Results: In an early stage of the inflammatory response, the Acellular dermal matrix, porcine peritoneum and porcine cross-linked collagen expressed similar patterns of cytokine expression with a great manifestation of ENA 78. Porcine pericardium and d-PTFE presented similar cytokine activation, especially for MMP-3 and MMP-9, although other cytokines were highlighted with lower expression. For the later immune response, Porcine peritoneum and acellular dermal matrix MCP-1 and IL-15 were evident. Porcine pericardium, porcine cross-linked collagen and d-PTFE presented a high expression of IL-16 and lower manifestation of other cytokines. Different behaviors depending on an earlier or later stage of the inflammation process were observed. Barrier membrane inflammatory expression does not only differ depending on the origin, variables such as treatment of the collagen and polymers may also have a great impact on the cytokine expression of the studied barrier membranes during inflammation. Conclusions: Surface treatment and modifications might affect the biocompatibility of the membranes, as different cytokine expressions were evidently depending on the origin of the biomaterial. This study is only a brushstroke regarding the biocompatibility of materials, as it is one of the pioneer studies for ex vivo barrier membranes assays. Studies regarding surface modification are needed in order to clarify mystifications of barrier membrane science.

Keywords: biomaterials, bone regeneration, biocompatibility, inflammation

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109 Antibacterial Effect of Silver Diamine Fluoride Incorporated in Fissure Sealants

Authors: Nélio Veiga, Paula Ferreira, Tiago Correia, Maria J. Correia, Carlos Pereira, Odete Amaral, Ilídio J. Correia

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Introduction: The application of fissure sealants is considered to be an important primary prevention method used in dental medicine. However, the formation of microleakage gaps between tooth enamel and the fissure sealant applied is one of the most common reasons of dental caries development in teeth with fissure sealants. The association between various dental biomaterials may limit the major disadvantages and limitations of biomaterials functioning in a complementary manner. The present study consists in the incorporation of a cariostatic agent – silver diamine fluoride (SDF) – in a resin-based fissure sealant followed by the study of release kinetics by spectrophotometry analysis of the association between both biomaterials and assessment of the inhibitory effect on the growth of the reference bacterial strain Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) in an in vitro study. Materials and Methods: An experimental in vitro study was designed consisting in the entrapment of SDF (Cariestop® 12% and 30%) into a commercially available fissure sealant (Fissurit®), by photopolymerization and photocrosslinking. The same sealant, without SDF was used as a negative control. The effect of the sealants on the growth of S. mutans was determined by the presence of bacterial inhibitory halos in the cultures at the end of the incubation period. In order to confirm the absence of bacteria in the surface of the materials, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) characterization was performed. Also, to analyze the release profile of SDF along time, spectrophotometry technique was applied. Results: The obtained results indicate that the association of SDF to a resin-based fissure sealant may be able to increase the inhibition of S. mutans growth. However, no SDF release was noticed during the in vitro release studies and no statistical significant difference was verified when comparing the inhibitory halo sizes obtained for test and control group.  Conclusions: In this study, the entrapment of SDF in the resin-based fissure sealant did not potentiate the antibacterial effect of the fissure sealant or avoid the immediate development of dental caries. The development of more laboratorial research and, afterwards, long-term clinical data are necessary in order to verify if this association between these biomaterials is effective and can be considered for being used in oral health management. Also, other methodologies for associating cariostatic agents and sealant should be addressed.

Keywords: biomaterial, fissure sealant, primary prevention, silver diamine fluoride

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108 Biosorption of Gold from Chloride Media in a Simultaneous Adsorption-Reduction Process

Authors: Shafiq Alam, Yen Ning Lee

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Conventional hydrometallurgical processing of metals involves the use of large quantities of toxic chemicals. Realizing a need to develop sustainable technologies, extensive research studies are being carried out to recover and recycle base, precious and rare earth metals from their pregnant leach solutions (PLS) using green chemicals/biomaterials prepared from biomass wastes derived from agriculture, marine and forest resources. Our innovative research showed that bio-adsorbents prepared from such biomass wastes can effectively adsorb precious metals, especially gold after conversion of their functional groups in a very simple process. The highly effective ‘Adsorption-coupled-Reduction’ phenomenon witnessed appears promising for the potential use of this gold biosorption process in the mining industry. Proper management and effective use of biomass wastes as value added green chemicals will not only reduce the volume of wastes being generated every day in our society, but will also have a high-end value to the mining and mineral processing industries as those biomaterials would be cheap, but very selective for gold recovery/recycling from low grade ore, leach residue or e-wastes.

Keywords: biosorption, hydrometallurgy, gold, adsorption, reduction, biomass, sustainability

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107 Angiogenic Potential of Collagen Based Biomaterials Implanted on Chick Embryo Chorioallantoic Membrane as Alternative Microenvironment for in Vitro and in Vivo Angiogenesis Assays

Authors: Anca Maria Cimpean, Serban Comsa

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Chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) is a well vascularised in vivo experimental model used as a platform for testing the behavior of different implants inserted on it from tumor fragments to therapeutic agents or various biomaterials. Five types of collagen-based biomaterials with 2D and 3D structure (MotifMesh, Optimaix2D, Optimaix3D, Dual Layer Collagen and Xenoderm) were implanted on CAM and continuously evaluated by stereomicroscope for up to 5 days post-implant with an emphasis of their ability to requisite and develop new blood vessels (BVs) followed by microscopic analysis. MotifMEsh did not induce any angiogenic response lacking to be invaded by BVs from the CAM, but it induced intense inflammatory response necrosis and fibroblastic reaction around the implant. Optimaix2D has good adherence. CAM with minimal or no inflammatory reaction, a good integration of the CAM between the collagen mesh’s fibers, consistent adhesion of the cells to the collagen fibers,and a good ability to form pseudo-vascular channels filled with cells. Optimaix3D induced the highest angiogenic effects on CAM. The material shows good integration on CAM. The collagen fibers of the material show the ability to organize themselves into linear and tubular structures. It is possible to see blood elements, especially at the periphery of the implant. Dual-layer collagen behaves similar to Optimaix 3D, while Xenoderm induced a moderate angiogenic effect on CAM. Based on these data, we may conclude that collagen-based materials have variable ability to requisite and develop new blood vessels. A proper selection of collagen-based biomaterial scaffolds may crucially influence the acquisition and development of blood vessels during angiogenesis assays.

Keywords: chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane, collagen scaffolds, blood vessels, vascular microenvironment

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106 Influence of Drying Method in Parts of Alumina Obtained for Rapid Prototyping and Uniaxial Dry Pressing

Authors: N. O. Muniz, F. A. Vechietti, L. Treccani, K. Rezwan, Luis Alberto dos Santos

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Developing new technologies in the manufacture of biomaterials is a major challenge for researchers in the tissue engineering area. Many in vitro and in vivo studies have revealed the significance of the porous structure of the biomaterials on the promotion of bone ingrowth. The use of Rapid Prototyping in the manufacture of ceramics in the biomedical area has increased in recent years and few studies are conducted on obtaining alumina pieces. The aim of this work was the study of alumina pieces obtained by 3D printing and uniaxial dry pressing (DP) in order to evaluate porosity achieved by this two different techniques. Also, the influence of the powder drying process was determined. The row alumina powders were drying by freeze drying and oven. Apparent porosity, apparent density, retraction after thermal treatment were evaluated. The porosity values obtained by DP, regardless of method of drying powders, were much lower than those obtained by RP as expected. And for the prototyped samples, the method of powder drying significantly influenced porosities, reached 48% for drying oven versus 65% for freeze-drying. Therefore, the method of 3D printing, using different powder drying, allows a better control over the porosity.

Keywords: rapid prototyping, freeze-drying, porosity, alumina

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105 Specialization in Biomimicry: A Rationale for a Proposed Curriculum for Structural Engineering Students

Authors: Austin Dada, Frederick Rutz, Wil Srubar

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This proposed curriculum details the general concept of biomimicry in structural engineering. The interdisciplinary study of biology and structural engineering is also discussed, along with methods for effective research and study of biomimicry-related topics. Also known as synthetic biology, biomimetics, and the study of bioinspired structures, biomimicry in structural engineering is an emerging field with a wide berth of possibilities. The purpose of this proposed curriculum is to determine a suitable curriculum of study in the pursuit of a research topic regarding biomimicry within the field of structural engineering. Four main manifestations of bioinspired structures are covered in this curriculum; the creation of new biomaterials for use in construction, the use or mimicking of biological processes to determine the properties of construction materials, the use or mimicking of biological processes or biomaterials to augment the properties of construction material, and the imitation of biology through the use of conventional construction materials. Microbiology, biochemistry, cell biology, molecular biology, and ecology are among the biology topics that are compared and integrated into the proposed structural engineering curriculum to produce a suitable specialization.

Keywords: bioinspired structures, biomimetics, biomimicry, materials science, structural engineering

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104 High Density Polyethylene Biocomposites Reinforced with Hydroxyapatite Nanorods and Carbon Nanofibers for Joint Replacements

Authors: Chengzhu Liao, Jianbo Zhang, Haiou Wang, Jing Ming, Huili Li, Yanyan Li, Hua Cheng, Sie Chin Tjong

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Since Bonfield’s group’s pioneer work, there has been growing interest amongst the materials scientists, biomedical engineers and surgeons in the use of novel biomaterials for the treatment of bone defects and injuries. This study focuses on the fabrication, mechanical characterization and biocompatibility evaluation of high density polyethylene (HDPE) reinforced with hydroxyapatite nanorods (HANR) and carbon nanofibers (CNF). HANRs of 20 wt% and CNFs of 0.5-2 wt% were incorporated into HDPE to form biocomposites using traditional melt-compounding and injection molding techniques. The mechanical measurements show that CNF additions greatly improve the tensile strength and Young’s modulus of HDPE and HDPE-20% nHA composites. Meanwhile, the nHA and CNF fillers were found to be effective to improve dimensional and thermal stability of HDPE. The results of osteoblast cell cultivation and dimethyl thiazolyl diphenyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT) tests showed that the HDPE/ CNF-nHA nanocomposites are biocompatible. Such HDPE/ CNF-nHA hybrids are found to be potential biomaterials for making orthopedic joint/bone replacements.

Keywords: biocompatibility, biocomposite, carbon nanofiber, high density polyethylene, hydroxyapatite

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103 The Methods of Immobilization of Laccase for Direct Transfer in an Enzymatic Fuel Cell

Authors: Afshin Farahbakhsh, Hoda Khodadadi

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In this paper, we compare five methods of biological fuel cell fabrication by combining a Shewanella oneidensis microbial anode and a laccase-modified air-breathing cathode. As a result of biofuel cell laccase with graphite nanofibers, carbon surface (PAMAN) on the pt/hpg electrode, graphite sheets MWCNT and with (PG) and (MWCNT) showed, respectively. Describes methods for creating controllable and reproducible bio-anodes and demonstrates the versatility of hybrid biological fuel cells. The laccase-based biocathodes prepared either with the crude extract or with the purified enzyme can provide electrochemically active and stable biomaterials. The laccase-based biocathodes prepared either with the crude extract or with the purified enzyme can provide electrochemically active and stable biomaterials. When the device was fed with transdermal extracts, containing only 30μM of glucose, the average peak power was proportionally lower (0.004mW). The result of biofuel cell with graphite nanofibers showed the enzymatic fuel cell reaches 0.5 V at open circuit voltage with both, ethanol and methanol and the maximum current density observed for E2electrode was 228.94mAcm.

Keywords: enzymatic electrode, fuel cell, immobilization, laccase

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102 Characterization of Martensitic Stainless Steel Japanese Grade AISI 420A

Authors: T. Z. Butt, T. A. Tabish, K. Anjum, H. Hafeez

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A study of martensitic stainless steel surgical grade AISI 420A produced in Japan was carried out in this research work. The sample was already annealed at about 898˚C. The sample were subjected to chemical analysis, hardness, tensile and metallographic tests. These tests were performed on as received annealed and heat treated samples. In the annealed condition the sample showed 0HRC. However, on tensile testing, in annealed condition the sample showed maximum elongation. The heat treatment is carried out in vacuum furnace within temperature range 980-1035°C. The quenching of samples was carried out using liquid nitrogen. After hardening, the samples were subjected to tempering, which was carried out in vacuum tempering furnace at a temperature of 220˚C. The hardened samples were subjected to hardness and tensile testing. In hardness testing, the samples showed maximum hardness values. In tensile testing the sample showed minimum elongation. The sample in annealed state showed coarse plates of martensite structure. Therefore, the studied steels can be used as biomaterials.

Keywords: biomaterials, martensitic steel, microsrtucture, tensile testing, hardening, tempering, bioinstrumentation

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101 Application of Bioreactors in Regenerative Dentistry: Literature Review

Authors: Neeraj Malhotra

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Background: Bioreactors in tissue engineering are used as devices that apply mechanical means to influence biological processes. They are commonly employed for stem cell culturing, growth and expansion as well as in 3D tissue culture. Contemporarily there use is well established and is tested extensively in the medical sciences, for tissue-regeneration and tissue engineering of organs like bone, cartilage, blood vessels, skin grafts, cardiac muscle etc. Methodology: Literature search, both electronic and hand search, was done using the following MeSH and keywords: bioreactors, bioreactors and dentistry, bioreactors & dental tissue engineering, bioreactors and regenerative dentistry. Articles published only in English language were included for review. Results: Bioreactors like, spinner flask-, rotating wall-, flow perfusion-, and micro-bioreactors and in-vivo bioreactor have been employed and tested for the regeneration of dental and like-tissues. These include gingival tissue, periodontal ligament, alveolar bone, mucosa, cementum and blood vessels. Based on their working dynamics they can be customized in future for regeneration of pulp tissue and whole tooth regeneration. Apart from this, they have been successfully used in testing the clinical efficacy and biological safety of dental biomaterials. Conclusion: Bioreactors have potential use in testing dental biomaterials and tissue engineering approaches aimed at regenerative dentistry.

Keywords: bioreactors, biological process, mechanical stimulation, regenerative dentistry, stem cells

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100 Rapid and Easy Fabrication of Collagen-Based Biocomposite Scaffolds for 3D Cell Culture

Authors: Esra Turker, Umit Hakan Yildiz, Ahu Arslan Yildiz

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The key of regenerative medicine is mimicking natural three dimensional (3D) microenvironment of tissues by utilizing appropriate biomaterials. In this study, a synthetic biodegradable polymer; poly (L-lactide-co-ε-caprolactone) (PLLCL) and a natural polymer; collagen was used to mimic the biochemical structure of the natural extracellular matrix (ECM), and by means of electrospinning technique the real physical structure of ECM has mimicked. PLLCL/Collagen biocomposite scaffolds enables cell attachment, proliferation and nutrient transport through fabrication of micro to nanometer scale nanofibers. Biocomposite materials are commonly preferred due to limitations of physical and biocompatible properties of natural and synthetic materials. Combination of both materials improves the strength, degradation and biocompatibility of scaffold. Literature studies have shown that collagen is mostly solved with heavy chemicals, which is not suitable for cell culturing. To overcome this problem, a new approach has been developed in this study where polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) is used as co-electrospinning agent. PVP is preferred due to its water solubility, so PLLCL/collagen biocomposite scaffold can be easily and rapidly produced. Hydrolytic and enzymatic biodegradation as well as mechanical strength of scaffolds were examined in vitro. Cell adhesion, proliferation and cell morphology characterization studies have been performed as well. Further, on-chip drug screening analysis has been performed over 3D tumor models. Overall, the developed biocomposite scaffold was used for 3D tumor model formation and obtained results confirmed that developed model could be used for drug screening studies to predict clinical efficacy of a drug.

Keywords: biomaterials, 3D cell culture, drug screening, electrospinning, lab-on-a-chip, tissue engineering

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99 Developments and Implementation of Biomaterials in Textile Coating and Finishing

Authors: David De Smet, Myriam Vanneste

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There is a constant need for the improvement of materials applied in textile industries. Nowadays there is a tendency for “bio, eco, natural and environmental friendly” consciousness of the consumer resulting in various textile labels. Materials, totally based on CO2-neutral renewable resources (biopolymers), respond very well to this tendency. Proteins and PLA were evaluated as binders for textile coatings. Much attention is paid to the functionalization of textiles, therefore bio-additves are examined to introduce abrasion resistance, antimicrobial and flame retardant properties.

Keywords: biomaterial, textile, coating, finishing

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98 Systematic Analysis of Immune Response to Biomaterial Surface Characteristics

Authors: Florian Billing, Soren Segan, Meike Jakobi, Elsa Arefaine, Aliki Jerch, Xin Xiong, Matthias Becker, Thomas Joos, Burkhard Schlosshauer, Ulrich Rothbauer, Nicole Schneiderhan-Marra, Hanna Hartmann, Christopher Shipp

Abstract:

The immune response plays a major role in implant biocompatibility, but an understanding of how to design biomaterials for specific immune responses is yet to be achieved. We aimed to better understand how changing certain material properties can drive immune responses. To this end, we tested immune response to experimental implant coatings that vary in specific characteristics. A layer-by-layer approach was employed to vary surface charge and wettability. Human-based in vitro models (THP-1 macrophages and primary peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCS)) were used to assess immune responses using multiplex cytokine analysis, flow cytometry (CD molecule expression) and microscopy (cell morphology). We observed dramatic differences in immune response due to specific alterations in coating properties. For example altering the surface charge of coating A from anionic to cationic resulted in the substantial elevation of the pro-inflammatory molecules IL-1beta, IL-6, TNF-alpha and MIP-1beta, while the pro-wound healing factor VEGF was significantly down-regulated. We also observed changes in cell surface marker expression in relation to altered coating properties, such as CD16 on NK Cells and HLA-DR on monocytes. We furthermore observed changes in the morphology of THP-1 macrophages following cultivation on different coatings. A correlation between these morphological changes and the cytokine expression profile is ongoing. Targeted changes in biomaterial properties can produce vast differences in immune response. The properties of the coatings examined here may, therefore, be a method to direct specific biological responses in order to improve implant biocompatibility.

Keywords: biomaterials, coatings, immune system, implants

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97 Crosslinked Porous 3-Dimensional Cellulose Nanofibers/Gelatin Based Biocomposite Aerogels for Tissue Engineering Application

Authors: Ali Mirtaghavi, Andy Baldwin, Rajendarn Muthuraj, Jack Luo

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Recent advances in biomaterials have led to utilizing biopolymers to develop 3D scaffolds in tissue regeneration. One of the major challenges of designing biomaterials for 3D scaffolds is to mimic the building blocks similar to the extracellular matrix (ECM) of the native tissues. Biopolymer based aerogels obtained by freeze-drying have shown to provide structural similarities to the ECM owing to their 3D format and a highly porous structure with interconnected pores, similar to the ECM. Gelatin (GEL) is known to be a promising biomaterial with inherent regenerative characteristics owing to its chemical similarities to the ECM in native tissue, biocompatibility abundance, cost-effectiveness and accessible functional groups, which makes it facile for chemical modifications with other biomaterials to form biocomposites. Despite such advantages, gelatin offers poor mechanical properties, sensitive enzymatic degradation and high viscosity at room temperature which limits its application and encourages its use to develop biocomposites. Hydrophilic biomass-based cellulose nanofibrous (CNF) has been explored to use as suspension for biocomposite aerogels for the development of 3D porous structures with excellent mechanical properties, biocompatibility and slow enzymatic degradation. In this work, CNF biocomposite aerogels with various ratios of CNF:GEL) (90:10, 70:30 and 50:50) were prepared by freeze-drying technique, and their properties were investigated in terms of physicochemical, mechanical and biological characteristics. Epichlorohydrin (EPH) was used to investigate the effect of chemical crosslinking on the molecular interaction of CNF: GEL, and its effects on physicochemical, mechanical and biological properties of the biocomposite aerogels. Ultimately, chemical crosslinking helped to improve the mechanical resilience of the resulting aerogels. Amongst all the CNF-GEL composites, the crosslinked CNF: GEL (70:30) biocomposite was found to be favourable for cell attachment and viability. It possessed highly porous structure (porosity of ~93%) with pore sizes ranging from 16-110 µm, adequate mechanical properties (compression modulus of ~47 kPa) and optimal biocompatibility both in-vitro and in-vivo, as well as controlled enzymatic biodegradation, high water penetration, which could be considered a suitable option for wound healing application. In-vivo experiments showed improvement on inflammation and foreign giant body cell reaction for the crosslinked CNF: GEL (70:30) compared to the other samples. This could be due to the superior interaction of CNF with gelatin through chemical crosslinking, resulting in more optimal in-vivo improvement. In-vitro cell culture investigation on human dermal fibroblasts showed satisfactory 3D cell attachment over time. Overall, it has been observed that the developed CNF: GEL aerogel can be considered as a potential scaffold for soft tissue regeneration application.

Keywords: 3D scaffolds, aerogels, Biocomposites , tissue engineering

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96 Study and Analyze of Metallic Glasses for Biomedical Applications: From Soft to Bone Tissue Engineering

Authors: A. Monfared, S. Faghihi

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Metallic glasses (MGs) are newcomers in the field of metals that show great potential for soft and bone tissue engineering due to the amorphous structure that endows unique properties. Up to now, various MGs based on Ti, Zr, Mg, Zn, Fe, Ca, and Sr in the form of a ribbon, bulk, thin-film, and powder have been investigated for biomedical purposes. This article reviews the compositions and biomedical properties of MGs as well as analyzes results in order to guide new approaches and future development of MGs.

Keywords: metallic glasses, biomaterials, biocompatibility, biocorrosion

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95 Monitoring the Thin Film Formation of Carrageenan and PNIPAm Microgels

Authors: Selim Kara, Ertan Arda, Fahrettin Dolastir, Önder Pekcan

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Biomaterials and thin film coatings play a fundamental role in medical, food and pharmaceutical industries. Carrageenan is a linear sulfated polysaccharide extracted from algae and seaweeds. To date, such biomaterials have been used in many smart drug delivery systems due to their biocompatibility and antimicrobial activity properties. Poly (N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAm) gels and copolymers have also been used in medical applications. PNIPAm shows lower critical solution temperature (LCST) property at about 32-34 °C which is very close to the human body temperature. Below and above the LCST point, PNIPAm gels exhibit distinct phase transitions between swollen and collapsed states. A special class of gels are microgels which can react to environmental changes significantly faster than microgels due to their small sizes. Quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) measurement technique is one of the attractive techniques which has been used for monitoring the thin-film formation process. A sensitive QCM system was designed as to detect 0.1 Hz difference in resonance frequency and 10-7 change in energy dissipation values, which are the measures of the deposited mass and the film rigidity, respectively. PNIPAm microgels with the diameter around few hundred nanometers in water were produced via precipitation polymerization process. 5 MHz quartz crystals with functionalized gold surfaces were used for the deposition of the carrageenan molecules and microgels in the solutions which were slowly pumped through a flow cell. Interactions between charged carrageenan and microgel particles were monitored during the formation of the film layers, and the Sauerbrey masses of the deposited films were calculated. The critical phase transition temperatures around the LCST were detected during the heating and cooling cycles. It was shown that it is possible to monitor the interactions between PNIPAm microgels and biopolymer molecules, and it is also possible to specify the critical phase transition temperatures by using a QCM system.

Keywords: carrageenan, phase transitions, PNIPAm microgels, quartz crystal microbalance (QCM)

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94 Effect of Polymer Molecular Structures on Properties of Dental Cement Restoratives

Authors: Dong Xie, Jun Zhao, Yiming Weng

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One of the challenges in dental cement biomaterials is how to make a restorative with mechanical strengths and wear resistance that are comparable to contemporary dental resin composites. Currently none of the dental cement restoratives has been used in high stress-bearing sites due to their low mechanical strengths and poor wear-resistance. The objective of this study was to synthesize and characterize the poly(alkenoic acid)s with different molecular structures, use these polymers to formulate a dental cement restorative, and study the effect of molecular structures on reaction kinetics, viscosity, and mechanical strengths of the formed polymers and cement restoratives. In this study, poly(alkenoic acid)s with different molecular structures were synthesized. The purified polymers were formulated with commercial Fuji II LC glass fillers to form the experimental cement restoratives. The reaction kinetics was studied via 1HNMR spectroscopy. The formed restoratives were evaluated using compressive strength, diametral tensile strength, flexural strength, hardness and wear-resistance tests. Specimens were conditioned in distilled water at 37 oC for 24 h prior to testing. Fuji II LC restorative was used as control. The results show that the higher the arm number and initiator concentration, the faster the reaction was. It was also found that the higher the arm number and branching that the polymer had, the lower the viscosity of the polymer in water and the lower the mechanical strengths of the formed restorative. The experimental restoratives were 31-53% in compressive strength, 37-55% in compressive modulus, 80-126% in diametral tensile strength, 76-94% in flexural strength, 4-21% in fracture toughness and 53-96% in hardness higher than Fuji II LC. For wear test, the experimental restoratives were only 5.4-13% of abrasive and 6.4-12% of attritional wear depths of Fuji II LC in each wear cycle. The aging study also showed that all the experimental restoratives increased their strength continuously during 30 days, unlike Fuji II LC. It is concluded that polymer molecular structures have significant and positive impact on mechanical properties of dental cement restoratives.

Keywords: dental materials, polymers, strength, biomaterials

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93 Synthesis and Characterization of Chitosan Microparticles for Scaffold Structure and Bioprinting

Authors: J. E. Mendes, T. T. de Barros, O. B. G. de Assis, J. D. C. Pessoa

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Chitosan, a natural polysaccharide of β-1,4-linked glucosamine residues, is a biopolymer obtained primarily from the exoskeletons of crustaceans. Interest in polymeric materials increases year by year. Chitosan is one of the most plentiful biomaterials, with a wide range of pharmaceutical, biomedical, industrial and agricultural applications. Chitosan nanoparticles were synthesized via the ionotropic gelation of chitosan with sodium tripolyphosphate (TPP). Two concentrations of chitosan microparticles (0.1 and 0.2%) were synthesized. In this study, it was possible to synthesize and characterize microparticles of chitosan biomaterial and this will be used for future applications in cell anchorage for 3D bioprinting.

Keywords: chitosan microparticles, biomaterial, scaffold, bioprinting

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92 Immobilizing Quorum Sensing Inhibitors on Biomaterial Surfaces

Authors: Aditi Taunk, George Iskander, Kitty Ka Kit Ho, Mark Willcox, Naresh Kumar

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Bacterial infections on biomaterial implants and medical devices accounts for 60-70% of all hospital acquired infections (HAIs). Treatment or removal of these infected devices results in high patient mortality and morbidity along with increased hospital expenses. In addition, with no effective strategies currently available and rapid development of antibacterial resistance has made device-related infections extremely difficult to treat. Therefore, in this project we have developed biomaterial surfaces using antibacterial compounds that inhibit biofilm formation by interfering with the bacterial communication mechanism known as quorum sensing (QS). This study focuses on covalent attachment of potent quorum sensing (QS) inhibiting compounds, halogenated furanones (FUs) and dihydropyrrol-2-ones (DHPs), onto glass surfaces. The FUs were attached by photoactivating the azide groups on the surface, and the acid functionalized DHPs were immobilized on amine surface via EDC/NHS coupling. The modified surfaces were tested in vitro against pathogenic organisms such as Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa using confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). Successful attachment of compounds on the substrates was confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and contact angle measurements. The antibacterial efficacy was assessed, and significant reduction in bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation was observed on the FU and DHP coated surfaces. The activity of the coating was dependent upon the type of substituent present on the phenyl group of the DHP compound. For example, the ortho-fluorophenyl DHP (DHP-2) exhibited 79% reduction in bacterial adhesion against S. aureus and para-fluorophenyl DHP (DHP-3) exhibited 70% reduction against P. aeruginosa. The results were found to be comparable to DHP coated surfaces prepared in earlier study via Michael addition reaction. FUs and DHPs were able to retain their in vitro antibacterial efficacy after covalent attachment via azide chemistry. This approach is a promising strategy to develop efficient antibacterial biomaterials to reduce device related infections.

Keywords: antibacterial biomaterials, biomedical device-related infections, quorum sensing, surface functionalization

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91 Electrospun Fibre Networks Loaded with Hydroxyapatite and Barium Titanate as Smart Scaffolds for Tissue Regeneration

Authors: C. Busuioc, I. Stancu, A. Nicoara, A. Zamfirescu, A. Evanghelidis

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The field of tissue engineering has expanded its potential due to the use of composite biomaterials belonging to increasingly complex systems, leading to bone substitutes with properties that are continuously improving to meet the patient's specific needs. Furthermore, the development of biomaterials based on ceramic and polymeric phases is an unlimited resource for future scientific research, with the final aim of restoring the original tissue functionality. Thus, in the first stage, composite scaffolds based on polycaprolactone (PCL) or polylactic acid (PLA) and inorganic powders were prepared by employing the electrospinning technique. The targeted powders were: commercial and laboratory synthesized hydroxyapatite (HAp), as well as barium titanate (BT). By controlling the concentration of the powder within the precursor solution, together with the processing parameters, different types of three-dimensional architectures were achieved. In the second stage, both the mineral powders and hybrid composites were investigated in terms of composition, crystalline structure, and microstructure so that to demonstrate their suitability for tissue engineering applications. Regarding the scaffolds, these were proven to be homogeneous on large areas and loaded with mineral particles in different proportions. The biological assays demonstrated that the addition of inorganic powders leads to modified responses in the presence of simulated body fluid (SBF) or cell cultures. Through SBF immersion, the biodegradability coupled with bioactivity were highlighted, with fiber fragmentation and surface degradation, as well as apatite layer formation within the testing period. Moreover, the final composites represent supports accepted by the cells, favoring implant integration. Concluding, the purposed fibrous materials based on bioresorbable polymers and mineral powders, produced by the electrospinning technique, represent candidates with considerable potential in the field of tissue engineering. Future improvements can be attained by optimizing the synthesis process or by simultaneous incorporation of multiple inorganic phases with well-defined biological action in order to fabricate multifunctional composites.

Keywords: barium titanate, electrospinning, fibre networks, hydroxyapatite, smart scaffolds

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90 Chemical Treatment of Wastewater through Biosorption for the Removal of Toxic Metals

Authors: Shafiq Alam, Manjunathan Ulaganathan

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Water/wastewater often contains heavy/toxic metals, such as lead, copper, zinc and arsenic as well as harmful elements, such as antimony, selenium and fluoride. It may also contains radioactive elements, such as cesium and strontium. If they are not removed from water/wastewater then the environment and human health can be negatively impacted. Extensive research has been carried out to remove such harmful metals/elements from water/wastewater through biosorption using biomaterials (bioadsorbents). This presentation will give an overview of the research on preparation of bioadsorbents from biomass wastes and their use for the removal of harmful metals/elements from aqueous media.

Keywords: biosorption, environmental, toxic metals, wastewater

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89 Ultrasonic Micro Injection Molding: Manufacturing of Micro Plates of Biomaterials

Authors: Ariadna Manresa, Ines Ferrer

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Introduction: Ultrasonic moulding process (USM) is a recent injection technology used to manufacture micro components. It is able to melt small amounts of material so the waste of material is certainly reduced comparing to microinjection molding. This is an important advantage when the materials are expensive like medical biopolymers. Micro-scaled components are involved in a variety of uses, such as biomedical applications. It is required replication fidelity so it is important to stabilize the process and minimize the variability of the responses. The aim of this research is to investigate the influence of the main process parameters on the filling behaviour, the dimensional accuracy and the cavity pressure when a micro-plate is manufactured by biomaterials such as PLA and PCL. Methodology or Experimental Procedure: The specimens are manufactured using a Sonorus 1G Ultrasound Micro Molding Machine. The used geometry is a rectangular micro-plate of 15x5mm and 1mm of thickness. The materials used for the investigation are PLA and PCL due to biocompatible and degradation properties. The experimentation is divided into two phases. Firstly, the influence of process parameters (vibration amplitude, sonotrodo velocity, ultrasound time and compaction force) on filling behavior is analysed, in Phase 1. Next, when filling cavity is assured, the influence of both cooling time and force compaction on the cavity pressure, part temperature and dimensional accuracy is instigated, which is done in Phase. Results and Discussion: Filling behavior depends on sonotrodo velocity and vibration amplitude. When the ultrasonic time is higher, more ultrasonic energy is applied and the polymer temperature increases. Depending on the cooling time, it is possible that when mold is opened, the micro-plate temperature is too warm. Consequently, the polymer relieve its stored internal energy (ultrasonic and thermal) expanding through the easier direction. This fact is reflected on dimensional accuracy, causing micro-plates thicker than the mold. It has also been observed the most important fact that affects cavity pressure is the compaction configuration during the manufacturing cycle. Conclusions: This research demonstrated the influence of process parameters on the final micro-plated manufactured. Future works will be focused in manufacturing other geometries and analysing the mechanical properties of the specimens.

Keywords: biomaterial, biopolymer, micro injection molding, ultrasound

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88 Non-Cytotoxic Natural Sourced Inorganic Hydroxyapatite (HAp) Scaffold Facilitate Bone-like Mechanical Support and Cell Proliferation

Authors: Sudip Mondal, Biswanath Mondal, Sudit S. Mukhopadhyay, Apurba Dey

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Bioactive materials improve devices for a long lifespan but have mechanical limitations. Mechanical characterization is one of the very important characteristics to evaluate the life span and functionality of the scaffold material. After implantation of scaffold material the primary stage rejection of scaffold occurs due to non biocompatible effect of host body system. The second major problems occur due to the effect of mechanical failure. The mechanical and biocompatibility failure of the scaffold materials can be overcome by the prior evaluation of the scaffold materials. In this study chemically treated Labeo rohita scale is used for synthesizing hydroxyapatite (HAp) biomaterial. Thermo-gravimetric and differential thermal analysis (TG-DTA) is carried out to ensure thermal stability. The chemical composition and bond structures of wet ball-milled calcined HAp powder is characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FE-SEM), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis. Fish scale derived apatite materials consists of nano-sized particles with Ca/P ratio of 1.71. The biocompatibility through cytotoxicity evaluation and MTT assay are carried out in MG63 osteoblast cell lines. In the cell attachment study, the cells are tightly attached with HAp scaffolds developed in the laboratory. The result clearly suggests that HAp material synthesized in this study do not have any cytotoxic effect, as well as it has a natural binding affinity for mammalian cell lines. The synthesized HAp powder further successfully used to develop porous scaffold material with suitable mechanical property of ~0.8GPa compressive stress, ~1.10 GPa a hardness and ~ 30-35% porosity which is acceptable for implantation in trauma region for animal model. The histological analysis also supports the bio-affinity of processed HAp biomaterials in Wistar rat model for investigating the contact reaction and stability at the artificial or natural prosthesis interface for biomedical function. This study suggests the natural sourced fish scale-derived HAp material could be used as a suitable alternative biomaterial for tissue engineering application in near future.

Keywords: biomaterials, hydroxyapatite, scaffold, mechanical property, tissue engineering

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87 Suture Biomaterials Development from Natural Fibers: Muga Silk (Antheraea assama) and Ramie (Boehmeria nivea)

Authors: Raghuram Kandimalla, Sanjeeb Kalita, Bhaswati Choudhury, Jibon Kotoky

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The quest for developing an ideal suture material prompted our interest to develop a novel suture with advantageous characteristics to market available ones. We developed novel suture biomaterial from muga silk (Antheraea assama) and ramie (Boehmeria nivea) plant fiber. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), attenuated total reflection fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) and thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA) results revealed the physicochemical properties of the fibers which supports the suitability of fibers for suture fabrication. Tensile properties of the prepared sutures were comparable with market available sutures and it found to be biocompatible towards human erythrocytes and nontoxic to mammalian cells. The prepared sutures completely healed the superficial deep wound incisions within seven days in adult male wister rats leaving no rash and scar. Histopathology studies supports the wound healing ability of sutures, as rapid synthesis of collagen, connective tissue and other skin adnexal structures were observed within seven days of surgery. Further muga suture surface modified by exposing the suture to oxygen plasma which resulted in formation of nanotopography on suture surface. Broad spectrum antibiotic amoxicillin was functionalized on the suture surface to prepare an advanced antimicrobial muga suture. Surface hydrophilicity induced by oxygen plasma results in an increase in drug-impregnation efficiency of modified muga suture by 16.7%. In vitro drug release profiles showed continuous and prolonged release of amoxicillin from suture up to 336 hours. The advanced muga suture proves to be effective against growth inhibition of Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli, whereas normal muga suture offers no antibacterial activity against both types of bacteria. In vivo histopathology studies and colony-forming unit count data revealed accelerated wound healing activity of advanced suture over normal one through rapid synthesis and proliferation of collagen, hair follicle and connective tissues.

Keywords: sutures, biomaterials, silk, Ramie

Procedia PDF Downloads 199