Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 229

Search results for: amorphous

229 Producing of Amorphous-Nanocrystalline Composite Powders

Authors: K. Tomolya, D. Janovszky, A. Sycheva, M. Sveda, A. Roosz

Abstract:

CuZrAl amorphous alloys have attracted high interest due to unique physical and mechanical properties, which can be enhanced by adding of Ni and Ti elements. It is known that this properties can be enhanced by crystallization of amorphous alloys creating nanocrystallines in the matrix. The present work intends to produce nanosized crystalline parti-cle reinforced amorphous matrix composite powders by crystallization of amorphous powders. As the first step the amorphous powders were synthe-tized by ball-milling of crystalline powders. (Cu49Zr45Al6) 80Ni10Ti10 and (Cu49Zr44Al7) 80Ni10Ti10 (at%) alloys were ball-milled for 12 hours in order to reach the fully amorphous structure. The impact en-ergy of the balls during milling causes the change of the structure in the powders. Scanning electron microscopical (SEM) images shows that the phases mixed first and then changed into a fully amorphous matrix. Furthermore, nanosized particles in the amorphous matrix were crystallized by heat treatment of the amorphous powders that was confirmed by TEM measurement. It was of importance to define the tem-perature when the amorphous phase starts to crystal-lize. Amorphous alloys have a special heating curve and characteristic temperatures, which can be meas-ured by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). A typical DSC curve of an amorphous alloy exhibits an endothermic event characteristic of the equilibrium glass transition (Tg) and a distinct undercooled liquid region, followed by one or two exothermic events corresponding to crystallization processes (Tp). After measuring the DSC traces of the amorphous powders, the annealing temperatures should be determined between Tx and Tp. In our experiments several temperatures from the annealing temperature range were selected and de-pendency of crystallized nanoparticles fraction on their hardness was investigated.

Keywords: amorphous structure, composite, mechanical milling, powder, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), transmission electronmocroscopy (TEM)

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228 Surface Induced Alteration of Nanosized Amorphous Alumina

Authors: A. Katsman, L. Bloch, Y. Etinger, Y. Kauffmann, B. Pokroy

Abstract:

Various nanosized amorphous alumina thin films in the range of (2.4 - 63.1) nm were deposited onto amorphous carbon and amorphous Si3N4 membrane grids. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) techniques were used to probe the size effect on the short range order and the amorphous to crystalline phase transition temperature. It was found that the short-range order changes as a function of size: the fraction of tetrahedral Al sites is greater in thinner amorphous films. This result correlates with the change of amorphous alumina density with the film thickness demonstrated by the reflectivity experiments: the thinner amorphous films have the less density. These effects are discussed in terms of surface reconstruction of the amorphous alumina films. The average atomic binding energy in the thin film layer decreases with decease of the thickness, while the average O-Al interatomic distance increases. The reconstruction of amorphous alumina is induced by the surface reconstruction, and the short range order changes being dependent on the density. Decrease of the surface energy during reconstruction is the driving force of the alumina reconstruction (density change) followed by relaxation process (short range order change). The amorphous to crystalline phase transition temperature measured by DSC rises with the decrease in thickness from 997.6°C for 13.9 nm to 1020.4 °C for 2.7 nm thick. This effect was attributed to the different film densities: formation of nanovoids preceding and accompanying crystallization process influences the crystallization rate, and by these means, the temperature of crystallization peak.

Keywords: amorphous alumina, density, short range order, size effect

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227 The Effects of Orientation on Energy and Plasticity of Metallic Crystalline-Amorphous Interface

Authors: Ehsan Alishahi, Chuang Deng

Abstract:

Commercial applications of bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) were restricted due to the sudden brittle failure mode which was the main drawback in these new class of materials. Therefore, crystalline-amorphous (C-A) composites were introduced as a toughening strategy in BMGs. In spite of numerous researches in the area of metallic C-A composites, the fundamental structure-property relation in these composites that are not exactly known yet. In this study, it is aimed to investigate the fundamental properties of crystalline-amorphous interface in a model system of Cu/CuZr by using molecular dynamics simulations. Several parameters including interface energy and mechanical properties were investigated by means of atomic models and employing Embedded Atom Method (EAM) potential function. It is found that the crystalline-amorphous interfacial energy weakly depends on the orientation of the crystalline layer, which is in stark contrast to that in a regular crystalline grain boundary. Additionally, the results showed that the interface controls the yielding of the crystalline-amorphous composites during uniaxial tension either by serving as sources for dislocation nucleation in the crystalline layer or triggering local shear transformation zones in amorphous layer. The critical resolved shear stress required to nucleate the first dislocation is also found to strongly depend on the crystalline orientation. Furthermore, it is found that the interaction between dislocations and shear localization at the crystalline-amorphous interface oriented in different directions can lead to a change in the deformation mode. For instance, while the dislocation and shear banding are aligned to each other in {0 0 1} interface plane, the misorientation angle between these failure mechanisms causing more homogeneous deformation in {1 1 0} and {1 1 1} crystalline-amorphous interfaces. These results should help clarify the failure mechanism of crystalline-amorphous composites under various loading conditions.

Keywords: crystalline-amorphous, composites, orientation, plasticity

Procedia PDF Downloads 215
226 Mechanical Investigation Approach to Optimize the High-Velocity Oxygen Fuel Fe-Based Amorphous Coatings Reinforced by B4C Nanoparticles

Authors: Behrooz Movahedi

Abstract:

Fe-based amorphous feedstock powders are used as the matrix into which various ratios of hard B4C nanoparticles (0, 5, 10, 15, 20 vol.%) as reinforcing agents were prepared using a planetary high-energy mechanical milling. The ball-milled nanocomposite feedstock powders were also sprayed by means of high-velocity oxygen fuel (HVOF) technique. The characteristics of the powder particles and the prepared coating depending on their microstructures and nanohardness were examined in detail using nanoindentation tester. The results showed that the formation of the Fe-based amorphous phase was noticed over the course of high-energy ball milling. It is interesting to note that the nanocomposite coating is divided into two regions, namely, a full amorphous phase region and homogeneous dispersion of B4C nanoparticles with a scale of 10–50 nm in a residual amorphous matrix. As the B4C content increases, the nanohardness of the composite coatings increases, but the fracture toughness begins to decrease at the B4C content higher than 20 vol.%. The optimal mechanical properties are obtained with 15 vol.% B4C due to the suitable content and uniform distribution of nanoparticles. Consequently, the changes in mechanical properties of the coatings were attributed to the changes in the brittle to ductile transition by adding B4C nanoparticles.

Keywords: Fe-based amorphous, B₄C nanoparticles, nanocomposite coating, HVOF

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225 Properties of Epoxy Composite Reinforced with Amorphous and Crystalline Silica from Rice Husk

Authors: Norul Hisham Hamid, Amir Affan, Ummi Hani Abdullah, Paridah Md. Tahir, Khairul Akmal Azhar, Rahmat Nawai, W. B. H. Wan Sulwani Izzati

Abstract:

The dimensional stability and static bending properties of epoxy composite reinforced with amorphous and crystalline silica were investigated. The amorphous and crystalline silica was obtained by the precipitation method from carbonisation process of the rice husk at a temperature of 600 °C and 1000 °C for 7 hours respectively. The epoxy resin was mixed with 5%, 10% and 15% concentrations of amorphous and crystalline silica. The mixture was stirred for 10 minutes and cured at 28 °C for 72 hours and oven dried at 80 °C for 72 hours. The scanning electron microscope image showed the silica sized of 10-30nm was obtained. The water absorption and thickness swelling of epoxy/amorphous silica composite was not significantly different with silica concentration ranged from 0.08% to 0.09% and 0.17% to 0.20% respectively. The maximum modulus of rupture (85 MPa) and modulus of elasticity (3284 MPa) were achieved for 10% silica concentration. For epoxy/crystalline silica composite; the water absorption and thickness swelling were also not significantly different with silica concentration, ranged from 0.08% to 0.11% and 0.16% to 0.18% respectively. The maximum modulus of rupture (47.9 MPa) and modulus of elasticity (2760 MPa) were achieved for 10% silica concentration. Overall, the water absorption and thickness swelling were almost identical for epoxy composite made from either amorphous or crystalline silica. The epoxy composite made from amorphous silica was stronger than crystalline silica.

Keywords: epoxy, composite, dimensional stability, static bending, silica

Procedia PDF Downloads 135
224 Preparation of Amorphous silica from Algerian Diatomite and Its Properties

Authors: S. Medeghri, S. Hamzaoui, M. Zerdali, S. Masatomo

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In this work there is a facile method to produce pure amorphous silica from Algerian diatomite with an economic and ecological method. The sodium silicate is commonly used as precursor in silica gel diatomite preparation. In this study, the preparation of sodium silicate is preceded by acid washing of raw diatomite; the acid is then slowly added to precipitate silica at different pH values to obtain silica gel. The silica gel is characterized by EDX, ICP-MS and XRD. The EDX revels that the purity of silica from diatom is 98% after purification compared to raw diatom.

Keywords: diatomite, acid cleaning, dissolution, amorphous silica, purity

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223 Electrical Performance Analysis of Single Junction Amorphous Silicon Solar (a-Si:H) Modules Using IV Tracer (PVPM)

Authors: Gilbert Omorodion Osayemwenre, Edson Meyer, R. T. Taziwa

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The electrical analysis of single junction amorphous silicon solar modules is carried out using outdoor monitoring technique. Like crystalline silicon PV modules, the electrical characterisation and performance of single junction amorphous silicon modules are best described by its current-voltage (IV) characteristic. However, IV curve has a direct dependence on the type of PV technology and material properties used. The analysis reveals discrepancies in the modules performance parameter even though they are of similar technology. The aim of this work is to compare the electrical performance output of each module, using electrical parameters with the aid of PVPM 100040C IV tracer. These results demonstrated the relevance of standardising the performance parameter for effective degradation analysis of a-Si:H.

Keywords: PVPM 100040C IV tracer, SolarWatt part, single junction amorphous silicon module (a-Si:H), Staebler-Wronski (S-W) degradation effect

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222 Production of Amorphous Boron Powder via Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD)

Authors: Meltem Bolluk, Ismail Duman

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Boron exhibits the properties of high melting temperature (2273K to 2573 K), high hardness (Mohs: 9,5), low density (2,340 g/cm3), high chemical resistance, high strength, and semiconductivity (band gap:1,6-2,1 eV). These superior properties enable to use it in several high-tech areas from electronics to nuclear industry and especially in high temperature metallurgy. Amorphous boron and crystalline boron have different application areas. Amorphous boron powder (directly amorphous and/or α-rhombohedral) is preferred in rocket firing, airbag inflating and in fabrication of superconducting MgB2 wires. The conventional ways to produce elemental boron with a purity of 85 pct to 95 prc are metallothermic reduction, fused salt electrolysis and mechanochemical synthesis; but the only way to produce high-purity boron powders is Chemical Vapour Deposition (Hot Surface CVD). In this study; amorphous boron powders with a minimum purity of 99,9 prc were synthesized in quartz tubes using BCl3-H2 gas mixture by CVD. Process conditions based on temperature and gas flow rate were determined. Thermodynamical interpretation of BCl3-H2 system for different temperatures and molar rates were performed using Fact Sage software. The characterization of powders was examined by using Xray diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM), Stereo Microscope (SM), Helium gas pycnometer analysis. The purities of final products were determined by titration after lime fusion.

Keywords: amorphous boron, CVD, powder production, powder characterization

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221 Synthesis and Electromagnetic Wave Absorbing Property of Amorphous Carbon Nanotube Networks on a 3D Graphene Aerogel/BaFe₁₂O₁₉ Nanorod Composite

Authors: Tingkai Zhao, Jingtian Hu, Xiarong Peng, Wenbo Yang, Tiehu Li

Abstract:

Homogeneous amorphous carbon nanotube (ACNT) networks have been synthesized using floating catalyst chemical vapor deposition method on a three-dimensional (3D) graphene aerogel (GA)/BaFe₁₂O₁₉ nanorod (BNR) composite which prepared by a self-propagating combustion process. The as-synthesized ACNT/GA/BNR composite which has 3D network structures could be directly used as a good absorber in the electromagnetic wave absorbent materials. The experimental results indicated that the maximum absorbing peak of ACNT/GA/BNR composite with a thickness of 2 mm was -18.35 dB at 10.64 GHz in the frequency range of 2-18 GHz. The bandwidth of the reflectivity below -10 dB is 3.32 GHz. The 3D graphene aerogel structures which composed of dense interlined tubes and amorphous structure of ACNTs bearing quantities of dihedral angles could consume the incident waves through multiple reflection and scattering inside the 3D web structures. The interlinked ACNTs have both the virtues of amorphous CNTs (multiple reflections inside the wall) and crystalline CNTs (high conductivity), consuming the electromagnetic wave as resistance heat. ACNT/GA/BNR composite has a good electromagnetic wave absorbing performance.

Keywords: amorphous carbon nanotubes, graphene aerogel, barium ferrite nanorod, electromagnetic wave absorption

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220 Microstructure Study of Melt Spun Mg₆₅Cu₂₅Y₁₀

Authors: Michael Regev, Shai Essel, Alexander Katz-Demyanetz

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Magnesium alloys are characterized by good physical properties: They exhibit high strength, are lightweight and have good damping absorption and good thermal and electrical conductivity. Amorphous magnesium alloys, moreover, exhibit higher strength, hardness and a large elastic domain in addition to having excellent corrosion resistance. These above-mentioned advantages make magnesium based metallic glasses attractive for industrial use. Among the various existing magnesium alloys, Mg₆₅Cu₂₅Y₁₀ alloy is known to be one of the best glass formers. In the current study, Mg₆₅Cu₂₅Y₁₀ ribbons were produced by melt spinning, their microstructure was investigated in its as-cast condition, after pressing under 0.5 GPa for 5 minutes under different temperatures - RT, 500C, 1000C, 1500C and 2000C - and after five minute exposure to the above temperatures without pressing. The microstructure was characterized by means of X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), High Resolution Scanning Electron Microscope (HRSEM) and High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (HRTEM). XRD and DSC studies showed that the as-cast material had an amorphous character and that the material crystallized during exposure to temperature with or without applying stress. HRTEM revealed that the as-cast Mg65Cu25Y10, although known to be one of the best glass formers, is nano-crystalline rather than amorphous. The current study casts light on the question what an amorphous alloy is and whether there is any clear borderline between amorphous and nano-crystalline alloys.

Keywords: metallic glass, magnesium, melt spinning, amorphous alloys

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219 Processing and Characterization of Aluminum Matrix Composite Reinforced with Amorphous Zr₃₇.₅Cu₁₈.₆₇Al₄₃.₉₈ Phase

Authors: P. Abachi, S. Karami, K. Purazrang

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The amorphous reinforcements (metallic glasses) can be considered as promising options for reinforcing light-weight aluminum and its alloys. By using the proper type of reinforcement, one can overcome to drawbacks such as interfacial de-cohesion and undesirable reactions which can be created at ceramic particle and metallic matrix interface. In this work, the Zr-based amorphous phase was produced via mechanical milling of elemental powders. Based on Miedema semi-empirical Model and diagrams for formation enthalpies and/or Gibbs free energies of Zr-Cu amorphous phase in comparison with the crystalline phase, the glass formability range was predicted. The composite was produced using the powder mixture of the aluminum and metallic glass and spark plasma sintering (SPS) at the temperature slightly above the glass transition Tg of the metallic glass particles. The selected temperature and rapid sintering route were suitable for consolidation of an aluminum matrix without crystallization of amorphous phase. To characterize amorphous phase formation, X-ray diffraction (XRD) phase analyses were performed on powder mixture after specified intervals of milling. The microstructure of the composite was studied by optical and scanning electron microscope (SEM). Uniaxial compression tests were carried out on composite specimens with the dimension of 4 mm long and a cross-section of 2 ˟ 2mm2. The micrographs indicated an appropriate reinforcement distribution in the metallic matrix. The comparison of stress–strain curves of the consolidated composite and the non-reinforced Al matrix alloy in compression showed that the enhancement of yield strength and mechanical strength are combined with an appreciable plastic strain at fracture. It can be concluded that metallic glasses (amorphous phases) are alternative reinforcement material for lightweight metal matrix composites capable of producing high strength and adequate ductility. However, this is in the expense of minor density increase.

Keywords: aluminum matrix composite, amorphous phase, mechanical alloying, spark plasma sintering

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218 Synthesis of Amorphous Nanosilica Anode Material from Philippine Waste Rice Hull for Lithium Battery Application

Authors: Emie A. Salamangkit-Mirasol, Rinlee Butch M. Cervera

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Rice hull or rice husk (RH) is an agricultural waste obtained from milling rice grains. Since RH has no commercial value and is difficult to use in agriculture, its volume is often reduced through open field burning which is an environmental hazard. In this study, amorphous nanosilica from Philippine waste RH was prepared via acid precipitation method. The synthesized samples were fully characterized for its microstructural properties. X-ray diffraction pattern reveals that the structure of the prepared sample is amorphous in nature while Fourier transform infrared spectrum showed the different vibration bands of the synthesized sample. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and particle size analysis (PSA) confirmed the presence of agglomerated silica particles. On the other hand, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed an amorphous sample with grain sizes of about 5 to 20 nanometer range and has about 95 % purity according to EDS analyses. The elemental mapping also suggests that leaching of rice hull ash effectively removed the metallic impurity such as potassium element in the material. Hence, amorphous nanosilica was successfully prepared via a low-cost acid precipitation method from Philippine waste rice hull. In addition, initial electrode performance of the synthesized samples as an anode material in Lithium Battery have been investigated.

Keywords: agricultural waste, anode material, nanosilica, rice hull

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217 An Investigation into the Crystallization Tendency/Kinetics of Amorphous Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients: A Case Study with Dipyridamole and Cinnarizine

Authors: Shrawan Baghel, Helen Cathcart, Biall J. O'Reilly

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Amorphous drug formulations have great potential to enhance solubility and thus bioavailability of BCS class II drugs. However, the higher free energy and molecular mobility of the amorphous form lowers the activation energy barrier for crystallization and thermodynamically drives it towards the crystalline state which makes them unstable. Accurate determination of the crystallization tendency/kinetics is the key to the successful design and development of such systems. In this study, dipyridamole (DPM) and cinnarizine (CNZ) has been selected as model compounds. Thermodynamic fragility (m_T) is measured from the heat capacity change at the glass transition temperature (Tg) whereas dynamic fragility (m_D) is evaluated using methods based on extrapolation of configurational entropy to zero 〖(m〗_(D_CE )), and heating rate dependence of Tg 〖(m〗_(D_Tg)). The mean relaxation time of amorphous drugs was calculated from Vogel-Tammann-Fulcher (VTF) equation. Furthermore, the correlation between fragility and glass forming ability (GFA) of model drugs has been established and the relevance of these parameters to crystallization of amorphous drugs is also assessed. Moreover, the crystallization kinetics of model drugs under isothermal conditions has been studied using Johnson-Mehl-Avrami (JMA) approach to determine the Avrami constant ‘n’ which provides an insight into the mechanism of crystallization. To further probe into the crystallization mechanism, the non-isothermal crystallization kinetics of model systems was also analysed by statistically fitting the crystallization data to 15 different kinetic models and the relevance of model-free kinetic approach has been established. In addition, the crystallization mechanism for DPM and CNZ at each extent of transformation has been predicted. The calculated fragility, glass forming ability (GFA) and crystallization kinetics is found to be in good correlation with the stability prediction of amorphous solid dispersions. Thus, this research work involves a multidisciplinary approach to establish fragility, GFA and crystallization kinetics as stability predictors for amorphous drug formulations.

Keywords: amorphous, fragility, glass forming ability, molecular mobility, mean relaxation time, crystallization kinetics, stability

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216 Effect of Incineration Temperatures to Time on the Rice Husk Ash (RHA) Silica Structure: A Comparative Study to the Literature with Experimental Work

Authors: Binyamien Ibrahim Rasoul

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Controlled burning of rice husk can produce amorphous rice husk ash (RHA) with high silica content which can significantly enhance the properties of concrete. This study has been undertaken to investigate the relationship between the incineration temperatures and time to produce RHA with ultimate reactivity. The rice husk samples were incinerated in an electrical muffle furnace at 350°C, 400°C, 425°C 450°C, 475°C, and 500°C for 60 and 90 minutes, respectively. The silica structure in the Rice Husk Ash (RHA) was determined using X-Ray diffraction analysis, while chemical properties obtained using X-Ray Fluorescence. The results show that RHA appeared to be the totally amorphous when the husk incineration up to 425°C for 60 and even at 90 minutes. However, with increased temperature to 450°C, 475°C and 500°C, traces of crystalline silica (quartz) were detected. However, cannot be taken into account as it does not affect on the ash structure. In conclusion, the result gives an idea of the temperature and the time required to produce ash from rice husk with totally amorphous form.

Keywords: rice husk ash, silica, compressive strength, tensile strength, X-Ray diffraction, X-R florescence, pozzolanic activity

Procedia PDF Downloads 51
215 Ti-Mo-N Nano-Grains Embedded into Thin MoSₓ-Based Amorphous Matrix: A Novel Structure for Superhardness and Ultra-Low Wear

Authors: Lina Yang, Mao Wen, Jianhong Chen, Kan Zhang

Abstract:

Molybdenum disulfide (MoS₂) represents a highly sought lubricant for reducing friction based on intrinsic layered structure, but for this reason, practical applications have been greatly restricted due to the fact that its low hardness would cause severe wear. Here, a novel TiMoN/MoSₓ composite coatings with TiMoN solid solution grains embedded into MoSₓ-based amorphous matrix has been successfully designed and synthesized, through magnetron co-sputtering technology. Desirably, in virtue of such special microstructure, superhardness and excellent toughness can be well achieved, along with an ultra-low wear rate at ~2×10⁻¹¹ mm³/Nm in the air environment, simultaneously, low friction at ~0.1 is maintained. It should be noted that this wear level is almost two orders of magnitude lower than that of pure TiN coating, and is, as we know, the lowest wear rate in dry sliding. Investigations of tribofilm reveal that it is amorphous MoS₂ in nature, and its formation arises directly from the MoSₓ amorphous matrix. Which contributes to effective lubrication behavior, coupled with excellent mechanical performances of such composite coating, exceptionally low wear can be guaranteed. The findings in this work suggest that the special composite structure makes it possible for the synthesis of super-hard and super-durable lubricative coating, offering guidance to synthesize ultrahigh performance protective coating for industrial application.

Keywords: hardness, MoS₂-containing composite coatings, toughness, tribological properties

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214 The Effect of the Deposition Parameters on the Microstructural and Optical Properties of Mn-Doped GeTe Chalcogenide Materials

Authors: Adam Abdalla Elbashir Adam, Xiaomin Cheng, Xiang Shui Miao

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In this work, the effect of the magnetron sputtering system parameters on the optical properties of the Mn doped GeTe were investigated. The optical properties of the Ge1-xMnxTe thin films with different thicknesses are determined by analyzing the transmittance and reflectance data. The energy band gaps of the amorphous Mn-doped GeTe thin films with different thicknesses were calculated. The obtained results demonstrated that the energy band gap values of the amorphous films are quite different and they are dependent on the films thicknesses. The extinction coefficients of amorphous Mn-doped GeTe thin films as function of wavelength for different thicknesses were measured. The results showed that the extinction coefficients of all films are varying inversely with their optical transmission. Moreover, the results emphasis that, not only the microstructure, electrical and magnetic properties of Mn doped GeTe thin films vary with the films thicknesses but also the optical properties differ with the film thickness.

Keywords: phase change magnetic materials, transmittance, absorbance, extinction coefficients

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213 Forming for Confirmation of Predicted Epoxy Forming Composition Range in Cr-Zn System

Authors: Foad Saadi

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Aim of this work was to determine the approximate Epoxy forming composition range of Cr-Zn system for the composites produced by forming compositing. It was predicted by MI edema semi-empirical model that the composition had to be in the range of 30-60 wt. % tin, while Cr-32Zn had the most susceptibility to produce amorphous composite. In the next stage, some different compositions of Cr-Zn were foamingly composited, where one of them had the proper predicted composition. Products were characterized by SDM analysis. There was a good agreement between calculation and experiments, in which Cr-32Zn composite had the most amorphization degree.

Keywords: Cr-Zn system, forming compositing, amorphous composite, MI edema model

Procedia PDF Downloads 214
212 Maximum Efficiency of the Photovoltaic Cells Using a Genetic Algorithm

Authors: Latifa Sabri, Mohammed Benzirar, Mimoun Zazoui

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The installation of photovoltaic systems is one of future sources to generate electricity without emitting pollutants. The photovoltaic cells used in these systems have demonstrated enormous efficiencies and advantages. Several researches have discussed the maximum efficiency of these technologies, but only a few experiences have succeeded to right weather conditions to get these results. In this paper, two types of cells were selected: crystalline and amorphous silicon. Using the method of genetic algorithm, the results show that for an ambient temperature of 25°C and direct irradiation of 625 W/m², the efficiency of crystalline silicon is 12% and 5% for amorphous silicon.

Keywords: PV, maximum efficiency, solar cell, genetic algorithm

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211 Using Mechanical Alloying for Verification of Predicted Glass Forming Composition Range

Authors: F. Saadi, M. Fatahi, M. Heidari

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Aim of this work was to determine the approximate glass forming composition range of Ni-Sn system for the alloys produced by mechanical alloying. It was predicted by Miedema semi-empirical model that the composition had to be in the range of 30-60 wt. % tin, while Ni-40Sn had the most susceptibility to produce amorphous alloy. In the next stage, some different compositions of Ni-Sn were mechanically alloyed, where one of them had the proper predicted composition. Products were characterized by XRD analysis. There was a good agreement between calculation and experiments, in which Ni-40Sn alloy had the most amorphization degree.

Keywords: Ni-Sn system, mechanical alloying, Amorphous alloy, Miedema model

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210 Ni-B Coating Production on Magnesium Alloy by Electroless Deposition

Authors: Ferhat Bülbül

Abstract:

The use of magnesium alloys is limited due to their susceptibility to corrosion although they have many attractive physical and mechanical properties. To increase mechanical and corrosion properties of these alloys, many deposition method and coating types are used. Electroless Ni–B coatings have received considerable interest recently due to its unique properties such as cost-effectiveness, thickness uniformity, good wear resistance, lubricity, good ductility and corrosion resistance, excellent solderability and electrical properties and antibacterial property. In this study, electroless Ni-B coating could been deposited on AZ91 magnesium alloy. The obtained coating exhibited an amorphous and rougher structure.

Keywords: magnesium, electroless Ni–B, X-ray diffraction, amorphous

Procedia PDF Downloads 260
209 Component Comparison of Polyaluminum Chloride Produced from Various Methods

Authors: Wen Po Cheng, Chia Yun Chung, Ruey Fang Yu, Chao Feng Chen

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The main objective of this research was to study the differences of aluminum hydrolytic products between two PACl preparation methods. These two methods were the acidification process of freshly formed amorphous Al(OH)3 and the conventional alkalization process of aluminum chloride solution. According to Ferron test and 27Al NMR analysis of those two PACl preparation procedures, the reaction rate constant (k) values and Al13 percentage of acid addition process at high basicity value were both lower than those values of the alkaline addition process. The results showed that the molecular structure and size distribution of the aluminum species in both preparing methods were suspected to be significantly different at high basicity value.

Keywords: polyaluminum chloride, Al13, amorphous aluminum hydroxide, Ferron test

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208 Effect of Annealing Temperature on Microstructural Evolution of Nanoindented Cu/Si Thin Films

Authors: Woei-Shyan Lee, Yu-Liang Chuang

Abstract:

The nano-mechanical properties of as-deposited Cu/Si thin films indented to a depth of 2000 nm are investigated using a nanoindentation technique. The nanoindented specimens are annealed at a temperature of either 160 °C or 210°C, respectively. The microstructures of the as-deposited and annealed samples are then examined via transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The results show that both the loading and the unloading regions of the load-displacement curve are smooth and continuous, which suggests that no debonding or cracking occurs during nanoindentation. In addition, the hardness and Young’s modulus of the Cu/Si thin films are found to vary with the nanoindentation depth, and have maximum values of 2.8 GPa and 143 GPa, respectively, at the maximum indentation depth of 2000 nm. The TEM observations show that the region of the Cu/Si film beneath the indenter undergoes a phase transformation during the indentation process. In the case of the as-deposited specimens, the indentation pressure induces a completely amorphous phase within the indentation zone. For the specimens annealed at a temperature of 160°C, the amorphous nature of the microstructure within the indented zone is maintained. However, for the specimens annealed at a higher temperature of 210°C, the indentation affected zone consists of a mixture of amorphous phase and nanocrystalline phase. Copper silicide (η-Cu3Si) precipitates are observed in all of the annealed specimens. The density of the η-Cu3Si precipitates is found to increase with an increasing annealing temperature.

Keywords: nanoindentation, Cu/Si thin films, microstructural evolution, annealing temperature

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207 Nanoindentation Studies of Metallic Cu-CuZr Composites Synthesized by Accumulative Roll Bonding

Authors: Ehsan Alishahi, Chuang Deng

Abstract:

Materials with microstructural heterogeneity have recently attracted dramatic attention in the materials science community. Although most of the metals are identified as crystalline, the new class of amorphous alloys, sometimes are known as metallic glasses (MGs), exhibited remarkable properties, particularly high mechanical strength and elastic limit. The unique properties of MGs led to the wide range of studies in developing and characterizing of new alloys or composites which met the commercial desires. In spite of applicable properties of MGs, commercializing of metallic glasses was limited due to a major drawback, the lack of ductility and sudden brittle failure mode. Hence, crystalline-amorphous (C-A) composites were introduced almost in 2000s as a toughening strategy to improve the ductility of MGs. Despite the considerable progress reported in previous studies, there are still challenges in both synthesis and characterization of metallic C-A composites. In this study, accumulative roll bonding (ARB) was used to synthesize bulk crystalline-amorphous composites starting from crystalline Cu-Zr multilayers. Due to the severe plastic deformation state, new CuZr phases were formed during the rolling process which was reflected in SEM-EDS analysis. EDS elemental analysis showed the variation in the composition of CuZr phases such as 38-62, 50-50 to 68-32 at Cu-Zr % respectively. Moreover, TEM with electron diffraction analysis indicated the presence of both crystalline and amorphous structures for the new formed CuZr phases. In addition to the microstructural analysis, the mechanical properties of the synthesized composites were studied using the nanoindentation technique. Hysitron Nanoindentation instrument was used to conduct nanoindentation tests with cube corner tip. The maximum load of 5000 µN was applied in load control mode to measure the elastic modulus and hardness of different phases. The trend of results indicated three distinct regimes of hardness and elastic modulus including pure Cu, pure Zr, and new formed CuZr phases. More specifically, pure Cu regions showed the lowest values for both nanoindentation hardness and elastic modulus while the CuZr phases take the highest values. Consequently, pure Zr was placed in the intermediate range which is harder than pure Cu but softer than CuZr phases. In overall, it was found that CuZr phases with higher hardness were nucleated during ARB process as a result of mechanical alloying phenomenon.

Keywords: ARB, crystalline-amorphous composites, mechanical alloying, nanoindentation hardness

Procedia PDF Downloads 219
206 Characteristics of Different Solar PV Modules under Partial Shading

Authors: Hla Hla Khaing, Yit Jian Liang, Nant Nyein Moe Htay, Jiang Fan

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Partial shadowing is one of the problems that are always faced in terrestrial applications of solar photovoltaic (PV). The effects of partial shadow on the energy yield of conventional mono-crystalline and multi-crystalline PV modules have been researched for a long time. With deployment of new thin-film solar PV modules in the market, it is important to understand the performance of new PV modules operating under the partial shadow in the tropical zone. This paper addresses the impacts of different partial shadowing on the operating characteristics of four different types of solar PV modules that include multi-crystalline, amorphous thin-film, CdTe thin-film and CIGS thin-film PV modules.

Keywords: partial shade, CdTe, CIGS, multi-crystalline (mc-Si), amorphous silicon (a-Si), bypass diode

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205 Synthesis of Mg/B Containing Compound in a Modified Microwave Oven

Authors: Gülşah Çelik Gül, Figen Kurtuluş

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Magnesium containing boron compounds with hexagonal structure have been drawn much attention due to their superconductive nature. The main target of this work is new modified microwave oven by on our own has an ability about passing through a gas in the oven medium for attainment of oxygen-free compounds such as c-BN.  Mg containing boride was synthesized by modified-microwave method under nitrogen atmosphere using amorphous boron and magnesium source in appropriate molar ratio. Microwave oven with oxygen free environment has been modified to aimed to obtain magnesium boride without oxygen. Characterizations were done by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Mg containing boride, generally named magnesium boride, with amorphous character without oxygen is obtained via designed microwave oven system.

Keywords: magnesium containing boron compounds, modified microwave synthesis, powder X-ray diffraction, FTIR

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204 Development and Obtaining of Solid Dispersions to Increase the Solubility of Efavirenz in Anti-HIV Therapy

Authors: Salvana P. M. Costa, Tarcyla A. Gomes, Giovanna C. R. M. Schver, Leslie R. M. Ferraz, Cristovão R. Silva, Magaly A. M. Lyra, Danilo A. F. Fonte, Larissa A. Rolim, Amanda C. Q. M. Vieira, Miracy M. Albuquerque, Pedro J. Rolim-neto

Abstract:

Efavirenz (EFV) is considered one of the most widely used anti-HIV drugs. However, it is classified as a drug class II (poorly soluble, highly permeable) according to the biopharmaceutical classification system, presenting problems of absorption in the gastrointestinal tract and thereby inadequate bioavailability for its therapeutic action. This study aimed to overcome these barriers by developing and obtaining solid dispersions (SD) in order to increase the EFZ bioavailability. For the development of SD with EFV, theoretical and practical studies were initially performed. Thus, there was a choice of a carrier to be used. For this, it was analyzed the various criteria such as glass transition temperature of the polymer, intra- and intermolecular interactions of hydrogen bonds between drug and polymer, the miscibility between the polymer and EFV. The choice of the obtainment method of the SD came from the analysis of which method is the most consolidated in both industry and literature. Subsequently, the choice of drug and carrier concentrations in the dispersions was carried out. In order to obtain DS to present the drug in its amorphous form, as the DS were obtained, they were analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD). SD are more stable the higher the amount of polymer present in the formulation. With this assumption, a SD containing 10% of drug was initially prepared and then this proportion was increased until the XRD showed the presence of EFV in its crystalline form. From this point, it was not produced SD with a higher concentration of drug. Thus, it was allowed to select PVP-K30, PVPVA 64 and the SOLUPLUS formulation as carriers, once it was possible the formation of hydrogen bond between EFV and polymers since these have hydrogen acceptor groups capable of interacting with the donor group of the drug hydrogen. It is worth mentioning also that the films obtained, independent of concentration used, were presented homogeneous and transparent. Thus, it can be said that the EFV is miscible in the three polymers used in the study. The SD and Physical Mixtures (PM) with these polymers were prepared by the solvent method. The EFV diffraction profile showed main peaks at around 2θ of 6,24°, in addition to other minor peaks at 14,34°, 17,08°, 20,3°, 21,36° and 25,06°, evidencing its crystalline character. Furthermore, the polymers showed amorphous nature, as evidenced by the absence of peaks in their XRD patterns. The XRD patterns showed the PM overlapping profile of the drug with the polymer, indicating the presence of EFV in its crystalline form. Regardless the proportion of drug used in SD, all the samples showed the same characteristics with no diffraction peaks EFV, demonstrating the behavior amorphous products. Thus, the polymers enabled, effectively, the formation of amorphous SD, probably due to the potential hydrogen bonds between them and the drug. Moreover, the XRD analysis showed that the polymers were able to maintain its amorphous form in a concentration of up to 80% drug.

Keywords: amorphous form, Efavirenz, solid dispersions, solubility

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203 Thermal Transformation and Structural on Se90Te7Cu3 Chalcogenide Glass

Authors: Farid M. Abdel-Rahim

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In this study, Se90Te7Cu3 chalcogenide glass was prepared using the melt quenching technique. The amorphous nature of the as prepared samples was confirmed by scanning electron microscope (SEM). Result of differential scanning calorimetric (DSC) under nonisothermal condition on composition bulk materials are reported and discussed. It shows that these glasses exhibit a single-stage glass transition and a single-stage crystallization on heating rates. The glass transition temperature (Tg), the onset crystallization (Tc), the crystallization temperature (Tp), were found by dependent on the composition and heating rates. Activation energy for glass transition (Et), activation energy of the amorphous –crystalline transformation (Ec), crystallization reaction rate constant (Kp), (n) and (m) are constants related to crystallization mechanism of the bulk samples have been determined by different formulations.

Keywords: chalcogenides, heat treatment, DSC, SEM, glass transition, thermal analysis

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202 One Pot Synthesis of Ultrasmall NiMo Catalysts Supported on Amorphous Alumina with Enhanced type 2 Sites for Hydrodesulfurization Reaction: A Combined Experimental and Theoretical Study

Authors: Shalini Arora, Sri Sivakumar

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The deep removal of high molecular weight sulphur compounds (e.g., 4,6, dimethyl dibenzothiophene) is challenging due to their steric hindrance. Hydrogenation desulfurization (HYD) pathway is the main pathway to remove these sulfur compounds, and it is mainly governed by the number of type 2 sites. The formation of type 2 sites can be enhanced by modulating the pore structure and the interaction between the active metal and support. To this end, we report the enhanced HDS catalytic activity of ultrasmall NiMo supported on amorphous alumina (A-Al₂O₃) catalysts by one pot colloidal synthesis method followed by calcination and sulfidation. The amorphous alumina (A-Al₂O₃) was chosen as the support due to its lower surface energy, better physicochemical properties, and enhanced acidic sites (due to the dominance of tetra and penta coordinated [Al] sites) than crystalline alumina phase. At 20% metal oxide composition, NiMo supported on A-Al₂O₃ catalyst showed 1.4 and 1.2 times more reaction rate constant and turn over frequency (TOF) respectively than the conventional catalyst (wet impregnated NiMo catalysts) for HDS reaction of dibenzothiophene reactant molecule. A-Al₂O₃ supported catalysts represented enhanced type 2 sites formation (because this catalystpossesses higher sulfidation degree (80%) and NiMoS sites (19.3 x 10¹⁷ sites/mg) with desired optimum stacking degree (2.5) than wet impregnated catalyst at same metal oxide composition 20%) along with higher active metal dispersion, Mo edge site fraction. The experimental observations were also supported by DFT simulations. Lower heat of adsorption (< 4.2 ev for MoS2 interaction and < 3.15 ev for Ni doped MoS2 interaction) values for A-Al₂O₃ confirmed the presence of weaker metal-support interaction in A-Al₂O₃ in contrast to crystalline ℽ-Al₂O3. The weak metal-support interaction for prepared catalysts clearly suggests the higher formation of type 2 sites which leads to higher catalytic activity for HDS reaction.

Keywords: amorphous alumina, colloidal, desulfurization, metal-support interaction

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201 Study of Water Cluster-Amorphous Silica Collisions in the Extreme Space Environment Using the ReaxFF Reactive Force Field Molecular Dynamics Simulation Method

Authors: Ali Rahnamoun, Adri van Duin

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The concept of high velocity particle impact on the spacecraft surface materials has been one of the important issues in the design of such materials. Among these particles, water clusters might be the most abundant and the most important particles to be studied. The importance of water clusters is that upon impact on the surface of the materials, they can cause damage to the material and also if they are sub-cooled water clusters, they can attach to the surface of the materials and cause ice accumulation on the surface which is very problematic in spacecraft and also aircraft operations. The dynamics of the collisions between amorphous silica structures and water clusters with impact velocities of 1 km/s to 10 km/s are studied using the ReaxFF reactive molecular dynamics simulation method. The initial water clusters include 150 water molecules and the water clusters are collided on the surface of amorphous fully oxidized and suboxide silica structures. These simulations show that the most abundant molecules observed on the silica surfaces, other than reflecting water molecules, are H3O+ and OH- for the water cluster impacts on suboxide and fully oxidized silica structures, respectively. The effect of impact velocity on the change of silica mass is studied. At high impact velocities the water molecules attach to the silica surface through a chemisorption process meaning that water molecule dissociates through the interaction with silica surface. However, at low impact velocities, physisorbed water molecules are also observed, which means water molecule attaches and accumulates on the silica surface. The amount of physisorbed waters molecules at low velocities is higher on the suboxide silica surfaces. The evolution of the temperatures of the water clusters during the collisions indicates that the possibility of electron excitement at impact velocities less than 10 km/s is minimal and ReaxFF reactive molecular dynamics simulation can predict the chemistry of these hypervelocity impacts. However, at impact velocities close to 10 km/s the average temperature of the impacting water clusters increase to about 2000K, with individual molecules oocasionally reaching temperatures of over 8000K and thus will be prudent to consider the concept of electron excitation at these higher impact velocities which goes beyond the current ReaxFF ability.

Keywords: spacecraft materials, hypervelocity impact, reactive molecular dynamics simulation, amorphous silica

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200 Characterisation of Fractions Extracted from Sorghum Byproducts

Authors: Prima Luna, Afroditi Chatzifragkou, Dimitris Charalampopoulos

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Sorghum byproducts, namely bran, stalk, and panicle are examples of lignocellulosic biomass. These raw materials contain large amounts of polysaccharides, in particular hemicelluloses, celluloses, and lignins, which if efficiently extracted, can be utilised for the development of a range of added value products with potential applications in agriculture and food packaging sectors. The aim of this study was to characterise fractions extracted from sorghum bran and stalk with regards to their physicochemical properties that could determine their applicability as food-packaging materials. A sequential alkaline extraction was applied for the isolation of cellulosic, hemicellulosic and lignin fractions from sorghum stalk and bran. Lignin content, phenolic content and antioxidant capacity were also investigated in the case of the lignin fraction. Thermal analysis using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) revealed that the glass transition temperature (Tg) of cellulose fraction of the stalk was ~78.33 oC at amorphous state (~65%) and water content of ~5%. In terms of hemicellulose, the Tg value of stalk was slightly lower compared to bran at amorphous state (~54%) and had less water content (~2%). It is evident that hemicelluloses generally showed a lower thermal stability compared to cellulose, probably due to their lack of crystallinity. Additionally, bran had higher arabinose-to-xylose ratio (0.82) than the stalk, a fact that indicated its low crystallinity. Furthermore, lignin fraction had Tg value of ~93 oC at amorphous state (~11%). Stalk-derived lignin fraction contained more phenolic compounds (mainly consisting of p-coumaric and ferulic acid) and had higher lignin content and antioxidant capacity compared to bran-derived lignin fraction.

Keywords: alkaline extraction, bran, cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin, stalk

Procedia PDF Downloads 207