Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 70

Search results for: Alan Vaško

70 Change of Internal Friction on Magnesium Alloy with 5.48% Al Dependence on the Temperature

Authors: Milan Uhríčik, Andrea Soviarová, Zuzana Dresslerová, Peter Palček, Alan Vaško

Abstract:

The article is focused on the analysis changes dependence on the temperature on the magnesium alloy with 5,48% Al, 0,813% Zn and 0,398% Mn by internal friction. Internal friction is a property of the material is measured on the ultrasonic resonant aparature at a frequency about f = 20470 Hz. The measured temperature range was from 30 °C up to 420 °C. Precisely measurement of the internal friction can be monitored ongoing structural changes and various mechanisms that prevent these changes.

Keywords: internal friction, magnesium alloy, temperature, resonant frequency

Procedia PDF Downloads 534
69 The High Temperature Damage of DV–2 Turbine Blade Made from Ni–Base Superalloy

Authors: Juraj Belan, Lenka Hurtalová, Eva Tillová, Alan Vaško, Milan Uhríčik

Abstract:

High-pressure turbine (HPT) blades of DV–2 jet engines are made from Ni–base superalloy, a former Soviet Union production, specified as ŽS6K. For improving its high-temperature resistance are blades covered with Al–Si diffusion layer. A regular operation temperature of HPT blades vary from 705°C to 750°C depending on jet engine regime. An over-crossing working temperature range causes degradation of protective alitize layer as well as base material–gamma matrix and gamma prime particles what decreases turbine blade lifetime. High-temperature degradation has mainly diffusion mechanism and causes coarsening of strengthening phase gamma prime and protective alitize layer thickness growing. All changes have a significant influence on high-temperature properties of base material.

Keywords: alitize layer, gamma prime phase, high-temperature degradation, Ni–base superalloy ŽS6K, turbine blade

Procedia PDF Downloads 437
68 Influence of Raw Material Composition on Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Nodular Cast Iron

Authors: Alan Vaško, Juraj Belan, Lenka Hurtalová, Eva Tillová

Abstract:

The aim of this study is to evaluate the influence of raw material composition on the microstructure, mechanical and fatigue properties and micromechanisms of failure of nodular cast iron. In order to evaluate the influence of charge composition, the structural analysis, mechanical and fatigue tests and micro fractographic analysis were carried out on specimens of ten melts with different charge compositions. The basic charge of individual melts was formed by a different ratio of pig iron and steel scrap and by different additive for regulation of chemical composition (silicon carbide or ferrosilicon). The results show differences in mechanical and fatigue properties, which are connected with the microstructure. SiC additive positively influences microstructure. Consequently, mechanical and fatigue properties of nodular cast iron are improved, especially in the melts with the higher ratio of steel scrap in the charge.

Keywords: nodular cast iron, silicon carbide, microstructure, mechanical properties

Procedia PDF Downloads 499
67 Deriving Generic Transformation Matrices for Multi-Axis Milling Machine

Authors: Alan C. Lin, Tzu-Kuan Lin, Tsong Der Lin

Abstract:

This paper proposes a new method to find the equations of transformation matrix for the rotation angles of the two rotational axes and the coordinates of the three linear axes of an orthogonal multi-axis milling machine. This approach provides intuitive physical meanings for rotation angles of multi-axis machines, which can be used to evaluate the accuracy of the conversion from CL data to NC data.

Keywords: CAM, multi-axis milling machining, transformation matrix, rotation angles

Procedia PDF Downloads 387
66 Eliminating Cutter-Path Deviation For Five-Axis Nc Machining

Authors: Alan C. Lin, Tsong Der Lin

Abstract:

This study proposes a deviation control method to add interpolation points to numerical control (NC) codes of five-axis machining in order to achieve the required machining accuracy. Specific research issues include: (1) converting machining data between the CL (cutter location) domain and the NC domain, (2) calculating the deviation between the deviated path and the linear path, (3) finding interpolation points, and (4) determining tool orientations for the interpolation points. System implementation with practical examples will also be included to highlight the applicability of the proposed methodology.

Keywords: CAD/CAM, cutter path, five-axis machining, numerical control

Procedia PDF Downloads 353
65 Developing an Online Library for Faster Retrieval of Mold Base and Standard Parts of Injection Molding

Authors: Alan C. Lin, Ricky N. Joevan

Abstract:

This paper focuses on developing a system to transfer mold base plates and standard parts faster during the stage of injection mold design. This system not only provides a way to compare the file version, but also it utilizes Siemens NX 10 to isolate the updated information into a single executable file (.dll), and then, the file can be transferred without the need of transferring the whole file. By this way, the system can help the user to download only necessary mold base plates and standard parts, and those parts downloaded are only the updated portions.

Keywords: CAD, injection molding, mold base, data retrieval

Procedia PDF Downloads 225
64 Alumina Supported Copper-Manganese-Cobalt Catalysts for CO and VOCs Oxidation

Authors: Elitsa Kolentsova, Dimitar Dimitrov, Vasko Idakiev, Tatyana Tabakova, Krasimir Ivanov

Abstract:

Formaldehyde production by selective oxidation of methanol is an important industrial process. The main by-products in the waste gas are CO and dimethyl ether (DME). The idea of this study is to combine the advantages of both Cu-Mn and Cu-Co catalytic systems by obtaining a new mixed Cu-Mn-Co catalyst with high activity and selectivity at the simultaneous oxidation of CO, methanol, and DME. Two basic Cu-Mn samples with high activity were selected for further investigation: (i) manganese-rich Cu-Mn/γ–Al2O3 catalyst with Cu/Mn molar ratio 1:5 and (ii) copper-rich Cu-Mn/γ-Al2O3 catalyst with Cu/Mn molar ratio 2:1. Manganese in these samples was replaced by cobalt in the whole concentration region, and catalytic properties were determined. The results show a general trend of decreasing the activity toward DME oxidation and increasing the activity toward CO and methanol oxidation with the increase of cobalt up to 60% for both groups of catalyst. This general trend, however, contains specific features, depending on the composition of the catalyst and the nature of the oxidized gas. The catalytic activity of the sample with Cu/(Mn+Co) molar ratio of 2:1 is gradually changed with increasing the cobalt content. The activity of the sample with Cu/(Mn+Co) molar ratio of 1: 5 passes through a maximum at 60% manganese replacement by cobalt, probably due to the formation of highly dispersed Co-based spinel structures (Co3O4 and/or MnCo2O4). In conclusion, the present study demonstrates that the Cu-Mn-Co/γ–alumina supported catalysts have enhanced activity toward CO, methanol and DME oxidation. Cu/(Mn+Co) molar ratio 1:5 and Co/Mn molar ratio 1.5 in the active component can ensure successful oxidation of CO, CH3OH and DME. The active component of the mixed Cu-Mn-Co/γ–alumina catalysts consists of at least six compounds - CuO, Co3O4, MnO2, Cu1.5Mn1.5O4, MnCo2O4 and CuCo2O4, depending on the Cu/Mn/Co molar ratio. Chemical composition strongly influences catalytic properties, this effect being quite variable with regards to the different processes.

Keywords: Cu-Mn-Co catalysts, oxidation, carbon oxide, VOCs

Procedia PDF Downloads 149
63 Automatic Slider Design in Injection Moldings

Authors: Alan C. Lin, Tran Anh Son

Abstract:

This study proposes an approach to determine the undercut regions and their releasing directions for slider design of complex parts represented by the file format of STL (STereoLithography). In order to delineate the border of undercut regions, orthogonal cutting planes are firstly employed to automatically find the inner loops of a part model. To discover the facets belonging to undercut regions, attributes are then assigned to the facets of the part model based on the topological relationship of adjacent facets of each inner loop. After that, the undercut regions are separated from other facets in the model. Through the recognized facets of the undercut regions, the concept of 'visibility map (V-map)' is further applied to determine feasible releasing directions for each of the undercut regions. The undercut regions having the same releasing direction are finally grouped to form a slider in the injection mold.

Keywords: solid model, STL data, injection mold design, visibility map

Procedia PDF Downloads 323
62 Effect of Hot Rolling Conditions on Magnetic Properties of Fe-3%Si Non-Grain Oriented Electrical Steels

Authors: Emre Alan, Yusuf Yamanturk, Gokay Bas

Abstract:

Non-grain oriented electrical steels are high silicon containing steels in which the direction of magnetism is intended the same in any direction of the material. Major applications of non-grain-oriented electrical steels are electrical motors, generators, etc. where low magnetic losses are required. Selection of proper hot rolling process parameters is an important factor in order to produce a material that has desired magnetic properties. In this study, the effect of finishing and coiling temperatures on magnetic properties of Fe-3%Si non-grain oriented electrical steels will be investigated. Additionally, the effect of slab reheating temperature at same entry finishing temperature will be investigated by means of reduction in roughing mill pass number from 1-5 to 1-3.

Keywords: electrical steels, hot rolling, magnetic properties, roughing mill

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61 Prediction and Reduction of Cracking Issue in Precision Forging of Engine Valves Using Finite Element Method

Authors: Xi Yang, Bulent Chavdar, Alan Vonseggern, Taylan Altan

Abstract:

Fracture in hot precision forging of engine valves was investigated in this paper. The entire valve forging procedure was described and the possible cause of the fracture was proposed. Finite Element simulation was conducted for the forging process, with commercial Finite Element code DEFORMTM. The effects of material properties, the effect of strain rate and temperature were considered in the FE simulation. Two fracture criteria were discussed and compared, based on the accuracy and reliability of the FE simulation results. The selected criterion predicted the fracture location and shows the trend of damage increasing with good accuracy, which matches the experimental observation. Additional modification of the punch shapes was proposed to further reduce the tendency of fracture in forging. Finite Element comparison shows a great potential of such application in the mass production.

Keywords: hotforging, engine valve, fracture, tooling

Procedia PDF Downloads 198
60 Determination of Steel Cleanliness of Non-Grain Oriented Electrical Steels

Authors: Emre Alan, Zafer Cetin

Abstract:

Electrical steels are widely used as a magnetic core materials in many electrical applications such as transformers, electric motors, and generators. Core loss property of these magnetic materials refers to dissipation of electrical energy during magnetization in service conditions. Therefore, in order to minimize the magnetic core loss, certain precautions are taken from steel producers; “Steel Cleanliness” is one of the major points among them. For obtaining lower core loss values, increasing proper elements in chemical composition such as silicon is a must. Therefore, impurities of these alloys are a key value for producing a cleaner steel. In this study, effects of impurity levels of different FeSi alloying materials to the steel cleanliness will be investigated. One of the important element content in FeSi alloy materials is Calcium. A SEM investigation will be done in order to present if Ca content in FeSi alloy is enough for proper inclusion modification or an additional Ca-treatment is required.

Keywords: electrical steels, FeSi alloy, impurities, steel cleanliness

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59 Measurements of Chitin by Ochratoxigenic Fungi and Its Relationship to Ochratoxin a Production

Authors: Jamal Elzwai, Kofi Aidoo, Alan Candlish

Abstract:

Production of OTA was detected after 24hr by Aspergillus ochraceus isolate whereas at 36hr for A. carbonarius isolate and Penicillium verrucosum IMI 285522 and 60hr for A. ochraceus CBS 588.68. Highest OTA level was produced by A. carbonarius isolate followed by A. ochraceus CBS 588.68, Penicillium verrucosum IMI 285522 and finally A. ochraceus isolate. Glucosamine content of barley sample before fermentation was found to be negligible and remained almost constant during the incubation time. Glucosamine content started to increase at 12 hours after incubation with A. ochraceus isolate, A. carbonarius isolate and A. ochraceus CBS 588.68, and after 12 hours with P. verrucosum IMI 285522. Highest glucosamine content, as a result of increase in fungal biomass, was produced by A. ochraceus CBS 588.68 followed by A. ochraceus isolate, A. carbonarius isolate, and finally by P. verrucosum IMI 285522. It appears that there is a correlation between OTA synthesis and glucosamine content with A. ochraceus isolate, A. carbonarius isolate and A. ochraceus CBS 588.68 but not with P. verrucosum IMI 285522.

Keywords: chitin, barley, Ochratoxin A, Aspergiluus ochraceus, A. carbonarius, Penicillium verrucosum

Procedia PDF Downloads 348
58 Competition in Kenya: The Legal and Institutional Framework and an Appraisal of Key Market Players

Authors: Edwin Njoroge Kimani, Alan M. Munyao

Abstract:

Despite Kenya’s status as a regional economic powerhouse, it struggles with economic shocks that expose the consumers. This, however, seems not to affect major cooperates such as those in the telecommunication and energy sectors. Through their operations, they have not only been able to fluctuate prices at will but also they have been accused of curtailing their rivals from penetrating the market. This study, through literature review of the legal and institutional framework, reports and publications interrogates the law and uncovers the following; i) failings of the legal framework to define market dominance and abuse of such positions, ii) the participation of the state, iii) the inertia of the government to prosecute corporations that abuse their market dominance, iv) the role of the state as a market player and as a regulator through the Competition Authority of Kenya. This study concludes that the market distortion is as a result of weak legal and institutional framework as well as conflict of interest by the government. Not much has been researched in the field of competition law the greater East Africa. This research is intended to form part of the growing research in the field and inform legal reform.

Keywords: competition law, economic power, dominance, Kenya

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57 Minimum Ratio of Flexural Reinforcement for High Strength Concrete Beams

Authors: Azad A. Mohammed, Dunyazad K. Assi, Alan S. Abdulrahman

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Current ACI 318 Code provides two limits for minimum steel ratio for concrete beams. When concrete compressive strength be larger than 31 MPa the limit of √(fc')/4fy usually governs. In this paper shortcomings related to using this limit was fairly discussed and showed that the limit is based on 90% safety factor and was derived based on modulus of rupture equation suitable for concretes of compressive strength lower than 31 MPa. Accordingly, the limit is nor suitable and critical for concretes of higher compressive strength. An alternative equation was proposed for minimum steel ratio of rectangular beams and was found that the proposed limit is accurate for beams of wide range of concrete compressive strength. Shortcomings of the current ACI 318 Code equation and accuracy of the proposed equation were supported by test data obtained from testing six reinforced concrete beams.

Keywords: concrete beam, compressive strength, minimum steel ratio, modulus of rupture

Procedia PDF Downloads 446
56 Timing and Impacts of Megafloods in the North Pacific as Recorded by Freshwater Diatoms

Authors: Cristina Lopes, Alan C. Mix

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The timing and extension of large discharges from glacial lakes, known as megafloods, into the oceans have been of key importance. This type of events can influence the oceanic/land interactions and even be related with climate changes. While the impact of such floods has been fairly studied in the North Atlantic, the impact of analog floods in the North Pacific remains debatable and relatively unknown. Here we will show records of the Missoula floods that have carved the Northwest landscape and have entered the North Pacific through the Columbia River. These records are given by the presence of high (more than 40%) percentages of freshwater diatoms in marine sediments. A regression equation using these percentages allows to estimate by how much the salinities decreased. The timing and impact of North Pacific megafloods recorded in three marine cores of Oregon and California for the past 25000 years (B.P.) will be presented. These records show that the volume of freshwater that entered the North Pacific reached as far as 600 Km south of the Columbia River Mouth, decreasing the salinities by as much as 4 units.

Keywords: diatoms, megafloods, Missoula, North Pacific

Procedia PDF Downloads 86
55 Automated Buffer Box Assembly Cell Concept for the Canadian Used Fuel Packing Plant

Authors: Dimitrie Marinceu, Alan Murchison

Abstract:

The Canadian Used Fuel Container (UFC) is a mid-size hemispherical headed copper coated steel container measuring 2.5 meters in length and 0.5 meters in diameter containing 48 used fuel bundles. The contained used fuel produces significant gamma radiation requiring automated assembly processes to complete the assembly. The design throughput of 2,500 UFCs per year places constraints on equipment and hot cell design for repeatability, speed of processing, robustness and recovery from upset conditions. After UFC assembly, the UFC is inserted into a Buffer Box (BB). The BB is made from adequately pre-shaped blocks (lower and upper block) and Highly Compacted Bentonite (HCB) material. The blocks are practically ‘sandwiching’ the UFC between them after assembly. This paper identifies one possible approach for the BB automatic assembly cell and processes. Automation of the BB assembly will have a significant positive impact on nuclear safety, quality, productivity, and reliability.

Keywords: used fuel packing plant, automatic assembly cell, used fuel container, buffer box, deep geological repository

Procedia PDF Downloads 185
54 Model Averaging in a Multiplicative Heteroscedastic Model

Authors: Alan Wan

Abstract:

In recent years, the body of literature on frequentist model averaging in statistics has grown significantly. Most of this work focuses on models with different mean structures but leaves out the variance consideration. In this paper, we consider a regression model with multiplicative heteroscedasticity and develop a model averaging method that combines maximum likelihood estimators of unknown parameters in both the mean and variance functions of the model. Our weight choice criterion is based on a minimisation of a plug-in estimator of the model average estimator's squared prediction risk. We prove that the new estimator possesses an asymptotic optimality property. Our investigation of finite-sample performance by simulations demonstrates that the new estimator frequently exhibits very favourable properties compared to some existing heteroscedasticity-robust model average estimators. The model averaging method hedges against the selection of very bad models and serves as a remedy to variance function misspecification, which often discourages practitioners from modeling heteroscedasticity altogether. The proposed model average estimator is applied to the analysis of two real data sets.

Keywords: heteroscedasticity-robust, model averaging, multiplicative heteroscedasticity, plug-in, squared prediction risk

Procedia PDF Downloads 252
53 Evaluating Hourly Sulphur Dioxide and Ground Ozone Simulated with the Air Quality Model in Lima, Peru

Authors: Odón R. Sánchez-Ccoyllo, Elizabeth Ayma-Choque, Alan Llacza

Abstract:

Sulphur dioxide (SO₂) and surface-ozone (O₃) concentrations are associated with diseases. The objective of this research is to evaluate the effectiveness of the air-quality-WRF-Chem model with a horizontal resolution of 5 km x 5 km. For this purpose, the measurements of the hourly SO₂ and O₃ concentrations available in three air quality monitoring stations in Lima, Peru, were used for the purpose of validating the simulations of the SO₂ and O₃ concentrations obtained with the WRF-Chem model in February 2018. For the quantitative evaluation of the simulations of these gases, statistical techniques were implemented, such as the average of the simulations; the average of the measurements; the Mean Bias (MeB); the Mean Error (MeE); and the Root Mean Square Error (RMSE). The results of these statistical metrics indicated that the simulated SO₂ and O₃ values over-predicted the SO₂ and O₃ measurements. For the SO₂ concentration, the MeB values varied from 0.58 to 26.35 µg/m³; the MeE values varied from 8.75 to 26.5 µg/m³; the RMSE values varied from 13.3 to 31.79 µg/m³; while for O₃ concentrations the statistical values of the MeB varied from 37.52 to 56.29 µg/m³; the MeE values varied from 37.54 to 56.70 µg/m³; the RMSE values varied from 43.05 to 69.56 µg/m³.

Keywords: ground-ozone, lima, sulphur dioxide, WRF-chem

Procedia PDF Downloads 29
52 A Proposal of Ontology about Brazilian Government Transparency Portal

Authors: Estela Mayra de Moura Vianna, Thiago José Tavares Ávila, Bruno Morais Silva, Diego Henrique Bezerra, Paulo Henrique Gomes Silva, Alan Pedro da Silva

Abstract:

The Brazilian Federal Constitution defines the access to information as a crucial right of the citizen and the Law on Access to Public Information, which regulates this right. Accordingly, the Fiscal Responsibility Act, 2000, amended in 2009 by the “Law of Transparency”, began demanding a wider disclosure of public accounts for the society, including electronic media for public access. Thus, public entities began to create "Transparency Portals," which aim to gather a diversity of data and information. However, this information, in general, is still published in formats that do not simplify understanding of the data by citizens and that could be better especially available for audit purposes. In this context, a proposal of ontology about Brazilian Transparency Portal can play a key role in how these data will be better available. This study aims to identify and implement in ontology, the data model about Transparency Portal ecosystem, with emphasis in activities that use these data for some applications, like audits, press activities, social government control, and others.

Keywords: audit, government transparency, ontology, public sector

Procedia PDF Downloads 399
51 Assessing Student Attitudes toward Graded Readers, MReader and the MReader Challenge

Authors: Catherine Cheetam, Alan Harper, Melody Elliott, Mika Ito

Abstract:

This paper describes a pilot study conducted with English as a foreign language (EFL) students at a private university in Japan who used graded readers and the MReader website in class or independently to enhance their English reading skills. Each semester students who read 100,000 words with MReader quizzes passed enter into the ‘MReader Challenge,’ a reading contest that recognizes students for their achievement. The study focused specifically on the attitudes of thirty-six EFL students who successfully completed the Challenge in the 2015 spring semester using graded readers and MReader, and their motivation to continue using English in the future. The attitudes of these students were measured using their responses to statements on a Likert scaled survey. Follow-up semi-structured interviews were conducted with eleven students to gain additional insight into their opinions. The results from this study suggest that reading graded readers in general promoted intrinsic motivation among a majority of the participants. This study is preliminary and needs to be expanded and continued to assess the lasting impact of the extensive reading program. Limitations and future directions of the study are also summarized and discussed.

Keywords: attitudes, extensive, intrinsic, methodolgies, motivation, reading

Procedia PDF Downloads 137
50 Pareidolia and Perception of Anger in Vehicle Styles: Survey Results

Authors: Alan S. Hoback

Abstract:

Most people see human faces in car front and back ends because of the process of pareidolia. 96 people were surveyed to see how many of them saw a face in the vehicle styling. Participants were aged 18 to 72 years. 94% of the participants saw faces in the front-end design of production models. All participants that recognized faces indicated that most styles showed some degree of an angry expression. It was found that women were more likely to see faces in inanimate objects. However, with respect to whether women were more likely to perceive anger in the vehicle design, the results need further clarification. Survey responses were correlated to the design features of vehicles to determine what cues the respondents were likely looking at when responding. Whether the features looked anthropomorphic was key to anger perception. Features such as the headlights which could represent eyes and the air intake that could represent a mouth had high correlations to trends in scores. Results are compared among models, makers, by groupings of body styles classifications for the top 12 brands sold in the US, and by year for the top 20 models sold in the US in 2016. All of the top models sold increased in perception of an angry expression over the last 20 years or since the model was introduced, but the relative change varied by body style grouping.

Keywords: aggressive driving, face recognition, road rage, vehicle styling

Procedia PDF Downloads 76
49 Temporal Trends in the Urban Metabolism of Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

Authors: Naif Albelwi, Alan Kwan, Yacine Rezgui

Abstract:

Cities with rapid growth face tremendous challenges not only to provide services to meet this growth but also to assure that this growth occurs in a sustainable way. The consumption of material, energy, and water resources is inextricably linked to population growth with a unique impact in urban areas, especially in light of significant investments in infrastructure to support urban development. Urban Metabolism (UM) is becoming popular as it provides a framework accounting the mass and energy flows through a city. The objective of this study is to determine the energy and material flows of Riyadh, Saudi Arabia using locally generated data from 1996 and 2012 and analyzing the temporal trends of energy and material flows. Preliminary results show that while the population of Riyadh grew 90% since 1996, the input and output flows have increased at higher rate. Results also show increasing in energy mobile consumption from 61k TJ in 1996 to 157k TJ in 2012 which points to Riyadh’s inefficient urban form. The study findings highlight the importance to develop effective policies for improving the use of resources.

Keywords: energy and water consumption, sustainability, urban development, urban metabolism

Procedia PDF Downloads 166
48 A Review of Test Protocols for Assessing Coating Performance of Water Ballast Tank Coatings

Authors: Emmanuel A. Oriaifo, Noel Perera, Alan Guy, Pak. S. Leung, Kian T. Tan

Abstract:

Concerns on corrosion and effective coating protection of double hull tankers and bulk carriers in service have been raised especially in water ballast tanks (WBTs). Test protocols/methodologies specifically that which is incorporated in the International Maritime Organisation (IMO), Performance Standard for Protective Coatings for Dedicated Sea Water ballast tanks (PSPC) are being used to assess and evaluate the performance of the coatings for type approval prior to their application in WBTs. However, some of the type approved coatings may be applied as very thick films to less than ideally prepared steel substrates in the WBT. As such films experience hygrothermal cycling from operating and environmental conditions, they become embrittled which may ultimately result in cracking. This embrittlement of the coatings is identified as an undesirable feature in the PSPC but is not mentioned in the test protocols within it. There is therefore renewed industrial research aimed at understanding this issue in order to eliminate cracking and achieve the intended coating lifespan of 15 years in good condition. This paper will critically review test protocols currently used for assessing and evaluating coating performance, particularly the IMO PSPC.

Keywords: corrosion test, hygrothermal cycling, coating test protocols, water ballast tanks

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47 Dyeing of Polyester/Cotton Blends with Reverse-Micelle Encapsulated High Energy Disperse/Reactive Dye Mixture

Authors: Chi-Wai Kan, Yanming Wang, Alan Yiu-Lun Tang, Cheng-Hao Lee Lee

Abstract:

Dyeing of polyester/cotton blend fabrics in various polyester/cotton percentages (32/68, 40/60 and 65/35) was investigated using (poly(ethylene glycol), PEG) based reverse-micelle. High energy disperse dyes and warm type reactive dyes were encapsulated and applied on polyester/cotton blend fabrics in a one bath one step dyeing process. Comparison of reverse micellar-based and aqueous-based (water-based) dyeing was conducted in terms of colour reflectance. Experimental findings revealed that the colour shade of the dyed fabrics in reverse micellar non-aqueous dyeing system at a lower dyeing temperature of 98°C is slightly lighter than that of conventional aqueous dyeing system in two-step process (130oC for disperse dyeing and 70°C for reactive dyeing). The exhaustion of dye in polyester-cotton blend fabrics, in terms of colour reflectance, were found to be highly fluctuated at dyeing temperature of 98°C.

Keywords: one-bath dyeing, polyester/cotton blends, disperse/reactive dyes, reverse micelle

Procedia PDF Downloads 66
46 Plasma Treatment of a Lignite Using Water-Stabilized Plasma Torch at Atmospheric Pressure

Authors: Anton Serov, Alan Maslani, Michal Hlina, Vladimir Kopecky, Milan Hrabovsky

Abstract:

Recycling of organic waste is an increasingly hot topic in recent years. This issue becomes even more interesting if the raw material for the fuel production can be obtained as the result of that recycling. A process of high-temperature decomposition of a lignite (a non-hydrolysable complex organic compound) was studied on the plasma gasification reactor PLASGAS, where water-stabilized plasma torch was used as a source of high enthalpy plasma. The plasma torch power was 120 kW and allowed heating of the reactor to more than 1000 °C. The material feeding rate in the gasification reactor was selected 30 and 60 kg per hour that could be compared with small industrial production. An efficiency estimation of the thermal decomposition process was done. A balance of the torch energy distribution was studied as well as an influence of the lignite particle size and an addition of methane (CH4) in a reaction volume on the syngas composition (H2+CO). It was found that the ratio H2:CO had values in the range of 1,5 to 2,5 depending on the experimental conditions. The recycling process occurred at atmospheric pressure that was one of the important benefits because of the lack of expensive vacuum pump systems. The work was supported by the Grant Agency of the Czech Republic under the project GA15-19444S.

Keywords: atmospheric pressure, lignite, plasma treatment, water-stabilized plasma torch

Procedia PDF Downloads 255
45 Bystanders' Behavior during Emergencies

Authors: Alan (Avi) Kirschenbaum, Carmit Rapaport

Abstract:

The behavior of bystanders in emergencies and disasters have been examined for over 50 years. Such acts have been cited as contributing to saving lives in terms of providing first responder help until official emergency units can arrive. Several reasons have been suggested for this type of behavior but most focused on a broad segment of individual psychological decision-making processes. Recent theoretical evidence suggests that the external factors for such bystander decisions, mainly disaster community based social contexts factors, are also important. We aim to test these competing arguments. Specifically, we examine alternative explanatory perspectives by focusing on self-efficacy as a proxy for the accepted individual psychological case and contrast it with potential bystander characteristics of the individual as well factors as embedded in the social context of the disaster community. To do so, we will utilize a random sampling of the population from a field study of an urban community in Israel that experienced five years of continuous terror attacks. The results strongly suggest that self-efficacy, as well as external factors: preparedness and having skills for intervention during emergencies along with gender best, predict potential helping behaviors. These results broaden our view of bystander behavior and open a window for enhancing this phenomenon as another element in disaster and crisis management.

Keywords: bystander behavior, disasters emergencies, psychological motivation to help, social context for helping

Procedia PDF Downloads 51
44 Analysis of Differences between Public and Experts’ Views Regarding Sustainable Development of Developing Cities: A Case Study in the Iraqi Capital Baghdad

Authors: Marwah Mohsin, Thomas Beach, Alan Kwan, Mahdi Ismail

Abstract:

This paper describes the differences in views on sustainable development between the general public and experts in a developing country, Iraq. This paper will answer the question: How do the views of the public differ from the generally accepted view of experts in the context of sustainable urban development in Iraq? In order to answer this question, the views of both the public and the experts will be analysed. These results are taken from a public survey and a Delphi questionnaire. These will be analysed using statistical methods in order to identify the significant differences. This will enable investigation of the different perceptions between the public perceptions and the experts’ views towards urban sustainable development factors. This is important due to the fact that different viewpoints between policy-makers and the public will impact on the acceptance by the public of any future sustainable development work that is undertaken. The brief findings of the statistical analysis show that the views of both the public and the experts are considered different in most of the variables except six variables show no differences. Those variables are ‘The importance of establishing sustainable cities in Iraq’, ‘Mitigate traffic congestion’, ‘Waste recycling and separating’, ‘Use wastewater recycling’, ‘Parks and green spaces’, and ‘Promote investment’.

Keywords: urban sustainability, experts views, public views, principle component analysis, PCA

Procedia PDF Downloads 49
43 Liposomal Encapsulation of Silver Nanoparticle for Improved Delivery and Enhanced Anticancer Properties

Authors: Azeez Yusuf, Alan Casey

Abstract:

Silver nanoparticles (AgNP) are one of the most widely investigated metallic nanoparticles due to their promising antibacterial activities. In recent years, AgNP research has shifted beyond antimicrobial use to potential applications in the medical arena. This shift coupled with the extensive commercial applications of AgNP will further increase human exposure, and the subsequent risk of adverse effects that may result from repeated exposures and inefficient delivery meaning research into improved AgNP delivery is of paramount importance. In this study, AgNP were encapsulated in a natural bio-surfactant, dipalmitoylphosphatyidyl choline (DPPC), in an attempt to enhance the intracellular delivery and simultaneously mediate the associated cytotoxicity of the AgNP. It was noted that as a result of the encapsulation, liposomal-AgNP (Lipo-AgNP) at 0.625 μg/ml induced significant cell death in THP1 cell lines a notably lower dose than that of the uncoated AgNP induced cytotoxicity. The induced cytotoxicity was shown to result in an increased level of DNA fragmentation resulting in a cell cycle interruption at the S phase of the cell cycle. It was shown that the predominate form of cell death upon exposure to both uncoated and Lipo-AgNP was apoptosis, however, a ROS-independent activation of the executioner caspases 3/7 occurred when exposed to the Lipo-AgNP. These findings showed that encapsulation of AgNP enhances AgNP cytotoxicity and mediates an ROS-independent induction of apoptosis.

Keywords: silver nanoparticles, AgNP, cytotoxicity, encapsulation, liposome

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42 A Comparative Study of Mental Toughness among Players of Team and Individual Sports

Authors: P. B. Thumar

Abstract:

Today’s athletes face acute and unique challenges as the competition standards are higher and tougher. There are certain moments during a competition that appear to carry great psychological significance when the momentum starts to shift in one direction or another. These situations require athletes to remain completely focused and calm in facing the difficult circumstances. The purpose of the study was to compare the Mental Toughness level among the players of the team and individual sports. Purposive sampling was done in which subjects for the present study were the male students of The M. S. University of Baroda, Vadodara studying various courses in the academic year 2014-15. Thus, a total number of 120 boys were identified and included in the study from which 60 boys had participated in individual sports and 60 in team sports. ‘The Mental Toughness Questionnaire’ prepared by Dr. Alan Goldberg was used to determine mental toughness level of the players of the team and individual sports. The scores arrived from 60 individual players and 60 team players were compared by applying the t-test. Significant difference was found on overall Mental Toughness and in subcomponents there was significant difference in ability to handle pressure, concentration and confidence whereas there was no significant difference in reboundability and motivation among team and individual sports players. This could be largely due the nature of both sports. Team players of MSU found to be having more overall mental toughness, and team players are able to handle pressure more than individual players, can concentrate more and are also more confident while playing in the team. Team preparation and training prior to competition could have increased the level of ability to handle pressure, concentration and confidence of team players.

Keywords: mental toughness, reboundability, confidence, team sports, individual sports

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41 The Effect of Crack Size, Orientation and Number on the Elastic Modulus of a Cracked Body

Authors: Mark T. Hanson, Alan T. Varughese

Abstract:

Osteoporosis is a disease affecting bone quality which in turn can increase the risk of low energy fractures. Treatment of osteoporosis using Bisphosphonates has the beneficial effect of increasing bone mass while at the same time has been linked to the formation of atypical femoral fractures. This has led to the increased study of micro-fractures in bones of patients using Bisphosphonate treatment. One of the mechanics related issues which have been identified in this regard is the loss in stiffness of bones containing one or many micro-fractures. Different theories have been put forth using fracture mechanics to determine the effect of crack presence on elastic properties such as modulus. However, validation of these results in a deterministic way has not been forthcoming. The present analysis seeks to provide this deterministic evaluation of fracture’s effect on the elastic modulus. In particular, the effect of crack size, crack orientation and crack number on elastic modulus is investigated. In particular, the Finite Element method is used to explicitly determine the elastic modulus reduction caused by the presence of cracks in a representative volume element. Single cracks of various lengths and orientations are examined as well as cases of multiple cracks. Cracks in tension as well as under shear stress are considered. Although the focus is predominantly two-dimensional, some three-dimensional results are also presented. The results obtained show the explicit reduction in modulus caused by the parameters of crack size, orientation and number noted above. The present results allow the interpretation of the various theories which currently exist in the literature.

Keywords: cracks, elastic, fracture, modulus

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