Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3440

Search results for: magnesium matrix composite

3440 Wear Behaviors of B4C and SiC Particle Reinforced AZ91 Magnesium Matrix Metal Composites

Authors: M. E. Turan, H. Zengin, E. Cevik, Y. Sun, Y. Turen, H. Ahlatci

Abstract:

In this study, the effects of B4C and SiC particle reinforcements on wear properties of magnesium matrix metal composites produced by pressure infiltration method were investigated. AZ91 (9%Al-1%Zn) magnesium alloy was used as a matrix. AZ91 magnesium alloy was melted under an argon atmosphere. The melt was infiltrated to the particles with an appropriate pressure. Wear tests, hardness tests were performed respectively. Microstructure characterizations were examined by light optical (LOM) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The results showed that uniform particle distributions were achieved in both B4C and SiC reinforced composites. Wear behaviors of magnesium matrix metal composites changed as a function of type of particles. SiC reinforced composite has better wear performance and higher hardness than B4C reinforced composite.

Keywords: magnesium matrix composite, pressure infiltration, SEM, wear

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3439 Review on Wear Behavior of Magnesium Matrix Composites

Authors: Amandeep Singh, Niraj Bala

Abstract:

In the last decades, light-weight materials such as magnesium matrix composites have become hot topic for material research due to their excellent mechanical and physical properties. However, relatively very less work has been done related to the wear behavior of these composites. Magnesium matrix composites have wide applications in automobile and aerospace sector. In this review, attempt has been done to collect the literature related to wear behavior of magnesium matrix composites fabricated through various processing techniques such as stir casting, powder metallurgy, friction stir processing etc. Effect of different reinforcements, reinforcement content, reinforcement size, wear load, sliding speed and time have been studied by different researchers in detail. Wear mechanism under different experimental condition has been reviewed in detail. The wear resistance of magnesium and its alloys can be enhanced with the addition of different reinforcements. Wear resistance can further be enhanced by increasing the percentage of added reinforcements. Increase in applied load during wear test leads to increase in wear rate of magnesium composites.

Keywords: hardness, magnesium matrix composites, reinforcement, wear

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3438 Using Fly Ash as a Reinforcement to Increase Wear Resistance of Pure Magnesium

Authors: E. Karakulak, R. Yamanoğlu, M. Zeren

Abstract:

In the current study, fly ash obtained from a thermal power plant was used as reinforcement in pure magnesium. The composite materials with different fly ash contents were produced with powder metallurgical methods. Powder mixtures were sintered at 540oC under 30 MPa pressure for 15 minutes in a vacuum assisted hot press. Results showed that increasing ash content continuously increases hardness of the composite. On the other hand, minimum wear damage was obtained at 2 wt. % ash content. Addition of higher level of fly ash results with formation of cracks in the matrix and increases wear damage of the material.

Keywords: Mg composite, fly ash, wear, powder metallurgy

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3437 Tensile and Fracture Properties of Cast and Forged Composite Synthesized by Addition of in-situ Generated Al3Ti-Al2O3 Particles to Magnesium

Authors: H. M. Nanjundaswamy, S. K. Nath, S. Ray

Abstract:

TiO2 particles have been added in molten aluminium to result in aluminium based cast Al/Al3Ti-Al2O3 composite, which has been added then to molten magnesium to synthesize magnesium based cast Mg-Al/Al3Ti-Al2O3 composite. The nominal compositions in terms of Mg, Al, and TiO2 contents in the magnesium based composites are Mg-9Al-0.6TiO2, Mg-9Al-0.8TiO2, Mg-9Al-1.0TiO2 and Mg-9Al-1.2TiO2 designated respectively as MA6T, MA8T, MA10T and MA12T. The microstructure of the cast magnesium based composite shows grayish rods of intermetallics Al3Ti, inherited from aluminium based composite but these rods, on hot forging, breaks into smaller lengths decreasing the average aspect ratio (length to diameter) from 7.5 to 3.0. There are also cavities in between the broken segments of rods. β-phase in cast microstructure, Mg17Al12, dissolves during heating prior to forging and re-precipitates as relatively finer particles on cooling. The amount of β-phase also decreases on forging as segregation is removed. In both the cast and forged composite, the Brinell hardness increases rapidly with increasing addition of TiO2 but the hardness is higher in forged composites by about 80 BHN. With addition of higher level of TiO2 in magnesium based cast composite, yield strength decreases progressively but there is marginal increase in yield strength over that of the cast Mg-9 wt. pct. Al, designated as MA alloy. But the ultimate tensile strength (UTS) in the cast composites decreases with the increasing particle content indicating possibly an early initiation of crack in the brittle inter-dendritic region and their easy propagation through the interfaces of the particles. In forged composites, there is a significant improvement in both yield strength and UTS with increasing TiO2 addition and also, over those observed in their cast counterpart, but at higher addition it decreases. It may also be noted that as in forged MA alloy, incomplete recovery of forging strain increases the strength of the matrix in the composites and the ductility decreases both in the forged alloy and the composites. Initiation fracture toughness, JIC, decreases drastically in cast composites compared to that in MA alloy due to the presence of intermetallic Al3Ti and Al2O3 particles in the composite. There is drastic reduction of JIC on forging both in the alloy and the composites, possibly due to incomplete recovery of forging strain in both as well as breaking of Al3Ti rods and the voids between the broken segments of Al3Ti rods in composites. The ratio of tearing modulus to elastic modulus in cast composites show higher ratio, which increases with the increasing TiO2 addition. The ratio decreases comparatively more on forging of cast MA alloy than those in forged composites.

Keywords: composite, fracture toughness, forging, tensile properties

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3436 Studying the Influence of Stir Cast Parameters on Properties of Al6061/Al2O3 Composite

Authors: Anuj Suhag, Rahul Dayal

Abstract:

Aluminum matrix composites (AMCs) refer to the class of metal matrix composites that are lightweight but high performance aluminum centric material systems. The reinforcement in AMCs could be in the form of continuous/discontinuous fibers, whisker or particulates, in volume fractions. Properties of AMCs can be altered to the requirements of different industrial applications by suitable combinations of matrix, reinforcement and processing route. This work focuses on the fabrication of aluminum alloy (Al6061) matrix composites (AMCs) reinforced with 5 and 3 wt% Al2O3 particulates of 45µm using stir casting route. The aim of the present work is to investigate the effects of process parameters, determined by design of experiments, on microhardness, microstructure, Charpy impact strength, surface roughness and tensile properties of the AMC.

Keywords: aluminium matrix composite, Charpy impact strength test, composite materials, matrix, metal matrix composite, surface roughness, reinforcement

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3435 Use of Magnesium as a Renewable Energy Source

Authors: Rafayel K. Kostanyan

Abstract:

The opportunities of use of metallic magnesium as a generator of hydrogen gas, as well as thermal and electric energy is presented in the paper. Various schemes of magnesium application are discussed and power characteristics of corresponding devices are presented. Economic estimation of hydrogen price obtained by different methods is made, including the use of magnesium as a source of hydrogen for transportation in comparison with gasoline. Details and prospects of our new inexpensive technology of magnesium production from magnesium hydroxide and magnesium bearing rocks (which are available worldwide and in Armenia) are analyzed. It is estimated the threshold cost of Mg production at which application of this metal in power engineering is economically justified.

Keywords: energy, electrodialysis, magnesium, new technology

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3434 Effect of Al Particles on Corrosion Resistance of Electrodeposited Ni-Al Composite Coatings

Authors: M. Adabi, A. Amadeh

Abstract:

Electrodeposition is known as a relatively economical and simple technique commonly used for preparation of metallic and composite coatings. Electrodeposited composite coatings produced by dispersion of particles into the metal matrix show better properties than pure metallic coatings. In recent years, many researches were carried out on Ni matrix coatings reinforced by ceramic particles such as Ni-SiC, Ni-Al2O3, Ni-WC, Ni-CeO2, Ni-ZrO2, Ni-TiO2 to improve their corrosion and wear resistance. However, little effort has been made on incorporation of metal particles into Ni matrix. Therefore, the aim of this work was to produce Ni–Al composite coating on 6061 aluminum alloy by pulse plating and to investigate the effects of electrodeposition parameters, e.g. concentration Al particles in the electrolyte and current density, on composition and corrosion resistance of the composite coatings. The morphology and corrosion behavior of the coated 6061 Al alloys were studied by means of scanning electron microscope (SEM) equipped with energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDS) and potentiodynamic polarization method, respectively. The results indicated that the addition of Al particles up to 50 g L-1 increased the amount of co-deposited Al particles in nickel matrix. It is also observed that the incorporation of Al particles decreased with increasing current density. Meanwhile, the corrosion resistance of the coatings shows an increment by increasing the content of Al particles into nickel matrix.

Keywords: Ni-Al composite coating, current density, corrosion resistance

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3433 Investigation on Mechanical Properties of a Composite Material of Olive Flour Wood with a Polymer Matrix

Authors: Slim Souissi, Mohamed Ben Amar, Nesrine Bouhamed, Pierre Marechal

Abstract:

The bio-composites development from biodegradable materials and natural fibers has a growing interest in the science of composite materials. The present work was conducted as part of a cooperation project between the Sfax University and the Havre University. This work consists in developing and monitoring the properties of a composite material of olive flour wood with a polymer matrix (urea formaldehyde). For this, ultrasonic non-destructive and destructive methods of characterization were used to optimize the mechanical and acoustic properties of the studied material based on the elaboration parameters.

Keywords: bio-composite, olive flour wood, polymer matrix, ultrasonic methods, mechanical properties

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3432 Graphene Reinforced Magnesium Metal Matrix Composites for Biomedical Applications

Authors: Khurram Munir, Cuie Wen, Yuncang Li

Abstract:

Magnesium (Mg) metal matrix composites (MMCs) reinforced with graphene nanoplatelets (GNPs) have been developed by powder metallurgy (PM). In this study, GNPs with different concentrations (0.1-0.3 wt.%) were dispersed into Mg powders by high-energy ball-milling processes. The microstructure and resultant mechanical properties of the fabricated nanocomposites were characterized using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy (RS), compression and nano-wear tests. The corrosion resistance of the fabricated composites was evaluated by electrochemical tests and hydrogen evolution measurements. Finally, the biological response of Mg-GNPs composites was assessed using osteoblast-like SaOS2 cells. The results indicate that GNPs are excellent candidates as reinforcements in Mg matrices for the manufacture of biodegradable Mg-based composite implants. GNP addition improved the mechanical properties of Mg via synergetic strengthening modes. Moreover, retaining the structural integrity of GNPs during PM processing improved the ductility, compressive strength, and corrosion resistance of the Mg-GNP composites as compared to monolithic Mg. Cytotoxicity assessments did not reveal any significant toxicity with the addition of GNPs to Mg matrices. This study demonstrates that Mg-xGNPs with x < 0.3 wt.%, may constitute novel biodegradable implant materials for load-bearing applications.

Keywords: magnesium-graphene composites, strengthening mechanisms, In vitro cytotoxicity, biocorrosion

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3431 Manufacturing and Characterization of Ni-Matrix Composite Reinforced with Ti3SiC2 and Ti2AlC; and Al-Matrix with Ti2SiC

Authors: M. Hadji, N. Chiker, Y. Hadji, A. Haddad

Abstract:

In this paper, we report for the first time on the synthesis and characterization of novel MAX phases (Ti3SiC2, Ti2AlC) reinforced Ni-matrix and Ti2AlC reinforced Al-matrix. The stability of MAX phases in Al-matrix and Ni-matrix at a temperature of 985°C has been investigated. All the composites were cold pressed and sintered at a temperature of 985°C for 20min in H2 environment, except (Ni/Ti3SiC2) who was sintered at 1100°C for 1h.Microstructure analysis by scanning electron microscopy and phase analysis by X-Ray diffraction confirmed that there was minimal interfacial reaction between MAX particles and Ni, thus Al/MAX samples shown that MAX phases was totally decomposed at 985°C.The Addition of MAX enhanced the Al-matrix and Ni-matrix.

Keywords: MAX phase, microstructures, composites, hardness, SEM

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3430 Effect of Alloying Elements on Particle Incorporation of Boron Carbide Reinforced Aluminum Matrix Composites

Authors: Steven Ploetz, Andreas Lohmueller, Robert F. Singer

Abstract:

The outstanding performance of aluminum matrix composites (AMCs) regarding stiffness/weight ratio makes AMCs attractive material for lightweight construction. Low-density boride compounds promise simultaneously an increase in stiffness and decrease in composite density. This is why boron carbide is chosen for composite manufacturing. The composites are fabricated with the stir casting process. To avoid gas entrapment during mixing and ensure nonporous composites, partial vacuum is adapted during particle feeding and stirring. Poor wettability of boron carbide with liquid aluminum hinders particle incorporation, but alloying elements such as magnesium and titanium could improve wettability and thus particle incorporation. Next to alloying elements, adapted stirring parameters and impeller geometries improve particle incorporation and enable homogenous particle distribution and high particle volume fractions of boron carbide. AMCs with up to 15 vol.% of boron carbide particles are produced via melt stirring, resulting in an increase in stiffness and strength.

Keywords: aluminum matrix composites, boron carbide, stiffness, stir casting

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3429 Production and Characterization of Al-BN Composite Materials by Using Powder Metallurgy

Authors: Ahmet Yonetken, Ayhan Erol

Abstract:

Aluminum matrix composites containing 3, 6, 9, 12 and 15% BN has been fabricated by conventional microwave sintering at 550°C temperature. Compounds formation between Al and BN powders is observed after sintering under Ar shroud. XRD, SEM (Scanning Electron Microscope), mechanical testing and measurements were employed to characterize the properties of Al + BN composite. Experimental results suggest that the best properties as hardness 42,62 HV were obtained for Al+12% BN composite. In this study, the powder metallurgy method was used. It is aimed to produce a light composite with Al matrix BN powders. It has been increased in strength and hardness besides its lightness. Ceramic powders are added to improve mechanical properties.

Keywords: ceramic-metal composites, proporties, powder metallurgy, sintering

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3428 Parameters Optimization of the Laminated Composite Plate for Sound Transmission Problem

Authors: Yu T. Tsai, Jin H. Huang

Abstract:

In this paper, the specific sound transmission loss (TL) of the laminated composite plate (LCP) with different material properties in each layer is investigated. The numerical method to obtain the TL of the LCP is proposed by using elastic plate theory. The transfer matrix approach is novelty presented for computational efficiency in solving the numerous layers of dynamic stiffness matrix (D-matrix) of the LCP. Besides the numerical simulations for calculating the TL of the LCP, the material properties inverse method is presented for the design of a laminated composite plate analogous to a metallic plate with a specified TL. As a result, it demonstrates that the proposed computational algorithm exhibits high efficiency with a small number of iterations for achieving the goal. This method can be effectively employed to design and develop tailor-made materials for various applications.

Keywords: sound transmission loss, laminated composite plate, transfer matrix approach, inverse problem, elastic plate theory, material properties

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3427 Multiscale Cohesive Zone Modeling of Composite Microstructure

Authors: Vincent Iacobellis, Kamran Behdinan

Abstract:

A finite element cohesive zone model is used to predict the temperature dependent material properties of a polyimide matrix composite with unidirectional carbon fiber arrangement. The cohesive zone parameters have been obtained from previous research involving an atomistic-to-continuum multiscale simulation of the fiber-matrix interface using the bridging cell multiscale method. The goal of the research was to both investigate the effect of temperature change on the composite behavior with respect to transverse loading as well as the validate the use of cohesive parameters obtained from atomistic-to-continuum multiscale modeling to predict fiber-matrix interfacial cracking. From the multiscale model cohesive zone parameters (i.e. maximum traction and energy of separation) were obtained by modeling the interface between the coarse-grained polyimide matrix and graphite based carbon fiber. The cohesive parameters from this simulation were used in a cohesive zone model of the composite microstructure in order to predict the properties of the macroscale composite with respect to changes in temperature ranging from 21 ˚C to 316 ˚C. Good agreement was found between the microscale RUC model and experimental results for stress-strain response, stiffness, and material strength at low and high temperatures. Examination of the deformation of the composite through localized crack initiation at the fiber-matrix interface also agreed with experimental observations of similar phenomena. Overall, the cohesive zone model was shown to be both effective at modeling the composite properties with respect to transverse loading as well as validated the use of cohesive zone parameters obtained from the multiscale simulation.

Keywords: cohesive zone model, fiber-matrix interface, microscale damage, multiscale modeling

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3426 Fabrication Characteristics and Mechanical Behaviour of Fly Ash-Alumina Reinforced Zn-27Al Alloy Matrix Hybrid Composite Using Stir-Casting Technique

Authors: Oluwagbenga B. Fatile, Felix U. Idu, Olajide T. Sanya

Abstract:

This paper reports the viability of developing Zn-27Al alloy matrix hybrid composites reinforced with alumina, graphite and fly ash (a solid waste byproduct of coal in thermal power plants). This research work was aimed at developing low cost-high performance Zn-27Al matrix composite with low density. Alumina particulates (Al2O3), graphite added with 0, 2, 3, 4, and 5 wt% fly ash were utilized to prepare 10wt% reinforcing phase with Zn-27Al alloy as matrix using two-step stir casting method. Density measurement estimated percentage porosity, tensile testing, micro hardness measurement, and optical microscopy were used to assess the performance of the composites produced. The results show that the hardness, ultimate tensile strength, and percent elongation of the hybrid composites decrease with increase in fly ash content. The maximum decrease in hardness and ultimate tensile strength of 13.72% and 15.25% respectively were observed for composite grade containing 5wt% fly ash. The percentage elongation of composite sample without fly ash is 8.9% which is comparable with that of the sample containing 2wt% fly ash with percentage elongation of 8.8%. The fracture toughness of the fly ash containing composites was, however, superior to those of composites without fly ash with 5wt% fly ash containing composite exhibiting the highest fracture toughness. The results show that fly ash can be utilized as complementary reinforcement in ZA-27 alloy matrix composite to reduce cost.

Keywords: fly ash, hybrid composite, mechanical behaviour, stir-cast

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3425 Relationship between Extrusion Ratio and Mechanical Properties of Magnesium Alloy

Authors: C. H. Jeon, Y. H. Kim, G. A. Lee

Abstract:

Reducing resource consumption and carbon dioxide emission are recognized as urgent issues. One way of resolving these issues is to reduce product weight. Magnesium alloys are considered promising candidates because of their lightness. Various studies have been conducted on using magnesium alloy instead of conventional iron or aluminum in mechanical parts, due to the light weight and superior specific strength of magnesium alloy. However, even stronger magnesium alloys are needed for mechanical parts. One common way to enhance the strength of magnesium alloy is by extruding the ingot. In order to enhance the mechanical properties, magnesium alloy ingot were extruded at various extrusion ratios. Relationship between extrusion ratio and mechanical properties was examined on extruded material of magnesium alloy. And Textures and microstructures of the extruded materials were investigated.

Keywords: extrusion, extrusion ratio, magnesium, mechanical property, lightweight material

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3424 Development of AA2024 Matrix Composites Reinforced with Micro Yttrium through Cold Compaction with Superior Mechanical Properties

Authors: C. H. S. Vidyasagar, D. B. Karunakar

Abstract:

In this present work, five different composite samples with AA2024 as matrix and varying amounts of yttrium (0.1-0.5 wt.%) as reinforcement are developed through cold compaction. The microstructures of the developed composite samples revealed that the yttrium reinforcement caused grain refinement up to 0.3 wt.% and beyond which the refinement is not effective. The microstructure revealed Al2Cu precipitation which strengthened the composite up to 0.3 wt.% yttrium reinforcement. Upon further increase in yttrium reinforcement, the intermetallics and the precipitation coarsen and their corresponding strengthening effect decreases. The mechanical characterization revealed that the composite sample reinforced with 0.3 wt.% yttrium showed highest mechanical properties like 82 HV of hardness, 276 MPa Ultimate Tensile Strength (UTS), 229 MPa Yield Strength (YS) and an elongation (EL) of 18.9% respectively. However, the relative density of the developed composites decreased with the increase in yttrium reinforcement.

Keywords: mechanical properties, AA 2024 matrix, yttrium reinforcement, cold compaction, precipitation

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3423 Deformation Mechanisms of Mg-Based Composite Studied by Neutron Diffraction and Acoustic Emission

Authors: G. Farkas, K. Mathis, J. Pilch, P. Minarik

Abstract:

Deformation mechanisms in an Mg-Al-Ca alloy reinforced with short alumina fibres were studied by acoustic emission and in-situ neutron diffraction method. The fibres plane orientation with respect to the loading axis was found to be a key parameter, which influences the acting deformation processes, such as twinning or dislocation slip. In-situ neutron diffraction tests were measured at different temperatures from room temperature (RT) to 200°C. The measurement shows the lattice strain changes in the matrix and also in the reinforcement phase depending on macroscopic compressive deformation and stress. In case of parallel fibre plane orientation, the increment of compressive lattice strain is lower in the matrix and higher in the fibres in comparison to perpendicular fibre orientation. Furthermore, acoustic emission results indicate a larger twinning activity and more frequent fibre cracking in sample with perpendicular fibre plane orientation. Both types of mechanisms are more dominant at elevated temperatures.

Keywords: neutron diffraction, acoustic emission, magnesium based composite, deformation mechanisms

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3422 Influence of Natural Rubber on the Frictional and Mechanical Behavior of the Composite Brake Pad Materials

Authors: H. Yanar, G. Purcek, H. H. Ayar

Abstract:

The ingredients of composite materials used for the production of composite brake pads play an important role in terms of safety braking performance of automobiles and trains. Therefore, the ingredients must be selected carefully and used in appropriate ratios in the matrix structure of the brake pad materials. In the present study, a non-asbestos organic composite brake pad materials containing binder resin, space fillers, solid lubricants, and friction modifier was developed, and its fillers content was optimized by adding natural rubber with different rate into the specified matrix structure in order to achieve the best combination of tribo-performance and mechanical properties. For this purpose, four compositions with different rubber content (2.5wt.%, 5.0wt.%, 7.5wt.% and 10wt.%) were prepared and then test samples with the diameter of 20 mm and length of 15 mm were produced to evaluate the friction and mechanical behaviors of the mixture. The friction and wear tests were performed using a pin-on-disc type test rig which was designed according to NF-F-11-292 French standard. All test samples were subjected to two different types of friction tests defined as periodic braking and continuous braking (also known as fade test). In this way, the coefficient of friction (CoF) of composite sample with different rubber content were determined as a function of number of braking cycle and temperature of the disc surface. The results demonstrated that addition of rubber into the matrix structure of the composite caused a significant change in the CoF. Average CoF of the composite samples increased linearly with increasing rubber content into the matrix. While the average CoF was 0.19 for the rubber-free composite, the composite sample containing 20wt.% rubber had the maximum CoF of about 0.24. Although the CoF of composite sample increased, the amount of specific wear rate decreased with increasing rubber content into the matrix. On the other hand, it was observed that the CoF decreased with increasing temperature generated in-between sample and disk depending on the increasing rubber content. While the CoF decreased to the minimum value of 0.15 at 400 °C for the rubber-free composite sample, the sample having the maximum rubber content of 10wt.% exhibited the lowest one of 0.09 at the same temperature. Addition of rubber into the matrix structure decreased the hardness and strength of the samples. It was concluded from the results that the composite matrix with 5 wt.% rubber had the best composition regarding the performance parameters such as required frictional and mechanical behavior. This composition has the average CoF of 0.21, specific wear rate of 0.024 cm³/MJ and hardness value of 63 HRX.

Keywords: brake pad composite, friction and wear, rubber, friction materials

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3421 The Thermal Properties of Nano Magnesium Hydroxide Blended with LDPE/EVA/Irganox1010 for Insulator Application

Authors: Ahmad Aroziki Abdul Aziz, Sakinah Mohd Alauddin, Ruzitah Mohd Salleh, Mohammed Iqbal Shueb

Abstract:

This paper illustrates the effect of nano Magnesium Hydroxide (MH) loading on the thermal properties of Low Density Polyethylene (LDPE)/ Poly (ethylene-co vinyl acetate)(EVA) nano composite. Thermal studies were conducted, as it understanding is vital for preliminary development of new polymeric systems. Thermal analysis of nano composite was conducted using thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA), and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Major finding of TGA indicated two main stages of degradation process found at (350 ± 25 oC) and (480 ± 25 oC) respectively. Nano metal filler expressed better fire resistance as it stand over high degree of temperature. Furthermore, DSC analysis provided a stable glass temperature around 51 (±1 oC) and captured double melting point at 84 (±2 oC) and 108 (±2 oC). This binary melting point reflects the modification of nano filler to the polymer matrix forming melting crystals of folded and extended chain. The percent crystallinity of the samples grew vividly with increasing filler content. Overall, increasing the filler loading improved the degradation temperature and weight loss evidently and a better process and phase stability was captured in DSC.

Keywords: thermal properties, nano MH, nano particles, cable and wire, LDPE/EVA

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3420 Dietary Magnesium, Lipids, and Hypertension: New Insights and Unsolved Mysteries

Authors: Elena Pello, Martin Bobak, Yuri Nikitin

Abstract:

In current issue we evaluated integration of magnesium with lipids; the attractive findings were obtained in men and women; the crucial ties of magnesium with total cholesterol in hypertensive men, with total cholesterol in concordance with low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in hypertensive women were disclosed; unanswered questions were trapped, difficulties were surmounted, and magnesium deficiency perseverance in pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease development was expressed; nutrients as well as risk factors may contribute to cardiovascular complications.

Keywords: dietary, magnesium, hypertension, lipids

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3419 Effect of Chilling on Soundness, Micro Hardness, Ultimate Tensile Strength, and Corrosion Behavior of Nickel Alloy-Fused Silica Metal Matrix Composite

Authors: G. Purushotham, Joel Hemanth

Abstract:

An investigation has been carried out to fabricate and evaluate the strength and soundness of chilled composites consisting of nickel matrix and fused silica particles (size 40–150 μm) in the matrix. The dispersoid added ranged from 3 to 12 wt. % in steps of 3%. The resulting composites cast in moulds containing metallic and non-metallic chill blocks (MS, SiC, and Cu) were tested for their microstructure and mechanical properties. The main objective of the present research is to obtain fine grain Ni/SiO2 chilled sound composite having very good mechanical properties. Results of the investigation reveal the following: (1) Strength of the composite developed is highly dependent on the location of the casting from where the test specimens are taken and also on the dispersoid content of the composite. (2) Chill thickness and chill material, however, does significantly affect the strength and soundness of the composite. (3) Soundness of the composite developed is highly dependent on the chilling rate as well as the dispersoid content. An introduction of chilling and increase in the dispersoid content of the material both result in an increase in the ultimate tensile strength (UTS) of the material. The temperature gradient developed during solidification and volumetric heat capacity (VHC) of the chill used is the important parameters controlling the soundness of the composite. (4) Thermal properties of the end chills are used to determine the magnitude of the temperature gradient developed along the length of the casting solidifying under the influence of chills.

Keywords: metal matrix composite, mechanical properties, corrosion behavior, nickel alloy, fused silica, chills

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3418 Flexural Analysis of Palm Fiber Reinforced Hybrid Polymer Matrix Composite

Authors: G.Venkatachalam, Gautham Shankar, Dasarath Raghav, Krishna Kuar, Santhosh Kiran, Bhargav Mahesh

Abstract:

Uncertainty in the availability of fossil fuels in the future and global warming increased the need for more environment-friendly materials. In this work, an attempt is made to fabricate a hybrid polymer matrix composite. The blend is a mixture of General Purpose Resin and Cashew Nut Shell Liquid, a natural resin extracted from cashew plant. Palm fiber, which has high strength, is used as a reinforcement material. The fiber is treated with alkali (NaOH) solution to increase its strength and adhesiveness. Parametric study of flexure strength is carried out by varying alkali concentration, duration of alkali treatment and fiber volume. Taguchi L9 Orthogonal array is followed in the design of experiments procedure for simplification. With the help of ANOVA technique, regression equations are obtained which gives the level of influence of each parameter on the flexure strength of the composite.

Keywords: Adhesion, CNSL, Flexural Analysis, Hybrid Matrix Composite, Palm Fiber

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3417 Microstructure and Tribological Properties of AlSi5Cu2/SiC Composite

Authors: Magdalena Suśniak, Joanna Karwan-Baczewska

Abstract:

Microstructure and tribological properties of AlSi5Cu2 matrix composite reinforced with SiC have been studied by microscopic examination and basic tribological properties. Composite material was produced by the mechanical alloying and spark plasma sintering (SPS) technique. The mixture of AlSi5Cu2 chips with 0, 10, 15 wt. % of SiC powder were placed in 250 ml mixing jar and milled 40 hours. To prevent the extreme cold welding the 1 wt. % of stearic acid was added to the powder mixture as a process control agent. Mechanical alloying provide to obtain composites powder with uniform distribution of SiC in matrix. Composite powders were poured into a graphite and a pulsed electric current was passed through powder under vacuum to consolidate material. Processing conditions were: sintering temperature 450°C, uniaxial pressure 32MPa, time of sintering 5 minutes. After SPS process composite samples indicate higher hardness values, lower weight loss, and lower coefficient of friction as compared with the unreinforced alloy. Light microscope micrograph of the worn surfaces and wear debris revealed that in the unreinforced alloy the prominent wear mechanism was the adhesive wear. In the AlSi5Cu2/SiC composites, by increasing of SiC the wear mechanism changed from adhesive and micro-cutting to abrasive and delamination for composite with 20 SiC wt. %. In all the AlSi5Cu2/SiC composites, abrasive wear was the main wear mechanism.

Keywords: aluminum matrix composite, mechanical alloying, spark plasma sintering, AlSi5Cu2/SiC composite

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3416 Synthesis of Magnesium Borates from the Slurries of Magnesium Wastes by Microwave Energy

Authors: N. Tugrul, F. T. Senberber, A. S. Kipcak, E. Moroydor Derun, S. Piskin

Abstract:

In this research, it is aimed not only microwave synthesis of magnesium borates but also evaluation of magnesium wastes. Synthesis process can be described with the reaction of Mg wastes and boric acid using microwave energy. X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR) were applied to synthesized minerals. According to XRD results, magnesium borate hydrate mixtures were obtained as mcallisterite (pdf# = 01-070-1902, Mg2(B6O7(OH)6)2.9(H2O)) at higher crystallinity properties was achieved at the mole ratio raw material 1:1. Also, other kinds of magnesium borate hydrates were obtained at lower crystallinity such as admontite (pdf # = 01-076-0540, MgO(B2O3)3.7(H2O)), inderite (pdf # = 01-072-2308, 2MgO.3B2O3.15(H2O)) and magnesium borate hydrates (pdf # = 01-076-0539, MgO(B2O3)3.6(H2O)). FT-IR spectrums indicated that minor changes were seen at the band values of characteristic stretching in each experiment. At the end of experiments it is seen that using microwave energy may contribute positive effects to design of synthesis process such as reducing reaction time and products at higher crystallinity.

Keywords: magnesium wastes, boric acid, magnesium borate, microwave energy

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3415 Modeling of Coupled Mechanical State and Diffusion in Composites with Impermeable Fibers

Authors: D. Gueribiz, F. Jacquemin, S. Fréour

Abstract:

During their service life, composite materials are submitted to humid environments. The moisture absorbed by their matrix polymer induced internal stresses which can lead to multi-scale damage and may reduce the lifetime of composite structures. The estimation of internal stresses is based at a first on realistic evaluation of the diffusive behavior of composite materials. Generally, the modeling and simulation of the diffusive behavior of composite materials are extensively investigated through decoupled models based on the assumption of Fickien behavior. For these approaches, the concentration and the deformation (or stresses), the two state variables of the problem considered are governed by independent equations which are solved separately. In this study, a model coupling diffusive behavior with stresses state for a polymer matrix composite reinforced with impermeable fibers is proposed, the investigation of diffusive behavior is based on a more general thermodynamic approach which introduces a dependence of diffusive behavior on internal stresses state. The coupled diffusive behavior modeling was established in first for homogeneous and isotropic matrix and it is, thereafter, extended to impermeable unidirectional composites.

Keywords: composites materials, moisture diffusion, effective moisture diffusivity, coupled moisture diffusion

Procedia PDF Downloads 239
3414 Bio-Based Polyethylene/Rice Starch Composite Prepared by Twin Screw Extruder

Authors: Waris Piyaphon, Sathaphorn O-Suwankul, Kittima Bootdee, Manit Nithitanakul

Abstract:

Starch from rice was used as a filler in low density polyethylene in preparation of low density polyethylene/rice starch composite. This study aims to prepare LDPE/rice starch composites. Glycerol (GC) was used as a plasticizer in order to increase dispersion and reduce agglomeration of rice starch in low density polyethylene (LDPE) matrix. Low density polyethylene grafted maleic anhydride (LDPE-g-MA) was used as a compatibilizer to increase the compatibility between LDPE and rice starch. The content of rice starch was varied between 10, 20, and 30 %wt. Results indicated that increase of rice starch content reduced tensile strength at break, elongation, and impact strength of composites. LDPE-g-MA showed positive effect on mechanical properties which increased in tensile strength and impact properties as well as compatibility between rice starch and LDPE matrix. Moreover, the addition of LDPE-g-MA significantly improved the impact strength by 50% compared to neat composite. The incorporation of GC enhanced the processability of composite. Introduction of GC affected the viscosity after blending by reducing the viscosity at all shear rate. The presence of plasticizer increased the impact strength but decreased the stiffness of composite. Water absorption of the composite was increased when plasticizer was added.

Keywords: composite material, plastic starch composite, polyethylene composite, PE grafted maleic anhydride

Procedia PDF Downloads 115
3413 Studying the Effect of Different Sizes of Carbon Fiber on Locally Developed Copper Based Composites

Authors: Tahir Ahmad, Abubaker Khan, Muhammad Kamran, Muhammad Umer Manzoor, Muhammad Taqi Zahid Butt

Abstract:

Metal Matrix Composites (MMC) is a class of weight efficient structural materials that are becoming popular in engineering applications especially in electronic, aerospace, aircraft, packaging and various other industries. This study focuses on the development of carbon fiber reinforced copper matrix composite. Keeping in view the vast applications of metal matrix composites,this specific material is produced for its unique mechanical and thermal properties i.e. high thermal conductivity and low coefficient of thermal expansion at elevated temperatures. The carbon fibers were not pretreated but coated with copper by electroless plating in order to increase the wettability of carbon fiber with the copper matrix. Casting is chosen as the manufacturing route for the C-Cu composite. Four different compositions of the composite were developed by varying the amount of carbon fibers by 0.5, 1, 1.5 and 2 wt. % of the copper. The effect of varying carbon fiber content and sizes on the mechanical properties of the C-Cu composite is studied in this work. The tensile test was performed on the tensile specimens. The yield strength decreases with increasing fiber content while the ultimate tensile strength increases with increasing fiber content. Rockwell hardness test was also performed and the result followed the increasing trend for increasing carbon fibers and the hardness numbers are 30.2, 37.2, 39.9 and 42.5 for sample 1, 2, 3 and 4 respectively. The microstructures of the specimens were also examined under the optical microscope. Wear test and SEM also done for checking characteristic of C-Cu marix composite. Through casting may be a route for the production of the C-Cu matrix composite but still powder metallurgy is better to follow as the wettability of carbon fiber with matrix, in that case, would be better.

Keywords: copper based composites, mechanical properties, wear properties, microstructure

Procedia PDF Downloads 273
3412 Bridging Stress Modeling of Composite Materials Reinforced by Fiber Using Discrete Element Method

Authors: Chong Wang, Kellem M. Soares, Luis E. Kosteski

Abstract:

The problem of toughening in brittle materials reinforced by fibers is complex, involving all the mechanical properties of fibers, matrix, the fiber/matrix interface, as well as the geometry of the fiber. An appropriate method applicable to the simulation and analysis of toughening is essential. In this work, we performed simulations and analysis of toughening in brittle matrix reinforced by randomly distributed fibers by means of the discrete elements method. At first, we put forward a mechanical model of the contribution of random fibers to the toughening of composite. Then with numerical programming, we investigated the stress, damage and bridging force in the composite material when a crack appeared in the brittle matrix. From the results obtained, we conclude that: (i) fibers with high strength and low elasticity modulus benefit toughening; (ii) fibers with relatively high elastic modulus compared to the matrix may result in considerable matrix damage (spalling effect); (iii) employment of high-strength synthetic fiber is a good option. The present work makes it possible to optimize the parameters in order to produce advanced ceramic with desired performance. We believe combination of the discrete element method (DEM) with the finite element method (FEM) can increase the versatility and efficiency of the software developed.

Keywords: bridging stress, discrete element method, fiber reinforced composites, toughening

Procedia PDF Downloads 378
3411 Flammability of Banana Fibre Reinforced Epoxy/Sodium Bromate Blend: Investigation of Variation in Mechanical Properties

Authors: S. Badrinarayanan, R. Vimal, H. Sivaraman, P. Deepak, R. Vignesh Kumar, A. Ponshanmugakumar

Abstract:

In the present study, the flammability properties of banana fibre reinforced epoxy/ sodium bromate blended composites are studied. Two sets of composite material were prepared, one formed by blending sodium bromate with epoxy matrix and other with neat epoxy matrix. Epoxy resin was blended with various weight fractions of sodium bromate, 4%, 8% and 12%. The composite made with plain epoxy matrix was used as the standard reference material. The mechanical tests, heat deflection tests and flammability tests were carried out on all the composite samples. Flammability test shows the improved flammability properties of the sodium bromated banana-epoxy composite. The modification in flammability properties of the composites by the addition of sodium bromate results in the reduced mechanical properties. The fractured surfaces under various mechanical testing were analysed using morphological analysis done using scanning electron microscope.

Keywords: banana fibres, epoxy resin, sodium bromate, flammability test, heat deflection

Procedia PDF Downloads 220