Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 37

Search results for: M. Yildirim

37 Laser Light Bending via Lenses

Authors: Remzi Yildirim, Fatih V. Çelebi, H. Haldun Göktaş, A. Behzat Şahin

Abstract:

This study is about a single component cylindrical structured lens with gradient curve which we used for bending laser beams. It operates under atmospheric conditions and bends the laser beam independent of temperature, pressure, polarity, polarization, magnetic field, electric field, radioactivity, and gravity. A single piece cylindrical lens that can bend laser beams is invented. Lenses are made of transparent, tinted or colored glasses and used for undermining or absorbing the energy of the laser beams.

Keywords: laser, bending, lens, light, nonlinear optics

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36 Laser Beam Bending via Lenses

Authors: Remzi Yildirim, Fatih. V. Çelebi, H. Haldun Göktaş, A. Behzat Şahin

Abstract:

This study is about a single component cylindrical structured lens with gradient curve which we used for bending laser beams. It operates under atmospheric conditions and bends the laser beam independent of temperature, pressure, polarity, polarization, magnetic field, electric field, radioactivity, and gravity. A single piece cylindrical lens that can bend laser beams is invented. Lenses are made of transparent, tinted or colored glasses and used for undermining or absorbing the energy of the laser beams.

Keywords: laser, bending, lens, light, nonlinear optics

Procedia PDF Downloads 388
35 Modal Analysis of Power System with a Microgrid

Authors: Burak Yildirim, Muhsin Tunay Gençoğlu

Abstract:

A microgrid (MG) is a small power grid composed of localized medium or low level power generation, storage systems, and loads. In this paper, the effects of a MG on power systems voltage stability are shown. The MG model, designed to demonstrate the effects of the MG, was applied to the IEEE 14 bus power system which is widely used in power system stability studies. Eigenvalue and modal analysis methods were used in simulation studies. In the study results, it is seen that MGs affect system voltage stability positively by increasing system voltage instability limit value for buses of a power system in which MG are placed.

Keywords: eigenvalue analysis, microgrid, modal analysis, voltage stability

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34 The Effect of the Reaction Time on the Microwave Synthesis of Magnesium Borates from MgCl2.6H2O, MgO and H3BO3

Authors: E. Moroydor Derun, P. Gurses, M. Yildirim, A. S. Kipcak, T. Ibroska, S. Piskin

Abstract:

Due to their strong mechanical and thermal properties magnesium borates have a wide usage area such as ceramic industry, detergent production, friction reducing additive and grease production. In this study, microwave synthesis of magnesium borates from MgCl2.6H2O (Magnesium chloride hexahydrate), MgO (Magnesium oxide) and H3BO3 (Boric acid) for different reaction times is researched. X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) Spectroscopy are used to find out how the reaction time sways on the products. The superficial properties are investigated with Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). According to XRD analysis, the synthesized compounds are 00-041-1407 pdf coded Shabinite (Mg5(BO3)4Cl2(OH)5.4(H2O)) and 01-073-2158 pdf coded Karlite (Mg7(BO3)3(OH,Cl)5).

Keywords: magnesium borate, microwave synthesis, XRD, SEM

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33 Cytotoxic Effect of Biologically Transformed Propolis on HCT-116 Human Colon Cancer Cells

Authors: N. Selvi Gunel, L. M. Oktay, H. Memmedov, B. Durmaz, H. Kalkan Yildirim, E. Yildirim Sozmen

Abstract:

Object: Propolis which consists of compounds that are accepted as antioxidant, antimicrobial, antiseptic, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, anti-mutagenic, immune-modulator and cytotoxic, is frequently used in current therapeutic applications. However, some of them result in allergic side effects, causing consumption to be restricted. Previously our group has succeeded in producing a new biotechnological product which was less allergenic. In this study, we purpose to optimize production conditions of this biologically-transformed propolis and determine the cytotoxic effects of obtained new products on colon cancer cell line (HCT-116). Method: Firstly, solid propolis samples were dissolved in water after weighing, grinding and sizing (sieve-35mesh) and applied 40 kHz/10 min ultrasonication. Samples were prepared according to inoculation with Lactobacillus plantarum in two different proportions (2.5% and 3.5%). Chromatographic analyzes of propolis were performed by UPLC-MS/MS (Waters, Milford, MA) system. Results were analysed by UPLC-MS/MS system MassLynx™ 4.1 software. HCT-116 cells were treated with propolis examples at 25-1000 µg/ml concentrations and cytotoxicity were measured by using WST-8 assay at 24, 48, and 72 hours. Samples with biological transformation were compared with the non-transformed control group samples. Our experiment groups were formed as follows: untreated (group 1), propolis dissolved in water ultrasonicated at 40 kHz/10 min (group 2), propolis dissolved in water ultrasonicated at 40 kHz/10 min and inoculated 2.5% L. plantarum L1 strain (group 3), propolis dissolved in water ultrasonicated at 40 kHz/10 min and inoculated 3.5% L. plantarum L3 strain (group 4). Obtained data were calculated with Graphpad Software V5 and analyzed by two-way ANOVA test followed by Bonferroni test. Result: As a result of our study, the cytotoxic effect of propolis samples on HCT-116 cells was evaluated. There was a 7.21 fold increase in group 3 compared to group 2 in the concentration of 1000 µg/ml, and it was a 6.66 fold increase in group 3 compared to group 1 at the end of 24 hours. At the end of 48 hours, in the concentration of 500 µg/ml, it was determined 4.7 fold increase in group 4 compared to group 3. At the same time, in the concentration of 750 µg/ml it was determined 2.01 fold increase in group 4 compared to group 3 and in the same concentration, it was determined 3.1 fold increase in group 4 compared to group 2. Also, at the 72 hours, in the concentration of 750 µg/ml, it was determined 2.42 fold increase in group 3 according to group 2 and in the same time, in the concentration of 1000 µg/ml, it was determined 2.13 fold increase in group 4 according to group 2. According to cytotoxicity results, the group which were ultrasonicated at 40 kHz/10min and inoculated 3.5% L. plantarum L3-strain had a higher cytotoxic effect. Conclusion: It is known that bioavailability of propolis is halved in six months. The data obtained from our results indicated that biologically-transformed propolis had more cytotoxic effect than non-transformed group on colon cancer cells. Consequently, we suggested that L. plantarum-transformation provides both reduction of allergenicity and extension of bioavailability period by enhancing healthful polyphenols.

Keywords: bio-transformation, propolis, colon cancer, cytotoxicity

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32 The Effect of Microgrid on Power System Oscillatory Stability

Authors: Burak Yildirim, Muhsin Tunay Gencoglu

Abstract:

This publication shows the effects of Microgrid (MG) integration on the power systems oscillating stability. Generated MG model power systems were applied to the IEEE 14 bus test system which is widely used in stability studies. Stability studies were carried out with the help of eigenvalue analysis over linearized system models. In addition, Hopf bifurcation point detection was performed to show the effect of MGs on the system loadability margin. In the study results, it is seen that MGs affect system stability positively by increasing system loadability margin and has a damper effect on the critical modes of the system and the electromechanical local modes, but they make the damping amount of the electromechanical interarea modes reduce.

Keywords: Eigenvalue analysis, microgrid, Hopf bifurcation, oscillatory stability

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31 Clinical and Radiological Features of Radicular Cysts: Case Series

Authors: Recep Duzsoz, Elif Bilgir, Derya Yildirim, Ozlem Gormez

Abstract:

Radicular cysts develop in the root apex of tooth that is devitalized. Cysts are pathologic lesions with an epithelial lining encapsulated by connective tissue. Radicular cysts originate from epithelial remnants of the periodontal ligament in the root apex as a result of inflammation. They are most commonly observed in the maxillary anterior region, among men and in the third decade of life. Radiographically, they are seen as ovoid radiolucent lesions surrounded by a thin radioopaque margin. In this case, series was carried out in 15 radicular cysts of the jaws diagnosed in individuals. The cysts were evaluated age, sex, and localization. 12 of the cysts were localized in the maxillae, 3 of them were localised in the mandible. The female/male ratio of the lesions was 1/2. In conclusion, we evaluated age, localization and sex distribution of radicular cysts in this study. The knowledge of the features of the jaw cysts is a basic aspect to achieve diagnosis, complications and proper treatment.

Keywords: radicular cyst, jaws, CBCT, treatment

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30 Ontologies for Social Media Digital Evidence

Authors: Edlira Kalemi, Sule Yildirim-Yayilgan

Abstract:

Online Social Networks (OSNs) are nowadays being used widely and intensively for crime investigation and prevention activities. As they provide a lot of information they are used by the law enforcement and intelligence. An extensive review on existing solutions and models for collecting intelligence from this source of information and making use of it for solving crimes has been presented in this article. The main focus is on smart solutions and models where ontologies have been used as the main approach for representing criminal domain knowledge. A framework for a prototype ontology named SC-Ont will be described. This defines terms of the criminal domain ontology and the relations between them. The terms and the relations are extracted during both this review and the discussions carried out with domain experts. The development of SC-Ont is still ongoing work, where in this paper, we report mainly on the motivation for using smart ontology models and the possible benefits of using them for solving crimes.

Keywords: criminal digital evidence, social media, ontologies, reasoning

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29 A New Approach on the Synthesis of Zinc Borates by Ultrasonic Method and Determination of the Zinc Oxide and Boric Acid Optimum Molar Ratio

Authors: A. Ersan, A. S. Kipcak, M. Yildirim, A. M. Erayvaz, E. M. Derun, S. Piskin, N. Tugrul

Abstract:

Zinc borates are used as a multi-functional flame retardant additive for its high dehydration temperature. In this study, a new method of ultrasonic mixing was used in the synthesis of zinc borates. The reactants of zinc oxide (ZnO) and boric acid (H3BO3) were used at the constant reaction parameters of 90°C reaction temperature and 55 min of reaction time. Several molar ratios of ZnO:H3BO3 (1:1, 1:2, 1:3, 1:4, and 1:5) were conducted for the determination of the optimum reaction ratio. Prior to the synthesis, the characterization of the synthesized zinc borates were made by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR). From the results Zinc Oxide Borate Hydrate [Zn3B6O12.3.5H2O], were synthesized optimum at the molar ratio of 1:3, with a reaction efficiency of 95.2%.

Keywords: zinc borates, ultrasonic mixing, XRD, FT-IR, reaction efficiency

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28 Transformations of Land Uses and Attitudes in Manavgat Region at South Turkey

Authors: Emrah Yildirim, Veli Ortacesme

Abstract:

Manavgat region, located in Antalya province at South Turkey, has hosted many civilizations throughout the centuries. All of these civilizations cultivated the land in their surroundings by engaging in agriculture, livestock production and hunting. In the last 50 years, there have been dramatic changes in the region. The economy of the region switched from the agriculture to tourism. Due to the increase in the irrigable agricultural lands, several dams were built on Manavgat River. Developments in the agricultural mechanization and new product needs have changed the pattern of agriculture and regional landscape. Coastal zone of the region has transformed to tourism areas, Manavgat Town Center has grown up and the urbanization in general has increased. The population and urbanization have increased by 257 % and 276 %, respectively. The tourism and commercial areas cover 561,8 hectares today. All these developments had some negative effects on the environment. In this study, land use/land cover transformations were studied in Manavgat region by using aerial photos. The reasons and consequences of the land use transformations were discussed, and some recommendations regarding the sustainable use of this region’s landscape will be shared.

Keywords: land use, Manavgat region, south Turkey, transformation

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27 The Determination of the Potassium Nitrate, Sodium Hydroxide and Boric Acid Molar Ratio in the Synthesis of Potassium Borates via Hydrothermal Method

Authors: M. Yildirim, A. S. Kipcak, F. T. Senberber, M. O. Asensio, E. M. Derun, S. Piskin

Abstract:

Potassium borates, which are widely used in welding and metal refining industry, as a lubricating oil additive, cement additive, fiberglass additive and insulation compound, are one of the important groups of borate minerals. In this study the production of a potassium borate mineral via hydrothermal method is aimed. The potassium source of potassium nitrate (KNO3) was used along with a sodium source of sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and boron source of boric acid (H3BO3). The constant parameters of reaction temperature and reaction time were determined as 80°C and 1 h, respectively. The molar ratios of 1:1:3 (as KNO3:NaOH:H3BO3), 1:1:4, 1:1:5, 1:1:6 and 1:1:7 were used. Following the synthesis the identifications of the produced products were conducted by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR). The results of the experiments and analysis showed in the ratio of 1:1:6, the Santite mineral with powder diffraction file number (pdf no.) of 01-072-1688, which is known as potassium pentaborate (KB5O8•4H2O) was synthesized as best.

Keywords: hydrothermal synthesis, potassium borate, potassium nitrate, santite

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26 A Study on 5-11 Year-Old Children's Level of Knowledge about Personal Safety and Protection from Social Dangers

Authors: Özden Kuşcu, Yağmur Kuşcu, Zeynep Çetintaş, S. Sunay Yildirim Doğru

Abstract:

The purpose of this work is to evaluate the effect of the subjects “personal safety” and “protection from dangers” included in primary school curriculum on the students’ levels of knowledge about safety and protection from social dangers. The study group included 469 students between 5–11 years old with 231 preschoolers and 238 primary school students and their parents and teachers. Instruments used to collect data were “Personal Safety Interview Form” for children, “Parent Interview Form” and “Teacher Interview Form”. Forms included 15 open-ended questions about personal safety. The researchers collected the research data through one-on-one interviews with children. Results of the study revealed that preschoolers and 1st, 2nd, and 3rd graders did not know their home addresses and telephone numbers and their families were not aware of that. The study also showed that those who had this information were unsure as to who to share this information with. Accordingly, more should be done to increase the levels of knowledge of preschoolers and 1st, 2nd, and 3rd graders about personal safety and protection from dangers.

Keywords: security, social danger, elementary school, preschool

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25 Testing Plastic-Sand Construction Blocks Made from Recycled Polyethylene Terephthalate (rPET)

Authors: Cassi Henderson, Lucia Corsini, Shiv Kapila, Egle Augustaityte, Tsemaye Uwejamomere Zinzan Gurney, Aleyna Yildirim

Abstract:

Plastic pollution is a major threat to human and planetary health. In Low- and Middle-Income Countries, plastic waste poses a major problem for marginalized populations who lack access to formal waste management systems. This study explores the potential for converting waste plastic into construction blocks. It is the first study to analyze the use of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) as a binder in plastic-sand bricks. Unlike previous studies of plastic sand-bricks, this research tests the properties of bricks that were made using a low-cost kiln technology that was co-designed with a rural, coastal community in Kenya.  The mechanical strength, resistance to fire and water absorption properties of the bricks are tested in this study. The findings show that the bricks meet structural standards for mechanical performance, fire resistance and water absorption. It was found that 30:70 PET to sand demonstrated the best overall performance.

Keywords: recycling, PET, plastic, sustainable construction, sustainable development

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24 Exergetic and Sustainability Evaluation of a Building Heating System in Izmir, Turkey

Authors: Nurdan Yildirim, Arif Hepbasli

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Heating, cooling and lighting appliances in buildings account for more than one third of the world’s primary energy demand. Therefore, main components of the building heating systems play an essential role in terms of energy consumption. In this context, efficient energy and exergy utilization in HVAC-R systems has been very essential, especially in developing energy policies towards increasing efficiencies. The main objective of the present study is to assess the performance of a family house with a volume of 326.7 m3 and a net floor area of 121 m2, located in the city of Izmir, Turkey in terms of energetic, exergetic and sustainability aspects. The indoor and exterior air temperatures are taken as 20°C and 1°C, respectively. In the analysis and assessment, various metrics (indices or indicators) such as exergetic efficiency, exergy flexibility ratio and sustainability index are utilized. Two heating options (Case 1: condensing boiler and Case 2: air heat pump) are considered for comparison purposes. The total heat loss rate of the family house is determined to be 3770.72 W. The overall energy efficiencies of the studied cases are calculated to be 49.4% for Case 1 and 54.7% for Case 2. The overall exergy efficiencies, the flexibility factor and the sustainability index of Cases 1 and 2 are computed to be around 3.3%, 0.17 and 1.034, respectively.

Keywords: buildings, exergy, low exergy, sustainability, efficiency, heating, renewable energy

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23 The Transformation of Architecture through the Technological Developments in History: Future Architecture Scenario

Authors: Adel Gurel, Ozge Ceylin Yildirim

Abstract:

Nowadays, design and architecture are being affected and underwent change with the rapid advancements in technology, economics, politics, society and culture. Architecture has been transforming with the latest developments after the inclusion of computers into design. Integration of design into the computational environment has revolutionized the architecture and new perspectives in architecture have been gained. The history of architecture shows the various technological developments and changes in which the architecture has transformed with time. Therefore, the analysis of integration between technology and the history of the architectural process makes it possible to build a consensus on the idea of how architecture is to proceed. In this study, each period that occurs with the integration of technology into architecture is addressed within historical process. At the same time, changes in architecture via technology are identified as important milestones and predictions with regards to the future of architecture have been determined. Developments and changes in technology and the use of technology in architecture within years are analyzed in charts and graphs comparatively. The historical process of architecture and its transformation via technology are supported with detailed literature review and they are consolidated with the examination of focal points of 20th-century architecture under the titles; parametric design, genetic architecture, simulation, and biomimicry. It is concluded that with the historical research between past and present; the developments in architecture cannot keep up with the advancements in technology and recent developments in technology overshadow the architecture, even the technology decides the direction of architecture. As a result, a scenario is presented with regards to the reach of technology in the future of architecture and the role of the architect.

Keywords: computer technologies, future architecture, scientific developments, transformation

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22 Evaluation of Earthquake Induced Cost for Mid-Rise Buildings

Authors: Gulsah Olgun, Ozgur Bozdag, Yildirim Ertutar

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This paper mainly focuses on performance assessment of buildings by associating the damage level with the damage cost. For this purpose a methodology is explained and applied to the representative mid-rise concrete building residing in Izmir. In order to consider uncertainties in occurrence of earthquakes, the structural analyses are conducted for all possible earthquakes in the region through the hazard curve. By means of the analyses, probability of the structural response being in different limit states are obtained and used to calculate expected damage cost. The expected damage cost comprises diverse cost components related to earthquake such as cost of casualties, replacement or repair cost of building etc. In this study, inter-story drift is used as an effective response variable to associate expected damage cost with different damage levels. The structural analysis methods performed to obtain inter story drifts are response spectrum method as a linear one, accurate push-over and time history methods to demonstrate the nonlinear effects on loss estimation. Comparison of the results indicates that each method provides similar values of expected damage cost. To sum up, this paper explains an approach which enables to minimize the expected damage cost of buildings and relate performance level to damage cost.

Keywords: expected damage cost, limit states, loss estimation, performance based design

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21 The Role of Teaching Assistants for Deaf Pupils in a Mainstream Primary School in England

Authors: Hatice Yildirim

Abstract:

This study was an investigation into the role of teaching assistants (TAs) for deaf pupils in an English primary school. This study aimed to provide knowledge about how TAs support deaf pupils in mainstream schools in England. It is accepted that TAs have an important role in the inclusion of students with disabilities in mainstream schools. However, there has been a lack of attention paid to the role of TAs for deaf pupils in the literature. A qualitative case study approach was used to address the research questions. Twelve semi-structured classroom observations and six semi-structured interviews were carried out with four TAs and two teachers in one English mainstream primary school. The data analysis followed a thematic analysis framework. The results indicated that TAs are utilised based on a one-on-one support model and are deployed under the class teachers in the classroom. The classroom activities are carried out in small groups with the TAs and the class teacher’s agreement, as per the school’s policy. Findings show that TAs carried out seven different roles in the education of deaf pupils in an English mainstream primary school. Supporting the academic and social development of deaf pupils is TA`s main role. Also, they record pupils’ progress, communicate with pupils’ parents, take on a pastoral care role, tutor pupils in additional support lessons and raise awareness of deaf pupils’ issues.

Keywords: deaf, mainstream primary school, teaching assistant, teaching assistant`s roles

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20 Importance of Occupational Safety and Health in Dam Construction Site

Authors: Naci Büyükkaraciğan, Yildirim Akyol

Abstract:

Large plants that covering the back and accumulate water of a river valley for energy production, drinking, irrigation water supply, economic benefits that serve many purposes, such as regulation of flood protection, are called dams. Place, in which unites in order to achieve an optimum balance between manpower for Lowest cost and economic as belonging to that structure to create machines, materials and construction of the project, is called as the site. Dam construction sites are combined sites in together in many businesses. Therefore, there can be found in the many workers and machines are many accidents in this type of construction sites. The necessity of systematic and scientific studies due to various reasons arises in order to be protected from conditions that could damage the health, During the execution of the work on construction sites. Occupational health and safety of the study, called the case, also in the European Union has begun to be addressed by weight since the 1980s. In particular, issued in 1989 89/391/EEC on occupational health and safety directive, occupational health and adopted the Directive within the framework of the security field, and then exposed to a large number of individual directive within this framework on the basis of the directive. Turkey's Law No. 6331 entered into force in June 2012 on the subject. In this study, measures related to the construction site of the dam should be taken with occupational safety and health have been examined and tried to put forward recommendations on the subject.

Keywords: civil engineering, dam, occupational safety and health, site organizations

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19 The Role of Teaching Assistants for Deaf Pupils in an England Mainstream Primary School

Authors: Hatice Yildirim

Abstract:

This study is an investigation into ‘The role of teaching assistants (TAs) for deaf pupils in an English primary school’, in order not only to contribute to the education of deaf pupils but also contribute to the literature, in which there has been a lack of attention paid to the role of TAs for deaf pupils. With this in mind, the research design was planned based on using a case study as a qualitative research approach in order to have a deep and first-hand understanding of the case for ‘the role of TAs for deaf pupils’ in a real-life context. 12 semi-structured classroom observations and six semi-structured interviews were carried out with four TAs and two teachers in one English mainstream primary school. The data analysis followed a thematic analysis framework. The results indicated that TAs are utilised based on a one-on-one support model and are deployed under the class teacher in the classroom. Out of the classroom activities are carried out in small groups with the agreement of the TAs and the class teacher, as per the policy of the school. Due to the one-on-one TA support model, the study pointed out the seven different roles carried out by TAs in the education of deaf pupils in an English mainstream primary school. While supporting deaf pupils academically and socially are the main roles of TAs, they also support deaf pupils by recording their progress, communicating with their parents, taking on a pastoral care role, tutoring them in additional support lessons, and raising awareness of deaf pupils’ issues.

Keywords: deaf, mainstream, teaching assistant, teaching assistant's roles

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18 Characterization of Some Bread Wheat Genotypes for Drought Tolerance Using Molecular Markers

Authors: Begüm Terzi, Özlem Ateş Sönmezoğlu, Ahmet Yildirim

Abstract:

Drought is the most important factor that limiting the production and productivity of wheat in the world. The yield of wheat, which is one of the most important crop in the world, reduced depend on drought. Researches to minimize effects of drought are one of the most important about breeding of drought resistant varieties. In recent years, benefiting from the drought resistance wild species and rapid advances in molecular biology studies, researches about drought have been accelerated and number of studies were made on molecular plant breeding which included the molecular mechanisms related to drought resistance. The aim of the present study was characterization of some bread wheat lines for drought tolerance which commonly cultivated in different location of Turkey. In this study, registered 9 bread wheat varieties which on the physiological tests about drought tolerance and 10 bread wheat line has been developed by Transitional Zone Agricultural Research Institute were used. SSR, STS, RAPD and SNP markers that associated with drought tolerance were used. The polymorphisms of the markers were determined by screening of two control varieties. For these purpose 40 molecular markers were used and 12 markers of them were polymorphic among the drought tolerance and the drought sensitive varieties. Control varieties were screened using polymorphic markers. All the DNAs on the genotypes will be searched for the presence of QTLs mapped to different chromosomes. Result of the research, the studied genotypes will be grouped according to drought tolerance and will be detected drought tolerance varieties by molecular markers. In addition, the results will be compared also with physiological tests. The drought tolerant wheat genotypes may be used in breeding studies related to drought stress.

Keywords: bread wheat, drought, molecular marker, Triticum aestivum

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17 Investigation of Chronic Drug Use Due to Chronic Diseases in Patients Admitted to Emergency Department

Authors: Behcet Al, Şener Cindoruk, Suat Zengin, Mehmet Murat Oktay, Mehmet Mustafa Sunar, Hatice Eroglu, Cuma Yildirim

Abstract:

Objective: In present study we aimed to investigate the chronic drug use due to chronic diseases in patients admitted to emergency department. Materials-Methods: 144 patients who applied to emergency department (ED) of medicine school of Gaziantep University between June 2013 and September 2013 with chronic diseases and use chronic drugs were included. Information about drugs used by patients were recorded. Results: Of patients, half were male, half were female, and the mean age was 58 years. The first three common diseases were diabetes mellitus, hypertension and coronary artery diseases. Of patients, %79.2 knew their illness. Fifty patients began to use drug within three months, 36 patient began to use within the last one year. While 42 patients brought all of their drugs with themselves, 17 patients brought along a portion of drugs. While three patients stopped their medication completely, 125 patients received medication on a regular basis. Fifty-two patient described the drugs with names, 13 patients described with their colors, 3 patients described by grammes, 45 patients described with the size of the tablet and 13 patients could not describe the drugs. Ninety-two patients explained which kind of drugs were used for each diseases, 17 patient explained partly, and 35 patients had no idea. Hundred patients received medication by themselves, 44 patients medications were giving by their relatives and med carers. Of medications, 140 were written by doctors directly, three medication were given by pharmacist; and one patient bought the drug by himself. For 11 patients the drugs were not harmonious to their diseases. Fifty-one patients admitted to the ED two times within last week, and 73 admitted two times within last month. Conclusion: The majority of patients with chronic diseases and use chronic drugs know their diseases and use the drugs in order, but do not have enough information about their medication.

Keywords: chronic disease, drug use, emergency department, medication

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16 Thermal Hysteresis Activity of Ice Binding Proteins during Ice Crystal Growth in Sucrose Solution

Authors: Bercem Kiran-Yildirim, Volker Gaukel

Abstract:

Ice recrystallization (IR) which occurs especially during frozen storage is an undesired process due to the possible influence on the quality of products. As a result of recrystallization, the total volume of ice remains constant, but the size, number, and shape of ice crystals change. For instance, as indicated in the literature, the size of ice crystals in ice cream increases due to recrystallization. This results in texture deterioration. Therefore, the inhibition of ice recrystallization is of great importance, not only for food industry but also for several other areas where sensitive products are stored frozen, like pharmaceutical products or organs and blood in medicine. Ice-binding proteins (IBPs) have the unique ability to inhibit ice growth and in consequence inhibit recrystallization. This effect is based on their ice binding affinity. In the presence of IBP in a solution, ice crystal growth is inhibited during temperature decrease until a certain temperature is reached. The melting during temperature increase is not influenced. The gap between melting and freezing points is known as thermal hysteresis (TH). In literature, the TH activity is usually investigated under laboratory conditions in IBP buffer solutions. In product applications (e.g., food) there are many other solutes present which may influence the TH activity. In this study, a subset of IBPs, so-called antifreeze proteins (AFPs), is used for the investigation of the influence of sucrose solution concentration on the TH activity. For the investigation, a polarization microscope (Nikon Eclipse LV100ND) equipped with a digital camera (Nikon DS-Ri1) and a cold stage (Linkam LTS420) was used. In a first step, the equipment was established and validated concerning the accuracy of TH measurements based on literature data.

Keywords: ice binding proteins, ice crystals, sucrose solution, thermal hysteresis

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15 Impact of Social Transfers on Energy Poverty in Turkey

Authors: Julide Yildirim, Nadir Ocal

Abstract:

Even though there are many studies investigating the extent and determinants of poverty, there is paucity of research investigating the issue of energy poverty in Turkey. The aim of this paper is threefold: First to investigate the extend of energy poverty in Turkey by using Household Budget Survey datasets belonging to 2005 - 2016 period. Second, to examine the risk factors for energy poverty. Finally, to assess the impact of social assistance program participation on energy poverty. Existing literature employs alternative methods to measure energy poverty. In this study energy poverty is measured by employing expenditure approach, where people are considered as energy poor if they disburse more than 10 per cent of their income to meet their energy requirements. Empirical results indicate that energy poverty rate is around 20 per cent during the time period under consideration. Since Household Budget Survey panel data is not available for 2005 - 2016 period, a pseudo panel has been constructed. Panel logistic regression method is utilized to determine the risk factors for energy poverty. The empirical results demonstrate that there is a statistically significant impact of work status and education level on energy poverty likelihood. In the final part of the paper the impact of social transfers on energy poverty has been examined by utilizing panel biprobit model, where social transfer participation and energy poverty incidences are jointly modeled. The empirical findings indicate that social transfer program participation reduces energy poverty. The negative association between energy poverty and social transfer program participation is more pronounced in urban areas compared with the rural areas.

Keywords: energy poverty, social transfers, panel data models, Turkey

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14 The Effect of Organizational Virtuousness on Nurses' Organizational Identification Level and Performance: The Mediating Role of Perceived Organizational Support

Authors: Feride Eskin Bacaksiz, Aytolan Yildirim

Abstract:

Practices voluntarily performed by organizations for their employees well-being, create an emotional imperative for employees in accordance with reciprocity norm. Changes in desired course occur in organizational outputs and attitudes towards organization among employees perceiving their organizations as virtuous and supportive. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of organizational virtuousness on performance and organizational identification levels of employees and mediating role of perceived organizational support in this relationship. The data of this descriptive and methodological study were collected from 336 nurses working in a public university hospital in 2015. Participant information form, Organizational Virtuousness, Perceived Organizational Support, Organizational Identification, and Employee Performance scales were used to collect the data. Descriptive, correlative, psychometric analyses and Structural Equation Modeling were performed for the data analysis. Most of the participants were female, under 30 years of age, graduated degrees and staff nurse. Mean scores obtained by the participants from scales were calculated as 3.43(SD=.99) for organizational virtuousness, 2.99 (SD=1.16) for perceived organizational support, 3.18 (SD=1.03) for organizational identification and 3.84 (SD=0.66) for employee performance. It was found that correlation between organizational virtuousness and employee performance regressed from r=0.64 to r=-0.01 and correlation between organizational virtuousness and organizational identification regressed from r=0.55 to r=-0.16 and became statistically non-significant (p < 0.05) via mediating role of perceived organizational support. According to the results, perceived organizational support assumes full mediation on the impact of organizational virtues of employee performance and organizational identification levels. Therefore, organizations, which intend to positively affect employees attitudes towards organization and their performance, should both extend organizational virtuous activities and affect perceptions of employees; whereas, employees should perceive that they are supported by their organization.

Keywords: employee performance, organizational identification, organizational virtuousness, perceived organizational support

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13 Recognition of Arrest Patients and Application of Basic Life Support by Bystanders in the Field

Authors: Behcet Al, Mehmet Murat Oktay, Suat Zengin, Mustafa Sabak, Cuma Yildirim

Abstract:

Objective: Th Recognition of arrest patients and application of basic life support (BLS) by bystanders in the field and the activation of emergency serves were evaluated in present study. Methodology: The present study was carried out by Emergency Department of Medicine Faculty of Gaziantep University at 33 of Emergency Health center in Gaziantep between December 2012- April 2014 prospectively. Of 539 arrested patients, 171 patients were included in study. Results: 118 (69%) male, and 53 31(%) female with a totlay of 171 patients were included in this study. Of patients, 32.2% had syncope and 24% had shorth breathing just befor being arrested. The majority of arrest cases had occured at home (61.4%) and rural area (11.7%) respectively. Of asking help, %48.5 were constructed by family members. Of announcement, only 15.2% occured within first minute of arrest. The BLS ratio that was applied by bystanders was 22.2%. Of bystanders, 47.4% had a course experience of BLS. The emergency serve had reached to the field with a mean of 8.43 min. Of cases, 55% (n=94) were evaluated as exitus firstly bu emergency staff. The most noticed rythim was asystol (73.1%). BLS and advanced life support (ALS) were applied to 98.8% and 60% respectively at the field. 10.5% (n=18) of cases were defibrilated, and 45 (26.3%) were intubated endotrecealy. The majority (48.5%) of staff who applied BLS and ALS at the fied were emergency medicine technicians. CPR was performed to 86.5% (n=148) cases in ambulance while they were transported. The mean arrival time to mergency department was 9.13 min. When the patients arrived to ED 15.2% needed defirlitation. 91.2% (n =156) of patients resulted in exitus in ED. 15 (8.8%) patients were discharged (9 with recovery, six patients with damage). Conclusion: The ratio of inntervention for arrest patients by bystanders is still low. To optain a high percentage of survival, BLS training should be widened among the puplic especiallyamong the caregivers.

Keywords: arrest patients, cardiopulmonary resuscitation, bystanders, chest compressions, prehospital

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12 Porphyry Cu-Mo-(Au) Mineralization at Paraga Area, Nakhchivan District, Azerbaijan: Evidence from Mineral Paragenesis, Hyrothermal Alteration and Geochemical Studies

Authors: M. Kumral, A. Abdelnasser, M. Budakoglu, M. Karaman, D. K. Yildirim, Z. Doner, A. Bostanci

Abstract:

The Paraga area is located at the extreme eastern part of Nakhchivan district at the boundary with Armenia. The field study is situated at Ordubad region placed in 9 km from Paraga village and stays at 2300-2800 m height over sea level. It lies within a region of low-grade metamorphic porphyritic volcanic and plutonic rocks. The detailed field studies revealed that this area composed mainly of metagabbro-diorite intrusive rocks with porphyritic character emplaced into meta-andesitic rocks. This complex is later intruded by unmapped olivine gabbroic rocks. The Cu-Mo-(Au) mineralization at Paraga deposit is vein-type mineralization that is essentially related to quartz veins stockwork which cut the dioritic rocks and concentrated at the eastern and northeastern parts of the area with different directions N80W, N25W, N70E and N45E. Also, this mineralization is associated with two shearing zones directed N75W and N15E. The host porphyritic rocks were affected by intense sulfidation, carbonatization, sericitization and silicification with pervasive hematitic alterations accompanied with mineralized quartz veins and quartz-carbonate veins. Sulfide minerals which are chalcopyrite, pyrite, arsenopyrite and sphalerite occurred in two cases either inside these mineralized quartz veins or disseminated in the highly altered rocks as well as molybdenite and also at the peripheries between the altered host rock and veins. Gold found as inclusion disseminated in arsenopyrite and pyrite as well as in their cracks.

Keywords: porphyry Cu-Mo-(Au), Paraga area, Nakhchivan, Azerbaijan, paragenesis, hyrothermal alteration

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11 A Decision Making Tool for Selecting the Most Environmental Friendly Wastewater Treatment Plant for Small-Scale Communities

Authors: Mehmet Bulent Topkaya, Mustafa Yildirim

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Wastewater treatment systems are designed and used to minimize adverse impacts of the wastewater on the environment before discharging. Various treatment options for wastewater treatment have been developed, and each of them has different performance characteristics and environmental impacts (e.g. material and land usage, energy consumption, greenhouse gas emission, water and soil emission) during construction, operation or maintenance phases. Assessing the environmental impacts during these phases are essential for the overall evaluation of the treatment systems. In this study, wastewater treatment options, such as vegetated land treatment, constructed wetland, rotating biological contactor, conventional activated sludge treatment, membrane bioreactor, extended aeration and stabilization pond are evaluated. The comparison of the environmental impacts is conducted under the assumption that the effluents will be discharged to sensitive and less sensitive areas respectively. The environmental impacts of each alternative are evaluated by life cycle assessment (LCA) approach. For this purpose, data related to energy usage, land requirement, raw material consumption, and released emissions from the life phases were collected with inventory studies based on field studies and literature. The environmental impacts were assessed by using SimaPro 7.1 LCA software. As the scale of the LCA results is global, an MS-Excel based decision support tool that includes the LCA result is developed in order to meet also the local demands. Using this tool, it is possible to assign weight factors on the LCA results according to local conditions by using Analytical Hierarchy Process and finally the most environmentally appropriate treatment option can be selected.

Keywords: analytical hierarchy process, decision support system, life cycle assessment, wastewater treatment

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10 Assessment of Wastewater Reuse Potential for an Enamel Coating Industry

Authors: Guclu Insel, Efe Gumuslu, Gulten Yuksek, Nilay Sayi Ucar, Emine Ubay Cokgor, Tugba Olmez Hanci, Didem Okutman Tas, Fatos Germirli Babuna, Derya Firat Ertem, Okmen Yildirim, Ozge Erturan, Betul Kirci

Abstract:

In order to eliminate water scarcity problems, effective precautions must be taken. Growing competition for water is increasingly forcing facilities to tackle their own water scarcity problems. At this point, application of wastewater reclamation and reuse results in considerable economic advantageous. In this study, an enamel coating facility, which is one of the high water consumed facilities, is evaluated in terms of its wastewater reuse potential. Wastewater reclamation and reuse can be defined as one of the best available techniques for this sector. Hence, process and pollution profiles together with detailed characterization of segregated wastewater sources are appraised in a way to find out the recoverable effluent streams arising from enamel coating operations. Daily, 170 m3 of process water is required and 160 m3 of wastewater is generated. The segregated streams generated by two enamel coating processes are characterized in terms of conventional parameters. Relatively clean segregated wastewater streams (reusable wastewaters) are separately collected and experimental treatability studies are conducted on it. The results reflected that the reusable wastewater fraction has an approximate amount of 110 m3/day that accounts for 68% of the total wastewaters. The need for treatment applicable on reusable wastewaters is determined by considering water quality requirements of various operations and characterization of reusable wastewater streams. Ultra-filtration (UF), Nano-filtration (NF) and Reverse Osmosis (RO) membranes are subsequently applied on reusable effluent fraction. Adequate organic matter removal is not obtained with the mentioned treatment sequence.

Keywords: enamel coating, membrane, reuse, wastewater reclamation

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9 Investigation of Light Transmission Characteristics and CO2 Capture Potential of Microalgae Panel Bioreactors for Building Façade Applications

Authors: E. S. Umdu, Ilker Kahraman, Nurdan Yildirim, Levent Bilir

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Algae-culture offers new applications in sustainable architecture with its continuous productive cycle, and a potential for high carbon dioxide capture. Microalgae itself has multiple functions such as carbon dioxide fixation, biomass production, oxygen generation and waste water treatment. Incorporating microalgae cultivation processes and systems to building design to utilize this potential is promising. Microalgae cultivation systems, especially closed photo bioreactors can be implemented as components in buildings. And these systems be accommodated in the façade of a building, or in other urban infrastructure in the future. Application microalgae bio-reactors of on building’s façade has the added benefit of acting as an effective insulation system, keeping out the heat of the summer and the chill of the winter. Furthermore, microalgae can give a dynamic appearance with a liquid façade that also works as an adaptive sunshade. Recently, potential of microalgae to use as a building component to reduce net energy demand in buildings becomes a popular topic and innovative design proposals and a handful of pilot applications appeared. Yet there is only a handful of examples in application and even less information on how these systems affect building energy behavior. Further studies on microalgae mostly focused on single application approach targeting either carbon dioxide utilization through biomass production or biofuel production. The main objective of this study is to investigate effects of design parameters of microalgae panel bio-reactors on light transmission characteristics and CO2 capture potential during growth of Nannochloropsis occulata sp. A maximum reduction of 18 ppm in CO2 levels of input air during the experiments with a % light transmission of 14.10, was achieved in 6 day growth cycles. Heat transfer behavior during these cycles was also inspected for possible façade applications.

Keywords: building façade, CO2 capture, light transmittance, microalgae

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8 Activity of Resveratrol on the Influence of Aflatoxin B1 on the Testes of Sprague Dawley Rats

Authors: Ali D. Omur, Betul Apaydin Yildirim, Yavuz S. Saglam, Selim Comakli, Mustafa Ozkaraca

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Twenty-eight male Sprague Dawley rats (aged 3 months) were used in the study. The animals were given feed and water as ad libitum. Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into 4 groups as 7 rats in each group. Aflatoxin B1 (7.5 μg/200 g), resveratrol (60 mg/kg) was administered to rats in groups other than the control group. At the end of the 16th day, blood, semen and tissue specimens were taken by decapitation under ether anesthesia. The effects of aflatoxin B1 and resveratrol on spermatological, pathological and biochemical parameters were determined in rats. When we evaluate the spermatological parameters, it is understood that resveratrol has a statistically significant difference in terms of sperm motility and viability (membrane integrity) compared to the control group and aflatoxin B1 administration groups, indicating a protective effect on spermatological parameters (groups: control, resveratrol, aflatoxin B1 and Afb1 + res; respectively, values of motility: 71,42 ± 0,52b, 72,85 ± 1, 48c , 60,71 ± 1,30a, 57,14 ± 2, 40a; values of viability: 63,85 ± 1,33b, 70,42 ± 2,61c, 55,00 ± 1,54a, 56,57 ± 0,89a. In terms of pathological parameters -histopathological examination- in the control and resveratrol groups, seminiferous tubules were observed to be in normal structure. In the group treated with aflatoxin, the regular structure of the spermatogenic cells deteriorated, and the seminiferous tubules became necrotic and degenerative. In the group treated with Afb1 + res, the decreasing of necrotic and degenerative changes were determined compared with in the group treated with aflatoxin. As immunohistochemical examination, cleaved caspase 3 expression was found to be very low in the control and resveratrol groups. Cleaved caspase 3 expression was severely exacerbated in seminiferous tubules in aflatoxin group but cleaved caspase 3 expression level decreased in Afb1 + res. In the biochemical direction, resveratrol has been shown to inhibit the adverse effects of aflatoxin on antioxidant levels (GSH-mmol/L, CAT-kU/L, GPx-U/mL, SOD-EU/mL) and to show a protective effect. For this purpose, the use of resveratrol with antioxidant activity was investigated in preventing or ameliorating damage to aflatoxin B1. It has been concluded that resveratrol effectively prevents the aflatoxin-induced testicular damage and lipid peroxidation. It has also been shown that resveratrol has protective effects on sperm motility and viability.

Keywords: Aflatoxin B1, rat, resveratrol, sperm

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